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Title: Evaluation of niobium as candidate electrode material for dc high voltage photoelectron guns

Abstract

In this study, the field emission characteristics of niobium electrodes were compared to those of stainless steel electrodes using a DC high voltage field emission test apparatus. A total of eight electrodes were evaluated: two 304 stainless steel electrodes polished to mirror-like finish with diamond grit and six niobium electrodes (two single-crystal, two large-grain and two fine-grain) that were chemically polished using a buffered-chemical acid solution. Upon the first application of high voltage, the best large-grain and single-crystal niobium electrodes performed better than the best stainless steel electrodes, exhibiting less field emission at comparable voltage and gradient. In all cases, field emission from electrodes (stainless steel and/or niobium) could be significantly reduced and sometimes completely eliminated, by introducing krypton gas into the vacuum chamber while the electrode was biased at high voltage. Of all the electrodes tested, a large-grain niobium electrode performed the best, exhibiting no measurable field emission (< 10 pA) at 225 kV with 20 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to a gradient of 18.7 MV/m.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP)
OSTI Identifier:
1074783
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1049492
Report Number(s):
JLAB-ACC-12-1571; DOE/OR/23177-2169
Journal ID: ISSN 1098-4402; PRABFM; 083502
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-06OR23177; AC05-84ER40150
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review Special Topics. Accelerators and Beams
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 15; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 1098-4402
Publisher:
American Physical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

Citation Formats

BastaniNejad, M., Mohamed, Md. Abdullah, Elmustafa, A. A., Adderley, P., Clark, J., Covert, S., Hansknecht, J., Hernandez-Garcia, C., Poelker, M., Mammei, R., Surles-Law, K., and Williams, P. Evaluation of niobium as candidate electrode material for dc high voltage photoelectron guns. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.15.083502.
BastaniNejad, M., Mohamed, Md. Abdullah, Elmustafa, A. A., Adderley, P., Clark, J., Covert, S., Hansknecht, J., Hernandez-Garcia, C., Poelker, M., Mammei, R., Surles-Law, K., & Williams, P. Evaluation of niobium as candidate electrode material for dc high voltage photoelectron guns. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.15.083502.
BastaniNejad, M., Mohamed, Md. Abdullah, Elmustafa, A. A., Adderley, P., Clark, J., Covert, S., Hansknecht, J., Hernandez-Garcia, C., Poelker, M., Mammei, R., Surles-Law, K., and Williams, P. Fri . "Evaluation of niobium as candidate electrode material for dc high voltage photoelectron guns". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.15.083502.
@article{osti_1074783,
title = {Evaluation of niobium as candidate electrode material for dc high voltage photoelectron guns},
author = {BastaniNejad, M. and Mohamed, Md. Abdullah and Elmustafa, A. A. and Adderley, P. and Clark, J. and Covert, S. and Hansknecht, J. and Hernandez-Garcia, C. and Poelker, M. and Mammei, R. and Surles-Law, K. and Williams, P.},
abstractNote = {In this study, the field emission characteristics of niobium electrodes were compared to those of stainless steel electrodes using a DC high voltage field emission test apparatus. A total of eight electrodes were evaluated: two 304 stainless steel electrodes polished to mirror-like finish with diamond grit and six niobium electrodes (two single-crystal, two large-grain and two fine-grain) that were chemically polished using a buffered-chemical acid solution. Upon the first application of high voltage, the best large-grain and single-crystal niobium electrodes performed better than the best stainless steel electrodes, exhibiting less field emission at comparable voltage and gradient. In all cases, field emission from electrodes (stainless steel and/or niobium) could be significantly reduced and sometimes completely eliminated, by introducing krypton gas into the vacuum chamber while the electrode was biased at high voltage. Of all the electrodes tested, a large-grain niobium electrode performed the best, exhibiting no measurable field emission (< 10 pA) at 225 kV with 20 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to a gradient of 18.7 MV/m.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.15.083502},
journal = {Physical Review Special Topics. Accelerators and Beams},
number = 8,
volume = 15,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.15.083502

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Cited by: 12 works
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    Works referencing / citing this record:

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