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Title: Empirical formulas for direct double ionization by bare ions: Z = - 1 to 92

Experimental cross sections and cross-section ratios reported in the literature for direct double ionization of the outer shells of helium, neon, and argon atoms resulting from bare ions ranging from protons to uranium and for antiprotons are analyzed in terms of a first- and second-order interference model originally proposed by McGuire [J. H. McGuire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1153 (1982)]. Empirical formulas for the various contributions to double ionization plus information about the phase difference between the first- and second-order mechanisms are extracted from the data. Projectile and target scalings are also extracted. Total cross sections and their ratios determined using these formulas and scalings are shown to be in very good agreement with experimental data for lower-Z projectiles and impact velocities larger than 1 a.u. For very-high-Z projectiles, the amount of double ionization is overestimated, probably due to saturation of probabilities that is not accounted for in scaling formulas.
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Publication Date:
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review. A
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 90; Journal Issue: 5; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-04-06 02:59:54; Journal ID: ISSN 1050-2947
American Physical Society
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
OSTI Identifier: