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Title: Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics

After every other failure mode has been considered, in the end, the high-performance limit of all lasers is set by optical damage. The demands of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) pushed lasers designed as ICF drivers into this limit from their very earliest days. The first ICF lasers were small, and their pulses were short. Their goal was to provide as much power to the target as possible. Typically, they faced damage due to high intensity on their optics. As requests for higher laser energy, longer pulse lengths, and better symmetry appeared, new kinds of damage also emerged, some of them anticipated and others unexpected. This paper will discuss the various types of damage to large optics that had to be considered, avoided to the extent possible, or otherwise managed as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser was designed, fabricated, and brought into operation. Furthermore, it has been possible for NIF to meet its requirements because of the experience gained in previous ICF systems and because NIF designers have continued to be able to avoid or manage new damage situations as they have appeared.
Authors:
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  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-659336
Journal ID: ISSN 1536-1055
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Fusion Science and Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 69; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1536-1055
Publisher:
American Nuclear Society
Research Org:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ICF lasers; pseudoscopic imaging; parasitic loss mechanisms for lasers; optical damage; filamentation
OSTI Identifier:
1252629

Manes, K. R., Spaeth, M. L., Adams, J. J., Bowers, M. W., Bude, J. D., Carr, C. W., Conder, A. D., DiNicola, J. M. G., Dixit, S. N., Feigenbaum, E., Finucane, R. G., Guss, G. M., Henesian, M. A., Honig, J., Kalantar, D. H., Kegelmeyer, L. M., Liao, Z. M., MacGowan, B. J., Matthews, M. J., Mehta, N. C., Norton, M. A., Nostrand, M. C., Sacks, R. A., Siegel, L. R., Stolz, C. J., Suratwala, T. I., Trenholme, J. B., Wegner, P. J., Whitman, P. K., Widmayer, C. C., Yang, S. T., McCandless, K. P., Miller, P. E., Negres, R. A., Orth, C. D., Cross, D. A., and Demos, S. G.. Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.13182/FST15-139.
Manes, K. R., Spaeth, M. L., Adams, J. J., Bowers, M. W., Bude, J. D., Carr, C. W., Conder, A. D., DiNicola, J. M. G., Dixit, S. N., Feigenbaum, E., Finucane, R. G., Guss, G. M., Henesian, M. A., Honig, J., Kalantar, D. H., Kegelmeyer, L. M., Liao, Z. M., MacGowan, B. J., Matthews, M. J., Mehta, N. C., Norton, M. A., Nostrand, M. C., Sacks, R. A., Siegel, L. R., Stolz, C. J., Suratwala, T. I., Trenholme, J. B., Wegner, P. J., Whitman, P. K., Widmayer, C. C., Yang, S. T., McCandless, K. P., Miller, P. E., Negres, R. A., Orth, C. D., Cross, D. A., & Demos, S. G.. Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics. United States. doi:10.13182/FST15-139.
Manes, K. R., Spaeth, M. L., Adams, J. J., Bowers, M. W., Bude, J. D., Carr, C. W., Conder, A. D., DiNicola, J. M. G., Dixit, S. N., Feigenbaum, E., Finucane, R. G., Guss, G. M., Henesian, M. A., Honig, J., Kalantar, D. H., Kegelmeyer, L. M., Liao, Z. M., MacGowan, B. J., Matthews, M. J., Mehta, N. C., Norton, M. A., Nostrand, M. C., Sacks, R. A., Siegel, L. R., Stolz, C. J., Suratwala, T. I., Trenholme, J. B., Wegner, P. J., Whitman, P. K., Widmayer, C. C., Yang, S. T., McCandless, K. P., Miller, P. E., Negres, R. A., Orth, C. D., Cross, D. A., and Demos, S. G.. 2016. "Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics". United States. doi:10.13182/FST15-139. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1252629.
@article{osti_1252629,
title = {Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics},
author = {Manes, K. R. and Spaeth, M. L. and Adams, J. J. and Bowers, M. W. and Bude, J. D. and Carr, C. W. and Conder, A. D. and DiNicola, J. M. G. and Dixit, S. N. and Feigenbaum, E. and Finucane, R. G. and Guss, G. M. and Henesian, M. A. and Honig, J. and Kalantar, D. H. and Kegelmeyer, L. M. and Liao, Z. M. and MacGowan, B. J. and Matthews, M. J. and Mehta, N. C. and Norton, M. A. and Nostrand, M. C. and Sacks, R. A. and Siegel, L. R. and Stolz, C. J. and Suratwala, T. I. and Trenholme, J. B. and Wegner, P. J. and Whitman, P. K. and Widmayer, C. C. and Yang, S. T. and McCandless, K. P. and Miller, P. E. and Negres, R. A. and Orth, C. D. and Cross, D. A. and Demos, S. G.},
abstractNote = {After every other failure mode has been considered, in the end, the high-performance limit of all lasers is set by optical damage. The demands of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) pushed lasers designed as ICF drivers into this limit from their very earliest days. The first ICF lasers were small, and their pulses were short. Their goal was to provide as much power to the target as possible. Typically, they faced damage due to high intensity on their optics. As requests for higher laser energy, longer pulse lengths, and better symmetry appeared, new kinds of damage also emerged, some of them anticipated and others unexpected. This paper will discuss the various types of damage to large optics that had to be considered, avoided to the extent possible, or otherwise managed as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser was designed, fabricated, and brought into operation. Furthermore, it has been possible for NIF to meet its requirements because of the experience gained in previous ICF systems and because NIF designers have continued to be able to avoid or manage new damage situations as they have appeared.},
doi = {10.13182/FST15-139},
journal = {Fusion Science and Technology},
number = 1,
volume = 69,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {2}
}