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Title: Spontaneous and strong multi-layer graphene n-doping on soda-lime glass and its application in graphene-semiconductor junctions

Abstract

Scalable and low-cost doping of graphene could improve technologies in a wide range of fields such as microelectronics, optoelectronics, and energy storage. While achieving strong p-doping is relatively straightforward, non-electrostatic approaches to n-dope graphene, such as chemical doping, have yielded electron densities of 9.5 × 10 12 e/cm 2 or below. Furthermore, chemical doping is susceptible to degradation and can adversely affect intrinsic graphene’s properties. Here we demonstrate strong (1.33 × 10 13 e/cm 2), robust, and spontaneous graphene n-doping on a soda-lime-glass substrate via surface-transfer doping from Na without any external chemical, high-temperature, or vacuum processes. Remarkably, the n-doping reaches 2.11 × 10 13 e/cm 2 when graphene is transferred onto a p-type copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) semiconductor that itself has been deposited onto soda-lime-glass, via surface-transfer doping from Na atoms that diffuse to the CIGS surface. Using this effect, we demonstrate an n-graphene/p-semiconductor Schottky junction with ideality factor of 1.21 and strong photo-response. As a result, the ability to achieve strong and persistent graphene n-doping on low-cost, industry-standard materials paves the way toward an entirely new class of graphene-based devices such as photodetectors, photovoltaics, sensors, batteries, and supercapacitors.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [2]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)
  3. Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE) at SUNY Polytechnic Institute, Albany, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1245377
Report Number(s):
BNL-111834-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322; YN0100000
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC00112704
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; electrical and electronic engineering; electronic devices; electronic properties and devices

Citation Formats

Dissanayake, D. M. N. M., Ashraf, A., Dwyer, D., Kisslinger, K., Zhang, L., Pang, Y., Efstathiadis, H., and Eisaman, M. D. Spontaneous and strong multi-layer graphene n-doping on soda-lime glass and its application in graphene-semiconductor junctions. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1038/srep21070.
Dissanayake, D. M. N. M., Ashraf, A., Dwyer, D., Kisslinger, K., Zhang, L., Pang, Y., Efstathiadis, H., & Eisaman, M. D. Spontaneous and strong multi-layer graphene n-doping on soda-lime glass and its application in graphene-semiconductor junctions. United States. doi:10.1038/srep21070.
Dissanayake, D. M. N. M., Ashraf, A., Dwyer, D., Kisslinger, K., Zhang, L., Pang, Y., Efstathiadis, H., and Eisaman, M. D. Fri . "Spontaneous and strong multi-layer graphene n-doping on soda-lime glass and its application in graphene-semiconductor junctions". United States. doi:10.1038/srep21070. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1245377.
@article{osti_1245377,
title = {Spontaneous and strong multi-layer graphene n-doping on soda-lime glass and its application in graphene-semiconductor junctions},
author = {Dissanayake, D. M. N. M. and Ashraf, A. and Dwyer, D. and Kisslinger, K. and Zhang, L. and Pang, Y. and Efstathiadis, H. and Eisaman, M. D.},
abstractNote = {Scalable and low-cost doping of graphene could improve technologies in a wide range of fields such as microelectronics, optoelectronics, and energy storage. While achieving strong p-doping is relatively straightforward, non-electrostatic approaches to n-dope graphene, such as chemical doping, have yielded electron densities of 9.5 × 1012 e/cm2 or below. Furthermore, chemical doping is susceptible to degradation and can adversely affect intrinsic graphene’s properties. Here we demonstrate strong (1.33 × 1013 e/cm2), robust, and spontaneous graphene n-doping on a soda-lime-glass substrate via surface-transfer doping from Na without any external chemical, high-temperature, or vacuum processes. Remarkably, the n-doping reaches 2.11 × 1013 e/cm2 when graphene is transferred onto a p-type copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) semiconductor that itself has been deposited onto soda-lime-glass, via surface-transfer doping from Na atoms that diffuse to the CIGS surface. Using this effect, we demonstrate an n-graphene/p-semiconductor Schottky junction with ideality factor of 1.21 and strong photo-response. As a result, the ability to achieve strong and persistent graphene n-doping on low-cost, industry-standard materials paves the way toward an entirely new class of graphene-based devices such as photodetectors, photovoltaics, sensors, batteries, and supercapacitors.},
doi = {10.1038/srep21070},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = 11,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {2}
}

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