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Title: Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion: A review

Abstract

In this study, the direct-drive, laser-based approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is reviewed from its inception following the demonstration of the first laser to its implementation on the present generation of high-power lasers. The review focuses on the evolution of scientific understanding gained from target-physics experiments in many areas, identifying problems that were demonstrated and the solutions implemented. The review starts with the basic understanding of laser–plasma interactions that was obtained before the declassification of laser-induced compression in the early 1970s and continues with the compression experiments using infrared lasers in the late 1970s that produced thermonuclear neutrons. The problem of suprathermal electrons and the target preheat that they caused, associated with the infrared laser wavelength, led to lasers being built after 1980 to operate at shorter wavelengths, especially 0.35 um—the third harmonic of the Nd:glass laser—and 0.248 um (the KrF gas laser). The main physics areas relevant to direct drive are reviewed. The primary absorption mechanism at short wavelengths is classical inverse bremsstrahlung. Nonuniformities imprinted on the target by laser irradiation have been addressed by the development of a number of beam-smoothing techniques and imprint-mitigation strategies. The effects of hydrodynamic instabilities are mitigated by a combination of imprintmore » reduction and target designs that minimize the instability growth rates. Several coronal plasma physics processes are reviewed. The two-plasmon–decay instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (together with cross-beam energy transfer), and (possibly) stimulated Raman scattering are identified as potential concerns, placing constraints on the laser intensities used in target designs, while other processes (self-focusing and filamentation, the parametric decay instability, and magnetic fields), once considered important, are now of lesser concern for mainline direct-drive target concepts. Filamentation is largely suppressed by beam smoothing. Thermal transport modeling, important to the interpretation of experiments and to target design, has been found to be non-local in nature. Advances in shock timing and equation-of-state measurements relevant to direct-drive ICF are reported. Room-temperature implosions have provided an increased understanding of the importance of stability and uniformity. The evolution of cryogenic implosion capabilities, leading to an extensive series carried out on the 60-beam OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)], is reviewed together with major advances in cryogenic target formation. A polar-drive concept has been developed that will enable direct-drive–ignition experiments to be performed on the National Ignition Facility [C. A. Haynam et al., Appl. Opt. 46 (16), 3276 (2007)]. The advantages offered by the alternative approaches of fast ignition and shock ignition and the issues associated with these concepts are described. The lessons learned from target-physics and implosion experiments are taken into account in ignition and high-gain target designs for laser wavelengths of 1/3 μm and 1/4 μm. Substantial advances in direct-drive inertial fusion reactor concepts are reviewed. Overall, the progress in scientific understanding over the past five decades has been enormous, to the point that inertial fusion energy using direct drive shows significant promise as a future environmentally attractive energy source.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [1];  [1];  [1] more »;  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1] « less
  1. Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)
  2. Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States)
  3. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  4. Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1227898
Grant/Contract Number:  
NA0001944
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physics of Plasmas
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 22; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Craxton, R. S., Anderson, K. S., Boehly, T. R., Goncharov, V. N., Harding, D. R., Knauer, J. P., McCrory, R. L., McKenty, P. W., Meyerhofer, D. D., Myatt, J. F., Schmitt, A. J., Sethian, J. D., Short, R. W., Skupsky, S., Theobald, W., Kruer, W. L., Tanaka, K., Betti, R., Collins, T. J. B., Delettrez, J. A., Hu, S. X., Marozas, J. A., Maximov, A. V., Michel, D. T., Radha, P. B., Regan, S. P., Sangster, T. C., Seka, W., Solodov, A. A., Soures, J. M., Stoeckl, C., and Zuegel, J. D. Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion: A review. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4934714.
Craxton, R. S., Anderson, K. S., Boehly, T. R., Goncharov, V. N., Harding, D. R., Knauer, J. P., McCrory, R. L., McKenty, P. W., Meyerhofer, D. D., Myatt, J. F., Schmitt, A. J., Sethian, J. D., Short, R. W., Skupsky, S., Theobald, W., Kruer, W. L., Tanaka, K., Betti, R., Collins, T. J. B., Delettrez, J. A., Hu, S. X., Marozas, J. A., Maximov, A. V., Michel, D. T., Radha, P. B., Regan, S. P., Sangster, T. C., Seka, W., Solodov, A. A., Soures, J. M., Stoeckl, C., & Zuegel, J. D. Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion: A review. United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4934714
Craxton, R. S., Anderson, K. S., Boehly, T. R., Goncharov, V. N., Harding, D. R., Knauer, J. P., McCrory, R. L., McKenty, P. W., Meyerhofer, D. D., Myatt, J. F., Schmitt, A. J., Sethian, J. D., Short, R. W., Skupsky, S., Theobald, W., Kruer, W. L., Tanaka, K., Betti, R., Collins, T. J. B., Delettrez, J. A., Hu, S. X., Marozas, J. A., Maximov, A. V., Michel, D. T., Radha, P. B., Regan, S. P., Sangster, T. C., Seka, W., Solodov, A. A., Soures, J. M., Stoeckl, C., and Zuegel, J. D. Wed . "Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion: A review". United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4934714. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1227898.
@article{osti_1227898,
title = {Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion: A review},
author = {Craxton, R. S. and Anderson, K. S. and Boehly, T. R. and Goncharov, V. N. and Harding, D. R. and Knauer, J. P. and McCrory, R. L. and McKenty, P. W. and Meyerhofer, D. D. and Myatt, J. F. and Schmitt, A. J. and Sethian, J. D. and Short, R. W. and Skupsky, S. and Theobald, W. and Kruer, W. L. and Tanaka, K. and Betti, R. and Collins, T. J. B. and Delettrez, J. A. and Hu, S. X. and Marozas, J. A. and Maximov, A. V. and Michel, D. T. and Radha, P. B. and Regan, S. P. and Sangster, T. C. and Seka, W. and Solodov, A. A. and Soures, J. M. and Stoeckl, C. and Zuegel, J. D.},
abstractNote = {In this study, the direct-drive, laser-based approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is reviewed from its inception following the demonstration of the first laser to its implementation on the present generation of high-power lasers. The review focuses on the evolution of scientific understanding gained from target-physics experiments in many areas, identifying problems that were demonstrated and the solutions implemented. The review starts with the basic understanding of laser–plasma interactions that was obtained before the declassification of laser-induced compression in the early 1970s and continues with the compression experiments using infrared lasers in the late 1970s that produced thermonuclear neutrons. The problem of suprathermal electrons and the target preheat that they caused, associated with the infrared laser wavelength, led to lasers being built after 1980 to operate at shorter wavelengths, especially 0.35 um—the third harmonic of the Nd:glass laser—and 0.248 um (the KrF gas laser). The main physics areas relevant to direct drive are reviewed. The primary absorption mechanism at short wavelengths is classical inverse bremsstrahlung. Nonuniformities imprinted on the target by laser irradiation have been addressed by the development of a number of beam-smoothing techniques and imprint-mitigation strategies. The effects of hydrodynamic instabilities are mitigated by a combination of imprint reduction and target designs that minimize the instability growth rates. Several coronal plasma physics processes are reviewed. The two-plasmon–decay instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (together with cross-beam energy transfer), and (possibly) stimulated Raman scattering are identified as potential concerns, placing constraints on the laser intensities used in target designs, while other processes (self-focusing and filamentation, the parametric decay instability, and magnetic fields), once considered important, are now of lesser concern for mainline direct-drive target concepts. Filamentation is largely suppressed by beam smoothing. Thermal transport modeling, important to the interpretation of experiments and to target design, has been found to be non-local in nature. Advances in shock timing and equation-of-state measurements relevant to direct-drive ICF are reported. Room-temperature implosions have provided an increased understanding of the importance of stability and uniformity. The evolution of cryogenic implosion capabilities, leading to an extensive series carried out on the 60-beam OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)], is reviewed together with major advances in cryogenic target formation. A polar-drive concept has been developed that will enable direct-drive–ignition experiments to be performed on the National Ignition Facility [C. A. Haynam et al., Appl. Opt. 46 (16), 3276 (2007)]. The advantages offered by the alternative approaches of fast ignition and shock ignition and the issues associated with these concepts are described. The lessons learned from target-physics and implosion experiments are taken into account in ignition and high-gain target designs for laser wavelengths of 1/3 μm and 1/4 μm. Substantial advances in direct-drive inertial fusion reactor concepts are reviewed. Overall, the progress in scientific understanding over the past five decades has been enormous, to the point that inertial fusion energy using direct drive shows significant promise as a future environmentally attractive energy source.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4934714},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 11,
volume = 22,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {11}
}

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Validation of Thermal-Transport Modeling with Direct-Drive, Planar-Foil Acceleration Experiments on OMEGA
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Propagation of a Rippled Shock Wave Driven by Nonuniform Laser Ablation
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Time-Dependent Channel Formation in a Laser-Produced Plasma
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Modeling stimulated Brillouin scattering in the underdense corona of a direct drive inertial confinement fusion target
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Petawatt-laser direct heating of uniformly imploded deuterated-polystyrene shell target
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Parametrically Excited Plasma Fluctuations
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Laser-Driven Plasma Loader for Shockless Compression and Acceleration of Samples in the Solid State
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High-Areal-Density Fuel Assembly in Direct-Drive Cryogenic Implosions
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Fast ignition of fusion targets by laser-driven electrons
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Polar direct drive: Proof-of-principle experiments on OMEGA and prospects for ignition on the National Ignition Facility
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Studies of Spontaneous Magnetic Fields in Laser-Produced Plasmas by Faraday Rotation
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Erratum: Laser-driven single shock compression of fluid deuterium from 45 to 220 GPa [Phys. Rev. B 79 , 014112 (2009)]
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Use of X-Ray Preheated Foam Layers to Reduce Beam Structure Imprint in Laser-Driven Targets
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Experimental Validation of the Two-Plasmon-Decay Common-Wave Process
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Developing the basis for target injection and tracking in inertial fusion energy power plants
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Optical spatial smoothing of Nd-Glass laser beam
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Ab initio calculations of the equation of state of hydrogen in a regime relevant for inertial fusion applications
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Laser fusion target illumination system
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Spectral Investigation of Light Reflected from a Laser‐Produced Deuterium Plasma
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Economic Modeling and Parametric Studies for SOMBRERO – A Laser-Driven IFE Power Plant
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Effects of Fuel-Shell Mix upon Direct-Drive, Spherical Implosions on OMEGA
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A cost-effective target supply for inertial fusion energy
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Diamond at 800 GPa
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Thermophysical properties of warm dense hydrogen using quantum molecular dynamics simulations
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Investigation of a polychromatic tomography method for the extraction of the three-dimensional spatial structure of implosion core plasmas
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A source of hot spots in frequency-tripled laser light
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Hole Boring in a DT Pellet and Fast-Ion Ignition with Ultraintense Laser Pulses
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Observation of Severe Heat-Flux Limitation and Ion-Acoustic Turbulence in a Laser-Heated Plasma
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Two-dimensional relativistic simulations of resonance absorption
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Considerations and Requirements for Providing Cryogenic Targets for Direct-Drive Inertial Fusion Implosions at the National Ignition Facility
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Plasma-Density Determination from X-Ray Radiography of Laser-Driven Spherical Implosions
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Stability of a planar flame front in the slow-combustion regime
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Space-Time Implosion Characteristics of Laser-Irradiated Fusion Targets
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Laser fusion experiments, facilities, and diagnostics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
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Kinetic-theory description of electron heat transfer in a plasma
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Shock ignition of direct-drive double-shell targets
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Magnetorheological finishing for imprinting continuous-phase plate structures onto optical surfaces
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SIRIUS-T, an Advanced Tritium Production Facility Utilizing Symmetrically Illuminated Inertial Confinement Fusion
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Dependence of spontaneous magnetic fields in laser produced plasmas on target size and structure
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Propagation and smoothing of nonuniform thermal fronts
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Characterization of direct-drive-implosion core conditions on OMEGA with time-resolved Ar K -shell spectroscopy
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Laser-Driven Implosion of Spherical DT Targets to Thermonuclear Burn Conditions.
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A polar-drive shock-ignition design for the National Ignition Facility
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Stimulated Raman Scattering from uv-Laser-Produced Plasmas
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Enhancement of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering due to Reflection of Light from Plasma Critical Surface
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Parametric Coupling Between Electron-Plasma and Ion-Acoustic Oscillations
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Imprint reduction using an intensity spike in OMEGA cryogenic targets
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Re-examination of strongly flux limited thermal conduction in laser produced plasmas
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Laser-Hole Boring into Overdense Plasmas Measured with Soft X-Ray Laser Probing
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CO2 laser-driven high-density implosion experiments
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Spatially Resolved Suprathermal X-Ray Emission from Laser-Fusion Targets
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Nonlinear Inverse Bremsstrahlung and Heated-Electron Distributions
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Observation and Simulation of Effects on Parylene Disks Irradiated at High Intensities with a 1.06-μm Laser
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Laser Absorption and Heat Transport by Non-Maxwell-Boltzmann Electron Distributions
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Symmetric Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions at Ultra-High Laser Energies
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Sub-100 psec x-ray gating cameras for ICF imaging applications
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High-gain direct-drive target design for laser fusion
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Performance comparison of self-focusing with 1053- and 351-nm laser pulses
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Symmetry of Spherically Converging Shock Waves through Reflection, Relating to the Shock Ignition Fusion Energy Scheme
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Radiation-Induced Instability of Electron Plasma Oscillations
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Observation of Self-Similarity in the Magnetic Fields Generated by the Ablative Nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor Instability
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Theory of Hot-Electron Spectra at High Laser Intensity
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Characteristics of lateral and axial transport in laser irradiations of layered-disk targets at 1.06 and 0.35 μm wavelengths
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Density-functional calculations of the liquid deuterium Hugoniot, reshock, and reverberation timing
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Random Phasing of High-Power Lasers for Uniform Target Acceleration and Plasma-Instability Suppression
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Vortex shedding due to laser ablation
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Shock-Wave Exploration of the High-Pressure Phases of Carbon
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Observation of magnetic fields in laser-produced plasma using the Zeeman effect
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Shock-tuned cryogenic-deuterium-tritium implosion performance on Omega
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Refractive index of lithium fluoride ramp compressed to 800 GPa
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Hydrodynamics studies of direct-drive cone-in-shell, fast-ignitor targets on OMEGA
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Self‐consistent model of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability in ablatively accelerated laser plasma
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Laser-Driven Compression of Glass Microspheres
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Advanced-ignition-concept exploration on OMEGA
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Physics and technology conditions for attaining tritium self-sufficiency for the DT fuel cycle
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