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Title: Diagenesis and clay mineral formation at Gale Crater, Mars

The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity found host rocks of basaltic composition and alteration assemblages containing clay minerals at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater. On the basis of the observed host rock and alteration minerals, we present results of equilibrium thermochemical modeling of the Sheepbed mudstones of Yellowknife Bay in order to constrain the formation conditions of its secondary mineral assemblage. Building on conclusions from sedimentary observations by the Mars Science Laboratory team, we assume diagenetic, in situ alteration. The modeling shows that the mineral assemblage formed by the reaction of a CO₂-poor and oxidizing, dilute aqueous solution (Gale Portage Water) in an open system with the Fe-rich basaltic-composition sedimentary rocks at 10–50°C and water/rock ratio (mass of rock reacted with the starting fluid) of 100–1000, pH of ~7.5–12. Model alteration assemblages predominantly contain phyllosilicates (Fe-smectite, chlorite), the bulk composition of a mixture of which is close to that of saponite inferred from Chemistry and Mineralogy data and to that of saponite observed in the nakhlite Martian meteorites and terrestrial analogues. To match the observed clay mineral chemistry, inhomogeneous dissolution dominated by the amorphous phase and olivine is required. We therefore deduce a dissolving composition of approximately 70% amorphous material, withmore » 20% olivine, and 10% whole rock component.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [1] ;  [8]
  1. Univ. of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom). Space Research Centre, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy.
  2. Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physical Sciences.
  3. McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Science.
  4. Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire, Orléans (France)
  5. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  6. Université de Nantes, Nantes (France). Laboratoire Planétologie et Géodynamique de Nantes.
  7. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States). Exobiology Branch.
  8. IRAP (CNRS-Univ. P. Sabatier), Toulouse (France)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 120; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9097
American Geophysical Union
Research Org:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
OSTI Identifier: