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Title: Full information acquisition in piezoresponse force microscopy

Abstract

The information flow from the tip-surface junction to the detector electronics during the piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) imaging is explored using the recently developed general mode (G-mode) detection. Information-theory analysis suggests that G-mode PFM in the non-switching regime, close to the first resonance mode, contains a relatively small (100 - 150) number of components containing significant information. The first two primary components are similar to classical PFM images, suggesting that classical lock-in detection schemes provide high veracity information in this case. At the same time, a number of transient components exhibit contrast associated with surface topography, suggesting pathway to separate the two. The number of significant components increases considerably in the non-linear and switching regimes and approaching to cantilever resonances, precluding the use of classical lock-in detection and necessitating the use of band excitation or G-mode detection schemes. As a result, the future prospects of full information imaging in SPM are discussed.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1235834
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1234028
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 107; Journal Issue: 26; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; piezoresponse force microscopy; scanning probe microscopy; big data; principal component analysis; atomic force microscopy; eigenvalues; normal modes; multivariate analysis

Citation Formats

Somnath, Suhas, Belianinov, Alex, Jesse, Stephen, and Kalinin, Sergei V. Full information acquisition in piezoresponse force microscopy. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4938482.
Somnath, Suhas, Belianinov, Alex, Jesse, Stephen, & Kalinin, Sergei V. Full information acquisition in piezoresponse force microscopy. United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4938482
Somnath, Suhas, Belianinov, Alex, Jesse, Stephen, and Kalinin, Sergei V. Mon . "Full information acquisition in piezoresponse force microscopy". United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4938482. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1235834.
@article{osti_1235834,
title = {Full information acquisition in piezoresponse force microscopy},
author = {Somnath, Suhas and Belianinov, Alex and Jesse, Stephen and Kalinin, Sergei V.},
abstractNote = {The information flow from the tip-surface junction to the detector electronics during the piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) imaging is explored using the recently developed general mode (G-mode) detection. Information-theory analysis suggests that G-mode PFM in the non-switching regime, close to the first resonance mode, contains a relatively small (100 - 150) number of components containing significant information. The first two primary components are similar to classical PFM images, suggesting that classical lock-in detection schemes provide high veracity information in this case. At the same time, a number of transient components exhibit contrast associated with surface topography, suggesting pathway to separate the two. The number of significant components increases considerably in the non-linear and switching regimes and approaching to cantilever resonances, precluding the use of classical lock-in detection and necessitating the use of band excitation or G-mode detection schemes. As a result, the future prospects of full information imaging in SPM are discussed.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4938482},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 26,
volume = 107,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {12}
}

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