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Title: Inward Lithium-Ion Breathing of Hierarchically Porous Silicon Anodes

Silicon has been identified as one of the most promising candidates as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The key challenge for Si anodes is the large volume change induced chemomechanical fracture and subsequent rapid capacity fading upon cyclic charge and discharge. Improving capacity retention thus critically relies on smart accommodation of the volume changes through nanoscale structural design. In this work, we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. Upon charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward expansion/contraction with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such a unique volume-change accommodation mechanism is enabled by the much stiffer modulus of the lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer and the low flow stress of the porous structure. Such inward expansion shields the hp-SiNSs from fracture, opposite to the outward expansion in solid Si during lithiation. Lithium ion battery assembled with this new nanoporous material exhibits high capacity, high power, long cycle life and high coulombic efficiency, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. We find the low cost synthesis approach reported here provides a new avenuemore » for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [6] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [7] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [6] ;  [1]
  1. General Motors Research and Development Center, Warran, MI (United States)
  2. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  3. Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
  4. Tongji University, Shanghai (China)
  5. Tongji University, Shanghai (China)
  6. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  7. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723; 48379; KP1704020
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830; AC02-05CH11231
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
Country of Publication:
United States
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1378636