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Title: Temperature and magnetic-field driven dynamics in artificial magnetic square ice

Artificial spin ices are often spoken of as being realisations of some of the celebrated vertex models of statistical mechanics, where the exact microstate of the system can be imaged using advanced magnetic microscopy methods. The fact that a stable image can be formed means that the system is in fact athermal and not undergoing the usual finite-temperature fluctuations of a statistical mechanical system. In this paper we report on the preparation of artificial spin ices with islands that are thermally fluctuating due to their very small size. The relaxation rate of these islands was determined using variable frequency focused magneto-optic Kerr measurements. We performed magnetic imaging of artificial spin ice under varied temperature and magnetic field using X-ray transmission microscopy which uses X-ray magnetic circular dichroism to generate magnetic contrast. Furthermore, we have developed an on-membrane heater in order to apply temperatures in excess of 700 K and have shown increased dynamics due to higher temperature. Due to the ‘photon-in, photon-out' method employed here, it is the first report where it is possible to image the microstates of an ASI system under the simultaneous application of temperature and magnetic field, enabling the determination of relaxation rates, coercivties, and themore » analysis of vertex population during reversal.« less
;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [3] ;  [2]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  2. Univ. of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)
  3. STFC Rutherford Appleton Lab., Didcot (United Kingdom)
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea)
  5. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)
  6. Univ. of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)
  7. Diamond Light Source, Didcot (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
SPINTRONICS VIII (8th Spintronics Symposium)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: SPINTRONICS VIII (8th Spintronics Symposium); Journal Issue: 9551; Conference: San Diego, CA (United States), 9-13 Aug 2015
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE magnetism; microscopy; photons; x-ray magnetic circular dichroism; X-rays; magneto-optics; mechanics; artificial spin ice; vertex model; nanomagnetism; magnetic soft X-ray; transmission microscopy