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Title: Absence of cytotoxicity towards microglia of iron oxide (α-Fe 2O 3) nanorhombohedra

Understanding the nature of interactions between nanomaterials, such as commercially ubiquitous hematite (α-Fe 2O 3) nanorhombohedra (N-Rhomb) and biological systems is of critical importance for gaining insight into the practical applicability of nanomaterials. Microglia represent the first line of defense in the central nervous system (CNS) during severe injury or disease such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease as illustrative examples. Hence, to analyze the potential cytotoxic effect of N-Rhomb exposure in the presence of microglia, we have synthesized Rhodamine B (RhB)-labeled α-Fe 2O 3 N-Rhomb, with lengths of 47 ± 10 nm and widths of 35 ± 8 nm. Internalization of RhB-labeled α-Fe 2O 3 N-Rhomb by microglia in the mouse brain was observed, and a dose-dependent increase in the cellular iron content as probed by cellular fluorescence was detected in cultured microglia after nanoparticle exposure. The cells maintained clear functional viability, exhibiting little to no cytotoxic effects after 24 and 48 hours at acceptable, physiological concentrations. Importantly, the nanoparticle exposure did not induce microglial cells to produce either tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) or interleukin 1-beta (IL1β), two pro-inflammatory cytokines, nor did exposure stimulate the production of nitrites and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are common indicators for themore » onset of inflammation. Finally, we propose that under the conditions of our experiments, i.e. in the presence of RhB labeled-α-Fe 2O 3 N-Rhomb maintaining concentrations of up to 100 μg mL–1 after 48 hours of incubation, the in vitro and in vivo internalization of RhB-labeled α-Fe 2O 3 N-Rhomb are likely to be clathrin-dependent, which represents a conventional mechanistic uptake route for most cells. Furthermore, given the crucial role that microglia play in many neurological disorders, understanding the potential cytotoxic effects of these nanostructures is of fundamental importance if they are to be used in a therapeutic setting.« less
;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  2. State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 2045-452X; TROEE8; R&D Project: PM037; KC0201030
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Toxicology Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 72; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-452X
Royal Society of Chemistry
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; α-Fe2O3; nanostructures; microglia; cytotoxicity; neurotoxicity
OSTI Identifier: