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Title: Numerical modeling of heat-transfer and the influence of process parameters on tailoring the grain morphology of IN718 in electron beam additive manufacturing

Abstract

The fabrication of 3-D parts from CAD models by additive manufacturing (AM) is a disruptive technology that is transforming the metal manufacturing industry. The correlation between solidification microstructure and mechanical properties has been well understood in the casting and welding processes over the years. This paper focuses on extending these principles to additive manufacturing to understand the transient phenomena of repeated melting and solidification during electron beam powder melting process to achieve site-specific microstructure control within a fabricated component. In this paper, we have developed a novel melt scan strategy for electron beam melting of nickel-base superalloy (Inconel 718) and also analyzed 3-D heat transfer conditions using a parallel numerical solidification code (Truchas) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The spatial and temporal variations of temperature gradient (G) and growth velocity (R) at the liquid-solid interface of the melt pool were calculated as a function of electron beam parameters. By manipulating the relative number of voxels that lie in the columnar or equiaxed region, the crystallographic texture of the components can be controlled to an extent. The analysis of the parameters provided optimum processing conditions that will result in columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) during the solidification. Furthermore, the resultsmore » from the numerical simulations were validated by experimental processing and characterization thereby proving the potential of additive manufacturing process to achieve site-specific crystallographic texture control within a fabricated component.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4]
  1. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  3. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  4. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1252143
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1351003
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Acta Materialia
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 112; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 1359-6454
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; additive manufacturing; nickel-base superalloy; Arcam; microstructure control; numerical modeling

Citation Formats

Raghavan, Narendran, Dehoff, Ryan, Pannala, Sreekanth, Simunovic, Srdjan, Kirka, Michael, Turner, John, Carlson, Neil, and Babu, Sudarsanam S. Numerical modeling of heat-transfer and the influence of process parameters on tailoring the grain morphology of IN718 in electron beam additive manufacturing. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2016.03.063.
Raghavan, Narendran, Dehoff, Ryan, Pannala, Sreekanth, Simunovic, Srdjan, Kirka, Michael, Turner, John, Carlson, Neil, & Babu, Sudarsanam S. Numerical modeling of heat-transfer and the influence of process parameters on tailoring the grain morphology of IN718 in electron beam additive manufacturing. United States. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2016.03.063.
Raghavan, Narendran, Dehoff, Ryan, Pannala, Sreekanth, Simunovic, Srdjan, Kirka, Michael, Turner, John, Carlson, Neil, and Babu, Sudarsanam S. Tue . "Numerical modeling of heat-transfer and the influence of process parameters on tailoring the grain morphology of IN718 in electron beam additive manufacturing". United States. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2016.03.063. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1252143.
@article{osti_1252143,
title = {Numerical modeling of heat-transfer and the influence of process parameters on tailoring the grain morphology of IN718 in electron beam additive manufacturing},
author = {Raghavan, Narendran and Dehoff, Ryan and Pannala, Sreekanth and Simunovic, Srdjan and Kirka, Michael and Turner, John and Carlson, Neil and Babu, Sudarsanam S.},
abstractNote = {The fabrication of 3-D parts from CAD models by additive manufacturing (AM) is a disruptive technology that is transforming the metal manufacturing industry. The correlation between solidification microstructure and mechanical properties has been well understood in the casting and welding processes over the years. This paper focuses on extending these principles to additive manufacturing to understand the transient phenomena of repeated melting and solidification during electron beam powder melting process to achieve site-specific microstructure control within a fabricated component. In this paper, we have developed a novel melt scan strategy for electron beam melting of nickel-base superalloy (Inconel 718) and also analyzed 3-D heat transfer conditions using a parallel numerical solidification code (Truchas) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The spatial and temporal variations of temperature gradient (G) and growth velocity (R) at the liquid-solid interface of the melt pool were calculated as a function of electron beam parameters. By manipulating the relative number of voxels that lie in the columnar or equiaxed region, the crystallographic texture of the components can be controlled to an extent. The analysis of the parameters provided optimum processing conditions that will result in columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) during the solidification. Furthermore, the results from the numerical simulations were validated by experimental processing and characterization thereby proving the potential of additive manufacturing process to achieve site-specific crystallographic texture control within a fabricated component.},
doi = {10.1016/j.actamat.2016.03.063},
journal = {Acta Materialia},
number = C,
volume = 112,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {4}
}

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Works referencing / citing this record:

Asymmetric Cracking in Mar-M247 Alloy Builds During Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing
journal, July 2018

  • Lee, Y. S.; Kirka, M. M.; Kim, S.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 49, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-018-4788-8

Strong and ductile reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel additively manufactured by selective laser melting
journal, May 2019


Microstructure modelling for metallic additive manufacturing: a review
journal, October 2019


A computational study on the three-dimensional printability of precipitate-strengthened nickel-based superalloys
journal, December 2018

  • Basoalto, H. C.; Panwisawas, C.; Sovani, Y.
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 474, Issue 2220
  • DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2018.0295

Asymmetric Cracking in Mar-M247 Alloy Builds During Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing
journal, July 2018

  • Lee, Y. S.; Kirka, M. M.; Kim, S.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 49, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-018-4788-8

Microstructure modelling for metallic additive manufacturing: a review
journal, October 2019


A computational study on the three-dimensional printability of precipitate-strengthened nickel-based superalloys
journal, December 2018

  • Basoalto, H. C.; Panwisawas, C.; Sovani, Y.
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 474, Issue 2220
  • DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2018.0295