Parameterization of deformed nuclei for Glauber modeling in relativistic heavy ion collisions
In this study, the density distributions of large nuclei are typically modeled with a Woods–Saxon distribution characterized by a radius R _{0} and skin depth a. Deformation parameters β are then introduced to describe nonspherical nuclei using an expansion in spherical harmonics R _{0}(1+β _{2}Y _{2} ^{0}+β _{4}Y _{4} ^{0}). But when a nucleus is nonspherical, the R _{0} and a inferred from electron scattering experiments that integrate over all nuclear orientations cannot be used directly as the parameters in the Woods–Saxon distribution. In addition, the β _{2} values typically derived from the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability B(E2)↑ are not directly related to the β _{2} values used in the spherical harmonic expansion. B(E2)↑ is more accurately related to the intrinsic quadrupole moment Q _{0} than to β _{2}. One can however calculate Q _{0} for a given β _{2} and then derive B(E2)↑ from Q _{0}. In this paper we calculate and tabulate the R _{0}, a , and β _{2} values that when used in a Woods–Saxon distribution, will give results consistent with electron scattering data. We then present calculations of the second and third harmonic participant eccentricity (ε _{2} and ε _{3}) with the new andmore »
 Authors:

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 Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
 Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai (China); Central China Normal Univ., Wuhan (China)
 Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai (China)
 Publication Date:
 Report Number(s):
 BNL1117252016JA
Journal ID: ISSN 03702693; R&D Project: PO 004; KB0202012
 Grant/Contract Number:
 SC00112704; AC0298CH10886; 2014CB845401
 Type:
 Published Article
 Journal Name:
 Physics Letters. Section B
 Additional Journal Information:
 Journal Volume: 749; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 03702693
 Publisher:
 Elsevier
 Research Org:
 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
 Sponsoring Org:
 USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC26)
 Country of Publication:
 United States
 Language:
 English
 Subject:
 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider
 OSTI Identifier:
 1209169
 Alternate Identifier(s):
 OSTI ID: 1235887
Sorensen, P., Tang, A. H., Videbaek, F., Wang, H., Shou, Q. Y., and Ma, Y. G.. Parameterization of deformed nuclei for Glauber modeling in relativistic heavy ion collisions. United States: N. p.,
Web. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2015.07.078.
Sorensen, P., Tang, A. H., Videbaek, F., Wang, H., Shou, Q. Y., & Ma, Y. G.. Parameterization of deformed nuclei for Glauber modeling in relativistic heavy ion collisions. United States. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2015.07.078.
Sorensen, P., Tang, A. H., Videbaek, F., Wang, H., Shou, Q. Y., and Ma, Y. G.. 2015.
"Parameterization of deformed nuclei for Glauber modeling in relativistic heavy ion collisions". United States.
doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2015.07.078.
@article{osti_1209169,
title = {Parameterization of deformed nuclei for Glauber modeling in relativistic heavy ion collisions},
author = {Sorensen, P. and Tang, A. H. and Videbaek, F. and Wang, H. and Shou, Q. Y. and Ma, Y. G.},
abstractNote = {In this study, the density distributions of large nuclei are typically modeled with a Woods–Saxon distribution characterized by a radius R0 and skin depth a. Deformation parameters β are then introduced to describe nonspherical nuclei using an expansion in spherical harmonics R0(1+β2Y20+β4Y40). But when a nucleus is nonspherical, the R0 and a inferred from electron scattering experiments that integrate over all nuclear orientations cannot be used directly as the parameters in the Woods–Saxon distribution. In addition, the β2 values typically derived from the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability B(E2)↑ are not directly related to the β2 values used in the spherical harmonic expansion. B(E2)↑ is more accurately related to the intrinsic quadrupole moment Q0 than to β2. One can however calculate Q0 for a given β2 and then derive B(E2)↑ from Q0. In this paper we calculate and tabulate the R0, a , and β2 values that when used in a Woods–Saxon distribution, will give results consistent with electron scattering data. We then present calculations of the second and third harmonic participant eccentricity (ε2 and ε3) with the new and old parameters. We demonstrate that ε3 is particularly sensitive to a and argue that using the incorrect value of a has important implications for the extraction of viscosity to entropy ratio (η/s) from the QGP created in Heavy Ion collisions.},
doi = {10.1016/j.physletb.2015.07.078},
journal = {Physics Letters. Section B},
number = C,
volume = 749,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {8}
}