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Title: Multi-decadal trends in global terrestrial evapotranspiration and its components

Abstract

In this study, evapotranspiration (ET) is the process by which liquid water becomes water vapor and energetically this accounts for much of incoming solar radiation. If this ET did not occur temperatures would be higher, so understanding ET trends is crucial to predict future temperatures. Recent studies have reported prolonged declines in ET in recent decades, although these declines may relate to climate variability. Here, we used a well-validated diagnostic model to estimate daily ET during 1981–2012, and its three components: transpiration from vegetation (Et), direct evaporation from the soil (Es) and vaporization of intercepted rainfall from vegetation (Ei). During this period, ET over land has increased significantly (p < 0.01), caused by increases in Et and Ei, which are partially counteracted by Es decreasing. These contrasting trends are primarily driven by increases in vegetation leaf area index, dominated by greening. The overall increase in Et over land is about twofold of the decrease in Es. These opposing trends are not simulated by most Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models, and highlight the importance of realistically representing vegetation changes in earth system models for predicting future changes in the energy and water cycle.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [1];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7]
  1. CSIRO Land and Water, Canberra (Australia)
  2. CSIRO Land and Water, Canberra (Australia); Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)
  3. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)
  4. CSIRO Ocean and Atmosphere, Victoria (Australia)
  5. Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)
  6. VU Univ. Amsterdam (The Netherlands); Ghent Univ., Ghent (Belgium)
  7. Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1238787
Grant/Contract Number:  
FG02-04ER63917
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; climate change; hydrology

Citation Formats

Zhang, Yongqiang, Peña-Arancibia, Jorge L., McVicar, Tim R., Chiew, Francis H. S., Vaze, Jai, Liu, Changming, Lu, Xingjie, Zheng, Hongxing, Wang, Yingping, Liu, Yi Y., Miralles, Diego G., and Pan, Ming. Multi-decadal trends in global terrestrial evapotranspiration and its components. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1038/srep19124.
Zhang, Yongqiang, Peña-Arancibia, Jorge L., McVicar, Tim R., Chiew, Francis H. S., Vaze, Jai, Liu, Changming, Lu, Xingjie, Zheng, Hongxing, Wang, Yingping, Liu, Yi Y., Miralles, Diego G., & Pan, Ming. Multi-decadal trends in global terrestrial evapotranspiration and its components. United States. doi:10.1038/srep19124.
Zhang, Yongqiang, Peña-Arancibia, Jorge L., McVicar, Tim R., Chiew, Francis H. S., Vaze, Jai, Liu, Changming, Lu, Xingjie, Zheng, Hongxing, Wang, Yingping, Liu, Yi Y., Miralles, Diego G., and Pan, Ming. Mon . "Multi-decadal trends in global terrestrial evapotranspiration and its components". United States. doi:10.1038/srep19124. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1238787.
@article{osti_1238787,
title = {Multi-decadal trends in global terrestrial evapotranspiration and its components},
author = {Zhang, Yongqiang and Peña-Arancibia, Jorge L. and McVicar, Tim R. and Chiew, Francis H. S. and Vaze, Jai and Liu, Changming and Lu, Xingjie and Zheng, Hongxing and Wang, Yingping and Liu, Yi Y. and Miralles, Diego G. and Pan, Ming},
abstractNote = {In this study, evapotranspiration (ET) is the process by which liquid water becomes water vapor and energetically this accounts for much of incoming solar radiation. If this ET did not occur temperatures would be higher, so understanding ET trends is crucial to predict future temperatures. Recent studies have reported prolonged declines in ET in recent decades, although these declines may relate to climate variability. Here, we used a well-validated diagnostic model to estimate daily ET during 1981–2012, and its three components: transpiration from vegetation (Et), direct evaporation from the soil (Es) and vaporization of intercepted rainfall from vegetation (Ei). During this period, ET over land has increased significantly (p < 0.01), caused by increases in Et and Ei, which are partially counteracted by Es decreasing. These contrasting trends are primarily driven by increases in vegetation leaf area index, dominated by greening. The overall increase in Et over land is about twofold of the decrease in Es. These opposing trends are not simulated by most Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models, and highlight the importance of realistically representing vegetation changes in earth system models for predicting future changes in the energy and water cycle.},
doi = {10.1038/srep19124},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = ,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {1}
}

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Cited by: 47 works
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Works referenced in this record:

Recent decline in the global land evapotranspiration trend due to limited moisture supply
journal, October 2010

  • Jung, Martin; Reichstein, Markus; Ciais, Philippe
  • Nature, Vol. 467, Issue 7318
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature09396

Global Hydrological Cycles and World Water Resources
journal, August 2006


Anthropogenic influence on multidecadal changes in reconstructed global evapotranspiration
journal, July 2012

  • Douville, H.; Ribes, A.; Decharme, B.
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1632

El Niño–La Niña cycle and recent trends in continental evaporation
journal, December 2013

  • Miralles, Diego G.; van den Berg, Martinus J.; Gash, John H.
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 4, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2068

Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration
journal, April 2013

  • Jasechko, Scott; Sharp, Zachary D.; Gibson, John J.
  • Nature, Vol. 496, Issue 7445
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature11983

Uncertainties in transpiration estimates
journal, February 2014

  • Coenders-Gerrits, A. M. J.; van der Ent, R. J.; Bogaard, T. A.
  • Nature, Vol. 506, Issue 7487
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12925

Improving evapotranspiration estimates in Mediterranean drylands: The role of soil evaporation: Evapotranspiration Estimation in Mediterranean Dry Lands
journal, October 2013

  • Morillas, Laura; Leuning, Ray; Villagarcía, Luis
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 49, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20468

Little change in global drought over the past 60 years
journal, November 2012

  • Sheffield, Justin; Wood, Eric F.; Roderick, Michael L.
  • Nature, Vol. 491, Issue 7424
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature11575

Global evaluation of four AVHRR–NDVI data sets: Intercomparison and assessment against Landsat imagery
journal, October 2011

  • Beck, Hylke E.; McVicar, Tim R.; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.
  • Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 115, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2011.05.012

Improvements to a MODIS global terrestrial evapotranspiration algorithm
journal, August 2011

  • Mu, Qiaozhen; Zhao, Maosheng; Running, Steven W.
  • Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 115, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2011.02.019

Transpiration in the global water cycle
journal, June 2014


Contrasting roles of interception and transpiration in the hydrological cycle – Part 1: Temporal characteristics over land
journal, January 2014

  • Wang-Erlandsson, L.; van der Ent, R. J.; Gordon, L. J.
  • Earth System Dynamics, Vol. 5, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/esd-5-441-2014

Ecosystem resilience despite large-scale altered hydroclimatic conditions
journal, January 2013

  • Ponce-Campos, Guillermo E.; Moran, M. Susan; Huete, Alfredo
  • Nature, Vol. 494, Issue 7437
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature11836

Re-greening Sahel: 30years of remote sensing data and field observations (Mali, Niger)
journal, January 2014


Impact of CO 2 fertilization on maximum foliage cover across the globe's warm, arid environments : CO
journal, June 2013

  • Donohue, Randall J.; Roderick, Michael L.; McVicar, Tim R.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/grl.50563

The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in China
journal, April 2009

  • Piao, Shilong; Fang, Jingyun; Ciais, Philippe
  • Nature, Vol. 458, Issue 7241
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature07944

Sustainable forest management: global trends and opportunities
journal, May 2005

  • Siry, Jacek P.; Cubbage, Frederick W.; Ahmed, Miyan Rukunuddin
  • Forest Policy and Economics, Vol. 7, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.forpol.2003.09.003

The grassland–forest continuum: trends in ecosystem properties for woody plant mosaics?
journal, March 2006


Ecohydrological consequences of drought- and infestation- triggered tree die-off: insights and hypotheses
journal, August 2011

  • Adams, Henry D.; Luce, Charles H.; Breshears, David D.
  • Ecohydrology, Vol. 5, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/eco.233

Robust twenty-first-century projections of El Niño and related precipitation variability
journal, October 2013

  • Power, Scott; Delage, François; Chung, Christine
  • Nature, Vol. 502, Issue 7472
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12580

Global ENSO-streamflow teleconnection, streamflow forecasting and interannual variability
journal, June 2002


Vegetation Greening and Climate Change Promote Multidecadal Rises of Global Land Evapotranspiration
journal, October 2015

  • Zhang, Ke; Kimball, John S.; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep15956

Disentangling climatic and anthropogenic controls on global terrestrial evapotranspiration trends
journal, September 2015


Diagnosing errors in a land surface model (CABLE) in the time and frequency domains
journal, January 2011

  • Wang, Ying Ping; Kowalczyk, Eva; Leuning, Ray
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, Issue G1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JG001385

A long-term Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) data-set for environmental studies
journal, December 2013


Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX): An overview of science strategy and major results from the second and third workshops
journal, March 2006


Response of mean annual evapotranspiration to vegetation changes at catchment scale
journal, March 2001

  • Zhang, L.; Dawes, W. R.; Walker, G. R.
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 37, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000WR900325

Multisensor historical climatology of satellite-derived global land surface moisture
journal, January 2008

  • Owe, Manfred; de Jeu, Richard; Holmes, Thomas
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, Issue F1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007JF000769

Trend-preserving blending of passive and active microwave soil moisture retrievals
journal, August 2012


Detection of hydrologic trends and variability
journal, January 2002


Evapotranspiration partitioning in semiarid shrubland ecosystems: a two-site evaluation of soil moisture control on transpiration
journal, August 2010

  • Cavanaugh, Michelle L.; Kurc, Shirley A.; Scott, Russell L.
  • Ecohydrology, Vol. 4, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/eco.157

Evaporation and transpiration from forests in Central Europe ? relevance of patch-level studies for spatial scaling
journal, February 2001


Determination of daily evaporation and evapotranspiration of winter wheat and maize by large-scale weighing lysimeter and micro-lysimeter
journal, April 2002


Evaporation, xylem sap flow, and tree transpiration in a New Zealand broad-leaved forest
journal, December 1992

  • Kelliher, F. M.; Köstner, B. M. M.; Hollinger, D. Y.
  • Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 62, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-1923(92)90005-o

Evapotranspiration components from energy balance, sapflow and microlysimetry techniques for an irrigated vineyard in inland Australia
journal, December 2004


The effect of rice straw mulch on evapotranspiration, transpiration and soil evaporation of irrigated wheat in Punjab, India
journal, October 2011


Crop coefficient and ratio of transpiration to evapotranspiration of winter wheat and maize in a semi-humid region
journal, April 2003


Flux partitioning between understorey and overstorey in a boreal spruce/pine forest determined by the eddy covariance method
journal, December 1999


Detecting rainfall interception in an Amazonian rain forest with eddy flux measurements
journal, October 2009


Ten-year evapotranspiration estimates in a Bornean tropical rainforest
journal, September 2011


Spatial variability of throughfall and stemflow measurements in Amazonian rainforest
journal, January 1988


Interception water-partitioning dynamics for a pristine rainforest in Central Amazonia: Marked differences between normal and dry years
journal, July 2007

  • Cuartas, Luz Adriana; Tomasella, Javier; Nobre, Antonio Donato
  • Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 145, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.04.008

Rainfall interception in the Tai Forest, Ivory Coast: Application of two simulation models to a humid tropical system
journal, May 1990


Rainfall interception in three contrasting lowland rain forest types in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
journal, July 2007


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Evapotranspiration partitioning in semiarid shrubland ecosystems: a two-site evaluation of soil moisture control on transpiration
    journal, August 2010

    • Cavanaugh, Michelle L.; Kurc, Shirley A.; Scott, Russell L.
    • Ecohydrology, Vol. 4, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1002/eco.157

    Ecohydrological consequences of drought- and infestation- triggered tree die-off: insights and hypotheses
    journal, August 2011

    • Adams, Henry D.; Luce, Charles H.; Breshears, David D.
    • Ecohydrology, Vol. 5, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1002/eco.233

    Impact of CO 2 fertilization on maximum foliage cover across the globe's warm, arid environments : CO
    journal, June 2013

    • Donohue, Randall J.; Roderick, Michael L.; McVicar, Tim R.
    • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1002/grl.50563

    Evapotranspiration is resilient in the face of land cover and climate change in a humid temperate catchment
    journal, February 2018

    • Hamilton, Stephen K.; Hussain, M. Z.; Lowrie, Christopher
    • Hydrological Processes, Vol. 32, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1002/hyp.11447

    Improving evapotranspiration estimates in Mediterranean drylands: The role of soil evaporation: Evapotranspiration Estimation in Mediterranean Dry Lands
    journal, October 2013

    • Morillas, Laura; Leuning, Ray; Villagarcía, Luis
    • Water Resources Research, Vol. 49, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20468

    Evaporation and transpiration from forests in Central Europe ? relevance of patch-level studies for spatial scaling
    journal, February 2001


    Characterizing uncertainties in the ESA-CCI land cover map of the epoch 2010 and their impacts on MPI-ESM climate simulations
    journal, November 2018

    • Georgievski, Goran; Hagemann, Stefan
    • Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 137, Issue 1-2
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00704-018-2675-2

    Rainfall interception in the Tai Forest, Ivory Coast: Application of two simulation models to a humid tropical system
    journal, May 1990


    Spatial variability of throughfall and stemflow measurements in Amazonian rainforest
    journal, January 1988


    Evaporation, xylem sap flow, and tree transpiration in a New Zealand broad-leaved forest
    journal, December 1992

    • Kelliher, F. M.; Köstner, B. M. M.; Hollinger, D. Y.
    • Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 62, Issue 1-2
    • DOI: 10.1016/0168-1923(92)90005-o

    Evapotranspiration components from energy balance, sapflow and microlysimetry techniques for an irrigated vineyard in inland Australia
    journal, December 2004


    Interception water-partitioning dynamics for a pristine rainforest in Central Amazonia: Marked differences between normal and dry years
    journal, July 2007

    • Cuartas, Luz Adriana; Tomasella, Javier; Nobre, Antonio Donato
    • Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 145, Issue 1-2
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.04.008

    Ten-year evapotranspiration estimates in a Bornean tropical rainforest
    journal, September 2011


    Transpiration in the global water cycle
    journal, June 2014


    The effect of rice straw mulch on evapotranspiration, transpiration and soil evaporation of irrigated wheat in Punjab, India
    journal, October 2011


    Sustainable forest management: global trends and opportunities
    journal, May 2005

    • Siry, Jacek P.; Cubbage, Frederick W.; Ahmed, Miyan Rukunuddin
    • Forest Policy and Economics, Vol. 7, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.forpol.2003.09.003

    Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX): An overview of science strategy and major results from the second and third workshops
    journal, March 2006


    Rainfall interception in three contrasting lowland rain forest types in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
    journal, July 2007


    Detecting rainfall interception in an Amazonian rain forest with eddy flux measurements
    journal, October 2009


    Improvements to a MODIS global terrestrial evapotranspiration algorithm
    journal, August 2011

    • Mu, Qiaozhen; Zhao, Maosheng; Running, Steven W.
    • Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 115, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2011.02.019

    Global evaluation of four AVHRR–NDVI data sets: Intercomparison and assessment against Landsat imagery
    journal, October 2011

    • Beck, Hylke E.; McVicar, Tim R.; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.
    • Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 115, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2011.05.012

    Trend-preserving blending of passive and active microwave soil moisture retrievals
    journal, August 2012


    Re-greening Sahel: 30years of remote sensing data and field observations (Mali, Niger)
    journal, January 2014


    Determination of daily evaporation and evapotranspiration of winter wheat and maize by large-scale weighing lysimeter and micro-lysimeter
    journal, April 2002


    Flux partitioning between understorey and overstorey in a boreal spruce/pine forest determined by the eddy covariance method
    journal, December 1999


    Crop coefficient and ratio of transpiration to evapotranspiration of winter wheat and maize in a semi-humid region
    journal, April 2003


    The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in China
    journal, April 2009

    • Piao, Shilong; Fang, Jingyun; Ciais, Philippe
    • Nature, Vol. 458, Issue 7241
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature07944

    Recent decline in the global land evapotranspiration trend due to limited moisture supply
    journal, October 2010

    • Jung, Martin; Reichstein, Markus; Ciais, Philippe
    • Nature, Vol. 467, Issue 7318
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature09396

    Little change in global drought over the past 60 years
    journal, November 2012

    • Sheffield, Justin; Wood, Eric F.; Roderick, Michael L.
    • Nature, Vol. 491, Issue 7424
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature11575

    Ecosystem resilience despite large-scale altered hydroclimatic conditions
    journal, January 2013

    • Ponce-Campos, Guillermo E.; Moran, M. Susan; Huete, Alfredo
    • Nature, Vol. 494, Issue 7437
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature11836

    Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration
    journal, April 2013

    • Jasechko, Scott; Sharp, Zachary D.; Gibson, John J.
    • Nature, Vol. 496, Issue 7445
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature11983

    Robust twenty-first-century projections of El Niño and related precipitation variability
    journal, October 2013

    • Power, Scott; Delage, François; Chung, Christine
    • Nature, Vol. 502, Issue 7472
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature12580

    Uncertainties in transpiration estimates
    journal, February 2014

    • Coenders-Gerrits, A. M. J.; van der Ent, R. J.; Bogaard, T. A.
    • Nature, Vol. 506, Issue 7487
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature12925

    Anthropogenic influence on multidecadal changes in reconstructed global evapotranspiration
    journal, July 2012

    • Douville, H.; Ribes, A.; Decharme, B.
    • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1632

    El Niño–La Niña cycle and recent trends in continental evaporation
    journal, December 2013

    • Miralles, Diego G.; van den Berg, Martinus J.; Gash, John H.
    • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 4, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2068

    Vegetation Greening and Climate Change Promote Multidecadal Rises of Global Land Evapotranspiration
    journal, October 2015

    • Zhang, Ke; Kimball, John S.; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.
    • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/srep15956

    Global ENSO-streamflow teleconnection, streamflow forecasting and interannual variability
    journal, June 2002


    A long-term Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) data-set for environmental studies
    journal, December 2013


    Disentangling climatic and anthropogenic controls on global terrestrial evapotranspiration trends
    journal, September 2015


    Global Hydrological Cycles and World Water Resources
    journal, August 2006


    The grassland–forest continuum: trends in ecosystem properties for woody plant mosaics?
    journal, March 2006


    Contrasting roles of interception and transpiration in the hydrological cycle – Part 1: Temporal characteristics over land
    journal, January 2014

    • Wang-Erlandsson, L.; van der Ent, R. J.; Gordon, L. J.
    • Earth System Dynamics, Vol. 5, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.5194/esd-5-441-2014

    GLEAM v3: satellite-based land evaporation and root-zone soil moisture
    journal, January 2017

    • Martens, Brecht; Miralles, Diego G.; Lievens, Hans
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 10, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-10-1903-2017

    Evaluating the patterns of spatiotemporal trends of root zone soil moisture in major climate regions in East Asia: Trend of Root Zone Soil Moisture
    journal, August 2017

    • Zohaib, Muhammad; Kim, Hyunglok; Choi, Minha
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 122, Issue 15
    • DOI: 10.1002/2016jd026379

    Regional Scale analysis of hydro-meteorological variables in Kesinga sub-catchment of Mahanadi Basin, India
    journal, July 2019

    • Agarwal, Pooja; Pal, Lalit; Alam, Mohd. Afaq
    • Environmental Earth Sciences, Vol. 78, Issue 15
    • DOI: 10.1007/s12665-019-8457-z

    Changes in Evapotranspiration Over Global Semiarid Regions 1984–2013
    journal, March 2019

    • Yang, Zesu; Zhang, Qiang; Hao, Xiaocui
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 124, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1029/2018jd029533

    Partitioning global land evapotranspiration using CMIP5 models constrained by observations
    journal, June 2018


    Spatiotemporal Variability of Actual Evapotranspiration and the Dominant Climatic Factors in the Pearl River Basin, China
    journal, June 2019


    Towards Estimating Land Evaporation at Field Scales Using GLEAM
    journal, October 2018

    • Martens, Brecht; de Jeu, Richard; Verhoest, Niko
    • Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.3390/rs10111720

    Advances in the Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Evaporation
    journal, May 2019

    • McCabe, Matthew F.; Miralles, Diego G.; Holmes, Thomas R. H.
    • Remote Sensing, Vol. 11, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.3390/rs11091138

    Evaluating the patterns of spatiotemporal trends of root zone soil moisture in major climate regions in East Asia: Trend of Root Zone Soil Moisture
    journal, August 2017

    • Zohaib, Muhammad; Kim, Hyunglok; Choi, Minha
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 122, Issue 15
    • DOI: 10.1002/2016jd026379

    Evapotranspiration is resilient in the face of land cover and climate change in a humid temperate catchment
    journal, February 2018

    • Hamilton, Stephen K.; Hussain, M. Z.; Lowrie, Christopher
    • Hydrological Processes, Vol. 32, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1002/hyp.11447

    Characterizing uncertainties in the ESA-CCI land cover map of the epoch 2010 and their impacts on MPI-ESM climate simulations
    journal, November 2018

    • Georgievski, Goran; Hagemann, Stefan
    • Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 137, Issue 1-2
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00704-018-2675-2

    Regional Scale analysis of hydro-meteorological variables in Kesinga sub-catchment of Mahanadi Basin, India
    journal, July 2019

    • Agarwal, Pooja; Pal, Lalit; Alam, Mohd. Afaq
    • Environmental Earth Sciences, Vol. 78, Issue 15
    • DOI: 10.1007/s12665-019-8457-z

    Partitioning global land evapotranspiration using CMIP5 models constrained by observations
    journal, June 2018


    Spatiotemporal Variability of Actual Evapotranspiration and the Dominant Climatic Factors in the Pearl River Basin, China
    journal, June 2019


    Towards Estimating Land Evaporation at Field Scales Using GLEAM
    journal, October 2018

    • Martens, Brecht; de Jeu, Richard; Verhoest, Niko
    • Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.3390/rs10111720

    Advances in the Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Evaporation
    journal, May 2019

    • McCabe, Matthew F.; Miralles, Diego G.; Holmes, Thomas R. H.
    • Remote Sensing, Vol. 11, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.3390/rs11091138

    GLEAM v3: satellite-based land evaporation and root-zone soil moisture
    journal, January 2017

    • Martens, Brecht; Miralles, Diego G.; Lievens, Hans
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 10, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-10-1903-2017