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Title: Eight new Milky Way companions discovered in first-year Dark Energy Survey data

Abstract

We report the discovery of eight new Milky Way companions in $$\sim 1800\;{\mathrm{deg}}^{2}$$ of optical imaging data collected during the first year of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Each system is identified as a statistically significant over-density of individual stars consistent with the expected isochrone and luminosity function of an old and metal-poor stellar population. The objects span a wide range of absolute magnitudes (MV from $-2.2$ to $$-7.4\;\mathrm{mag}$$), physical sizes ($$10-170\;\mathrm{pc}$$), and heliocentric distances ($$30-330\;\mathrm{kpc}$$). Based on the low surface brightnesses, large physical sizes, and/or large Galactocentric distances of these objects, several are likely to be new ultra-faint satellite galaxies of the Milky Way and/or Magellanic Clouds. We introduce a likelihood-based algorithm to search for and characterize stellar over-densities, as well as identify stars with high satellite membership probabilities. As a result, we also present completeness estimates for detecting ultra-faint galaxies of varying luminosities, sizes, and heliocentric distances in the first-year DES data.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States). et al.
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP)
Contributing Org.:
DES Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1234887
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-15-047-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357; arXiv eprint number arXiv:1503.02584
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 807; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Bechtol, K. Eight new Milky Way companions discovered in first-year Dark Energy Survey data. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/807/1/50.
Bechtol, K. Eight new Milky Way companions discovered in first-year Dark Energy Survey data. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/807/1/50
Bechtol, K. Tue . "Eight new Milky Way companions discovered in first-year Dark Energy Survey data". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/807/1/50. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1234887.
@article{osti_1234887,
title = {Eight new Milky Way companions discovered in first-year Dark Energy Survey data},
author = {Bechtol, K.},
abstractNote = {We report the discovery of eight new Milky Way companions in $\sim 1800\;{\mathrm{deg}}^{2}$ of optical imaging data collected during the first year of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Each system is identified as a statistically significant over-density of individual stars consistent with the expected isochrone and luminosity function of an old and metal-poor stellar population. The objects span a wide range of absolute magnitudes (MV from $-2.2$ to $-7.4\;\mathrm{mag}$), physical sizes ($10-170\;\mathrm{pc}$), and heliocentric distances ($30-330\;\mathrm{kpc}$). Based on the low surface brightnesses, large physical sizes, and/or large Galactocentric distances of these objects, several are likely to be new ultra-faint satellite galaxies of the Milky Way and/or Magellanic Clouds. We introduce a likelihood-based algorithm to search for and characterize stellar over-densities, as well as identify stars with high satellite membership probabilities. As a result, we also present completeness estimates for detecting ultra-faint galaxies of varying luminosities, sizes, and heliocentric distances in the first-year DES data.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/807/1/50},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 807,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {6}
}

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    Improved constraints from ultra-faint dwarf galaxies on primordial black holes as dark matter
    journal, January 2020

    • Stegmann, Jakob; Capelo, Pedro R.; Bortolas, Elisa
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 492, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/staa170

    Taking care of business in a flash : constraining the time-scale for low-mass satellite quenching with ELVIS
    journal, October 2015

    • Fillingham, Sean P.; Cooper, Michael C.; Wheeler, Coral
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 454, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv2058

    Ultra-light dark matter in ultra-faint dwarf galaxies
    journal, May 2016

    • Calabrese, Erminia; Spergel, David N.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 460, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1256

    Dark matter annihilation and decay from non-spherical dark halos in galactic dwarf satellites
    journal, June 2016

    • Hayashi, Kohei; Ichikawa, Koji; Matsumoto, Shigeki
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 461, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1457

    Substructure and galaxy formation in the Copernicus Complexio warm dark matter simulations
    journal, October 2016

    • Bose, Sownak; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Frenk, Carlos S.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 464, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw2686

    VDES J2325−5229 a z = 2.7 gravitationally lensed quasar discovered using morphology-independent supervised machine learning
    journal, November 2016

    • Ostrovski, Fernanda; McMahon, Richard G.; Connolly, Andrew J.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 465, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw2958

    The contribution of dissolving star clusters to the population of ultra faint objects in the outer halo of the Milky Way
    journal, December 2016

    • Contenta, Filippo; Gieles, Mark; Balbinot, Eduardo
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 466, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw3178

    The Pristine survey – I. Mining the Galaxy for the most metal-poor stars
    journal, May 2017

    • Starkenburg, Else; Martin, Nicolas; Youakim, Kris
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 471, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx1068

    On the run: mapping the escape speed across the Galaxy with SDSS
    journal, March 2017

    • Williams, Angus A.; Belokurov, Vasily; Casey, Andrew R.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 468, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx508

    Snake in the Clouds: a new nearby dwarf galaxy in the Magellanic bridge*
    journal, July 2018

    • Koposov, Sergey E.; Walker, Matthew G.; Belokurov, Vasily
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 479, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1772

    Photometric study of the SMCNOD using variable stars from the OGLE-IV survey
    journal, July 2018

    • Prudil, Z.; Grebel, E. K.; Dékány, I.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 480, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1885

    Pristine dwarf galaxy survey – I. A detailed photometric and spectroscopic study of the very metal-poor Draco II satellite
    journal, July 2018

    • Longeard, Nicolas; Martin, Nicolas; Starkenburg, Else
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 480, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1986

    Stellar streams around the Magellanic Clouds in 4D
    journal, December 2018

    • Navarrete, C.; Belokurov, V.; Catelan, M.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 483, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty3347

    The suppression of star formation on the smallest scales: what role does environment play?
    journal, December 2018

    • Rodriguez Wimberly, M. K.; Cooper, M. C.; Fillingham, S. P.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 483, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty3357

    The multiplicity and anisotropy of galactic satellite accretion
    journal, February 2018

    • Shao, Shi; Cautun, Marius; Frenk, Carlos S.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 476, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty343

    Probing dark matter with star clusters: a dark matter core in the ultra-faint dwarf Eridanus II
    journal, February 2018

    • Contenta, Filippo; Balbinot, Eduardo; Petts, James A.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 476, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty424

    Environmental quenching of low-mass field galaxies
    journal, April 2018

    • Fillingham, Sean P.; Cooper, Michael C.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 477, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty958

    Nine tiny star clusters in Gaia DR1, PS1, and DES
    journal, January 2019

    • Torrealba, G.; Belokurov, V.; Koposov, S. E.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 484, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz071

    Robust velocity dispersion and binary population modelling of the ultrafaint dwarf galaxy Reticulum II
    journal, June 2019

    • Minor, Quinn E.; Pace, Andrew B.; Marshall, Jennifer L.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 487, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1468

    The haloes and environments of nearby galaxies (HERON) – I. Imaging, sample characteristics, and envelope diameters
    journal, August 2019

    • Rich, R. Michael; Mosenkov, Aleksandr; Lee-Saunders, Henry
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 490, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz2106

    Dark and luminous satellites of LMC-mass galaxies in the FIRE simulations
    journal, September 2019

    • Jahn, Ethan D.; Sales, Laura V.; Wetzel, Andrew
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 489, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz2457

    The southern stellar stream spectroscopic survey (S5): Overview, target selection, data reduction, validation, and early science
    journal, October 2019

    • Li, T. S.; Koposov, S. E.; Zucker, D. B.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 490, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz2731

    The velocity anisotropy of the Milky Way satellite system
    journal, April 2019

    • Riley, Alexander H.; Fattahi, Azadeh; Pace, Andrew B.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 486, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz973

    Simple J-factors and D-factors for indirect dark matter detection
    journal, May 2016


    Indirect dark matter detection for flattened dwarf galaxies
    journal, September 2016


    Looking for axion dark matter in dwarf spheroidal galaxies
    journal, October 2018


    DETAILED CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES IN THE r -PROCESS-RICH ULTRA-FAINT DWARF GALAXY RETICULUM 2
    journal, February 2016


    Magellan/M2fs Spectroscopy of Tucana 2 and grus 1
    journal, February 2016

    • Walker, Matthew G.; Mateo, Mario; Olszewski, Edward W.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 819, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/0004-637x/819/1/53

    Overview of the DESI Legacy Imaging Surveys
    journal, April 2019

    • Dey, Arjun; Schlegel, David J.; Lang, Dustin
    • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 157, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/ab089d

    SEARCHING FOR DARK MATTER ANNIHILATION IN RECENTLY DISCOVERED MILKY WAY SATELLITES WITH FERMI -LAT
    journal, January 2017


    Nearest Neighbor: The Low-mass Milky Way Satellite Tucana III
    journal, March 2017


    Farthest Neighbor: The Distant Milky Way Satellite Eridanus II
    journal, March 2017


    An r -process Enhanced Star in the Dwarf Galaxy Tucana III
    journal, March 2017

    • Hansen, T. T.; Simon, J. D.; Marshall, J. L.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 838, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa634a

    The Universality of the Rapid Neutron-capture Process Revealed by a Possible Disrupted Dwarf Galaxy Star
    journal, November 2017


    Determination of Dark Matter Halo Mass from Dynamics of Satellite Galaxies
    journal, November 2017

    • Li, Zhao-Zhou; Jing, Y. P.; Qian, Yong-Zhong
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 850, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa94c0

    On the Nature of Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy Candidates. I. DES1, Eridanus III, and Tucana V
    journal, January 2018

    • Conn, Blair C.; Jerjen, Helmut; Kim, Dongwon
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 852, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa9eda

    Chemical Abundances of New Member Stars in the Tucana II Dwarf Galaxy
    journal, April 2018

    • Chiti, Anirudh; Frebel, Anna; Ji, Alexander P.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 857, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aab4fc

    On the Nature of Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy Candidates. II. The Case of Cetus II
    journal, April 2018

    • Conn, Blair C.; Jerjen, Helmut; Kim, Dongwon
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 857, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aab61c

    RR Lyrae Variables in the Crater II Dwarf Galaxy
    journal, June 2018

    • Joo, Seok-Joo; Kyeong, Jaemann; Yang, Soung-Chul
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 861, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aac4a3

    The Imprint of Cosmic Reionization on the Luminosity Function of Galaxies
    journal, August 2018

    • Bose, Sownak; Deason, Alis J.; Frenk, Carlos S.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 863, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aacbc4

    A Deeper Look at the New Milky Way Satellites: Sagittarius II, Reticulum II, Phoenix II, and Tucana III
    journal, August 2018

    • Mutlu-Pakdil, Burçin; Sand, David J.; Carlin, Jeffrey L.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 863, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aacd0e

    Stellar Streams Discovered in the Dark Energy Survey
    journal, July 2018


    Gaia Proper Motions and Orbits of the Ultra-faint Milky Way Satellites
    journal, August 2018


    The First Tidally Disrupted Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy?: A Spectroscopic Analysis of the Tucana III Stream
    journal, October 2018


    The Missing Satellites of the Magellanic Clouds? Gaia Proper Motions of the Recently Discovered Ultra-faint Galaxies
    journal, October 2018

    • Kallivayalil, Nitya; Sales, Laura V.; Zivick, Paul
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 867, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aadfee

    Chemical Abundances in the Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxies Grus I and Triangulum II: Neutron-capture Elements as a Defining Feature of the Faintest Dwarfs
    journal, January 2019

    • Ji, Alexander P.; Simon, Joshua D.; Frebel, Anna
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 870, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaf3bb

    Exploring the Very Extended Low-surface-brightness Stellar Populations of the Large Magellanic Cloud with SMASH
    journal, March 2019


    r -process Enrichment of the Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxies by Fast-merging Double-neutron Stars
    journal, February 2019

    • Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Andrews, Jeff. J.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 872, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aafe0e

    Dancing in the Dark: Uncertainty in Ultrafaint Dwarf Galaxy Predictions from Cosmological Simulations
    journal, March 2019

    • Munshi, Ferah; Brooks, Alyson M.; Christensen, Charlotte
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 874, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab0085

    Modeling the Connection between Subhalos and Satellites in Milky Way–like Systems
    journal, March 2019

    • Nadler, Ethan O.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Green, Gregory M.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 873, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab040e

    Proper Motions of Milky Way Ultra-faint Satellites with Gaia DR2 × DES DR1
    journal, April 2019


    A Faint Halo Star Cluster Discovered in the Blanco Imaging of the Southern Sky Survey
    journal, April 2019


    Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Detection of Intracluster Light at Redshift ∼ 0.25
    journal, April 2019


    Detailed Abundances in the Ultra-faint Magellanic Satellites Carina II and III
    journal, January 2020


    Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: The Photometric Data Set for Cosmology
    journal, April 2018

    • Drlica-Wagner, A.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Rykoff, E. S.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 235, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/aab4f5

    Deep Imaging of Eridanus ii and its lone star Cluster
    journal, June 2016


    Constraints on Macho dark Matter from Compact Stellar Systems in Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxies
    journal, June 2016


    Are some Milky way Globular Clusters Hosted by Undiscovered Galaxies?
    journal, July 2016

    • Zaritsky, Dennis; Crnojević, Denija; Sand, David J.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 826, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8205/826/1/l9

    ESTIMATING THE GeV EMISSION OF MILLISECOND PULSARS IN DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES
    journal, November 2016

    • Winter, Miles; Zaharijas, Gabrijela; Bechtol, Keith
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 832, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8205/832/1/l6

    Constraints on Dark Matter Microphysics from the Milky Way Satellite Population
    journal, June 2019

    • Nadler, Ethan O.; Gluscevic, Vera; Boddy, Kimberly K.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 878, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab1eb2

    Phase-space Correlation in Stellar Streams of the Milky Way Halo: The Clash of Kshir and GD-1
    journal, November 2019

    • Malhan, Khyati; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Carlberg, Raymond G.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 886, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab530e