skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Driven and decaying turbulence simulations of low–mass star formation: From clumps to cores to protostars

Abstract

Molecular clouds are observed to be turbulent, but the origin of this turbulence is not well understood. As a result, there are two different approaches to simulating molecular clouds, one in which the turbulence is allowed to decay after it is initialized, and one in which it is driven. We use the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code, Orion, to perform high-resolution simulations of molecular cloud cores and protostars in environments with both driven and decaying turbulence. We include self-gravity, use a barotropic equation of state, and represent regions exceeding the maximum grid resolution with sink particles. We analyze the properties of bound cores such as size, shape, line width, and rotational energy, and we find reasonable agreement with observation. At high resolution the different rates of core accretion in the two cases have a significant effect on protostellar system development. Clumps forming in a decaying turbulence environment produce high-multiplicity protostellar systems with Toomre Q unstable disks that exhibit characteristics of the competitive accretion model for star formation. In contrast, cores forming in the context of continuously driven turbulence and virial equilibrium form smaller protostellar systems with fewer low-mass members. Furthermore, our simulations of driven and decaying turbulence show some statisticallymore » significant differences, particularly in the production of brown dwarfs and core rotation, but the uncertainties are large enough that we are not able to conclude whether observations favor one or the other.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1248292
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-405221
Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 686; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; ISM: clouds; stars: formation; methods: numerical; hydrodynamics; turbulence

Citation Formats

Offner, Stella S. R., Klein, Richard I., and McKee, Christopher F.. Driven and decaying turbulence simulations of low–mass star formation: From clumps to cores to protostars. United States: N. p., 2008. Web. https://doi.org/10.1086/590238.
Offner, Stella S. R., Klein, Richard I., & McKee, Christopher F.. Driven and decaying turbulence simulations of low–mass star formation: From clumps to cores to protostars. United States. https://doi.org/10.1086/590238
Offner, Stella S. R., Klein, Richard I., and McKee, Christopher F.. Mon . "Driven and decaying turbulence simulations of low–mass star formation: From clumps to cores to protostars". United States. https://doi.org/10.1086/590238. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1248292.
@article{osti_1248292,
title = {Driven and decaying turbulence simulations of low–mass star formation: From clumps to cores to protostars},
author = {Offner, Stella S. R. and Klein, Richard I. and McKee, Christopher F.},
abstractNote = {Molecular clouds are observed to be turbulent, but the origin of this turbulence is not well understood. As a result, there are two different approaches to simulating molecular clouds, one in which the turbulence is allowed to decay after it is initialized, and one in which it is driven. We use the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code, Orion, to perform high-resolution simulations of molecular cloud cores and protostars in environments with both driven and decaying turbulence. We include self-gravity, use a barotropic equation of state, and represent regions exceeding the maximum grid resolution with sink particles. We analyze the properties of bound cores such as size, shape, line width, and rotational energy, and we find reasonable agreement with observation. At high resolution the different rates of core accretion in the two cases have a significant effect on protostellar system development. Clumps forming in a decaying turbulence environment produce high-multiplicity protostellar systems with Toomre Q unstable disks that exhibit characteristics of the competitive accretion model for star formation. In contrast, cores forming in the context of continuously driven turbulence and virial equilibrium form smaller protostellar systems with fewer low-mass members. Furthermore, our simulations of driven and decaying turbulence show some statistically significant differences, particularly in the production of brown dwarfs and core rotation, but the uncertainties are large enough that we are not able to conclude whether observations favor one or the other.},
doi = {10.1086/590238},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 686,
place = {United States},
year = {2008},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 62 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Second Core Formation and High-Speed Jets: Resistive Magnetohydrodynamic Nested Grid Simulations
journal, August 2006

  • Machida, Masahiro N.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Matsumoto, Tomoaki
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 647, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/507179

The Formation of Stellar Clusters: Mass Spectra from Turbulent Molecular Cloud Fragmentation
journal, August 2001

  • Klessen, Ralf S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 556, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/321626

A Super‐Alfvenic Model of Dark Clouds
journal, November 1999

  • Padoan, Paolo; Nordlund, Ake
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 526, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/307956

Fragmentation of magnetized cloud cores
journal, January 2004


Star Formation in a Crossing Time
journal, February 2000

  • Elmegreen, Bruce G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 530, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/308361

Brown dwarf formation by gravitational fragmentation of massive, extended protostellar discs
journal, November 2007

  • Stamatellos, D.; Hubber, D. A.; Whitworth, A. P.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 382, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-3933.2007.00383.x

The Jeans Condition: A New Constraint on Spatial Resolution in Simulations of Isothermal Self-gravitational Hydrodynamics
journal, November 1997

  • Truelove, J. Kelly; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 489, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/310975

Massive star formation in 100,000 years from turbulent and pressurized molecular clouds
journal, March 2002

  • McKee, Christopher F.; Tan, Jonathan C.
  • Nature, Vol. 416, Issue 6876
  • DOI: 10.1038/416059a

Analysis of Clumps in Molecular Cloud Models: Mass Spectrum, Shapes, Alignment, and Rotation
journal, July 2003

  • Gammie, Charles F.; Lin, Yen‐Ting; Stone, James M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 592, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/375635

Determining structure in molecular clouds
journal, June 1994

  • Williams, Jonathan P.; de Geus, Eugene J.; Blitz, Leo
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 428
  • DOI: 10.1086/174279

The thermodynamics of collapsing molecular cloud cores using smoothed particle hydrodynamics with radiative transfer
journal, March 2006


Formation and Collapse of Nonaxisymmetric Protostellar Cores in Planar Magnetic Molecular Clouds
journal, April 2004

  • Basu, Shantanu; Ciolek, Glenn E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 607, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/421464

The origin of the initial mass function and its dependence on the mean Jeans mass in molecular clouds
journal, February 2005


Gravitational Collapse and Star Formation in Logotropic and Nonisothermal Spheres
journal, February 1997

  • McLaughlin, Dean E.; Pudritz, Ralph E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 476, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/303657

Two Regimes of Turbulent Fragmentation and the Stellar Initial Mass Function from Primordial to Present‐Day Star Formation
journal, June 2007

  • Padoan, Paolo; Nordlund, Ake; Kritsuk, Alexei G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 661, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/516623

The Formation of Brown Dwarfs as Ejected Stellar Embryos
journal, July 2001

  • Reipurth, Bo; Clarke, Cathie
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 122, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/321121

A Case Study of Low‐Mass Star Formation
journal, January 2008

  • Swift, Jonathan J.; Welch, William J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 174, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/520846

Theory of Star Formation
journal, September 2007


Dissipation in Compressible Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
journal, November 1998

  • Stone, James M.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Gammie, Charles F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 508, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/311718

The “Mysterious” Origin of Brown Dwarfs
journal, December 2004

  • Padoan, Paolo; Nordlund, Ake
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 617, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/345413

First MHD simulation of collapse and fragmentation of magnetized molecular cloud cores
journal, February 2004

  • Machida, Masahiro N.; Tomisaka, Kohji; Matsumoto, Tomoaki
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 348, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.07402.x

The formation of stars by gravitational collapse rather than competitive accretion
journal, November 2005

  • Krumholz, Mark R.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.
  • Nature, Vol. 438, Issue 7066
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature04280

Turbulence and star formation in molecular clouds
journal, April 1981


Efficiencies of Low‐Mass Star and Star Cluster Formation
journal, December 2000

  • Matzner, Christopher D.; McKee, Christopher F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 545, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/317785

Self‐gravitational Hydrodynamics with Three‐dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement: Methodology and Applications to Molecular Cloud Collapse and Fragmentation
journal, March 1998

  • Truelove, J. Kelly; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 495, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/305329

High‐Resolution Submillimeter Constraints on Circumstellar Disk Structure
journal, April 2007

  • Andrews, Sean M.; Williams, Jonathan P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 659, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/511741

The minimum mass for star formation, and the origin of binary brown dwarfs
journal, September 2006


The formation mechanism of brown dwarfs
journal, May 2002


A Radiation Hydrodynamic Model for Protostellar Collapse. I. The First Collapse
journal, March 1998

  • Masunaga, Hirohiko; Miyama, Shoken M.; Inutsuka, Shu‐ichiro
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 495, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/305281

The Formation of Self‐Gravitating Cores in Turbulent Magnetized Clouds
journal, April 2004

  • Li, P. S.; Norman, Michael L.; Mac Low, Mordecai‐Mark
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 605, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/382652

Massive star formation: nurture, not nature
journal, April 2004

  • Bonnell, Ian A.; Vine, Stephen G.; Bate, Matthew R.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 349, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.07543.x

The Stellar Initial Mass Function from Turbulent Fragmentation
journal, September 2002

  • Padoan, Paolo; Nordlund, Ake
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 576, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/341790

On Age Spreads in Star-forming Regions
journal, February 2001

  • Hartmann, Lee
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 121, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/318770

Radiation‐Hydrodynamic Simulations of Collapse and Fragmentation in Massive Protostellar Cores
journal, February 2007

  • Krumholz, Mark R.; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 656, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/510664

Numerical requirements for simulations of self-gravitating and non-self-gravitating discs
journal, November 2006


The Jeans Condition and Collapsing Molecular Cloud Cores: Filaments or Binaries?
journal, January 2000

  • Boss, Alan P.; Fisher, Robert T.; Klein, Richard I.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 528, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/308160

The Mass of a Star Formed in a Cloud Core: Theory and Its Application to the Orion A Cloud
journal, September 1995

  • Nakano, Takenori; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Norman, Colin
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 450
  • DOI: 10.1086/176130

The Formation of Stellar Clusters: Gaussian Cloud Conditions. II.
journal, March 2001

  • Klessen, Ralf S.; Burkert, Andreas
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 549, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/319053

Dense Cores in Dark Clouds. XIV. N 2 H + (1–0) Maps of Dense Cloud Cores
journal, June 2002

  • Caselli, Paola; Benson, Priscilla J.; Myers, Philip C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 572, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/340195

A new binary formation mechanism
journal, August 1994

  • Bonnell, Ian A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 269, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/269.3.837

Protostellar Disks: Formation, Fragmentation, and the Brown Dwarf Desert
journal, August 2005

  • Matzner, Christopher D.; Levin, Yuri
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 628, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/430813

Equilibrium Star Cluster Formation
journal, March 2006

  • Tan, Jonathan C.; Krumholz, Mark R.; McKee, Christopher F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 641, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/504150

Protostellar angular momentum evolution during gravoturbulent fragmentation
journal, July 2004


Magnetic Fields in Molecular Clouds: Observations Confront Theory
journal, August 1999

  • Crutcher, Richard M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 520, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/307483

Binary star formation: accretion-induced rotational fragmentation
journal, November 1995

  • Whitworth, A. P.; Chapman, S. J.; Bhattal, A. S.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 277, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/277.2.727

The Mass Spectra of Cores in Turbulent Molecular Clouds and Implications for the Initial Mass Function
journal, January 2006

  • Ballesteros‐Paredes, Javier; Gazol, Adriana; Kim, Jongsoo
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 637, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/498228

Protostellar collapse induced by compression - II. Rotation and fragmentation
journal, February 2004


The Kinematics of Molecular Cloud Cores in the Presence of Driven and Decaying Turbulence: Comparisons with Observations
journal, June 2008

  • Offner, Stella S. R.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Klein, Richard I.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 136, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/136/1/404

Resolution requirements for smoothed particle hydrodynamics calculations with self-gravity
journal, July 1997

  • Bate, M. R.; Burkert, A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 288, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/288.4.1060

Interstellar Turbulence I: Observations and Processes
journal, September 2004


Thermal physics, cloud geometry and the stellar initial mass function
journal, May 2005


Control of star formation by supersonic turbulence
journal, January 2004


A General Theory of Turbulence‐regulated Star Formation, from Spirals to Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies
journal, September 2005

  • Krumholz, Mark R.; McKee, Christopher F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 630, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/431734

Star formation with 3-D adaptive mesh refinement: the collapse and fragmentation of molecular clouds
journal, September 1999


The Large‐ and Small‐Scale Structures of Dust in the Star‐forming Perseus Molecular Cloud
journal, August 2006

  • Kirk, Helen; Johnstone, Doug; Di Francesco, James
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 646, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/503193

The impact of magnetic fields on single and binary star formation
journal, May 2007


NICMOS2 Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Embedded Cluster Associated with Mon R2: Constraining the Substellar Initial Mass Function
journal, January 2006

  • Andersen, M.; Meyer, M. R.; Oppenheimer, B.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 132, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1086/508485

Dense cores in dark clouds. VIII - Velocity gradients
journal, April 1993

  • Goodman, A. A.; Benson, P. J.; Fuller, G. A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 406
  • DOI: 10.1086/172465

Mass, luminosity, and line width relations of Galactic molecular clouds
journal, August 1987

  • Solomon, P. M.; Rivolo, A. R.; Barrett, J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 319
  • DOI: 10.1086/165493

The Universality of Turbulence in Galactic Molecular Clouds
journal, September 2004

  • Heyer, Mark H.; Brunt, Christopher M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 615, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/425978

Dense Cores Mapped in Ammonia: A Database
journal, November 1999

  • Jijina, J.; Myers, P. C.; Adams, Fred C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 125, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/313268

Embedding Lagrangian Sink Particles in Eulerian Grids
journal, August 2004

  • Krumholz, Mark R.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 611, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/421935

The formation of star clusters - I. Three-dimensional simulations of hydrodynamic turbulence: Formation of star clusters
journal, August 2004


The Jeans mass and the origin of the knee in the IMF
journal, April 2006


Accretion and the stellar mass spectrum in small clusters
journal, February 1997

  • Bonnell, I. A.; Bate, M. R.; Clarke, C. J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 285, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/285.1.201

The Burst Mode of Protostellar Accretion
journal, October 2006

  • Vorobyov, E. I.; Basu, Shantanu
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 650, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/507320

Outflows and Jets from Collapsing Magnetized Cloud Cores
journal, April 2006

  • Banerjee, Robi; Pudritz, Ralph E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 641, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/500496

Accretion in stellar clusters and the initial mass function
journal, June 2001


Bondi‐Hoyle Accretion in a Turbulent Medium
journal, February 2006

  • Krumholz, Mark R.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 638, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/498844

The Energy Dissipation Rate of Supersonic, Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in Molecular Clouds
journal, October 1999

  • Mac Low, Mordecai‐Mark
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 524, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/307784

The hierarchical formation of a stellar cluster
journal, August 2003

  • Bonnell, Ian A.; Bate, Matthew R.; Vine, Stephen G.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 343, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2003.06687.x

Star Formation in Molecular Clouds: Observation and Theory
journal, September 1987


Molecular Cloud Evolution. I. Molecular Cloud and Thin Cold Neutral Medium Sheet Formation
journal, May 2006

  • Vazquez‐Semadeni, Enrique; Ryu, Dongsu; Passot, Thierry
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 643, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/502710

Fragmentation of Molecular Clouds: The Initial Phase of a Stellar Cluster
journal, July 1998

  • Klessen, Ralf S.; Burkert, Andreas; Bate, Matthew R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 501, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/311471

Large-scale [TSUP]13[/TSUP]CO [ITAL]J[/ITAL] = 5 → 4 and [C [CSC]i[/CSC]] Mapping of Orion A
journal, August 2000

  • Plume, R.; Bensch, F.; Howe, J. E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 539, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/312847

Limits on the primordial stellar multiplicity
journal, July 2005


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Comparing the statistics of interstellar turbulence in simulations and observations: Solenoidal versus compressive turbulence forcing
    journal, March 2010


    Probing the evolution of molecular cloud structure: From quiescence to birth
    journal, December 2009


    Dense cores and star formation in the giant molecular cloud Vela C
    journal, August 2019


    Observation of rotation in star forming regions: clouds, cores, disks, and jets
    journal, January 2013


    On the role of Disks in the Formation of Stellar Systems: a Numerical Parameter Study of Rapid Accretion
    journal, December 2009

    • Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Krumholz, Mark R.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 708, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637x/708/2/1585

    Dense core Formation in Supersonic Turbulent Converging Flows
    journal, February 2011


    THE SPITZER c2d LEGACY RESULTS: STAR-FORMATION RATES AND EFFICIENCIES; EVOLUTION AND LIFETIMES
    journal, March 2009

    • Evans, Neal J.; Dunham, Michael M.; Jørgensen, Jes K.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 181, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/181/2/321

    Assessing molecular line diagnostics of triggered star formation using synthetic observations
    journal, April 2013

    • Haworth, Thomas J.; Harries, Tim J.; Acreman, David M.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 431, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt427

    The statistical properties of stars and their dependence on metallicity: the effects of opacity
    journal, June 2014

    • Bate, Matthew R.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 442, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu795

    The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: first results from the SCUBA-2 observations of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud and a virial analysis of its prestellar core population
    journal, April 2015

    • Pattle, K.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Kirk, J. M.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 450, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv376

    Concurrent formation of supermassive stars and globular clusters: implications for early self-enrichment
    journal, April 2018

    • Gieles, Mark; Charbonnel, Corinne; Krause, Martin G. H.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 478, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1059

    On the diversity and statistical properties of protostellar discs
    journal, January 2018

    • Bate, Matthew R.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 475, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty169

    On estimating angular momenta of infalling protostellar cores from observations
    journal, August 2018

    • Zhang, Shangjia; Hartmann, Lee; Zamora-Avilés, Manuel
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 480, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty2244

    From Giant H ii regions and H ii galaxies to globular clusters and compact dwarf ellipticals
    journal, August 2018

    • Terlevich, Elena; Fernández-Arenas, David; Terlevich, Roberto
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 481, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty2325

    Simulating star clusters across cosmic time – I. Initial mass function, star formation rates, and efficiencies
    journal, August 2019

    • He, Chong-Chong; Ricotti, Massimo; Geen, Sam
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 489, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz2239

    The dependence of star formation on initial conditions and molecular cloud structure
    journal, July 2009


    Externally fed accretion on to protostars: Externally fed accretion on to protostars
    journal, August 2012


    Dense Regions in Supersonic Isothermal Turbulence
    journal, February 2018


    Tracing Magnetic Field Morphology Using the Velocity Gradient Technique in the Presence of CO Self-absorption
    journal, February 2019


    The Origins of Protostellar Core Angular Momenta
    journal, April 2019

    • Kuznetsova, Aleksandra; Hartmann, Lee; Heitsch, Fabian
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 876, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab12ce

    Droplets. II. Internal Velocity Structures and Potential Rotational Motions in Pressure-dominated Coherent Structures
    journal, November 2019

    • Chen, Hope How-Huan; Pineda, Jaime E.; Offner, Stella S. R.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 886, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab4ce9

    The Formation and Evolution of Wide-orbit Stellar Multiples In Magnetized Clouds
    journal, December 2019

    • Lee, Aaron T.; Offner, Stella S. R.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 887, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab584b