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Title: Biophysical Analysis of Anopheles gambiae Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C and Their Interaction with LRIM1

Natural infection of Anopheles gambiae by malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites is significantly influenced by the APL1 genetic locus. The locus contains three closely related leucine-rich repeat (LRR) genes, APL1A, APL1B and APL1C. Multiple studies have reported the participation of APL1A—C in the immune response of A. gambiae to invasion by both rodent and human Plasmodium isolates. APL1C forms a heterodimer with the related LRR protein LRIM1 via a C-terminal coiled-coil domain that is also present in APL1A and APL1B. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer protects A. gambiae from infection by binding the complement-like protein TEP1 to form a stable and active immune complex. We report solution x-ray scatting data for the LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer, the oligomeric state of LRIM1/APL1 LRR domains in solution and the crystal structure of the APL1B LRR domain. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimeric complex has a flexible and extended structure in solution. In contrast to the APL1A, APL1C and LRIM1 LRR domains, the APL1B LRR domain is a homodimer. The crystal structure of APL1B-LRR shows that the homodimer is formed by an N-terminal helix that complements for the absence of an N-terminal capping motif in APL1B, which is a unique distinction within the LRIM1/APL1 protein family. Full-length APL1A 1 and APL1B formmore » a stable complex with LRIM1. Our results support a model in which APL1A 1, APL1B and APL1C can all form an extended, flexible heterodimer with LRIM1, providing a repertoire of functional innate immune complexes to protect A. gambiae from a diverse array of pathogens.« less
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  1. Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry
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Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1932-6203
Public Library of Science
Research Org:
Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
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