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Title: How do quarks and gluons lose energy in the QGP?

RHIC introduced the method of hard scattering of partons as an in-situ probe of the the medium produced in A+A collisions. A suppression, R AA ≈ 0.2 relative to binary-scaling, was discovered for π⁰ production in the range 5 < ρ T < 20 GeV/c in central Au+Au collisions at √s NN = 200 GeV, and surprisingly also for single-electrons from the decay of heavy quarks. Both these results have been confirmed in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC at √s NN = 2.76 TeV. Interestingly, in this ρ T range the LHC results for pions nearly overlap the RHIC results. Thus, due to the flatter spectrum, the energy loss in the medium at LHC in this ρ T range must be ~ 40% larger than at RHIC. Unique at the LHC are the beautiful measurements of the fractional transverse momentum imbalance 1 – (ρ-carot T2/ρ-carot T1) of di-jets in Pb+Pb collisions. At the Utrecht meeting in 2011, I corrected for the fractional imbalance of di-jets with the same cuts in p-p collisions and showed that the relative fractional jet imbalance in Pb+Pb/p-p is ≈ 15% for jets with 120 < ρ-carot T1 < 360 GeV/c. CMS later confirmed this muchmore » smaller imbalance compared to the same quantity derived from two-particle correlations of di-jet fragments at RHIC corresponding to ρ-carot T jet ≈ 10 – 20 GeV/c, which appear to show a much larger fractional jet imbalance ≈ 45% in this lower ρ-carot T range. The variation of apparent energy loss in the medium as a function of both ρ T and √s NN is striking and presents a challenge to both theory and experiment for improved understanding. There are many other such unresolved issues, for instance, the absence of evidence for a q-carot effect, due to momentum transferred to the medium by outgoing partons, which would widen the away-side di-jet and di-hadron correlations in a similar fashion as the k T-effect. Another issue well known from experiments at the CERN ISR, SpS and SpS collider is that parton-parton hard-collisions make negligible contribution to multiplicity or transverse energy production in p-p collisions–soft particles, with ρ T < 2 GeV/c, predominate. Thus an apparent hard scattering component for A+A multiplicity distributions based on a popular formula, dN AA ch/dη = [(1 - x) (N part)dN pp ch/dη2 + x (N colldN pp ch/dη], seems to be an unphysical way to understand the deviation from N part scaling. Based on recent p-p and d+A measurements, a more physical way is presented along with several other stimulating results and ideas from recent d+Au (p+Pb) measurements.« less
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1742-6588; KB0201021
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Physics. Conference Series
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 589; Conference: 9. International Workshop on High-ρT Physics at LHC, Grenoble (France), 24-28 Sep 2013; Journal ID: ISSN 1742-6588
IOP Publishing
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; nuclear; physics; radiation
OSTI Identifier: