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Title: Holographic Patterning of High Performance on-chip 3D Lithium-ion Microbatteries

As sensors, wireless communication devices, personal health monitoring systems, and autonomous microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) become distributed and smaller, there is an increasing demand for miniaturized integrated power sources. Although thin-film batteries are well-suited for on-chip integration, their energy and power per unit area are limited. Three-dimensional electrode designs have potential to offer much greater power and energy per unit area; however, efforts to date to realize 3D microbatteries have led to prototypes with solid electrodes (and therefore low power) or mesostructured electrodes not compatible with manufacturing or on-chip integration. Here in this paper, we demonstrate an on-chip compatible method to fabricate high energy density (6.5 μWh cm-2∙μm-1) 3D mesostructured Li-ion microbatteries based on LiMnO2 cathodes, and NiSn anodes that possess supercapacitor-like power (3,600 μW cm(-2)∙μm(-1) peak). The mesostructured electrodes are fabricated by combining 3D holographic lithography with conventional photolithography, enabling deterministic control of both the internal electrode mesostructure and the spatial distribution of the electrodes on the substrate. The resultant full cells exhibit impressive performances, for example a conventional light-emitting diode (LED) is driven with a 500-μA peak current (600-C discharge) from a 10-μm-thick microbattery with an area of 4 mm2 for 200 cycles with only 12% capacity fade. Lastly,more » a combined experimental and modeling study where the structural parameters of the battery are modulated illustrates the unique design flexibility enabled by 3D holographic lithography and provides guidance for optimization for a given application.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [3]
  1. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  2. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Science and Engineering
  3. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Science and Engineering
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0001293; FG02-07ER46471
Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 112; Journal Issue: 21; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)
Research Org:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC). Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion (LMI)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Contributing Orgs:
LMI partners with California Institute of Technology (lead); Harvard University; University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; solar (photovoltaic); solid state lighting; phonons; thermal conductivity, electrodes - solar; synthesis (self-assembly); synthesis (novel materials); optics; materials and chemistry by design; energy storage; interference lithography; lithium-ion batteries; microelectronics; miniature batteries
OSTI Identifier:
1235169
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1210625