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Title: Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

Abstract

Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of aerosol optical depths (AODs) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to heavily underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model's low bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ~2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AOD and extinction profiles averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from themore » longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to -0.7 K day−1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and cloudiness) are shown to respond differently between Case I and Case II, underlining the importance of determining the exact portion of scattering or absorbing aerosols that lead to the underestimation of aerosol optical depth in the model. In addition, the model results suggest that both the direct radiative effect and rapid thermodynamic responses need to be quantified for understanding aerosol radiative impacts.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; USDOE Office of Science - Office of Biological and Environmental Research - Atmospheric System Research
OSTI Identifier:
1236089
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1251307; OSTI ID: 1392455
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-109624
Journal ID: ISSN 1680-7324
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357; AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online) Journal Volume: 16 Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1680-7324
Publisher:
Copernicus Publications, EGU
Country of Publication:
Germany
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; aerosol; aerosol, radiative forcing, regional climate modeling; radiative forcing; regional climate modeling

Citation Formats

Feng, Y., Kotamarthi, V. R., Coulter, R., Zhao, C., and Cadeddu, M. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia. Germany: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.5194/acp-16-247-2016.
Feng, Y., Kotamarthi, V. R., Coulter, R., Zhao, C., & Cadeddu, M. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia. Germany. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-247-2016
Feng, Y., Kotamarthi, V. R., Coulter, R., Zhao, C., and Cadeddu, M. Mon . "Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia". Germany. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-247-2016.
@article{osti_1236089,
title = {Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia},
author = {Feng, Y. and Kotamarthi, V. R. and Coulter, R. and Zhao, C. and Cadeddu, M.},
abstractNote = {Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of aerosol optical depths (AODs) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to heavily underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model's low bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ~2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AOD and extinction profiles averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to -0.7 K day−1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and cloudiness) are shown to respond differently between Case I and Case II, underlining the importance of determining the exact portion of scattering or absorbing aerosols that lead to the underestimation of aerosol optical depth in the model. In addition, the model results suggest that both the direct radiative effect and rapid thermodynamic responses need to be quantified for understanding aerosol radiative impacts.},
doi = {10.5194/acp-16-247-2016},
journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 16,
place = {Germany},
year = {2016},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-247-2016

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