skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of the surface detector signals of the Pierre Auger Observatory

Abstract

The azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of signals in Auger surface detector stations is a source of information on shower development. The azimuthal asymmetry is due to a combination of the longitudinal evolution of the shower and geometrical effects related to the angles of incidence of the particles into the detectors. The magnitude of the effect depends upon the zenith angle and state of development of the shower and thus provides a novel observable, (secθ)max, sensitive to the mass composition of cosmic rays above 3 x 1018 eV. By comparing measurements with predictions from shower simulations, we find for both of our adopted models of hadronic physics (QGSJETII-04 and EPOS-LHC) an indication that the mean cosmic-ray mass increases slowly with energy, as has been inferred from other studies. However, the mass estimates are dependent on the shower model and on the range of distance from the shower core selected. Furthermore, the method has uncovered further deficiencies in our understanding of shower modelling that must be resolved before the mass composition can be inferred from (secθ)max.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Univ. Siegen (Germany). et al.
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
Pierre Auger Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1247529
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1246180
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-16-094-AD-AE-CD-TD; arXiv:1604.00978
Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010; PRVDAQ; 1441175
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359; FR02-04ER41300; FG02-99ER41107; SC0011689
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 93; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Aab, Alexander. Azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of the surface detector signals of the Pierre Auger Observatory. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.93.072006.
Aab, Alexander. Azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of the surface detector signals of the Pierre Auger Observatory. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.93.072006.
Aab, Alexander. Thu . "Azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of the surface detector signals of the Pierre Auger Observatory". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.93.072006. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1247529.
@article{osti_1247529,
title = {Azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of the surface detector signals of the Pierre Auger Observatory},
author = {Aab, Alexander},
abstractNote = {The azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of signals in Auger surface detector stations is a source of information on shower development. The azimuthal asymmetry is due to a combination of the longitudinal evolution of the shower and geometrical effects related to the angles of incidence of the particles into the detectors. The magnitude of the effect depends upon the zenith angle and state of development of the shower and thus provides a novel observable, (secθ)max, sensitive to the mass composition of cosmic rays above 3 x 1018 eV. By comparing measurements with predictions from shower simulations, we find for both of our adopted models of hadronic physics (QGSJETII-04 and EPOS-LHC) an indication that the mean cosmic-ray mass increases slowly with energy, as has been inferred from other studies. However, the mass estimates are dependent on the shower model and on the range of distance from the shower core selected. Furthermore, the method has uncovered further deficiencies in our understanding of shower modelling that must be resolved before the mass composition can be inferred from (secθ)max.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.93.072006},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = 7,
volume = 93,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 6 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Fluctuation studies of large air showers: the composition of primary cosmic ray particles of energy E p ∼10 18 eV
journal, July 1974

  • Watson, A. A.; Wilson, J. G.
  • Journal of Physics A: Mathematical, Nuclear and General, Vol. 7, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1088/0305-4470/7/10/013

Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 1018 eV using the Pierre Auger Observatory
journal, March 2010


A new physical phenomenon in ultra-high energy collisions
journal, January 2013


Calculations on the arrival-time distribution and energy content of extensive air showers at large core distances
journal, January 1968


The angular resolution of the Pierre Auger Observatory
journal, May 2009


Large Scale Distribution of Ultra high Energy Cosmic rays Detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with Zenith Angles up to 80°
journal, March 2015


Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 10 18 eV
journal, March 2010


EPOS LHC: Test of collective hadronization with data measured at the CERN Large Hadron Collider
journal, September 2015


Extremely Energetic Cosmic-Ray Event
journal, May 1961


Calibration of the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory
journal, December 2006

  • Bertou, X.; Allison, P. S.; Bonifazi, C.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 568, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2006.07.066

Muon Production in Extended Air Shower Simulations
journal, October 2008


The electromagnetic component of large air showers
journal, May 1970


Arrival Times of Air Shower Particles at Large Distances from the Axis
journal, December 1962


sibyll: An event generator for simulation of high energy cosmic ray cascades
journal, November 1994


Monte Carlo treatment of hadronic interactions in enhanced Pomeron scheme: QGSJET-II model
journal, January 2011


Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Measurement of atmospheric production depth
journal, July 2014


Relation between hadronic interactions and ultra-high energy extensive air showers
journal, January 2015


The fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
journal, August 2010

  • Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 620, Issue 2-3
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2010.04.023

Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events
journal, February 2015


Trigger and aperture of the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory
journal, January 2010

  • Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 613, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2009.11.018

Time asymmetries in extensive air showers: A novel method to identify UHECR species
journal, May 2009


Constraining pion interactions at very high energies by cosmic ray data
journal, March 2016


First Observation of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin Suppression
journal, March 2008


Properties and performance of the prototype instrument for the Pierre Auger Observatory
journal, May 2004

  • Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, I. C.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 523, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2003.12.012

Searches for Anisotropies in the Arrival Directions of the Highest Energy Cosmic rays Detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory
journal, April 2015


Cosmic Ray Showers
journal, December 1960


Observation of the Suppression of the Flux of Cosmic Rays above 4 × 10 19 eV
journal, August 2008


Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. II. Composition implications
journal, December 2014


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of the surface detector signals of the Pierre Auger Observatory
    text, January 2016

    • Aab, Alexander; Abreu, Pedro; Aglietta, Marco
    • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
    • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2017-00248