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Title: Sea spray aerosol as a unique source of ice nucleating particles

Abstract

Ice nucleating particles (INPs) are vital for ice initiation in, and precipitation from, mixed-phase clouds. A source of INPs from oceans within sea spray aerosol (SSA) emissions has been suggested in previous studies but remained unconfirmed. Here, we show that INPs are emitted using real wave breaking in a laboratory flume to produce SSA. The number concentrations of INPs from laboratory-generated SSA, when normalized to typical total aerosol number concentrations in the marine boundary layer, agree well with measurements from diverse regions over the oceans. Data in the present study are also in accord with previously published INP measurements made over remote ocean regions. INP number concentrations active within liquid water droplets increase exponentially in number with a decrease in temperature below 0 °C, averaging an order of magnitude increase per 5 °C interval. The plausibility of a strong increase in SSA INP emissions in association with phytoplankton blooms is also shown in laboratory simulations. Nevertheless, INP number concentrations, or active site densities approximated using “dry” geometric SSA surface areas, are a few orders of magnitude lower than corresponding concentrations or site densities in the surface boundary layer over continental regions. These findings have important implications for cloud radiative forcingmore » and precipitation within low-level and midlevel marine clouds unaffected by continental INP sources, such as may occur over the Southern Ocean.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER)
OSTI Identifier:
1235507
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1336082
Report Number(s):
BNL-112477-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424; /pnas/113/21/5797.atom
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC00112704
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Journal Volume: 113 Journal Issue: 21; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; marine aerosols; ice nucleation; clouds

Citation Formats

DeMott, Paul J., Hill, Thomas C. J., McCluskey, Christina S., Prather, Kimberly A., Collins, Douglas B., Sullivan, Ryan C., Ruppel, Matthew J., Mason, Ryan H., Irish, Victoria E., Lee, Taehyoung, Hwang, Chung Yeon, Rhee, Tae Siek, Snider, Jefferson R., McMeeking, Gavin R., Dhaniyala, Suresh, Lewis, Ernie R., Wentzell, Jeremy J. B., Abbatt, Jonathan, Lee, Christopher, Sultana, Camille M., Ault, Andrew P., Axson, Jessica L., Diaz Martinez, Myrelis, Venero, Ingrid, Santos-Figueroa, Gilmarie, Stokes, M. Dale, Deane, Grant B., Mayol-Bracero, Olga L., Grassian, Vicki H., Bertram, Timothy H., Bertram, Allan K., Moffett, Bruce F., and Franc, Gary D. Sea spray aerosol as a unique source of ice nucleating particles. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1514034112.
DeMott, Paul J., Hill, Thomas C. J., McCluskey, Christina S., Prather, Kimberly A., Collins, Douglas B., Sullivan, Ryan C., Ruppel, Matthew J., Mason, Ryan H., Irish, Victoria E., Lee, Taehyoung, Hwang, Chung Yeon, Rhee, Tae Siek, Snider, Jefferson R., McMeeking, Gavin R., Dhaniyala, Suresh, Lewis, Ernie R., Wentzell, Jeremy J. B., Abbatt, Jonathan, Lee, Christopher, Sultana, Camille M., Ault, Andrew P., Axson, Jessica L., Diaz Martinez, Myrelis, Venero, Ingrid, Santos-Figueroa, Gilmarie, Stokes, M. Dale, Deane, Grant B., Mayol-Bracero, Olga L., Grassian, Vicki H., Bertram, Timothy H., Bertram, Allan K., Moffett, Bruce F., & Franc, Gary D. Sea spray aerosol as a unique source of ice nucleating particles. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1514034112.
DeMott, Paul J., Hill, Thomas C. J., McCluskey, Christina S., Prather, Kimberly A., Collins, Douglas B., Sullivan, Ryan C., Ruppel, Matthew J., Mason, Ryan H., Irish, Victoria E., Lee, Taehyoung, Hwang, Chung Yeon, Rhee, Tae Siek, Snider, Jefferson R., McMeeking, Gavin R., Dhaniyala, Suresh, Lewis, Ernie R., Wentzell, Jeremy J. B., Abbatt, Jonathan, Lee, Christopher, Sultana, Camille M., Ault, Andrew P., Axson, Jessica L., Diaz Martinez, Myrelis, Venero, Ingrid, Santos-Figueroa, Gilmarie, Stokes, M. Dale, Deane, Grant B., Mayol-Bracero, Olga L., Grassian, Vicki H., Bertram, Timothy H., Bertram, Allan K., Moffett, Bruce F., and Franc, Gary D. Tue . "Sea spray aerosol as a unique source of ice nucleating particles". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1514034112.
@article{osti_1235507,
title = {Sea spray aerosol as a unique source of ice nucleating particles},
author = {DeMott, Paul J. and Hill, Thomas C. J. and McCluskey, Christina S. and Prather, Kimberly A. and Collins, Douglas B. and Sullivan, Ryan C. and Ruppel, Matthew J. and Mason, Ryan H. and Irish, Victoria E. and Lee, Taehyoung and Hwang, Chung Yeon and Rhee, Tae Siek and Snider, Jefferson R. and McMeeking, Gavin R. and Dhaniyala, Suresh and Lewis, Ernie R. and Wentzell, Jeremy J. B. and Abbatt, Jonathan and Lee, Christopher and Sultana, Camille M. and Ault, Andrew P. and Axson, Jessica L. and Diaz Martinez, Myrelis and Venero, Ingrid and Santos-Figueroa, Gilmarie and Stokes, M. Dale and Deane, Grant B. and Mayol-Bracero, Olga L. and Grassian, Vicki H. and Bertram, Timothy H. and Bertram, Allan K. and Moffett, Bruce F. and Franc, Gary D.},
abstractNote = {Ice nucleating particles (INPs) are vital for ice initiation in, and precipitation from, mixed-phase clouds. A source of INPs from oceans within sea spray aerosol (SSA) emissions has been suggested in previous studies but remained unconfirmed. Here, we show that INPs are emitted using real wave breaking in a laboratory flume to produce SSA. The number concentrations of INPs from laboratory-generated SSA, when normalized to typical total aerosol number concentrations in the marine boundary layer, agree well with measurements from diverse regions over the oceans. Data in the present study are also in accord with previously published INP measurements made over remote ocean regions. INP number concentrations active within liquid water droplets increase exponentially in number with a decrease in temperature below 0 °C, averaging an order of magnitude increase per 5 °C interval. The plausibility of a strong increase in SSA INP emissions in association with phytoplankton blooms is also shown in laboratory simulations. Nevertheless, INP number concentrations, or active site densities approximated using “dry” geometric SSA surface areas, are a few orders of magnitude lower than corresponding concentrations or site densities in the surface boundary layer over continental regions. These findings have important implications for cloud radiative forcing and precipitation within low-level and midlevel marine clouds unaffected by continental INP sources, such as may occur over the Southern Ocean.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1514034112},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 21,
volume = 113,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1514034112

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