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Title: Modeling of the interaction of a volumetric metallic metamaterial structure with a relativistic electron beam

Abstract

Here, we present the design of a volumetric metamaterial (MTM) structure and its interaction with a relativistic electron beam. This novel structure has promising applications in particle beam diagnostics, acceleration, and microwave generation. The volumetric MTM has a cubic unit cell allowing structures of arbitrary size to be configured as an array of identical cells. This structure allows the exploration of the properties of a metamaterial structure without having to consider substrates or other supporting elements. The dispersion characteristics of the unit cell are obtained using eigenmode simulations in the hfss code and also using an effective medium theory with spatial dispersion. Good agreement is obtained between these two approaches. The lowest-order mode of the MTM structure is found to have a negative group velocity in all directions of propagation. The frequency spectrum of the radiation from a relativistic electron beam passing through the MTM structure is calculated analytically and also calculated with the cst code, with very good agreement. The radiation pattern from the relativistic electron beam is found to be backward Cherenkov radiation, which is a promising tool for particle diagnostics. Calculations are also presented for the application of a MTM-based wakefield accelerator as a possible all-metal replacementmore » for the conventional dielectric wakefield structure. The proposed structure may also be useful for MTM-based vacuum electron devices for microwave generation and amplification.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25); US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)
OSTI Identifier:
1212118
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1454578
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0010075; FA 550-12-1-0489
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review Special Topics. Accelerators and Beams
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 18; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 1098-4402
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Lu, Xueying, Shapiro, Michael A., and Temkin, Richard J. Modeling of the interaction of a volumetric metallic metamaterial structure with a relativistic electron beam. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.18.081303.
Lu, Xueying, Shapiro, Michael A., & Temkin, Richard J. Modeling of the interaction of a volumetric metallic metamaterial structure with a relativistic electron beam. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.18.081303.
Lu, Xueying, Shapiro, Michael A., and Temkin, Richard J. Tue . "Modeling of the interaction of a volumetric metallic metamaterial structure with a relativistic electron beam". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.18.081303.
@article{osti_1212118,
title = {Modeling of the interaction of a volumetric metallic metamaterial structure with a relativistic electron beam},
author = {Lu, Xueying and Shapiro, Michael A. and Temkin, Richard J.},
abstractNote = {Here, we present the design of a volumetric metamaterial (MTM) structure and its interaction with a relativistic electron beam. This novel structure has promising applications in particle beam diagnostics, acceleration, and microwave generation. The volumetric MTM has a cubic unit cell allowing structures of arbitrary size to be configured as an array of identical cells. This structure allows the exploration of the properties of a metamaterial structure without having to consider substrates or other supporting elements. The dispersion characteristics of the unit cell are obtained using eigenmode simulations in the hfss code and also using an effective medium theory with spatial dispersion. Good agreement is obtained between these two approaches. The lowest-order mode of the MTM structure is found to have a negative group velocity in all directions of propagation. The frequency spectrum of the radiation from a relativistic electron beam passing through the MTM structure is calculated analytically and also calculated with the cst code, with very good agreement. The radiation pattern from the relativistic electron beam is found to be backward Cherenkov radiation, which is a promising tool for particle diagnostics. Calculations are also presented for the application of a MTM-based wakefield accelerator as a possible all-metal replacement for the conventional dielectric wakefield structure. The proposed structure may also be useful for MTM-based vacuum electron devices for microwave generation and amplification.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.18.081303},
journal = {Physical Review Special Topics. Accelerators and Beams},
number = 8,
volume = 18,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.18.081303

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 4 works
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Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1 FIG. 1: Unit cell design geometry. (a) Face view. The thickness of each face is 0.26 mm. (b) 3D view. In later sections, we will introduce the electron beam that goes through the center of the beam holes of the cells lying on the beam line.

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Works referenced in this record:

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C.</span> </li> <li> Physical Review D, Vol. 36, Issue 8</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.36.2283" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1103/PhysRevD.36.2283<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.2756" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Experimental Demonstration of Wake-Field Effects in Dielectric Structures<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1988-12-01">December 1988</span></small> </h2> <ul id="references-list" class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Gai, W.; Schoessow, P.; Cole, B.</span> </li> <li> Physical Review Letters, Vol. 61, Issue 24</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.2756" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.2756<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4897392" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Sub-wavelength waveguide loaded by a complementary electric metamaterial for vacuum electron devices<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2014-10-01">October 2014</span></small> </h2> <ul id="references-list" class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Duan, Zhaoyun; Hummelt, Jason S.; Shapiro, Michael A.</span> </li> <li> Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 21, Issue 10</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4897392" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1063/1.4897392<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-8984/20/29/295222" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Taming spatial dispersion in wire metamaterial<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2008-07-01">July 2008</span></small> </h2> <ul id="references-list" class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Demetriadou, A.; Pendry, J. B.</span> </li> <li> Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Vol. 20, Issue 29</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-8984/20/29/295222" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1088/0953-8984/20/29/295222<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.244801" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Dielectric Wakefield Acceleration of a Relativistic Electron Beam in a Slab-Symmetric Dielectric Lined Waveguide<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2012-06-01">June 2012</span></small> </h2> <ul id="references-list" class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Andonian, G.; Stratakis, D.; Babzien, M.</span> </li> <li> Physical Review Letters, Vol. 108, Issue 24</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.244801" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.244801<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.70.016608" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2004-07-01">July 2004</span></small> </h2> <ul id="references-list" class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Chen, Xudong; Grzegorczyk, Tomasz M.; Wu, Bae-Ian</span> </li> <li> Physical Review E, Vol. 70, Issue 1</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.70.016608" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1103/PhysRevE.70.016608<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1364/OL.31.002051" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Spatial dispersion in metamaterials with negative dielectric permittivity and its effect on surface waves<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2006-01-01">January 2006</span></small> </h2> <ul id="references-list" class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Shapiro, M. A.; Shvets, G.; Sirigiri, J. R.</span> </li> <li> Optics Letters, Vol. 31, Issue 13</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1364/OL.31.002051" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1364/OL.31.002051<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1133628" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2006-11-10">November 2006</span></small> </h2> <ul id="references-list" class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Schurig, D.; Mock, J. J.; Justice, B. J.</span> </li> <li> Science, Vol. 314, Issue 5801</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1133628" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1126/science.1133628<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.71.036617" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2005-03-01">March 2005</span></small> </h2> <ul id="references-list" class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Smith, D. R.; Vier, D. C.; Koschny, Th.</span> </li> <li> Physical Review E, Vol. 71, Issue 3</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.71.036617" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1103/PhysRevE.71.036617<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1070/PU1968v010n04ABEH003699" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">THE ELECTRODYNAMICS OF SUBSTANCES WITH SIMULTANEOUSLY NEGATIVE VALUES OF $\epsilon$ AND μ<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1968-04-30">April 1968</span></small> </h2> <ul id="references-list" class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Veselago, Viktor G.</span> </li> <li> Soviet Physics Uspekhi, Vol. 10, Issue 4</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1070/PU1968v010n04ABEH003699" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1070/PU1968v010n04ABEH003699<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div></div> <ul class="pagination"></ul> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All References</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; text-transform:capitalize;"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="journal"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> journal<small class="text-muted"> (28)</small></a></li> </ul> <div style="margin-top:2em;"> <form class="pure-form small text-muted reference-search"> <input class="search form-control pure-input-1" placeholder="Search" style="margin-bottom:10px;" /> <label class="d-block" style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; display:block;"><input type="radio" class="sort" name="references-sort" data-sort="name" style="position:relative;top:2px;" /> Sort by title</label> <label class="d-block" style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; display:block;"><input type="radio" class="sort" name="references-sort" data-sort="date" data-order="desc" style="position:relative;top:2px;" /> Sort by date</label> <div class="text-left" style="margin-top:1.5em;margin-left:1em;"> <a href="" class="filter-clear clearfix" title="Clear filter / sort" style="font-weight:normal; float:none;">[ × clear filter / sort ]</a> </div> </form> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section id="biblio-images" class="tab-content tab-content-sec osti-curated" data-tab="biblio"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-9 order-sm-9"> <div class="padding"> <p class="lead text-muted" style="font-size: 18px; margin-top:0px;"><span id="image-type-label">Figures / Tables</span> found in this record:</p> <div class="list clearfix"> <div class="col-sm-3 float-left biblio-image-tile" data-apporder="p. 2" data-order="1" data-imgid="1212118-img64221" data-imgsrc="/biblio/1212118/image/000/909/0009098/1/0064221.png" data-title="FIG. 1" data-desc="Unit cell design geometry. (a) Face view. The thickness of each face is 0.26 mm. (b) 3D view. In later sections, we will introduce the electron beam that goes through the center of the beam holes of the cells lying on the beam line." data-ostiid="1212118" style="padding-bottom: 2em; border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;"> <a href="#img" class="biblio-image-tile-a ga-click-event" data-imgid="1212118-img64221" data-lityx data-category="Extracted Images" data-label="biblio: image thumbnail" data-value="1212118-img64221"> <div style=" padding: .5em; border: 1px solid #eee; background-color: #fff; "> <small class="name">FIG. 1<small class="pull-right" style="margin-right: .5em;color:#999;top: 3px;position: relative;">(p. 2)</small><span class="d-none type">figure</span></small> <div style=" background-image:url('/biblio/1212118/image/000/909/0009098/1/t0064221.png'); background-repeat:no-repeat; background-size:contain; background-position-x: center; width: 100%; height: 175px; margin-top:.5em; "> </div> </div> </a> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 float-left biblio-image-tile" data-apporder="p. 2" data-order="2" data-imgid="1212118-img64222" data-imgsrc="/biblio/1212118/image/000/909/0009098/1/0064222.png" data-title="FIG. 2" data-desc="Brillouin diagram of a unit cell. (a) Different regions in the first Brillouin zone. (b) Γ − X region dispersion showing the intersection with the light line." data-ostiid="1212118" style="padding-bottom: 2em; border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;"> <a href="#img" class="biblio-image-tile-a ga-click-event" data-imgid="1212118-img64222" data-lityx data-category="Extracted Images" data-label="biblio: image thumbnail" data-value="1212118-img64222"> <div style=" padding: .5em; border: 1px solid #eee; background-color: #fff; "> <small class="name">FIG. 2<small class="pull-right" style="margin-right: .5em;color:#999;top: 3px;position: relative;">(p. 2)</small><span class="d-none type">figure</span></small> <div style=" background-image:url('/biblio/1212118/image/000/909/0009098/1/t0064222.png'); background-repeat:no-repeat; background-size:contain; background-position-x: center; width: 100%; height: 175px; margin-top:.5em; "> </div> </div> </a> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 float-left biblio-image-tile" data-apporder="p. 3" data-order="3" data-imgid="1212118-img64224" data-imgsrc="/biblio/1212118/image/000/909/0009098/1/0064224.png" data-title="FIG. 3" data-desc="Field patterns of the longitudinal eigenmodes in the Γ − X region. The cutting plane is the middle plane going through the center of the beam hole. Black arrows denote possible beam paths for the purpose of later sections. Waves propagate to the right. The fields are shown on a linear scale. (a) Mode 1 (the negative index mode); y and z directions are symmetric. (b) Mode 3 (the positive index mode). (c) Cutting plane and future beam position. (d) Axial field patterns at the synchronized points with a relativistic beam at the speed of light." data-ostiid="1212118" style="padding-bottom: 2em; border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;"> <a href="#img" class="biblio-image-tile-a ga-click-event" data-imgid="1212118-img64224" data-lityx data-category="Extracted Images" data-label="biblio: image thumbnail" data-value="1212118-img64224"> <div style=" padding: .5em; border: 1px solid #eee; background-color: #fff; "> <small class="name">FIG. 3<small class="pull-right" style="margin-right: .5em;color:#999;top: 3px;position: relative;">(p. 3)</small><span class="d-none type">figure</span></small> <div style=" background-image:url('/biblio/1212118/image/000/909/0009098/1/t0064224.png'); background-repeat:no-repeat; background-size:contain; background-position-x: center; width: 100%; height: 175px; margin-top:.5em; "> </div> </div> </a> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 float-left biblio-image-tile" data-apporder="p. 4" data-order="4" data-imgid="1212118-img64225" data-imgsrc="/biblio/1212118/image/000/909/0009098/1/0064225.png" data-title="FIG. 4" data-desc="Fitting results of the dispersion curves. HFSS results are in dotted lines, and the fitting curves are in solid lines. The optimized parameters are $α_1$ = −0.0209, $α_2$ = −0.0209, and $α_3$ = 0.0156. (a) Γ − X. (b) Γ −M. (c) Γ − R. Modes 1, 2, 3, and 4 are denoted with black, red, blue, and magenta, respectively. In the Γ −M region, mode 4 splits into two modes." data-ostiid="1212118" style="padding-bottom: 2em; border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;"> <a href="#img" class="biblio-image-tile-a ga-click-event" data-imgid="1212118-img64225" data-lityx data-category="Extracted Images" data-label="biblio: image thumbnail" data-value="1212118-img64225"> <div style=" padding: .5em; border: 1px solid #eee; background-color: #fff; "> <small class="name">FIG. 4<small class="pull-right" style="margin-right: .5em;color:#999;top: 3px;position: relative;">(p. 4)</small><span class="d-none type">figure</span></small> <div style=" background-image:url('/biblio/1212118/image/000/909/0009098/1/t0064225.png'); background-repeat:no-repeat; background-size:contain; background-position-x: center; width: 100%; height: 175px; margin-top:.5em; "> </div> </div> </a> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 float-left biblio-image-tile" data-apporder="p. 5" data-order="5" data-imgid="1212118-img64226" data-imgsrc="/biblio/1212118/image/000/909/0009098/1/0064226.png" data-title="FIG. 5" data-desc="Longitudinal wake impedance spectrum. Peaks are located at 16.6 and 18.7 GHz, corresponding to eigenmode 1 and 3, respectively." data-ostiid="1212118" style="padding-bottom: 2em; border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;"> <a href="#img" class="biblio-image-tile-a ga-click-event" data-imgid="1212118-img64226" data-lityx data-category="Extracted Images" data-label="biblio: image thumbnail" data-value="1212118-img64226"> <div style=" padding: .5em; border: 1px solid #eee; background-color: #fff; "> <small class="name">FIG. 5<small class="pull-right" style="margin-right: .5em;color:#999;top: 3px;position: relative;">(p. 5)</small><span class="d-none type">figure</span></small> <div style=" background-image:url('/biblio/1212118/image/000/909/0009098/1/t0064226.png'); background-repeat:no-repeat; background-size:contain; background-position-x: center; width: 100%; height: 175px; margin-top:.5em; "> </div> </div> </a> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 float-left biblio-image-tile" data-apporder="p. 5" data-order="6" data-imgid="1212118-img64227" data-imgsrc="/biblio/1212118/image/000/909/0009098/1/0064227.png" data-title="TABLE I" data-desc="Comparison of wave-beam interaction frequencies (unit, GHz)." data-ostiid="1212118" style="padding-bottom: 2em; border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;"> <a href="#img" class="biblio-image-tile-a ga-click-event" data-imgid="1212118-img64227" data-lityx data-category="Extracted Images" data-label="biblio: image thumbnail" data-value="1212118-img64227"> <div style=" padding: .5em; border: 1px solid #eee; background-color: #fff; "> <small class="name">TABLE I<small class="pull-right" style="margin-right: .5em;color:#999;top: 3px;position: relative;">(p. 5)</small><span class="d-none type">table</span></small> <div style=" background-image:url('/biblio/1212118/image/000/909/0009098/1/t0064227.png'); background-repeat:no-repeat; background-size:contain; background-position-x: center; width: 100%; height: 175px; margin-top:.5em; "> </div> </div> </a> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 float-left biblio-image-tile" data-apporder="p. 6" data-order="7" data-imgid="1212118-img64219" data-imgsrc="/biblio/1212118/image/000/909/0009098/1/0064219.png" data-title="FIG. 6" data-desc="Radiation pattern with a relativistic beam. (a) Illustration of the bulk structure. The beam passes through the line of y = z = 0. (b) Longitudinal E field ($E_x$) on y = 0middle cutting plane for the MTM structure. The MTM region is enclosed in the black rectangles. (c) The same result for the volume mode of a dielectric with ε = 1.5." data-ostiid="1212118" style="padding-bottom: 2em; border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;"> <a href="#img" class="biblio-image-tile-a ga-click-event" data-imgid="1212118-img64219" data-lityx data-category="Extracted Images" data-label="biblio: image thumbnail" data-value="1212118-img64219"> <div style=" padding: .5em; border: 1px solid #eee; background-color: #fff; "> <small class="name">FIG. 6<small class="pull-right" style="margin-right: .5em;color:#999;top: 3px;position: relative;">(p. 6)</small><span class="d-none type">figure</span></small> <div style=" background-image:url('/biblio/1212118/image/000/909/0009098/1/t0064219.png'); background-repeat:no-repeat; background-size:contain; background-position-x: center; width: 100%; height: 175px; margin-top:.5em; "> </div> </div> </a> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 float-left biblio-image-tile" data-apporder="p. 6" data-order="8" data-imgid="1212118-img64220" data-imgsrc="/biblio/1212118/image/000/909/0009098/1/0064220.png" data-title="FIG. 7" data-desc="The 3D properties. (a) Radiated Ex field on an oblique cutting plane rotated 45° around the $x$ axis starting from the $y$ = 0 plane. (b) Radiation pattern on the cutting plane of $x$ = const; i.e., the cutting plane is perpendicular to the longitudinal direction." data-ostiid="1212118" style="padding-bottom: 2em; border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;"> <a href="#img" class="biblio-image-tile-a ga-click-event" data-imgid="1212118-img64220" data-lityx data-category="Extracted Images" data-label="biblio: image thumbnail" data-value="1212118-img64220"> <div style=" padding: .5em; border: 1px solid #eee; background-color: #fff; "> <small class="name">FIG. 7<small class="pull-right" style="margin-right: .5em;color:#999;top: 3px;position: relative;">(p. 6)</small><span class="d-none type">figure</span></small> <div style=" background-image:url('/biblio/1212118/image/000/909/0009098/1/t0064220.png'); background-repeat:no-repeat; background-size:contain; background-position-x: center; width: 100%; height: 175px; margin-top:.5em; "> </div> </div> </a> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 float-left biblio-image-tile" data-apporder="p. 7" data-order="9" data-imgid="1212118-img64223" data-imgsrc="/biblio/1212118/image/000/909/0009098/1/0064223.png" data-title="FIG. 8" data-desc="(a) Structure for wakefield acceleration demonstration. Part of the waveguide is removed to show the inside structure. (b) Phase space evolution in the x direction of the drive bunch (the top group) and the witness bunch (the bottom group). The time interval between every two snapshots is 0.02 ns. The plots of the two bunches at the same time are represented with the same color. The witness bunch is injected into the structure 25 mm after the drive bunch." data-ostiid="1212118" style="padding-bottom: 2em; border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;"> <a href="#img" class="biblio-image-tile-a ga-click-event" data-imgid="1212118-img64223" data-lityx data-category="Extracted Images" data-label="biblio: image thumbnail" data-value="1212118-img64223"> <div style=" padding: .5em; border: 1px solid #eee; background-color: #fff; "> <small class="name">FIG. 8<small class="pull-right" style="margin-right: .5em;color:#999;top: 3px;position: relative;">(p. 7)</small><span class="d-none type">figure</span></small> <div style=" background-image:url('/biblio/1212118/image/000/909/0009098/1/t0064223.png'); background-repeat:no-repeat; background-size:contain; background-position-x: center; width: 100%; height: 175px; margin-top:.5em; "> </div> </div> </a> </div> </div> <div class="pagination-container small"> <a class="pure-button prev page" href="#" rel="prev"><span class="fa fa-angle-left"></span></a><ul class="pagination d-inline-block" style="padding-left:.2em;"></ul><a class="pure-button next page" href="#" rel="next"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-images" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All Images</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; 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padding:1em;"> <em>Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.</em> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section id="biblio-related" class="tab-content tab-content-sec " data-tab="biblio"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-9 order-sm-9"> <section id="biblio-similar" class="tab-content tab-content-sec active" data-tab="related"> <div class="padding"> <p class="lead text-muted" style="font-size: 18px; margin-top:0px;">Similar records in OSTI.GOV collections:</p> <aside> <ul class="item-list" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/ItemList" style="padding-left:0; list-style-type: none;"> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="0" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/1454578-modeling-interaction-volumetric-metallic-metamaterial-structure-relativistic-electron-beam" itemprop="url">Modeling of the interaction of a volumetric metallic metamaterial structure with a relativistic electron beam</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Lu, Xueying</span> ; <span class="author">Shapiro, Michael A.</span> ; <span class="author">Temkin, Richard J.</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physical Review Special Topics. Accelerators and Beams</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Here, we present the design of a volumetric metamaterial (MTM) structure and its interaction with a relativistic electron beam. This novel structure has promising applications in particle beam diagnostics, acceleration, and microwave generation. The volumetric MTM has a cubic unit cell allowing structures of arbitrary size to be configured as an array of identical cells. This structure allows the exploration of the properties of a metamaterial structure without having to consider substrates or other supporting elements. The dispersion characteristics of the unit cell are obtained using eigenmode simulations in the hfss code and also using an effective medium theory with<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> spatial dispersion. Good agreement is obtained between these two approaches. The lowest-order mode of the MTM structure is found to have a negative group velocity in all directions of propagation. The frequency spectrum of the radiation from a relativistic electron beam passing through the MTM structure is calculated analytically and also calculated with the cst code, with very good agreement. The radiation pattern from the relativistic electron beam is found to be backward Cherenkov radiation, which is a promising tool for particle diagnostics. Calculations are also presented for the application of a MTM-based wakefield accelerator as a possible all-metal replacement for the conventional dielectric wakefield structure. The proposed structure may also be useful for MTM-based vacuum electron devices for microwave generation and amplification.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 4<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.18.081303" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1454578" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.18.081303</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/pages/servlets/purl/1454578" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1454578" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="1" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/1557637-sub-wavelength-waveguide-loaded-complementary-electric-metamaterial-vacuum-electron-devices" itemprop="url">Sub-wavelength waveguide loaded by a complementary electric metamaterial for vacuum electron devices</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Duan, Zhaoyun</span> ; <span class="author">Hummelt, Jason S.</span> ; <span class="author">Shapiro, Michael A.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physics of Plasmas</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">This work reviews the electromagnetic properties of a waveguide loaded by complementary electric split ring resonators (CeSRRs) and the application of the waveguide in vacuum electronics. The S-parameters of the CeSRRs in free space are calculated using the HFSS code and are used to retrieve the effective permittivity and permeability in an effective medium theory. The dispersion relation of a waveguide loaded with the CeSRRs is calculated by two methods: by direct calculation with HFSS and by calculation with the effective medium theory; the results are in good agreement. An improved agreement is obtained using a fitting procedure for the<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> permittivity tensor in the effective medium theory. The gain of a backward wave mode of the CeSRR-loaded waveguide interacting with an electron beam is calculated by two methods: by using the HFSS model and traveling wave tube theory; and by using a dispersion relation derived in the effective medium model. Results of the two methods are in very good agreement. The introduced all-metal structure may be useful in miniaturized vacuum electron devices.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 23<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4897392" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1557637" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1063/1.4897392</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/pages/servlets/purl/1557637" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1557637" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="2" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/958534-wakefield-generation-metamaterial-loaded-waveguides" itemprop="url">Wakefield generation in metamaterial-loaded waveguides.</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Power, J. G.</span> ; <span class="author">Gai, W.</span> ; <span class="author">Liu, W.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - J. Appl. Phys.</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Metamaterials (MTMs) are artificial structures made of periodic elements and are designed to obtain specific electromagnetic properties. As long as the periodicity and the size of the elements are much smaller than the wavelength of interest, an artificial structure can be assigned a permittivity and permeability, just like natural materials. Metamaterials can be customized to have the permittivity and permeability desired for a particular application. When the permittivity and permeability are made simultaneously negative in some frequency range, the metamaterial is called double-negative or left-handed and has some unusual properties. For example, Cherenkov radiation (CR) in a left-handed metamaterial is<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> backward; radiated energy propagates in the opposite direction to particle velocity. This property can be used to improve the design of particle detectors. Waveguides loaded with metamaterials are of interest because the metamaterials can change the dispersion relation of the waveguide significantly. Slow backward waves, for example, can be produced in a MTM-loaded waveguide without corrugations. In this paper we present theoretical studies of waveguides loaded with an anisotropic and dispersive medium (metamaterial). The dispersion relation of a MTM-loaded waveguide has several interesting frequency bands which are described. We present a universal method to simulate wakefield (CR) generation in a waveguide loaded with a dispersive and anisotropic medium. This method allows simulation of different waveguide cross sections, any transverse beam distribution, and any physical dispersion, of the medium. The method is benchmarked against simple cases, which can be theoretically calculated. Results show excellent agreement.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="3" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/1559272-generation-high-power-reversed-cherenkov-wakefield-radiation-metamaterial-structure" itemprop="url">Generation of High-Power, Reversed-Cherenkov Wakefield Radiation in a Metamaterial Structure</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Lu, Xueying</span> ; <span class="author">Shapiro, Michael A.</span> ; <span class="author">Matstovsky, Ivan</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physical Review Letters</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">We present the first demonstration of high-power, reversed-Cherenkov wakefield radiation by electron bunches passing through a metamaterial structure. The structure supports a fundamental transverse magnetic mode with a negative group velocity leading to reversed-Cherenkov radiation, which was clearly verified in the experiments. Single 45 nC electron bunches of 65 MeV traversing the structure generated up to 25 MW in 2 ns pulses at 11.4 GHz, in excellent agreement with theory. Two bunches of 85 nC with appropriate temporal spacing generated up to 80 MW by coherent wakefield superposition, the highest rf power that metamaterial structures ever experienced without damage. These<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> results demonstrate the unique features of metamaterial structures that are very attractive for future high-gradient wakefield accelerators, including two-beam and collinear accelerators. Advantages include the high shunt impedance for high-power generation and high-gradient acceleration, the simple and rugged structure, and a large parameter space for optimization.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.014801" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1559272" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AC" >10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.014801</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="4" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/22299711-sub-wavelength-waveguide-loaded-complementary-electric-metamaterial-vacuum-electron-devices" itemprop="url">Sub-wavelength waveguide loaded by a complementary electric metamaterial for vacuum electron devices</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Duan, Zhaoyun, E-mail: zhyduan@uestc.edu.cn</span> ; <span class="author">Institute of High Energy Electronics, School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, North Jianshe Road, Chengdu 610054</span> ; <span class="author">Hummelt, Jason S.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physics of Plasmas</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">We report the electromagnetic properties of a waveguide loaded by complementary electric split ring resonators (CeSRRs) and the application of the waveguide in vacuum electronics. The S-parameters of the CeSRRs in free space are calculated using the HFSS code and are used to retrieve the effective permittivity and permeability in an effective medium theory. The dispersion relation of a waveguide loaded with the CeSRRs is calculated by two approaches: by direct calculation with HFSS and by calculation with the effective medium theory; the results are in good agreement. An improved agreement is obtained using a fitting procedure for the permittivity<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> tensor in the effective medium theory. The gain of a backward wave mode of the CeSRR-loaded waveguide interacting with an electron beam is calculated by two methods: by using the HFSS model and traveling wave tube theory; and by using a dispersion relation derived in the effective medium model. Results of the two methods are in very good agreement. The proposed all-metal structure may be useful in miniaturized vacuum electron devices.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4897392" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="22299711" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AC" >10.1063/1.4897392</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> </ul> </aside> </div> </section> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a class="tab-nav disabled" data-tab="related" style="color: #636c72 !important; opacity: 1;"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> Similar Records</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </section> </div></div> </div> </div> </section> <footer class="" style="background-color:#f9f9f9; /* padding-top: 0.5rem; */"> <div class="footer-minor"> <div class="container"> <hr class="footer-separator" /> <div class="text-center" style="margin-top:1.25rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list" id="footer-org-menu"> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="https://energy.gov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-us-doe-min" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="https://www.energy.gov/science/office-science" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-office-of-science-min" alt="Office of Science" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="/"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-osti-min" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" /> </a> </li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="text-center small" style="margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:2.0rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/disclaim" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-institution"></span> Website Policies <span class="hidden-xs">/ Important Links</span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/pages/contact" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-comments-o"></span> Contact Us</a></li> <li class="d-block d-md-none"></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.facebook.com/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-facebook" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://twitter.com/OSTIgov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-twitter" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-youtube-play" style=""></span></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </footer> <link href="/pages/css/pages.fonts.191210.1608.css" rel="stylesheet"> <script src="/pages/js/pages.191210.1608.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/pages/js/pages.biblio.191210.1608.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/pages/js/lity.js"></script><noscript></noscript><script async type="text/javascript" src="/pages/js/Universal-Federated-Analytics-Min.js?agency=DOE" id="_fed_an_ua_tag"></script><noscript></noscript></body> <!-- DOE PAGES v.191210.1608 --> </html>