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Title: A highly reversible room-temperature sodium metal anode

Abstract

Owing to its low cost and high natural abundance, sodium metal is among the most promising anode materials for energy storage technologies beyond lithium ion batteries. However, room-temperature sodium metal anodes suffer from poor reversibility during long-term plating and stripping, mainly due to formation of nonuniform solid electrolyte interphase as well as dendritic growth of sodium metal. Herein we report for the first time that a simple liquid electrolyte, sodium hexafluorophosphate in glymes (mono-, di-, and tetraglyme), can enable highly reversible and nondendritic plating–stripping of sodium metal anodes at room temperature. High average Coulombic efficiencies of 99.9% were achieved over 300 plating–stripping cycles at 0.5 mA cm –2. In this study, the long-term reversibility was found to arise from the formation of a uniform, inorganic solid electrolyte interphase made of sodium oxide and sodium fluoride, which is highly impermeable to electrolyte solvent and conducive to nondendritic growth. As a proof of concept, we also demonstrate a room-temperature sodium–sulfur battery using this class of electrolytes, paving the way for the development of next-generation, sodium-based energy storage technologies.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  2. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1224874
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1230059
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC03-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
ACS Central Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 1; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 2374-7943
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE

Citation Formats

Seh, Zhi Wei, Sun, Jie, Sun, Yongming, and Cui, Yi. A highly reversible room-temperature sodium metal anode. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1021/acscentsci.5b00328.
Seh, Zhi Wei, Sun, Jie, Sun, Yongming, & Cui, Yi. A highly reversible room-temperature sodium metal anode. United States. doi:10.1021/acscentsci.5b00328.
Seh, Zhi Wei, Sun, Jie, Sun, Yongming, and Cui, Yi. Mon . "A highly reversible room-temperature sodium metal anode". United States. doi:10.1021/acscentsci.5b00328.
@article{osti_1224874,
title = {A highly reversible room-temperature sodium metal anode},
author = {Seh, Zhi Wei and Sun, Jie and Sun, Yongming and Cui, Yi},
abstractNote = {Owing to its low cost and high natural abundance, sodium metal is among the most promising anode materials for energy storage technologies beyond lithium ion batteries. However, room-temperature sodium metal anodes suffer from poor reversibility during long-term plating and stripping, mainly due to formation of nonuniform solid electrolyte interphase as well as dendritic growth of sodium metal. Herein we report for the first time that a simple liquid electrolyte, sodium hexafluorophosphate in glymes (mono-, di-, and tetraglyme), can enable highly reversible and nondendritic plating–stripping of sodium metal anodes at room temperature. High average Coulombic efficiencies of 99.9% were achieved over 300 plating–stripping cycles at 0.5 mA cm–2. In this study, the long-term reversibility was found to arise from the formation of a uniform, inorganic solid electrolyte interphase made of sodium oxide and sodium fluoride, which is highly impermeable to electrolyte solvent and conducive to nondendritic growth. As a proof of concept, we also demonstrate a room-temperature sodium–sulfur battery using this class of electrolytes, paving the way for the development of next-generation, sodium-based energy storage technologies.},
doi = {10.1021/acscentsci.5b00328},
journal = {ACS Central Science},
number = 8,
volume = 1,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1021/acscentsci.5b00328

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Cited by: 63 works
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