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Title: Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y+36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

A comparison study between Y+36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO 3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y+36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y+36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y+36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y+36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6more » ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. Furthermore, when the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [2]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  3. Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
SAND-2015-1052J; SAND-2014-17704J; SAND-2015-5159J
Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748; RSINAK; 566997
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Review of Scientific Instruments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 86; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Research Org:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Country of Publication:
United States
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; electric measurements; acoustical measurements; error analysis; transducers; velocity measurement; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1237666