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Title: Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion: A review

Abstract

In this study, the direct-drive, laser-based approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is reviewed from its inception following the demonstration of the first laser to its implementation on the present generation of high-power lasers. The review focuses on the evolution of scientific understanding gained from target-physics experiments in many areas, identifying problems that were demonstrated and the solutions implemented. The review starts with the basic understanding of laser–plasma interactions that was obtained before the declassification of laser-induced compression in the early 1970s and continues with the compression experiments using infrared lasers in the late 1970s that produced thermonuclear neutrons. The problem of suprathermal electrons and the target preheat that they caused, associated with the infrared laser wavelength, led to lasers being built after 1980 to operate at shorter wavelengths, especially 0.35 um—the third harmonic of the Nd:glass laser—and 0.248 um (the KrF gas laser). The main physics areas relevant to direct drive are reviewed. The primary absorption mechanism at short wavelengths is classical inverse bremsstrahlung. Nonuniformities imprinted on the target by laser irradiation have been addressed by the development of a number of beam-smoothing techniques and imprint-mitigation strategies. The effects of hydrodynamic instabilities are mitigated by a combination of imprintmore » reduction and target designs that minimize the instability growth rates. Several coronal plasma physics processes are reviewed. The two-plasmon–decay instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (together with cross-beam energy transfer), and (possibly) stimulated Raman scattering are identified as potential concerns, placing constraints on the laser intensities used in target designs, while other processes (self-focusing and filamentation, the parametric decay instability, and magnetic fields), once considered important, are now of lesser concern for mainline direct-drive target concepts. Filamentation is largely suppressed by beam smoothing. Thermal transport modeling, important to the interpretation of experiments and to target design, has been found to be non-local in nature. Advances in shock timing and equation-of-state measurements relevant to direct-drive ICF are reported. Room-temperature implosions have provided an increased understanding of the importance of stability and uniformity. The evolution of cryogenic implosion capabilities, leading to an extensive series carried out on the 60-beam OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)], is reviewed together with major advances in cryogenic target formation. A polar-drive concept has been developed that will enable direct-drive–ignition experiments to be performed on the National Ignition Facility [C. A. Haynam et al., Appl. Opt. 46 (16), 3276 (2007)]. The advantages offered by the alternative approaches of fast ignition and shock ignition and the issues associated with these concepts are described. The lessons learned from target-physics and implosion experiments are taken into account in ignition and high-gain target designs for laser wavelengths of 1/3 μm and 1/4 μm. Substantial advances in direct-drive inertial fusion reactor concepts are reviewed. Overall, the progress in scientific understanding over the past five decades has been enormous, to the point that inertial fusion energy using direct drive shows significant promise as a future environmentally attractive energy source.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [1];  [1];  [1] more »;  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1] « less
  1. Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)
  2. Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States)
  3. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  4. Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1227898
Grant/Contract Number:  
NA0001944
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physics of Plasmas
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 22; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Craxton, R. S., Anderson, K. S., Boehly, T. R., Goncharov, V. N., Harding, D. R., Knauer, J. P., McCrory, R. L., McKenty, P. W., Meyerhofer, D. D., Myatt, J. F., Schmitt, A. J., Sethian, J. D., Short, R. W., Skupsky, S., Theobald, W., Kruer, W. L., Tanaka, K., Betti, R., Collins, T. J. B., Delettrez, J. A., Hu, S. X., Marozas, J. A., Maximov, A. V., Michel, D. T., Radha, P. B., Regan, S. P., Sangster, T. C., Seka, W., Solodov, A. A., Soures, J. M., Stoeckl, C., and Zuegel, J. D. Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion: A review. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4934714.
Craxton, R. S., Anderson, K. S., Boehly, T. R., Goncharov, V. N., Harding, D. R., Knauer, J. P., McCrory, R. L., McKenty, P. W., Meyerhofer, D. D., Myatt, J. F., Schmitt, A. J., Sethian, J. D., Short, R. W., Skupsky, S., Theobald, W., Kruer, W. L., Tanaka, K., Betti, R., Collins, T. J. B., Delettrez, J. A., Hu, S. X., Marozas, J. A., Maximov, A. V., Michel, D. T., Radha, P. B., Regan, S. P., Sangster, T. C., Seka, W., Solodov, A. A., Soures, J. M., Stoeckl, C., & Zuegel, J. D. Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion: A review. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4934714.
Craxton, R. S., Anderson, K. S., Boehly, T. R., Goncharov, V. N., Harding, D. R., Knauer, J. P., McCrory, R. L., McKenty, P. W., Meyerhofer, D. D., Myatt, J. F., Schmitt, A. J., Sethian, J. D., Short, R. W., Skupsky, S., Theobald, W., Kruer, W. L., Tanaka, K., Betti, R., Collins, T. J. B., Delettrez, J. A., Hu, S. X., Marozas, J. A., Maximov, A. V., Michel, D. T., Radha, P. B., Regan, S. P., Sangster, T. C., Seka, W., Solodov, A. A., Soures, J. M., Stoeckl, C., and Zuegel, J. D. Wed . "Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion: A review". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4934714. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1227898.
@article{osti_1227898,
title = {Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion: A review},
author = {Craxton, R. S. and Anderson, K. S. and Boehly, T. R. and Goncharov, V. N. and Harding, D. R. and Knauer, J. P. and McCrory, R. L. and McKenty, P. W. and Meyerhofer, D. D. and Myatt, J. F. and Schmitt, A. J. and Sethian, J. D. and Short, R. W. and Skupsky, S. and Theobald, W. and Kruer, W. L. and Tanaka, K. and Betti, R. and Collins, T. J. B. and Delettrez, J. A. and Hu, S. X. and Marozas, J. A. and Maximov, A. V. and Michel, D. T. and Radha, P. B. and Regan, S. P. and Sangster, T. C. and Seka, W. and Solodov, A. A. and Soures, J. M. and Stoeckl, C. and Zuegel, J. D.},
abstractNote = {In this study, the direct-drive, laser-based approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is reviewed from its inception following the demonstration of the first laser to its implementation on the present generation of high-power lasers. The review focuses on the evolution of scientific understanding gained from target-physics experiments in many areas, identifying problems that were demonstrated and the solutions implemented. The review starts with the basic understanding of laser–plasma interactions that was obtained before the declassification of laser-induced compression in the early 1970s and continues with the compression experiments using infrared lasers in the late 1970s that produced thermonuclear neutrons. The problem of suprathermal electrons and the target preheat that they caused, associated with the infrared laser wavelength, led to lasers being built after 1980 to operate at shorter wavelengths, especially 0.35 um—the third harmonic of the Nd:glass laser—and 0.248 um (the KrF gas laser). The main physics areas relevant to direct drive are reviewed. The primary absorption mechanism at short wavelengths is classical inverse bremsstrahlung. Nonuniformities imprinted on the target by laser irradiation have been addressed by the development of a number of beam-smoothing techniques and imprint-mitigation strategies. The effects of hydrodynamic instabilities are mitigated by a combination of imprint reduction and target designs that minimize the instability growth rates. Several coronal plasma physics processes are reviewed. The two-plasmon–decay instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (together with cross-beam energy transfer), and (possibly) stimulated Raman scattering are identified as potential concerns, placing constraints on the laser intensities used in target designs, while other processes (self-focusing and filamentation, the parametric decay instability, and magnetic fields), once considered important, are now of lesser concern for mainline direct-drive target concepts. Filamentation is largely suppressed by beam smoothing. Thermal transport modeling, important to the interpretation of experiments and to target design, has been found to be non-local in nature. Advances in shock timing and equation-of-state measurements relevant to direct-drive ICF are reported. Room-temperature implosions have provided an increased understanding of the importance of stability and uniformity. The evolution of cryogenic implosion capabilities, leading to an extensive series carried out on the 60-beam OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)], is reviewed together with major advances in cryogenic target formation. A polar-drive concept has been developed that will enable direct-drive–ignition experiments to be performed on the National Ignition Facility [C. A. Haynam et al., Appl. Opt. 46 (16), 3276 (2007)]. The advantages offered by the alternative approaches of fast ignition and shock ignition and the issues associated with these concepts are described. The lessons learned from target-physics and implosion experiments are taken into account in ignition and high-gain target designs for laser wavelengths of 1/3 μm and 1/4 μm. Substantial advances in direct-drive inertial fusion reactor concepts are reviewed. Overall, the progress in scientific understanding over the past five decades has been enormous, to the point that inertial fusion energy using direct drive shows significant promise as a future environmentally attractive energy source.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4934714},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 11,
volume = 22,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {11}
}

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Instabilities of ablation fronts in inertial confinement fusion: A comparison with flames
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Effects of Fuel-Shell Mix upon Direct-Drive, Spherical Implosions on OMEGA
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Triple-picket warm plastic-shell implosions on OMEGA
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Evolution of Shell Nonuniformities near Peak Compression of a Spherical Implosion
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Hydrodynamic growth of shell modulations in the deceleration phase of spherical direct-drive implosions
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Fourier-space image processing for spherical experiments on OMEGA (invited)
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Investigation of a polychromatic tomography method for the extraction of the three-dimensional spatial structure of implosion core plasmas
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Using secondary-proton spectra to study the compression and symmetry of deuterium-filled capsules at OMEGA
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Role of Hot-Electron Preheating in the Compression of Direct-Drive Imploding Targets with Cryogenic D 2 Ablators
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Cryogenic-target performance and implosion physics studies on OMEGA
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A neutron spectrometer for precise measurements of DT neutrons from 10 to 18 MeV at OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility
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The effects of target mounts in direct-drive implosions on OMEGA
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Improving cryogenic deuterium–tritium implosion performance on OMEGA
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Onset of Hydrodynamic Mix in High-Velocity, Highly Compressed Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions
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Polar-drive designs for optimizing neutron yields on the National Ignition Facility
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Polar direct drive on the National Ignition Facility
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Direct drive double shell target implosion hydrodynamics on OMEGA
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Plasma-Density Determination from X-Ray Radiography of Laser-Driven Spherical Implosions
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Asymmetric directly driven capsule implosions: Modeling and experiments—A requirement for the National Ignition Facility
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Three‐dimensional simulations of Nova high growth factor capsule implosion experiments
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Polar direct drive – Ignition at 1 MJ
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An initial assessment of three-dimensional polar direct drive capsule asymmetries for implosions at the National Ignition Facility
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Self-consistent Analytical Model of the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in Inertial Confinement Fusion
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Observation of Rayleigh-Taylor-like Structures in a Laser-Accelerated Foil
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Measurement of a Dispersion Curve for Linear-Regime Rayleigh-Taylor Growth Rates in Laser-Driven Planar Targets
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Rayleigh-Taylor Growth Stabilization in Direct-Drive Plastic Targets at Laser Intensities of 1 × 10 15 W / cm 2
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Study of Rayleigh–Taylor growth in laser irradiated planar SiO 2 targets at ignition-relevant conditions
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Reduction of Raman Scattering in a Plasma to Convective Levels Using Induced Spatial Incoherence
journal, February 1989


Suppression of Instabilities in a Long-Scalelength Preformed Plasma
journal, September 1989


Nonlinear laser–matter interaction processes in long‐scale‐length plasmas
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Experimental studies of stimulated Raman scattering in reactor‐size, laser‐produced plasmas
journal, June 1991

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Filamentation and trapping of electromagnetic radiation in plasmas
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Thermal Self-Focusing of Electromagnetic Waves in Plasmas
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Kinetic theory of laser filamentation in plasmas
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Direct Evidence of Ponderomotive Filamentation in a Laser-Produced Plasma
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Initial development of ponderomotive filaments in plasma from intense hot spots produced by a random phase plate
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Self-Trapping of Optical Beams.
journal, June 1965


Two‐dimensional ray‐trace calculations of thermal whole beam self‐focusing
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Numerical simulation of filamentation in laser-plasma interactions
journal, May 1986


The effects of optical smoothing techniques on filamentation in laser plasmas
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Numerical simulations of induced spatial incoherence laser light self‐focusing
journal, December 1989

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Three‐dimensional filamentation of light in laser plasmas
journal, January 1991

  • Schmitt, Andrew J.
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Theory and three‐dimensional simulation of light filamentation in laser‐produced plasma
journal, July 1993

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Time-dependent filamentation and stimulated Brillouin forward scattering in inertial confinement fusion plasmas
journal, February 1998

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On the dominant and subdominant behavior of stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering driven by nonuniform laser beams
journal, December 1998

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SBS reflectivity from spatially smoothed laser beams: Random phase plates versus polarization smoothing
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Measurements of electron density evolution and beam self-focusing in a laser-produced plasma
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Fine-Scale Structures in Plasmas Stimulated by a C O 2 Laser
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Direct observation of laser beam filamentation in an underdense plasma
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Optical probe observations of nonuniformities in laser-produced plasmas
journal, September 1981

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Filamentation on laser irradiated spherical targets
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Evidence of localized heating in CO2‐laser‐produced plasmas
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Filamentation of an annular laser beam in a short wavelength laser produced plasma
journal, August 1985


Evidence from X-Ray, 3 2 ω 0 , and 2 ω 0 Emission for Laser Filamentation in a Plasma
journal, February 1981


Unusual Structures Observed in X-ray Emission from Laser-Irradiated Targets
journal, November 1981


Evidence in the second-harmonic emission for self-focusing of a laser pulse in a plasma
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Evidence for beam self-focusing in the corona of laser-irradiated spherical targets
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Experimental study of filamentation in laser–plasma interactions
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Direct observations of filamentation and self-focusing in a large underdense plasma
journal, October 1989


Experimental Observations of Thermal Whole Beam Self-Focusing
journal, October 1990


Study of instabilities in long scale‐length plasmas with and without laser‐beam‐smoothing techniques
journal, June 1990

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Evidence of stimulated Raman scattering occurring in laser filaments in long‐scale‐length plasmas
journal, May 1992

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Radiation-Induced Instability of Electron Plasma Oscillations
journal, April 1965


Parametric plasmon-photon interaction
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Parametric Coupling Between Electron-Plasma and Ion-Acoustic Oscillations
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Parametrically Excited Plasma Fluctuations
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Parametric Excitation of Coupled Waves. II. Parametric Plasmon-Photon Interaction
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Anomalous High-Frequency Resistivity and Heating of a Plasma
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Parametric Effects of an Alternating Field on Inhomogeneous Plasmas
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Anomalous High-Frequency Resistivity of a Plasma
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Electron Heating due to S -Polarized Microwave (Laser) Driven Parametric Instabilities
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Investigations of the Angular Distribution of Parametrically Driven Ion Acoustic Waves
journal, May 1986


Investigation of ion-acoustic-decay-instability thresholds in laser-plasma interactions
journal, July 1990


Direct Measurements of the Ion Acoustic Decay Instability in a Laser-Produced, Large-Scale, Hot Plasma
journal, November 1994


Spontaneous Magnetic Fields in Laser-Produced Plasmas
journal, April 1971


Cosmic Radiation and Cosmic Magnetic Fields. II. Origin of Cosmic Magnetic Fields
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Magnetic-field generation in laser fusion and hot-electron transport
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Review on spontaneous magnetic fields in laser-produced plasmas: Phenomena and measurements
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Faraday-Rotation Measurements of Megagauss Magnetic Fields in Laser-Produced Plasmas
journal, January 1975


Megagauss Magnetic Field Profiles in Laser-Produced Plasmas
journal, October 1978


Studies of Spontaneous Magnetic Fields in Laser-Produced Plasmas by Faraday Rotation
journal, May 1978


Dependence of spontaneous magnetic fields in laser produced plasmas on target size and structure
journal, October 1979

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Megagauss magnetic fields on laser irradiated spherical targets
journal, April 1981


Observation of magnetic fields in laser-produced plasma using the Zeeman effect
journal, January 1984

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Experimental Evidence for Self-Generated Magnetic Fields and Remote Energy Deposition in Laser-Irradiated Targets
journal, December 1982


Magnetic-Field-Induced Surface Transport on Laser-Irradiated Foils
journal, June 1982


Magnetic Field Generation by the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability
journal, December 1978


First Measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor-Induced Magnetic Fields in Laser-Produced Plasmas
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Rayleigh-Taylor-induced magnetic fields in laser-irradiated plastic foils
journal, August 2012

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Magnetic Field Generation by the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in Laser-Driven Planar Plastic Targets
journal, September 2012


Observation of Self-Similarity in the Magnetic Fields Generated by the Ablative Nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor Instability
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Transport Phenomena in a Completely Ionized Gas
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Dynamical Properties of Stellar Coronas and Stellar Winds. II. Integration of the Heat-Flow Equation.
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Application of the Theory of Heat Conduction to the Absorption of Blackbody Radiation
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The applicability of Fourier's theory of heat conduction on laser produced plasmas
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Thermal electron transport in direct-drive laser fusion
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Occurrence of high-energy electrons and surface expansion in laser-heated target plasmas
journal, January 1973


Thermal conduction limitations in laser fusion
journal, June 1973


Instabilities associated with heat conduction in the solar wind and their consequences
journal, January 1970


Anomalous electron transport equations for ion sound and related turbulent spectra
journal, January 1978


Indications of Strongly Flux-Limited Electron Thermal Conduction in Laser-Target Experiments
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Re-examination of strongly flux limited thermal conduction in laser produced plasmas
journal, January 1979

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Observation of Severe Heat-Flux Limitation and Ion-Acoustic Turbulence in a Laser-Heated Plasma
journal, November 1977


Measurement of Thermal Conductivity in a Laser-Heated Plasma
journal, August 1975


Elecron Energy Transport in Steep Temperature Gradients in Laser-Produced Plasmas
journal, January 1981


Self-Consistent Reduction of the Spitzer-Härm Electron Thermal Heat Flux in Steep Temperature Gradients in Laser-Produced Plasmas
journal, July 1981


Thermal heat flux in a plasma for arbitrary collisionality
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Kinetic-theory description of electron heat transfer in a plasma
journal, January 1981

  • Shirazian, Mohammad H.
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Electron Heat Transport down Steep Temperature Gradients
journal, December 1982


Laser Absorption and Heat Transport by Non-Maxwell-Boltzmann Electron Distributions
journal, June 1983


Electron Heat Flow with Inverse Bremsstrahlung and Ion Motion
journal, October 1984


Nonlocal Heat Transport Due to Steep Temperature Gradients
journal, October 1983


Electron energy transport in ion waves and its relevance to laser-produced plasmas
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Quasistatic heat front and delocalized heat flux
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Evidence for large heat fluxes from the mass ablation rate of laser-irradiated spherical targets
journal, January 1982


Analysis of plasma density profiles and thermal transport in laser-irradiated spherical targets
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Kinetic simulations of laser filamentation in plasmas
journal, November 1991

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Kinetic effects of electron thermal conduction on implosion hydrodynamics
journal, February 1992

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Study of flux limiter using Fokker–Planck and fluid simulations of planar laser-driven ablation
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A Model for Collision Processes in Gases. I. Small Amplitude Processes in Charged and Neutral One-Component Systems
journal, May 1954


Validation of Thermal-Transport Modeling with Direct-Drive, Planar-Foil Acceleration Experiments on OMEGA
journal, July 2008


A nonlocal electron conduction model for multidimensional radiation hydrodynamics codes
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Time-Dependent Electron Thermal Flux Inhibition in Direct-Drive Laser Implosions
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Comparison for non-local hydrodynamic thermal conduction models
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The development of a Krook model for nonlocal transport in laser produced plasmas. I. Basic theory
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Krook model for nonthermal electron energy transport. III. Spherical configurations
journal, June 2009

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Spontaneously Growing Transverse Waves in a Plasma Due to an Anisotropic Velocity Distribution
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Return current instability in laser heated plasmas
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Ion-acoustic turbulence and anomalous transport
journal, July 1988


Nonlinear Inverse Bremsstrahlung and Heated-Electron Distributions
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2D Fokker-Planck simulations of short-pulse laser-plasma interactions
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Accurate measurement of laser-driven shock trajectories with velocity interferometry
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Shock timing technique for the National Ignition Facility
journal, May 2001

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Line-imaging velocimeter for shock diagnostics at the OMEGA laser facility
journal, November 2004

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Streaked optical pyrometer system for laser-driven shock-wave experiments on OMEGA
journal, March 2007

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Laser interferometer for measuring high velocities of any reflecting surface
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Optically recording interferometer for velocity measurements with subnanosecond resolution
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Demonstration of the shock-timing technique for ignition targets on the National Ignition Facility
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Velocity and Timing of Multiple Spherically Converging Shock Waves in Liquid Deuterium
journal, May 2011


Multiple spherically converging shock waves in liquid deuterium
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Shock timing experiments on the National Ignition Facility: Initial results and comparison with simulation
journal, April 2012

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Measurement of High-Pressure Shock Waves in Cryogenic Deuterium-Tritium Ice Layered Capsule Implosions on NIF
journal, August 2013


Early time implosion symmetry from two-axis shock-timing measurements on indirect drive NIF experiments
journal, September 2014

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Equation of state and phase diagram of dense hydrogen
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A new quotidian equation of state (QEOS) for hot dense matter
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Molecular-dynamics modeling of the Hugoniot of shocked liquid deuterium
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Quantum molecular dynamics simulations of hot, dense hydrogen
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Density-functional calculation of the Hugoniot of shocked liquid deuterium
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Dynamical and optical properties of warm dense hydrogen
journal, April 2001


Ab initio study of deuterium in the dissociating regime: Sound speed and transport properties
journal, November 2001


Ab initio simulations of dense liquid deuterium: Comparison with gas-gun shock-wave experiments
journal, January 2004


Thermophysical properties of warm dense hydrogen using quantum molecular dynamics simulations
journal, May 2008


Density-functional calculations of the liquid deuterium Hugoniot, reshock, and reverberation timing
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Molecular Dissociation in Hot, Dense Hydrogen
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Characterization of the State of Hydrogen at High Temperature and Density
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Monte Carlo results for the hydrogen Hugoniot
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Calculation of the Shock Hugoniot of Deuterium at Pressures above 1 Mbar by the Path-Integral Monte Carlo Method
journal, January 2005


Multiphase equation of state of hydrogen from ab initio calculations in the range 0.2 to 5 g/cc up to 10 eV
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Ab initio calculations of the equation of state of hydrogen in a regime relevant for inertial fusion applications
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First-principles equation-of-state table of deuterium for inertial confinement fusion applications
journal, December 2011


Strong Coupling and Degeneracy Effects in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions
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Change in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions upon Using an Ab Initio Multiphase DT Equation of State
journal, September 2011


Coupling static and dynamic compressions: first measurements in dense hydrogen
journal, January 2004


Achieving high-density states through shock-wave loading of precompressed samples
journal, May 2007

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Taking Thin Diamonds to Their Limit: Coupling Static-Compression and Laser-Shock Techniques to Generate Dense Water
conference, January 2002

  • Lee, Kanani K. M.
  • Shock Compression of Condensed Matter - 2001: 12th APS Topical Conference, AIP Conference Proceedings
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Laser-driven shock experiments on precompressed water: Implications for “icy” giant planets
journal, July 2006

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Laser-Driven Plasma Loader for Shockless Compression and Acceleration of Samples in the Solid State
journal, February 2004


Quasi-isentropic compression by ablative laser loading: Response of materials to dynamic loading on nanosecond time scales
journal, June 2005


Shock formation and the ideal shape of ramp compression waves
journal, December 2008


Refractive index of lithium fluoride ramp compressed to 800 GPa
journal, June 2011

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The direct measurement of ablation pressure driven by 351-nm laser radiation
journal, October 2011

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  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 110, Issue 7
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Diamond at 800 GPa
journal, February 2009


Powder diffraction from solids in the terapascal regime
journal, November 2012

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Equation of State Measurements in Liquid Deuterium to 70 GPa
journal, November 2001


Determination of pressure and density of shocklessly compressed beryllium from x-ray radiography of a magnetically driven cylindrical liner implosion
conference, January 2012

  • Lemke, R. W.; Martin, Matthew R.; McBride, Ryan D.
  • SHOCK COMPRESSION OF CONDENSED MATTER - 2011: Proceedings of the Conference of the American Physical Society Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, AIP Conference Proceedings
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Shock-Wave Exploration of the High-Pressure Phases of Carbon
journal, December 2008


Absolute Equation of State Measurements on Shocked Liquid Deuterium up to 200 GPa (2 Mbar)
journal, January 1997


Equation of state measurements of hydrogen isotopes on Nova
journal, May 1998

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Reflected Shock Experiments on the Equation-of-State Properties of Liquid Deuterium at 100–600 GPa (1–6 Mbar)
journal, October 2000


Reflected shock experiments on the equation-of-state properties of liquid deuterium at 100–600 GPa (1–6 Mbar)
journal, May 2001

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Properties of fluid deuterium under double-shock compression to several Mbar
journal, September 2004

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  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 11, Issue 9
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Erratum: Laser-driven single shock compression of fluid deuterium from 45 to 220 GPa [Phys. Rev. B 79 , 014112 (2009)]
journal, March 2012


Linear-mixing model for shock-compressed liquid deuterium
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Shock compressibility of polystyrene of variable initial density
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Absolute measurements of the equations of state of low-Z materials in the multi-Mbar regime using laser-driven shocks
journal, May 1997

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Equation-of-state measurements for polystyrene at multi-TPa pressures in laser direct-drive experiments
journal, December 2005

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Shock Hugoniot and temperature data for polystyrene obtained with quartz standard
journal, June 2009

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High-precision measurements of the equation of state of hydrocarbons at 1–10 Mbar using laser-driven shock waves
journal, May 2010

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Precision equation-of-state measurements on National Ignition Facility ablator materials from 1 to 12 Mbar using laser-driven shock waves
journal, May 2012

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X-ray preheating of window materials in direct-drive shock-wave timing experiments
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Technological aspects of cryogenic laser‐fusion targets a)
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Nike direct-drive ICF program
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Design of the NIF Cryogenic Target System
journal, April 2009

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Cryogenic laser fusion target material design considerations
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Two-dimensional simulations of the neutron yield in cryogenic deuterium-tritium implosions on OMEGA
journal, October 2010

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Considerations and Requirements for Providing Cryogenic Targets for Direct-Drive Inertial Fusion Implosions at the National Ignition Facility
journal, April 2013

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Beta energy driven uniform deuterium–tritium ice layer in reactor‐size cryogenic inertial fusion targets
journal, May 1988

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Radioactively induced sublimation in solid tritium
journal, March 1988


The effects of exchange gas temperature and pressure on the beta-layering process in solid deuterium-tritium fusion fuel
journal, August 1990


Single crystal growth and formation of defects in deuterium-tritium layers for inertial confinement nuclear fusion
journal, February 2009

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Infrared redistribution of D 2 and HD layers for inertial confinement fusion
journal, September 1996

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  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, Vol. 14, Issue 5
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Forming Uniform HD Layers in Shells Using Infrared Radiation
journal, March 1999


Forming cryogenic targets for direct-drive experiments
journal, May 2006

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Redistribution of solid fuel in inertial confinement fusion target by plasma
journal, May 1993

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Heating uniformity of a microwave discharge plasma to redistribute a solid fuel layer inside a cryogenic target for inertial confinement fusion
journal, November 1995

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Smoothing of deuterium-tritium ice by electrical heating of the saturated vapor
journal, March 1997


Plastic deformation of solid hydrogen in fusion targets
journal, May 2009

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  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 105, Issue 9
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Numerical Raytrace Verification of Optical Diagnostics of Ice Surface Roughness for Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments
journal, January 2003

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Three-Dimensional Characterization of Cryogenic Target Ice Layers Using Multiple Shadowgraph Views
journal, May 2006

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  • Fusion Science and Technology, Vol. 49, Issue 4
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Characterization of National Ignitition Facility cryogenic beryllium capsules using x-ray phase contrast imaging
journal, October 2004

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X-ray imaging of cryogenic deuterium-tritium layers in a beryllium shell
journal, November 2005

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Characterization of inertial confinement fusion targets.
journal, April 1996

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The Cryogenic Target for Ignition on the LMJ: Useful Tools to Achieve Nominal Temperature and Roughness Conditions of the DT Solid Layer
journal, May 2006

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Status of cryogenic layering for NIF ignition targets
journal, May 2008


Beta-Layering of Solid Deuterium-Tritium in a Spherical Polycarbonate Shell
journal, March 1992

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Effect of experimentally observed hydrogenic fractionation on inertial confinement fusion ignition target performance
journal, October 2006

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Fast Ignition: Overview and Background
journal, April 2006

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Relativistic Heavy Ions for Fusion Applications
journal, January 1975


Thermonuclear gain of ICF targets with direct heating of ignitor
journal, January 1992

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Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers
journal, May 1994

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Gain curves for direct-drive fast ignition at densities around 300g∕cc
journal, October 2006

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Gain curves and hydrodynamic simulations of ignition and burn for direct-drive fast-ignition fusion targets
journal, June 2007

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Review of progress in Fast Ignition
journal, May 2005

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Status of and prospects for the fast ignition inertial fusion concept
journal, May 2007


Fast ignitor target studies for the HiPER project
journal, May 2008

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An empirical model of collective electrostatic effects for laser-beam channeling in long-scale-length relativistic plasmas
journal, August 2011

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Absorption of ultra-intense laser pulses
journal, August 1992


Stopping power and range of energetic electrons in dense plasmas of fast-ignition fusion targets
journal, January 2008

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Propagation of Subpicosecond Laser Pulses through a Fully Ionized Plasma
journal, November 1996


Time-Dependent Channel Formation in a Laser-Produced Plasma
journal, August 1995


Experimental Demonstration of Relativistic Self-Channeling of a Multiterawatt Laser Pulse in an Underdense Plasma
journal, April 1995


Evidence of relativistic laser beam filamentation in back-reflected images
journal, August 2000


Relativistic Magnetic Self-Channeling of Light in Near-Critical Plasma: Three-Dimensional Particle-in-Cell Simulation
journal, May 1996


Study of Laser-Hole Boring into Overdense Plasmas
journal, December 1996


Performance comparison of self-focusing with 1053- and 351-nm laser pulses
journal, September 1999


Laser-Hole Boring into Overdense Plasmas Measured with Soft X-Ray Laser Probing
journal, March 2000


Relativistic laser channeling in plasmas for fast ignition
journal, December 2007


High-Power, Kilojoule Class Laser Channeling in Millimeter-Scale Underdense Plasma
journal, March 2011


Laser Channeling in Millimeter-Scale Underdense Plasmas of Fast-Ignition Targets
journal, March 2008


Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of laser channeling in fast ignition
journal, April 2011

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Model experiments of fast ignition with coaxial high-power laser beams
conference, April 2001

  • Fujita, Katsumasa; Sunahara, A.; Tanaka, Kazuo A.
  • 26th European Conference on Laser Interaction with Matter (ECLIM 2000), SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.425618

Petawatt-laser direct heating of uniformly imploded deuterated-polystyrene shell target
journal, January 2005