A separate phase drag model and a surrogate approximation for simulation of the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process
General ensemble phase averaged equations for multiphase flows have been specialized for the simulation of the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. In the average momentum equation, fluidsolid and fluidfluid viscous interactions are represented by separate force terms. This equation has a form similar to that of Darcy’s law for multiphase flow but augmented by the fluidfluid viscous forces. Models for these fluidfluid interactions are suggested and implemented into the numerical code CartaBlanca. Numerical results indicate that the model captures the main features of the multiphase flow in the SAGD process, but the detailed features, such as plumes are missed. We find that viscous coupling among the fluid phases is important. Advection time scales for the different fluids differ by several orders of magnitude because of vast viscosity differences. Numerically resolving all of these time scales is time consuming. To address this problem, we introduce a steam surrogate approximation to increase the steam advection time scale, while keeping the mass and energy fluxes well approximated. This approximation leads to about a 40fold speedup in execution speed of the numerical calculations at the cost of a few percent error in the relevant quantities.
 Authors:

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 Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Fluid Dynamics and Solid Mechanics Group
 BP America, Houston, TX (United States). Heavy Oil Flagship
 Publication Date:
 Report Number(s):
 LAUR1428283
Journal ID: ISSN 1086055X
 Grant/Contract Number:
 AC5206NA25396
 Type:
 Accepted Manuscript
 Journal Name:
 SPE Journal
 Additional Journal Information:
 Journal Volume: 40; Journal Issue: 35; Journal ID: ISSN 1086055X
 Publisher:
 Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE)
 Research Org:
 Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
 Sponsoring Org:
 USDOE
 Country of Publication:
 United States
 Language:
 English
 Subject:
 97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING; 02 PETROLEUM; multiphase flows, porous media, Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage
 OSTI Identifier:
 1221768
PadrinoInciarte, Juan Carlos, Ma, Xia, VanderHeyden, W. Brian, and Zhang, Duan Zhong. A separate phase drag model and a surrogate approximation for simulation of the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. United States: N. p.,
Web. doi:10.2118/178432PA.
PadrinoInciarte, Juan Carlos, Ma, Xia, VanderHeyden, W. Brian, & Zhang, Duan Zhong. A separate phase drag model and a surrogate approximation for simulation of the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. United States. doi:10.2118/178432PA.
PadrinoInciarte, Juan Carlos, Ma, Xia, VanderHeyden, W. Brian, and Zhang, Duan Zhong. 2016.
"A separate phase drag model and a surrogate approximation for simulation of the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process". United States.
doi:10.2118/178432PA. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1221768.
@article{osti_1221768,
title = {A separate phase drag model and a surrogate approximation for simulation of the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process},
author = {PadrinoInciarte, Juan Carlos and Ma, Xia and VanderHeyden, W. Brian and Zhang, Duan Zhong},
abstractNote = {General ensemble phase averaged equations for multiphase flows have been specialized for the simulation of the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. In the average momentum equation, fluidsolid and fluidfluid viscous interactions are represented by separate force terms. This equation has a form similar to that of Darcy’s law for multiphase flow but augmented by the fluidfluid viscous forces. Models for these fluidfluid interactions are suggested and implemented into the numerical code CartaBlanca. Numerical results indicate that the model captures the main features of the multiphase flow in the SAGD process, but the detailed features, such as plumes are missed. We find that viscous coupling among the fluid phases is important. Advection time scales for the different fluids differ by several orders of magnitude because of vast viscosity differences. Numerically resolving all of these time scales is time consuming. To address this problem, we introduce a steam surrogate approximation to increase the steam advection time scale, while keeping the mass and energy fluxes well approximated. This approximation leads to about a 40fold speedup in execution speed of the numerical calculations at the cost of a few percent error in the relevant quantities.},
doi = {10.2118/178432PA},
journal = {SPE Journal},
number = 35,
volume = 40,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {1}
}