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Title: Source and seed populations for relativistic electrons: Their roles in radiation belt changes

Abstract

Strong enhancements of outer Van Allen belt electrons have been shown to have a clear dependence on solar wind speed and on the duration of southward interplanetary magnetic field. However, individual case study analyses also have demonstrated that many geomagnetic storms produce little in the way of outer belt enhancements and, in fact, may produce substantial losses of relativistic electrons. In this study, focused upon a key period in August–September 2014, we use GOES geostationary orbit electron flux data and Van Allen Probes particle and fields data to study the process of radiation belt electron acceleration. One particular interval, 13–22 September, initiated by a short-lived geomagnetic storm and characterized by a long period of primarily northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), showed strong depletion of relativistic electrons (including an unprecedented observation of long-lasting depletion at geostationary orbit) while an immediately preceding, and another immediately subsequent, storm showed strong radiation belt enhancement. We demonstrate with these data that two distinct electron populations resulting from magnetospheric substorm activity are crucial elements in the ultimate acceleration of highly relativistic electrons in the outer belt: the source population (tens of keV) that give rise to VLF wave growth and the seed population (hundreds of keV)more » that are, in turn, accelerated through VLF wave interactions to much higher energies. ULF waves may also play a role by either inhibiting or enhancing this process through radial diffusion effects. Furthermore, if any components of the inner magnetospheric accelerator happen to be absent, the relativistic radiation belt enhancement fails to materialize.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [4];  [5];  [5];  [6];  [6];  [7];  [8]; ORCiD logo [9]
  1. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  2. NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center, Boulder, CO (United States)
  3. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Boulder, CO (United States)
  4. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)
  5. Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  6. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  7. Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)
  8. Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)
  9. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1236779
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-15-27789
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9380
Grant/Contract Number:  
967399; NAS501072; AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 120; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9380
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; relativistic electrons; VLF waves; ULF waves; substorms

Citation Formats

Jaynes, A. N., Baker, D. N., Singer, H. J., Rodriguez, J. V., Loto'aniu, T. M., Ali, A. F., Elkington, S. R., Li, X., Kanekal, S. G., Claudepierre, S. G., Fennell, J. F., Li, W., Thorne, R. M., Kletzing, C. A., Spence, H. E., and Reeves, G. D.. Source and seed populations for relativistic electrons: Their roles in radiation belt changes. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JA021234.
Jaynes, A. N., Baker, D. N., Singer, H. J., Rodriguez, J. V., Loto'aniu, T. M., Ali, A. F., Elkington, S. R., Li, X., Kanekal, S. G., Claudepierre, S. G., Fennell, J. F., Li, W., Thorne, R. M., Kletzing, C. A., Spence, H. E., & Reeves, G. D.. Source and seed populations for relativistic electrons: Their roles in radiation belt changes. United States. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JA021234
Jaynes, A. N., Baker, D. N., Singer, H. J., Rodriguez, J. V., Loto'aniu, T. M., Ali, A. F., Elkington, S. R., Li, X., Kanekal, S. G., Claudepierre, S. G., Fennell, J. F., Li, W., Thorne, R. M., Kletzing, C. A., Spence, H. E., and Reeves, G. D.. Wed . "Source and seed populations for relativistic electrons: Their roles in radiation belt changes". United States. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JA021234. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1236779.
@article{osti_1236779,
title = {Source and seed populations for relativistic electrons: Their roles in radiation belt changes},
author = {Jaynes, A. N. and Baker, D. N. and Singer, H. J. and Rodriguez, J. V. and Loto'aniu, T. M. and Ali, A. F. and Elkington, S. R. and Li, X. and Kanekal, S. G. and Claudepierre, S. G. and Fennell, J. F. and Li, W. and Thorne, R. M. and Kletzing, C. A. and Spence, H. E. and Reeves, G. D.},
abstractNote = {Strong enhancements of outer Van Allen belt electrons have been shown to have a clear dependence on solar wind speed and on the duration of southward interplanetary magnetic field. However, individual case study analyses also have demonstrated that many geomagnetic storms produce little in the way of outer belt enhancements and, in fact, may produce substantial losses of relativistic electrons. In this study, focused upon a key period in August–September 2014, we use GOES geostationary orbit electron flux data and Van Allen Probes particle and fields data to study the process of radiation belt electron acceleration. One particular interval, 13–22 September, initiated by a short-lived geomagnetic storm and characterized by a long period of primarily northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), showed strong depletion of relativistic electrons (including an unprecedented observation of long-lasting depletion at geostationary orbit) while an immediately preceding, and another immediately subsequent, storm showed strong radiation belt enhancement. We demonstrate with these data that two distinct electron populations resulting from magnetospheric substorm activity are crucial elements in the ultimate acceleration of highly relativistic electrons in the outer belt: the source population (tens of keV) that give rise to VLF wave growth and the seed population (hundreds of keV) that are, in turn, accelerated through VLF wave interactions to much higher energies. ULF waves may also play a role by either inhibiting or enhancing this process through radial diffusion effects. Furthermore, if any components of the inner magnetospheric accelerator happen to be absent, the relativistic radiation belt enhancement fails to materialize.},
doi = {10.1002/2015JA021234},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics},
number = 9,
volume = 120,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {9}
}

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    Impact of Significant Time‐Integrated Geomagnetic Activity on 2‐MeV Electron Flux
    journal, June 2019

    • Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A. V.; Zhang, X. ‐J.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 124, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1029/2019ja026659

    Characterization and Evolution of Radiation Belt Electron Energy Spectra Based on the Van Allen Probes Measurements
    journal, June 2019

    • Zhao, H.; Johnston, W. R.; Baker, D. N.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 124, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1029/2019ja026697

    Highly Relativistic Electron Flux Enhancement During the Weak Geomagnetic Storm of April–May 2017
    journal, June 2019

    • Katsavrias, Ch.; Sandberg, I.; Li, W.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 124, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1029/2019ja026743

    Variation of Radiation Belt Electron Flux During CME‐ and CIR‐Driven Geomagnetic Storms: Van Allen Probes Observations
    journal, August 2019

    • Pandya, Megha; Bhaskara, Veenadhari; Ebihara, Yusuke
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 124, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1029/2019ja026771

    Longitudinal Extent of Magnetospheric ELF/VLF Waves using Multipoint PWING Ground Stations at Subauroral Latitudes
    journal, December 2019

    • Takeshita, Yuhei; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Ozaki, Mitsunori
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 124, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1029/2019ja026810

    Comparison of Multiple and Logistic Regression Analyses of Relativistic Electron Flux Enhancement at Geosynchronous Orbit Following Storms
    journal, December 2019

    • Capman, N. S. S.; Simms, L. E.; Engebretson, M. J.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 124, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1029/2019ja027132

    Storm Time Depletions of Multi‐MeV Radiation Belt Electrons Observed at Different Pitch Angles
    journal, November 2019

    • Drozdov, A. Y.; Aseev, N.; Effenberger, F.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 124, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1029/2019ja027332

    How Sudden, Intense Energetic Electron Enhancements Correlate With the Innermost Plasmapause Locations Under Various Solar Wind Drivers and Geomagnetic Conditions
    journal, November 2019

    • Khoo, L. ‐Y.; Li, X.; Zhao, H.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 124, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1029/2019ja027412

    Adiabatic Invariants Calculations for Cluster Mission: A Long‐Term Product for Radiation Belts Studies
    journal, February 2020

    • Smirnov, Artem G.; Kronberg, Elena A.; Daly, Patrick W.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 125, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1029/2019ja027576

    From solar sneezing to killer electrons: outer radiation belt response to solar eruptions
    journal, May 2019

    • Daglis, Ioannis A.; Katsavrias, Christos; Georgiou, Marina
    • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 377, Issue 2148
    • DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2018.0097

    ERG observations of drift echoes during a unique period of the satellite mission
    journal, February 2019

    • Chang, Tzu-Fang; Cheng, Chio-Zong; Tam, Sunny Wing-Yee
    • Earth, Planets and Space, Vol. 71, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1186/s40623-019-0999-5

    On the Contribution of EMIC Waves to the Reconfiguration of the Relativistic Electron Butterfly Pitch Angle Distribution Shape on 2014 September 12—A Case Study
    journal, February 2019

    • Medeiros, Claudia; Souza, V. M.; Vieira, L. E. A.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 872, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaf970

    Evaluation of Plasma Properties From Chorus Waves Observed at the Generation Region
    journal, June 2019

    • Juhász, Lilla; Omura, Yoshiharu; Lichtenberger, János
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 124, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1029/2018ja026337

    Remote Sensing of Radiation Belt Energetic Electrons Using Lightning Triggered Upper Band Chorus
    conference, January 2019

    • Hosseini, Poorya; Golkowski, Mark; Harid, Vijay
    • 2019 United States National Committee of URSI National Radio Science Meeting (USNC-URSI NRSM)
    • DOI: 10.23919/usnc-ursi-nrsm.2019.8712989