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Title: Opacity and conductivity measurements in noble gases at conditions of planetary and stellar interiors

Abstract

The noble gases are elements of broad importance across science and technology, and are primary constituents of planetary and stellar atmospheres, where they segregate into droplets or layers that affect the thermal, chemical, and structural evolution of their host body. We have measured the optical properties of noble gases at relevant high pressures and temperatures in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell, observing insulator-to-conductor transformations in dense helium, neon, argon, and xenon at 4,000 to 15,000 K and pressures of 15-52 GPa. The thermal activation and frequency-dependence of conduction reveal an optical character dominated by electrons of low mobility, as in an amorphous semiconductor or poor metal, rather than free electrons as is often assumed for such wide band gap insulators at high temperatures. White dwarf stars having helium outer atmospheres cool slower and may have different color than if atmospheric opacity were controlled by free-electrons. As a result, helium rain in Jupiter and Saturn becomes conducting at conditions well correlated with increased solubility in metallic hydrogen, while a deep layer of insulating neon may inhibit core erosion in Saturn.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Univ. de Los Andes, Bogota DC (Columbia); Howard Univ., Washington, D.C. (United States)
  2. Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Argonne, IL (United States)
  3. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron Photon Science, Hamburg (Germany)
  4. Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Argonne, IL (United States); Howard Univ., Washington, D.C. (United States)
  5. Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Argonne, IL (United States); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C. (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1235152
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1335154
Grant/Contract Number:  
NA0002006; FC52-08NA28554; EFREE; Instrumentation grant
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 112; Journal Issue: 26; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; rare gases; extreme conditions; warm dense matter; giant planet; white dwarf

Citation Formats

McWilliams, R. Stewart, Dalton, D. Allen, Konopkova, Zuzana, Mahmood, Mohammad F., and Goncharov, Alexander F. Opacity and conductivity measurements in noble gases at conditions of planetary and stellar interiors. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1421801112.
McWilliams, R. Stewart, Dalton, D. Allen, Konopkova, Zuzana, Mahmood, Mohammad F., & Goncharov, Alexander F. Opacity and conductivity measurements in noble gases at conditions of planetary and stellar interiors. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1421801112.
McWilliams, R. Stewart, Dalton, D. Allen, Konopkova, Zuzana, Mahmood, Mohammad F., and Goncharov, Alexander F. Tue . "Opacity and conductivity measurements in noble gases at conditions of planetary and stellar interiors". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1421801112.
@article{osti_1235152,
title = {Opacity and conductivity measurements in noble gases at conditions of planetary and stellar interiors},
author = {McWilliams, R. Stewart and Dalton, D. Allen and Konopkova, Zuzana and Mahmood, Mohammad F. and Goncharov, Alexander F.},
abstractNote = {The noble gases are elements of broad importance across science and technology, and are primary constituents of planetary and stellar atmospheres, where they segregate into droplets or layers that affect the thermal, chemical, and structural evolution of their host body. We have measured the optical properties of noble gases at relevant high pressures and temperatures in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell, observing insulator-to-conductor transformations in dense helium, neon, argon, and xenon at 4,000 to 15,000 K and pressures of 15-52 GPa. The thermal activation and frequency-dependence of conduction reveal an optical character dominated by electrons of low mobility, as in an amorphous semiconductor or poor metal, rather than free electrons as is often assumed for such wide band gap insulators at high temperatures. White dwarf stars having helium outer atmospheres cool slower and may have different color than if atmospheric opacity were controlled by free-electrons. As a result, helium rain in Jupiter and Saturn becomes conducting at conditions well correlated with increased solubility in metallic hydrogen, while a deep layer of insulating neon may inhibit core erosion in Saturn.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1421801112},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 26,
volume = 112,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1421801112

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 14 works
Citation information provided by
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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Metallization and molecular dissociation of dense fluid nitrogen
    journal, July 2018