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Title: Lithium granule ablation and penetration during ELM pacing experiments at DIII-D

At DIII-D, lithium granules were radially injected into the plasma at the outer midplane to trigger and pace edge localized modes (ELMs). Granules ranging in size from 300 to 1000 microns were horizontally launched into H-mode discharges with velocities near 100 m/s, and granule to granule injection frequencies less than 500 Hz. While the smaller granules were only successful in triggering ELMs approximately 20% of the time, the larger granules regularly demonstrated ELM triggering efficiencies of greater than 80%. A fast visible camera looking along the axis of injection observed the ablation of the lithium granules. We used the duration of ablation as a benchmark for a neutral gas shielding calculation, and approximated the ablation rate and mass deposition location for the various size granules, using measured edge plasma profiles as inputs. In conclusion, this calculation suggests that the low triggering efficiency of the smaller granules is due to the inability of these granules to traverse the steep edge pressure gradient region and reach the top of the pedestal prior to full ablation.
ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
  2. General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0920-3796; PII: S0920379616303325; TRN: US1601725
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-09CH11466; FC02-04ER54698
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Fusion Engineering and Design
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 112; Journal ID: ISSN 0920-3796
Research Org:
Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24)
Contributing Orgs:
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton NJ 08543, USA
Country of Publication:
United States
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; Edge-localized Mode (ELM); injection; pellets; lithium; particle dynamics
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1335172; OSTI ID: 1371726