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Title: Measurement of Sn and In Solidification Undercooling and Lattice Expansion Using In Situ X-Ray Diffraction

Abstract

The solidification behavior of two low-melting-point metals, Sn and In, on three substrates has been examined using in situ x-ray diffraction. Undercoolings of up to 56.1°C were observed for Sn solidified on graphite, which is a non-wetting substrate, while lower undercoolings were observed for Sn on Au/Ni/Cu (17.3°C) and on Cu (10.5°C). Indium behaved quite differently, showing undercoolings of less than 4°C on all three substrates. The lattice expansion/contraction behavior of Sn, In, and intermetallic compounds (IMCs) that formed during the reaction of Sn with Au/Ni/Cu surfaces were also measured during heating and cooling. Results showed anisotropic and nonlinear expansion of both Sn and In, with a contraction, rather than expansion, of the basal planes of In during heating. The principal IMC that formed between Sn and the Au/Ni/Cu surface was characterized as Cu 6Sn 5, having an average expansion coefficient of 13.6 × 10 ₋6/°C, which is less than that of Sn or Cu.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1226957
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-435591
Journal ID: ISSN 0361-5235
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344; AC05- 00OR22725; W-31-109-ENG-38
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Electronic Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 40; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0361-5235
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; In situ x-ray diffraction; solidification, nucleation; undercooling; Sn; In; lead-free solders; wetting; nonlinear expansion; intermetallic compounds; synchrotron radiation

Citation Formats

Elmer, John W., and Specht, Eliot D. Measurement of Sn and In Solidification Undercooling and Lattice Expansion Using In Situ X-Ray Diffraction. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.1007/s11664-010-1438-3.
Elmer, John W., & Specht, Eliot D. Measurement of Sn and In Solidification Undercooling and Lattice Expansion Using In Situ X-Ray Diffraction. United States. doi:10.1007/s11664-010-1438-3.
Elmer, John W., and Specht, Eliot D. Wed . "Measurement of Sn and In Solidification Undercooling and Lattice Expansion Using In Situ X-Ray Diffraction". United States. doi:10.1007/s11664-010-1438-3. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1226957.
@article{osti_1226957,
title = {Measurement of Sn and In Solidification Undercooling and Lattice Expansion Using In Situ X-Ray Diffraction},
author = {Elmer, John W. and Specht, Eliot D.},
abstractNote = {The solidification behavior of two low-melting-point metals, Sn and In, on three substrates has been examined using in situ x-ray diffraction. Undercoolings of up to 56.1°C were observed for Sn solidified on graphite, which is a non-wetting substrate, while lower undercoolings were observed for Sn on Au/Ni/Cu (17.3°C) and on Cu (10.5°C). Indium behaved quite differently, showing undercoolings of less than 4°C on all three substrates. The lattice expansion/contraction behavior of Sn, In, and intermetallic compounds (IMCs) that formed during the reaction of Sn with Au/Ni/Cu surfaces were also measured during heating and cooling. Results showed anisotropic and nonlinear expansion of both Sn and In, with a contraction, rather than expansion, of the basal planes of In during heating. The principal IMC that formed between Sn and the Au/Ni/Cu surface was characterized as Cu6Sn5, having an average expansion coefficient of 13.6 × 10₋6/°C, which is less than that of Sn or Cu.},
doi = {10.1007/s11664-010-1438-3},
journal = {Journal of Electronic Materials},
number = 2,
volume = 40,
place = {United States},
year = {2010},
month = {12}
}

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