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Title: Measurement of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Moon with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

Abstract

We have measured the gamma-ray emission spectrum of the Moon using the data collected by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite during its first seven years of operation, in the energy range from 30 MeV up to a few GeV. We have also studied the time evolution of the flux, finding a correlation with the solar activity. We have developed a full Monte Carlo simulation describing the interactions of cosmic rays with the lunar surface. The results of the present analysis can be explained in the framework of this model, where the production of gamma rays is due to the interactions of cosmic-ray proton and helium nuclei with the surface of the Moon. Lastly, we have used our simulation to derive the cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra near Earth from the Moon gamma-ray data.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Org.:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1246516
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1249107
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 93; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Publisher:
American Physical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Costanza, F., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Di Venere, L., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Harding, A. K., Hewitt, J. W., Horan, D., Hou, X., Iafrate, G., Jóhannesson, G., Kamae, T., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Magill, J., Maldera, S., Manfreda, A., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Murgia, S., Nuss, E., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spada, F., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Takahashi, H., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Vianello, G., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Yassine, M., Cerutti, F., Ferrari, A., Sala, P. R., and Fermi LAT Collaboration. Measurement of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Moon with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.93.082001.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Costanza, F., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Di Venere, L., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Harding, A. K., Hewitt, J. W., Horan, D., Hou, X., Iafrate, G., Jóhannesson, G., Kamae, T., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Magill, J., Maldera, S., Manfreda, A., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Murgia, S., Nuss, E., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spada, F., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Takahashi, H., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Vianello, G., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Yassine, M., Cerutti, F., Ferrari, A., Sala, P. R., & Fermi LAT Collaboration. Measurement of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Moon with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.93.082001.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Costanza, F., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Di Venere, L., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Harding, A. K., Hewitt, J. W., Horan, D., Hou, X., Iafrate, G., Jóhannesson, G., Kamae, T., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Magill, J., Maldera, S., Manfreda, A., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Murgia, S., Nuss, E., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spada, F., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Takahashi, H., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Vianello, G., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Yassine, M., Cerutti, F., Ferrari, A., Sala, P. R., and Fermi LAT Collaboration. Fri . "Measurement of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Moon with the Fermi Large Area Telescope". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.93.082001.
@article{osti_1246516,
title = {Measurement of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Moon with the Fermi Large Area Telescope},
author = {Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Albert, A. and Atwood, W. B. and Baldini, L. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Bellazzini, R. and Bissaldi, E. and Blandford, R. D. and Bonino, R. and Bottacini, E. and Bregeon, J. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caragiulo, M. and Caraveo, P. A. and Cavazzuti, E. and Cecchi, C. and Chekhtman, A. and Chiang, J. and Chiaro, G. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Costanza, F. and Cuoco, A. and Cutini, S. and D’Ammando, F. and de Angelis, A. and de Palma, F. and Desiante, R. and Digel, S. W. and Di Venere, L. and Drell, P. S. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Focke, W. B. and Franckowiak, A. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Grenier, I. A. and Grove, J. E. and Guiriec, S. and Harding, A. K. and Hewitt, J. W. and Horan, D. and Hou, X. and Iafrate, G. and Jóhannesson, G. and Kamae, T. and Kuss, M. and Larsson, S. and Latronico, L. and Li, J. and Li, L. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Magill, J. and Maldera, S. and Manfreda, A. and Mayer, M. and Mazziotta, M. N. and Michelson, P. F. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Murgia, S. and Nuss, E. and Omodei, N. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Paneque, D. and Perkins, J. S. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Petrosian, V. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Reposeur, T. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Spada, F. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Takahashi, H. and Thayer, J. B. and Thompson, D. J. and Tibaldo, L. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Troja, E. and Vianello, G. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, K. S. and Yassine, M. and Cerutti, F. and Ferrari, A. and Sala, P. R. and Fermi LAT Collaboration},
abstractNote = {We have measured the gamma-ray emission spectrum of the Moon using the data collected by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite during its first seven years of operation, in the energy range from 30 MeV up to a few GeV. We have also studied the time evolution of the flux, finding a correlation with the solar activity. We have developed a full Monte Carlo simulation describing the interactions of cosmic rays with the lunar surface. The results of the present analysis can be explained in the framework of this model, where the production of gamma rays is due to the interactions of cosmic-ray proton and helium nuclei with the surface of the Moon. Lastly, we have used our simulation to derive the cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra near Earth from the Moon gamma-ray data.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.93.082001},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = 8,
volume = 93,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {4}
}

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DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.082001

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