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Title: An atom probe perspective on phase separation and precipitation in duplex stainless steels

Here, three-dimensional chemical imaging of Fe–Cr alloys showing Fe-rich (α)/Cr-rich (α') phase separation is reported using atom probe tomography techniques. The extent of phase separation, i.e., amplitude and wavelength, has been quantitatively assessed using the Langer-Bar-on-Miller, proximity histogram, and autocorrelation function methods for two separate Fe–Cr alloys, designated 2101 and 2205. Although the 2101 alloy possesses a larger wavelength and amplitude after annealing at 427 °C for 100–10 000 h, it exhibits a lower hardness than the 2205 alloy. In addition to this phase separation, ultra-fine Ni–Mn–Si–Cu-rich G-phase precipitates form at the α/α' interfaces in both alloys. For the 2101 alloy, Cu clusters act to form a nucleus, around which a Ni–Mn–Si shell develops during the precipitation process. For the 2205 alloy, the Ni and Cu atoms enrich simultaneously and no core–shell chemical distribution was found. This segregation phenomenon may arise from the exact Ni/Cu ratio inside the ferrite. After annealing for 10 000 h, the number density of the G-phase within the 2205 alloy was found to be roughly one order of magnitude higher than in the 2101 alloy. The G-phase precipitates have an additional deleterious effect on the thermal embrittlement, as evaluated by the Ashby–Orowan equation, which explainsmore » the discrepancy between the hardness and the rate of phase separation with respect to annealing time (Gladman T 1999 Mater. Sci. Tech. Ser. 15 30–36).« less
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [4]
  1. Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)
  2. Univ. of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)
  3. Knolls Atomic Power Lab., Schenectady, NY (United States)
  4. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 27; Journal Issue: 25; Journal ID: ISSN 0957-4484
IOP Publishing
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; atom probe tomography; thermal embrittlement; Cu cluster; G-phase; Fe-CR alloy; phase separation
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