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Title: Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials by Selective Extraction

Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted much attention in the past decade. They offer high specific surface area, as well as electronic structure and properties that differ from their bulk counterparts due to the low dimensionality. Graphene is the best known and the most studied 2D material, but metal oxides and hydroxides (including clays), dichalcogenides, boron nitride (BN), and other materials that are one or several atoms thick are receiving increasing attention. They may deliver a combination of properties that cannot be provided by other materials. The most common synthesis approach in general is by reacting different elements or compounds to form a new compound. However, this approach does not necessarily work well for low-dimensional structures, since it favors formation of energetically preferred 3D (bulk) solids. Many 2D materials are produced by exfoliation of van der Waals solids, such as graphite or MoS2, breaking large particles into 2D layers. However, these approaches are not universal; for example, 2D transition metal carbides cannot be produced by any of them. An alternative but less studied way of material synthesis is the selective extraction process, which is based on the difference in reactivity and stability between the different components (elements or structural units) ofmore » the original material. It can be achieved using thermal, chemical, or electrochemical processes. Many 2D materials have been synthesized using selective extraction, such as graphene from SiC, transition metal oxides (TMO) from layered 3D salts, and transition metal carbides or carbonitrides (MXenes) from MAX phases. Selective extraction synthesis is critically important when the bonds between the building blocks of the material are too strong (e.g., in carbides) to be broken mechanically in order to form nanostructures. Unlike extractive metallurgy, where the extracted metal is the goal of the process, selective extraction of one or more elements from the precursor materials releases 2D structures. In this Account, in addition to graphene and TMO, we focused on MXenes as an example for the use of selective extraction synthesis to produce novel 2D materials. About 10 new carbides and carbonitrides of transition metals have been produced by this method in the past 3 years. They offer an unusual combination of metallic conductivity and hydrophilicity and show very attractive electrochemical properties. We hope that this Account will encourage researchers to extend the use of selective extraction to other layered material systems that in turn will result in expanding the world of nanomaterials in general and 2D materials in particular, generating new materials that cannot be produced by other means.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.
  2. Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Inst. and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1185695
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Accounts of Chemical Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 48; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0001-4842
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Naguib, Michael, and Gogotsi, Yury. Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials by Selective Extraction. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1021/ar500346b.
Naguib, Michael, & Gogotsi, Yury. Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials by Selective Extraction. United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/ar500346b
Naguib, Michael, and Gogotsi, Yury. Tue . "Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials by Selective Extraction". United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/ar500346b. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1185695.
@article{osti_1185695,
title = {Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials by Selective Extraction},
author = {Naguib, Michael and Gogotsi, Yury},
abstractNote = {Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted much attention in the past decade. They offer high specific surface area, as well as electronic structure and properties that differ from their bulk counterparts due to the low dimensionality. Graphene is the best known and the most studied 2D material, but metal oxides and hydroxides (including clays), dichalcogenides, boron nitride (BN), and other materials that are one or several atoms thick are receiving increasing attention. They may deliver a combination of properties that cannot be provided by other materials. The most common synthesis approach in general is by reacting different elements or compounds to form a new compound. However, this approach does not necessarily work well for low-dimensional structures, since it favors formation of energetically preferred 3D (bulk) solids. Many 2D materials are produced by exfoliation of van der Waals solids, such as graphite or MoS2, breaking large particles into 2D layers. However, these approaches are not universal; for example, 2D transition metal carbides cannot be produced by any of them. An alternative but less studied way of material synthesis is the selective extraction process, which is based on the difference in reactivity and stability between the different components (elements or structural units) of the original material. It can be achieved using thermal, chemical, or electrochemical processes. Many 2D materials have been synthesized using selective extraction, such as graphene from SiC, transition metal oxides (TMO) from layered 3D salts, and transition metal carbides or carbonitrides (MXenes) from MAX phases. Selective extraction synthesis is critically important when the bonds between the building blocks of the material are too strong (e.g., in carbides) to be broken mechanically in order to form nanostructures. Unlike extractive metallurgy, where the extracted metal is the goal of the process, selective extraction of one or more elements from the precursor materials releases 2D structures. In this Account, in addition to graphene and TMO, we focused on MXenes as an example for the use of selective extraction synthesis to produce novel 2D materials. About 10 new carbides and carbonitrides of transition metals have been produced by this method in the past 3 years. They offer an unusual combination of metallic conductivity and hydrophilicity and show very attractive electrochemical properties. We hope that this Account will encourage researchers to extend the use of selective extraction to other layered material systems that in turn will result in expanding the world of nanomaterials in general and 2D materials in particular, generating new materials that cannot be produced by other means.},
doi = {10.1021/ar500346b},
journal = {Accounts of Chemical Research},
number = 1,
volume = 48,
place = {United States},
year = {2014},
month = {12}
}

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journal, March 2019


Ionic sieving through Ti 3 C 2 (OH) 2 MXene: First-principles calculations
journal, March 2016

  • Berdiyorov, Golibjon R.; Madjet, Mohamed E.; Mahmoud, Khaled A.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 108, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4944393

Penta-MX 2 (M = Ni, Pd and Pt; X = P and As) monolayers: direct band-gap semiconductors with high carrier mobility
journal, January 2019

  • Qian, Shifeng; Sheng, Xiaowei; Xu, Xian
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 7, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1039/c8tc06030d

Hydrogen-induced stabilization and tunable electronic structures of penta-silicene: a computational study
journal, January 2015

  • Ding, Yi; Wang, Yanli
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 3, Issue 43
  • DOI: 10.1039/c5tc02504d

Macroscopic-Scale Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanofiber Architectures for Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices
journal, August 2017

  • Chen, Li-Feng; Feng, Yue; Liang, Hai-Wei
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 7, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201700826

Simultaneous Preparation and Functionalization of 2D Materials Assisted by Amphiphilic MoS 2 Nanosheets
journal, December 2016

  • Shen, Jianfeng; Pei, Yu; Wang, Man
  • Advanced Materials Interfaces, Vol. 4, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/admi.201600847

Elastic properties of 2D Ti 3 C 2 T x MXene monolayers and bilayers
journal, June 2018

  • Lipatov, Alexey; Lu, Haidong; Alhabeb, Mohamed
  • Science Advances, Vol. 4, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat0491

Titanium carbide sheet based high performance wire type solid state supercapacitors
journal, January 2017

  • Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Pazhamalai, Parthiban; Sahoo, Surjit
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 5, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1039/c6ta11198j

Strain engineering of phonon thermal transport properties in monolayer 2H-MoTe 2
journal, January 2017

  • Shafique, Aamir; Shin, Young-Han
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 19, Issue 47
  • DOI: 10.1039/c7cp06065c

Synthesis of novel nanomaterials and their application in efficient removal of radionuclides
journal, June 2019


Recent Advances in Layered Ti 3 C 2 T x MXene for Electrochemical Energy Storage
journal, February 2018


A comparative study on the oxidation of two-dimensional Ti 3 C 2 MXene structures in different environments
journal, January 2018

  • Lotfi, Roghayyeh; Naguib, Michael; Yilmaz, Dundar E.
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 6, Issue 26
  • DOI: 10.1039/c8ta01468j

Effect of glycine functionalization of 2D titanium carbide (MXene) on charge storage
journal, January 2018

  • Chen, Chi; Boota, Muhammad; Urbankowski, Patrick
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 6, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1039/c7ta11347a

Nanoscale Elastic Changes in 2D Ti 3 C 2 T x (MXene) Pseudocapacitive Electrodes
journal, March 2016

  • Come, Jeremy; Xie, Yu; Naguib, Michael
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502290

Synthesis of two-dimensional titanium nitride Ti 4 N 3 (MXene)
journal, January 2016

  • Urbankowski, Patrick; Anasori, Babak; Makaryan, Taron
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 8, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02253g

Recent Advances in Chemical Functionalization of 2D Black Phosphorous Nanosheets
journal, November 2019


Penta-graphene: A new carbon allotrope
journal, February 2015

  • Zhang, Shunhong; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qian
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1416591112

Antiferromagnetic monolayer MnC 2 with density functional theory prediction
journal, April 2018

  • Zhang, Bingwen; Zhang, Qinfang; Bai, Yujie
  • Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Vol. 30, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-648x/aab6c4

Fluoride‐Free Synthesis of Two‐Dimensional Titanium Carbide (MXene) Using A Binary Aqueous System
journal, November 2018

  • Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Panpan; Wang, Faxing
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 57, Issue 47
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201809662

On the Structural Stability of MXene and the Role of Transition Metal Adatoms
journal, January 2018

  • Palisaitis, Justinas; Persson, Ingemar; Halim, Joseph
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 10, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1039/c8nr01986j

Macroporous three-dimensional MXene architectures for highly efficient solar steam generation
journal, January 2019

  • Zhao, Xing; Zha, Xiang-Jun; Pu, Jun-Hong
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta00176j

Electrochemical Reduction of TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 /C to Ti 3 AlC 2 and Its Derived Two-Dimensional (2D) Carbides
journal, January 2018

  • Li, Shangshu; Zou, Xingli; Hu, Yong
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 165, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0181803jes

Layered Orthorhombic Nb 2 O 5 @Nb 4 C 3 T x and TiO 2 @Ti 3 C 2 T x Hierarchical Composites for High Performance Li-ion Batteries
journal, May 2016

  • Zhang, Chuanfang John; Kim, Seon Joon; Ghidiu, Michael
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201600682

Nanoengineering of 2D MXene‐Based Materials for Energy Storage Applications
journal, July 2019


3D Metal Carbide@Mesoporous Carbon Hybrid Architecture as a New Polysulfide Reservoir for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries
journal, October 2016

  • Bao, Weizhai; Su, Dawei; Zhang, Wenxue
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 47
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603704

Insight into In Situ Amphiphilic Functionalization of Few-Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Nanosheets
journal, August 2016


Solution-processed titanium carbide MXene films examined as highly transparent conductors
journal, January 2016

  • Mariano, Marina; Mashtalir, Olha; Antonio, Francisco Q.
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 8, Issue 36
  • DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03682a

Organic-Base-Driven Intercalation and Delamination for the Production of Functionalized Titanium Carbide Nanosheets with Superior Photothermal Therapeutic Performance
journal, October 2016

  • Xuan, Jinnan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Yuyan
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 55, Issue 47
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201606643

Microscopic dynamics in room-temperature ionic liquids confined in materials for supercapacitor applications
journal, January 2020

  • Osti, Naresh C.; Mamontov, Eugene
  • Sustainable Energy & Fuels, Vol. 4, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9se00829b

Front-End-of-Line Integration of Graphene Oxide for Graphene-Based Electrical Platforms
journal, January 2018

  • Lu, Xiaoling; Munief, Walid-Madhat; Heib, Florian
  • Advanced Materials Technologies, Vol. 3, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/admt.201700318

Raman study of 2D anatase TiO 2 nanosheets
journal, January 2016

  • Zhang, Yang; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Ke
  • Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., Vol. 18, Issue 47
  • DOI: 10.1039/c6cp05496j

MXene as a novel intercalation-type pseudocapacitive cathode and anode for capacitive deionization
journal, January 2016

  • Srimuk, Pattarachai; Kaasik, Friedrich; Krüner, Benjamin
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 4, Issue 47
  • DOI: 10.1039/c6ta07833h

Two‐Dimensional Electrocatalysts for Efficient Reduction of Carbon Dioxide
journal, October 2019


Configurable multi-state non-volatile memory behaviors in Ti 3 C 2 nanosheets
journal, January 2019

  • Ding, Guanglong; Zeng, Kelin; Zhou, Kui
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 11, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9nr00747d

Ultrathin MXene-Micropattern-Based Field-Effect Transistor for Probing Neural Activity
journal, February 2016


The effect of hydrazine intercalation on the structure and capacitance of 2D titanium carbide (MXene)
journal, January 2016

  • Mashtalir, O.; Lukatskaya, M. R.; Kolesnikov, A. I.
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 8, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01462c

Ultrathin 2D Nanomaterials for Electromagnetic Interference Shielding
journal, November 2019


Binder-free 2D titanium carbide (MXene)/carbon nanotube composites for high-performance lithium-ion capacitors
journal, January 2018


2D magnetic titanium carbide MXene for cancer theranostics
journal, January 2018

  • Liu, Zhuang; Zhao, Menglong; Lin, Han
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry B, Vol. 6, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1039/c8tb00754c

2D visible-light-driven TiO2@Ti3C2/g-C3N4 ternary heterostructure for high photocatalytic activity
journal, March 2019


Two-Dimensional Nanostructured Materials for Gas Sensing
journal, August 2017

  • Liu, Xianghong; Ma, Tiantian; Pinna, Nicola
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 27, Issue 37
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702168

Heterogeneous Nanostructures for Sodium Ion Batteries and Supercapacitors
journal, September 2015


A Cr 2 CO 2 monolayer as a promising cathode for lithium and non-lithium ion batteries: a computational exploration
journal, January 2016

  • Li, Fengyu; Cabrera, Carlos R.; Wang, Jingyang
  • RSC Advances, Vol. 6, Issue 85
  • DOI: 10.1039/c6ra13491b

Effect of Synthesis on Quality, Electronic Properties and Environmental Stability of Individual Monolayer Ti 3 C 2 MXene Flakes
journal, November 2016

  • Lipatov, Alexey; Alhabeb, Mohamed; Lukatskaya, Maria R.
  • Advanced Electronic Materials, Vol. 2, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/aelm.201600255

Fluoride‐Free Synthesis of Two‐Dimensional Titanium Carbide (MXene) Using A Binary Aqueous System
journal, November 2018


Interwoven MXene Nanosheet/Carbon-Nanotube Composites as Li-S Cathode Hosts
journal, November 2016

  • Liang, Xiao; Rangom, Yverick; Kwok, Chun Yuen
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603040

Layered BiOBr/Ti3C2 MXene composite with improved visible-light photocatalytic activity
journal, October 2018


A Two-Dimensional Zirconium Carbide by Selective Etching of Al 3 C 3 from Nanolaminated Zr 3 Al 3 C 5
journal, March 2016

  • Zhou, Jie; Zha, Xianhu; Chen, Fan Y.
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 55, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201510432

Emergent Pseudocapacitance of 2D Nanomaterials
journal, February 2018


A facile method for synthesizing CuS decorated Ti 3 C 2 MXene with enhanced performance for asymmetric supercapacitors
journal, January 2019

  • Pan, Zhihu; Cao, Fa; Hu, Xing
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta00085b

Facile Solution Processing of Stable MXene Dispersions towards Conductive Composite Fibers
journal, July 2019

  • Seyedin, Shayan; Zhang, Jizhen; Usman, Ken Aldren S.
  • Global Challenges, Vol. 3, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/gch2.201900037

Nanolaminated composite materials: structure, interface role and applications
journal, January 2016

  • Azadmanjiri, Jalal; Berndt, Christopher C.; Wang, James
  • RSC Advances, Vol. 6, Issue 111
  • DOI: 10.1039/c6ra20050h

Electronic properties and applications of MXenes: a theoretical review
journal, January 2017

  • Khazaei, Mohammad; Ranjbar, Ahmad; Arai, Masao
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 5, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1039/c7tc00140a

Layered Ti 3 C 2 MXene modified two-dimensional Bi 2 WO 6 composites with enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance
journal, January 2019

  • Zhao, Danxia; Cai, Chun
  • Materials Chemistry Frontiers, Vol. 3, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9qm00570f

Fluorine-free Ti 3 C 2 T x (T = O, OH) nanosheets (∼50–100 nm) for nitrogen fixation under ambient conditions
journal, January 2019

  • Li, Tengfei; Yan, Xudong; Huang, Lujun
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta03254a

Emerging Two‐Dimensional Nanomaterials for Cancer Therapy
journal, August 2019


Novel elastic, lattice dynamics and thermodynamic properties of metallic single-layer transition metal phosphides: 2H- M 2 P (Mo 2 P, W 2 P, Nb 2 P and Ta 2 P)
journal, March 2018

  • Yin, Jiuren; Wu, Bozhao; Wang, Yanggang
  • Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Vol. 30, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-648x/aaaf3c

A high-performance trace level acetone sensor using an indispensable V 4 C 3 T x MXene
journal, January 2020

  • Zhao, Wei-Na; Yun, Na; Dai, Zhen-Hua
  • RSC Advances, Vol. 10, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9ra09069j

Layered ternary M n +1 AX n phases and their 2D derivative MXene: an overview from a thin-film perspective
journal, February 2017

  • Eklund, Per; Rosen, Johanna; Persson, Per O. Å
  • Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 50, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/aa57bc

Penta-BxNy sheet: a density functional theory study of two-dimensional material
journal, August 2016

  • Li, Jiao; Fan, Xinyu; Wei, Yanpei
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep31840

Ti 3 C 2 T x (MXene)–polyacrylamide nanocomposite films
journal, January 2016

  • Naguib, Michael; Saito, Tomonori; Lai, Sophia
  • RSC Advances, Vol. 6, Issue 76
  • DOI: 10.1039/c6ra10384g

2D Ultrathin MXene-Based Drug-Delivery Nanoplatform for Synergistic Photothermal Ablation and Chemotherapy of Cancer
journal, February 2018

  • Han, Xiaoxia; Huang, Ju; Lin, Han
  • Advanced Healthcare Materials, Vol. 7, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/adhm.201701394

Heterostructures of MXenes and N-doped graphene as highly active bifunctional electrocatalysts
journal, January 2018


Review of MXenes as new nanomaterials for energy storage/delivery and selected environmental applications
journal, October 2018


Graphene for batteries, supercapacitors and beyond
journal, May 2016


Two-Step Oxidation of Mxene in the Synthesis of Layer-Stacked Anatase Titania with Enhanced Lithium-Storage Performance
journal, April 2016


Exploring the synergy of 2D MXene-supported black phosphorus quantum dots in hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions
journal, January 2018

  • Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Xie, Ying; Liu, Yi-Tao
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 6, Issue 43
  • DOI: 10.1039/c8ta08374f

Electronic and Optical Properties of 2D Transition Metal Carbides and Nitrides (MXenes)
journal, November 2018


Pristine Titanium Carbide MXene Films with Environmentally Stable Conductivity and Superior Mechanical Strength
journal, November 2019

  • Chen, Hongwu; Wen, Yeye; Qi, Yingyi
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 30, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201906996

Surface Tension Components Based Selection of Cosolvents for Efficient Liquid Phase Exfoliation of 2D Materials
journal, April 2016


VC 2 and V 1/2 Mn 1/2 C 2 nanosheets with robust mechanical and thermal properties as promising materials for Li-ion batteries
journal, January 2019

  • Zhang, Bingwen; Zhang, Weiyi; Meng, Qiangqiang
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 21, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1039/c8cp06487c

Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of Two-Dimensional RGO/Ti3C2Tx Nanocomposites
journal, January 2018

  • Shen, Changjie; Wang, Libo; Zhou, Aiguo
  • Nanomaterials, Vol. 8, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3390/nano8020080

In situ atomistic insight into the growth mechanisms of single layer 2D transition metal carbides
journal, June 2018


Recent advances in MXene: Preparation, properties, and applications
journal, June 2015


Double transition metal MXenes with wide band gaps and novel magnetic properties
journal, January 2018

  • Sun, Weiwei; Xie, Yu; Kent, Paul R. C.
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 10, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1039/c8nr00513c

A New Family of Two‐Dimensional Topological Materials: CdX (X = F, Cl, Br, and I)
journal, January 2019

  • Yi, Xiao; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Pan
  • physica status solidi (RRL) – Rapid Research Letters, Vol. 13, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201800466

Applications of 2D MXenes in energy conversion and storage systems
journal, January 2019

  • Pang, Jinbo; Mendes, Rafael G.; Bachmatiuk, Alicja
  • Chemical Society Reviews, Vol. 48, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1039/c8cs00324f

Two‐dimensional MXenes for lithium‐sulfur batteries
journal, January 2020

  • Zhang, Chuanfang (John); Cui, Linfan; Abdolhosseinzadeh, Sina
  • InfoMat, Vol. 2, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/inf2.12080

Photoluminescent Ti 3 C 2 MXene Quantum Dots for Multicolor Cellular Imaging
journal, February 2017


Fluorine-Free Synthesis of High-Purity Ti 3 C 2 T x (T=OH, O) via Alkali Treatment
journal, April 2018

  • Li, Tengfei; Yao, Lulu; Liu, Qinglei
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 57, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201800887

The strategies of advanced cathode composites for lithium-sulfur batteries
journal, January 2017

  • Zhou, Kuan; Fan, XiaoJing; Wei, XiangFeng
  • Science China Technological Sciences, Vol. 60, Issue 2
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Experimental and theoretical calculation investigation on efficient Pb( ii ) adsorption on etched Ti 3 AlC 2 nanofibers and nanosheets
journal, January 2018

  • Gu, Pengcheng; Xing, Jinlu; Wen, Tao
  • Environmental Science: Nano, Vol. 5, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1039/c8en00029h

Interfacial competition between a borophene-based cathode and electrolyte for the multiple-sulfide immobilization of a lithium sulfur battery
journal, January 2019

  • Rao, Dewei; Liu, Xiaojing; Yang, Huan
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1039/c8ta12176a

Penta-Graphene: a new Carbon Allotrope
journal, December 2015

  • Zhang, Shunhong; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qian
  • Radioelectronics. Nanosystems. Information Technologies., Vol. 7, Issue 2
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