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Title: Contactless Determination of Electrical Conductivity of One-Dimensional Nanomaterials by Solution-Based Electro-orientation Spectroscopy

For nanowires of the same composition, and even fabricated within the same batch, often exhibit electrical conductivities that can vary by orders of magnitude. Unfortunately, existing electrical characterization methods are time-consuming, making the statistical survey of highly variable samples essentially impractical. Here, we demonstrate a contactless, solution-based method to efficiently measure the electrical conductivity of 1D nanomaterials based on their transient alignment behavior in ac electric fields of different frequencies. In comparison with direct transport measurements by probe-based scanning tunneling microscopy shows that electro-orientation spectroscopy can quantitatively measure nanowire conductivity over a 5-order-of-magnitude range, 10–5–1 Ω–1 m–1 (corresponding to resistivities in the range 102–107 Ω·cm). With this method, we statistically characterize the conductivity of a variety of nanowires and find significant variability in silicon nanowires grown by metal-assisted chemical etching from the same wafer. We also find that the active carrier concentration of n-type silicon nanowires is greatly reduced by surface traps and that surface passivation increases the effective conductivity by an order of magnitude. Moreover, this simple method makes electrical characterization of insulating and semiconducting 1D nanomaterials far more efficient and accessible to more researchers than current approaches. Electro-orientation spectroscopy also has the potential to be integrated with othermore » solution-based methods for the high-throughput sorting and manipulation of 1D nanomaterials for postgrowth device assembly.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1]
  1. Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  3. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Nano
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 1936-0851
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
OSTI Identifier:
1187911

Akin, Cevat, Yi, Jingang, Feldman, Leonard C., Durand, Corentin, Hus, Saban M., Li, An-Ping, Filler, Michael A., and Shan, Jerry W.. Contactless Determination of Electrical Conductivity of One-Dimensional Nanomaterials by Solution-Based Electro-orientation Spectroscopy. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1021/acsnano.5b01170.
Akin, Cevat, Yi, Jingang, Feldman, Leonard C., Durand, Corentin, Hus, Saban M., Li, An-Ping, Filler, Michael A., & Shan, Jerry W.. Contactless Determination of Electrical Conductivity of One-Dimensional Nanomaterials by Solution-Based Electro-orientation Spectroscopy. United States. doi:10.1021/acsnano.5b01170.
Akin, Cevat, Yi, Jingang, Feldman, Leonard C., Durand, Corentin, Hus, Saban M., Li, An-Ping, Filler, Michael A., and Shan, Jerry W.. 2015. "Contactless Determination of Electrical Conductivity of One-Dimensional Nanomaterials by Solution-Based Electro-orientation Spectroscopy". United States. doi:10.1021/acsnano.5b01170. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1187911.
@article{osti_1187911,
title = {Contactless Determination of Electrical Conductivity of One-Dimensional Nanomaterials by Solution-Based Electro-orientation Spectroscopy},
author = {Akin, Cevat and Yi, Jingang and Feldman, Leonard C. and Durand, Corentin and Hus, Saban M. and Li, An-Ping and Filler, Michael A. and Shan, Jerry W.},
abstractNote = {For nanowires of the same composition, and even fabricated within the same batch, often exhibit electrical conductivities that can vary by orders of magnitude. Unfortunately, existing electrical characterization methods are time-consuming, making the statistical survey of highly variable samples essentially impractical. Here, we demonstrate a contactless, solution-based method to efficiently measure the electrical conductivity of 1D nanomaterials based on their transient alignment behavior in ac electric fields of different frequencies. In comparison with direct transport measurements by probe-based scanning tunneling microscopy shows that electro-orientation spectroscopy can quantitatively measure nanowire conductivity over a 5-order-of-magnitude range, 10–5–1 Ω–1 m–1 (corresponding to resistivities in the range 102–107 Ω·cm). With this method, we statistically characterize the conductivity of a variety of nanowires and find significant variability in silicon nanowires grown by metal-assisted chemical etching from the same wafer. We also find that the active carrier concentration of n-type silicon nanowires is greatly reduced by surface traps and that surface passivation increases the effective conductivity by an order of magnitude. Moreover, this simple method makes electrical characterization of insulating and semiconducting 1D nanomaterials far more efficient and accessible to more researchers than current approaches. Electro-orientation spectroscopy also has the potential to be integrated with other solution-based methods for the high-throughput sorting and manipulation of 1D nanomaterials for postgrowth device assembly.},
doi = {10.1021/acsnano.5b01170},
journal = {ACS Nano},
number = 5,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {5}
}