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Title: Small-angle neutron scattering study of magnetic ordering and inhomogeneity across the martensitic phase transformation in Ni 50–xCo xMn₄₀Sn₁₀ alloys

The Heusler-derived multiferroic alloy Ni 50–xCo xMn₄₀Sn₁₀ has recently been shown to exhibit, at just above room temperature, a highly reversible martensitic phase transformation with an unusually large magnetization change. In this work the nature of the magnetic ordering above and below this transformation has been studied in detail in the critical composition range x = 6–8 via temperature-dependent (5–600 K) magnetometry and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). We observe fairly typical paramagnetic to long-range-ordered ferromagnetic phase transitions on cooling to 420–430 K, with the expected critical spin fluctuations, followed by first-order martensitic phase transformations to a nonferromagnetic state below 360–390 K. The static magnetization reveals complex magnetism in this low-temperature nonferromagnetic phase, including a Langevin-like field dependence, distinct spin freezing near 60 K, and significant exchange bias effects, consistent with superparamagnetic blocking of ferromagnetic clusters of nanoscopic dimensions. We demonstrate that these spin clusters, whose existence has been hypothesized in a variety of martensitic alloys exhibiting competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, can be directly observed by SANS. The scattering data are consistent with a liquidlike spatial distribution of interacting magnetic clusters with a mean center-to-center spacing of 12 nm. Considering the behavior of the superparmagnetism, cooling-field and temperature-dependentmore » exchange bias, and magnetic SANS, we discuss in detail the physical form and origin of these spin clusters, their intercluster interactions, the nature of the ground-state magnetic ordering in the martensitic phase, and the implications for our understanding of such alloy systems.« less
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Publication Date:
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 85; Journal Issue: 13; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-06-20 13:58:20; Journal ID: ISSN 1098-0121
American Physical Society
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
OSTI Identifier: