skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: In situ synchrotron study of electromigration induced grain rotations in Sn solder joints

Abstract

In this paper we report an in situ study of the early stage of microstructure evolution induced by electromigration in a Pb-free β-Sn based solder joint by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction. With this technique, crystal orientation evolution is monitored at intragranular levels with high spatial and angular resolution. During the entire experiment, no crystal growth is detected, and rigid grain rotation is observed only in the two grains within the current crowding region, where high density and divergence of electric current occur. Theoretical calculation indicates that the trend of electrical resistance drop still holds under the present conditions in the grain with high electrical resistivity, while the other grain with low resistivity reorients to align its a-axis more parallel with the ones of its neighboring grains. A detailed study of dislocation densities and subgrain boundaries suggests that grain rotation in β-Sn, unlike grain rotation in high melting temperature metals which undergo displacive deformation, is accomplished via diffusional process mainly, due to the high homologous temperature.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Xi'an Jiaotong Univ. Xi'an, Shaanxi (China)
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1256068
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1379287
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Shen, Hao, Zhu, Wenxin, Li, Yao, Tamura, Nobumichi, and Chen, Kai. In situ synchrotron study of electromigration induced grain rotations in Sn solder joints. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1038/srep24418.
Shen, Hao, Zhu, Wenxin, Li, Yao, Tamura, Nobumichi, & Chen, Kai. In situ synchrotron study of electromigration induced grain rotations in Sn solder joints. United States. doi:10.1038/srep24418.
Shen, Hao, Zhu, Wenxin, Li, Yao, Tamura, Nobumichi, and Chen, Kai. Mon . "In situ synchrotron study of electromigration induced grain rotations in Sn solder joints". United States. doi:10.1038/srep24418. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1256068.
@article{osti_1256068,
title = {In situ synchrotron study of electromigration induced grain rotations in Sn solder joints},
author = {Shen, Hao and Zhu, Wenxin and Li, Yao and Tamura, Nobumichi and Chen, Kai},
abstractNote = {In this paper we report an in situ study of the early stage of microstructure evolution induced by electromigration in a Pb-free β-Sn based solder joint by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction. With this technique, crystal orientation evolution is monitored at intragranular levels with high spatial and angular resolution. During the entire experiment, no crystal growth is detected, and rigid grain rotation is observed only in the two grains within the current crowding region, where high density and divergence of electric current occur. Theoretical calculation indicates that the trend of electrical resistance drop still holds under the present conditions in the grain with high electrical resistivity, while the other grain with low resistivity reorients to align its a-axis more parallel with the ones of its neighboring grains. A detailed study of dislocation densities and subgrain boundaries suggests that grain rotation in β-Sn, unlike grain rotation in high melting temperature metals which undergo displacive deformation, is accomplished via diffusional process mainly, due to the high homologous temperature.},
doi = {10.1038/srep24418},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = ,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 5 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed by electromigration and studied by synchrotron polychromatic x-ray microdiffraction
journal, July 2008

  • Chen, Kai; Tamura, N.; Valek, B. C.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 104, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2952073

Theory of diffusion-accommodated grain rotation in columnar polycrystalline microstructures
journal, October 2001


Electromigration-induced microstructure evolution in tin studied by synchrotron x-ray microdiffraction
journal, September 2004

  • Wu, Albert T.; Tu, K. N.; Lloyd, J. R.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 85, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1795353

Dislocations and Grain Size in Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Ni Determined by the Modified Williamson–Hall and Warren–Averbach Procedures
journal, August 1998

  • Ungár, T.; Révész, Á ;.; Borbély, A.
  • Journal of Applied Crystallography, Vol. 31, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1107/S0021889897019559

Residual stress preserved in quartz from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth
journal, February 2015

  • Chen, K.; Kunz, M.; Tamura, N.
  • Geology, Vol. 43, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1130/G36443.1

Grain boundary effects on the mechanical properties of bismuth nanostructures
journal, June 2011


Spontaneous growth mechanism of tin whiskers
journal, June 1998


Diffusion of Sb 124 , Cd 109 , Sn 113 , and Zn 65 in tin
journal, February 1974


Effect of Sn grain orientation on electromigration degradation mechanism in high Sn-based Pb-free solders
journal, May 2008

  • Lu, Minhua; Shih, Da-Yuan; Lauro, Paul
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2936996

Grain rotation in thin films of gold
journal, May 1998


Electromigration-Induced Plastic Deformation in Cu Interconnects: Effects on Current Density Exponent, n, and Implications for EM Reliability Assessment
journal, September 2010

  • Budiman, A. S.; Hau-Riege, C. S.; Baek, W. C.
  • Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 39, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11664-010-1356-4

Ultrasonic Attenuation at Low Temperatures for Metals in the Normal and Superconducting States
journal, September 1956

  • Mason, W. P.; Bömmel, H. E.
  • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 28, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1121/1.1908524

Thermomigration in SnPb composite flip chip solder joints
journal, April 2006

  • Huang, Annie T.; Gusak, A. M.; Tu, K. N.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 88, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2192694

Recent advances on electromigration in very-large-scale-integration of interconnects
journal, November 2003


Tin whiskers studied by synchrotron radiation scanning X-ray micro-diffraction
journal, December 2003


Effect of current crowding on whisker growth at the anode in flip chip solder joints
journal, December 2007

  • Ouyang, Fan-Yi; Chen, Kai; Tu, K. N.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2822446

Fabrication, microstructure, and mechanical properties of tin nanostructures
journal, July 2011

  • Burek, Michael J.; Budiman, Arief Suriadi; Jahed, Zeinab
  • Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 528, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2011.04.019

Microstructure Evolution and Defect Formation in Cu Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) During Thermal Annealing
journal, February 2012

  • Shin, Hae-A-Seul; Kim, Byoung-Joon; Kim, Ju-Heon
  • Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 41, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11664-012-1943-7

Electromigration-induced plastic deformation in passivated metal lines
journal, November 2002

  • Valek, B. C.; Bravman, J. C.; Tamura, N.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 81, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1525880

Characterization of ion beam irradiated 304 stainless steel utilizing nanoindentation and Laue microdiffraction
journal, March 2015


A look-up table based approach to characterize crystal twinning for synchrotron X-ray Laue microdiffraction scans
journal, April 2015


A dedicated superbend x-ray microdiffraction beamline for materials, geo-, and environmental sciences at the advanced light source
journal, March 2009

  • Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Chen, Kai
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 80, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3096295

A synchrotron study of defect and strain inhomogeneity in laser-assisted three-dimensionally-printed Ni-based superalloy
journal, November 2015

  • Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Xue, Jiawei
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 107, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4934839

Electromigration in thin aluminum films on titanium nitride
journal, April 1976

  • Blech, I. A.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 47, Issue 4, p. 1203-1208
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.322842

Electromigration-induced grain rotation in anisotropic conducting beta tin
journal, June 2005

  • Wu, Albert T.; Gusak, A. M.; Tu, K. N.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 86, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1941456

Crystal plasticity in Cu damascene interconnect lines undergoing electromigration as revealed by synchrotron x-ray microdiffraction
journal, June 2006

  • Budiman, A. S.; Nix, W. D.; Tamura, N.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 88, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2210451

Current-crowding-induced electromigration failure in flip chip solder joints
journal, January 2002

  • Yeh, Everett C. C.; Choi, W. J.; Tu, K. N.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 80, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1432443

Direct observation of twinning in tin lamellae
journal, August 1970


Kinetics and size effect of grain rotations in nanocrystals with rounded triple junctions
journal, November 2009


A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy
journal, October 2015

  • Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep14903

Quantitative analysis of dislocation arrangements induced by electromigration in a passivated Al (0.5 wt % Cu) interconnect
journal, May 2003

  • Barabash, R. I.; Ice, G. E.; Tamura, N.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 93, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1563033

Effect of current crowding on void propagation at the interface between intermetallic compound and solder in flip chip solder joints
journal, January 2006

  • Zhang, Lingyun; Ou, Shengquan; Huang, Joanne
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 88, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2158702

Early stage of plastic deformation in thin films undergoing electromigration
journal, September 2003

  • Valek, B. C.; Tamura, N.; Spolenak, R.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 94, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1600843

Mechanical annealing and source-limited deformation in submicrometre-diameter Ni crystals
journal, December 2007

  • Shan, Z. W.; Mishra, Raja K.; Syed Asif, S. A.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 7, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat2085

Visualizing size-dependent deformation mechanism transition in Sn
journal, July 2013

  • Tian, Lin; Li, Ju; Sun, Jun
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep02113

Fabrication, structure and mechanical properties of indium nanopillars
journal, February 2010


High precision thermal stress study on flip chips by synchrotron polychromatic x-ray microdiffraction
journal, March 2010

  • Chen, Kai; Tamura, N.; Tang, Wei
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 107, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3309750