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Title: Controlled exfoliation of (100) GaAs-based devices by spalling fracture

Abstract

The importance of exfoliation techniques increases as the semiconductor industry progresses toward thinner devices as a way to reduce material costs and improve performance. Here, the controlled spalling technique is a recently developed substrate removal process that utilizes the physics of fracture to create wafer cleavage parallel to the surface at a precise depth. In this letter, we apply principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics to predict the process conditions needed to exfoliate (100) GaAs of a desired thickness. Spalling can be initiated in a controllable manner, by depositing a stressor film of a residual stress value just below the threshold value to induce a spontaneous spall. Experimental data show process window requirements to controllably spall (100) GaAs. Additionally, experimental spall depth in (100) GaAs compares well to spalling mechanics predictions when the effects of wafer thickness and modulus are considered. To test spalled material quality, III-V single junction photovoltaic devices are lifted off of a (100)-GaAs substrate by spalling methods and electrical characteristics are recorded. No degradation is observed in the spalled device, illustrating the potential of this method to rapidly produce thin, high quality devices.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  3. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Renewable Power Office. Solar Energy Technologies Office
OSTI Identifier:
1239062
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1234150
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5J00-65379
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951; APPLAB
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 108; Journal Issue: 1; Related Information: Applied Physics Letters; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; gallium arsenide; photovoltaics; spalling; fracture mechanics; semiconductor devices; epitaxy; elastic modulus; thin film deposition; etching; chemical vapor deposition; electrical properties and parameters

Citation Formats

Sweet, Cassi A., Schulte, Kevin L., Simon, John D., Steiner, Myles A., Jain, Nikhil, Young, David L., Ptak, Aaron J., and Packard, Corinne E.. Controlled exfoliation of (100) GaAs-based devices by spalling fracture. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4939661.
Sweet, Cassi A., Schulte, Kevin L., Simon, John D., Steiner, Myles A., Jain, Nikhil, Young, David L., Ptak, Aaron J., & Packard, Corinne E.. Controlled exfoliation of (100) GaAs-based devices by spalling fracture. United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4939661
Sweet, Cassi A., Schulte, Kevin L., Simon, John D., Steiner, Myles A., Jain, Nikhil, Young, David L., Ptak, Aaron J., and Packard, Corinne E.. Mon . "Controlled exfoliation of (100) GaAs-based devices by spalling fracture". United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4939661. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1239062.
@article{osti_1239062,
title = {Controlled exfoliation of (100) GaAs-based devices by spalling fracture},
author = {Sweet, Cassi A. and Schulte, Kevin L. and Simon, John D. and Steiner, Myles A. and Jain, Nikhil and Young, David L. and Ptak, Aaron J. and Packard, Corinne E.},
abstractNote = {The importance of exfoliation techniques increases as the semiconductor industry progresses toward thinner devices as a way to reduce material costs and improve performance. Here, the controlled spalling technique is a recently developed substrate removal process that utilizes the physics of fracture to create wafer cleavage parallel to the surface at a precise depth. In this letter, we apply principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics to predict the process conditions needed to exfoliate (100) GaAs of a desired thickness. Spalling can be initiated in a controllable manner, by depositing a stressor film of a residual stress value just below the threshold value to induce a spontaneous spall. Experimental data show process window requirements to controllably spall (100) GaAs. Additionally, experimental spall depth in (100) GaAs compares well to spalling mechanics predictions when the effects of wafer thickness and modulus are considered. To test spalled material quality, III-V single junction photovoltaic devices are lifted off of a (100)-GaAs substrate by spalling methods and electrical characteristics are recorded. No degradation is observed in the spalled device, illustrating the potential of this method to rapidly produce thin, high quality devices.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4939661},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 1,
volume = 108,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {1}
}

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Cited by: 9 works
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Works referenced in this record:

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Characterization of dual‐junction III‐V on Si tandem solar cells with 23.7% efficiency under low concentration
    journal, April 2019

    • Veinberg‐Vidal, Elias; Vauche, Laura; Medjoubi, Karim
    • Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications
    • DOI: 10.1002/pip.3128

    Epitaxial growth and layer-transfer techniques for heterogeneous integration of materials for electronic and photonic devices
    journal, October 2019


    (111)Si thin layers detachment by stress-induced spallation
    journal, January 2019

    • Zayyoun, Najoua; Pingault, Timothée; Ntsoenzok, Esidor
    • Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, Vol. 7, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1088/2051-672x/aaf43b