The Manhattan Project, An Interactive History Home The Manhattan Project, An Interactive History Home Department of Energy Home Office of History and Heritage Resources Home DOEHome
J.R. Oppenheimer and General Groves

Time Periods

Atomic Discoveries

Government Support


The Uranium
Path to
the Bomb

The Plutonium
Path to
the Bomb

Bringing It All Together

Dawn of the
Atomic Era

Postscript --
The Nuclear Age

Ernest Rutherford (and James Chadwick, on the far right)EXPLORING THE ATOM
Events > Atomic Discoveries, 1890s-1939

In 1919, New Zealander Ernest Rutherford reported on a series of experiments he had been conducting in Manchester. Rutherford found that nitrogen nuclei ejected what he suspected was "a hydrogen atom" when bombarded with energetic α (alpha) particles. Subsequently, he named this fundamental particle the proton.

The final addition to the atomic "miniature solar system", first proposed by Niels Bohr, came in 1932 when James Chadwick, Rutherford's colleague at Cambridge, identified the third and final basic particle of the atom: the neutron.

(Simplified) modern model of an atom (of beryllium).By the early 1930s, the atom was thought to consist of a positively charged nucleus, containing both protons and neutrons, circled by negatively charged electrons equal in number to the protons in the nucleus.  The number of protons determined the element's atomic number.  Hydrogen, with one proton, came first and uranium, with ninety-two protons, last Excerpt from the comic book "Adventures Inside the Atom." Click on this image or visit the "Library" to view the whole comic book. on the periodic table. This simple scheme became more complicated when chemists discovered that many elements existed at different weights even while displaying identical chemical properties.  It was Chadwick's discovery of the neutron in 1932 that explained this mystery.  Scientists found that the weight discrepancy between atoms of the same element resulted because they contained different numbers of neutrons.  These different classes of atoms of the same element but with varying numbers of neutrons were designated isotopes.  The three isotopes of uranium found in nature, for instance, all have ninety-two protons in their nuclei and ninety-two electrons in orbit.  But uranium-238, which accounts for over ninety-nine percent of natural uranium, has 146 neutrons in its nucleus, compared with 143 neutrons in the rare uranium-235 (.7 percent of natural uranium) and 142 neutrons in uranium-234, which is found only in traces in the heavy metal.  The slight difference in atomic weight between the uranium-235 and uranium-238 isotopes figured greatly in nuclear physics during the 1930s and 1940s.  

M. Stanley Livingston and Ernest O. Lawrence in front of a 27-inch cyclotron, Rad Lab, University of California, Berkeley, 1934.The year 1932 produced other notable events in atomic physics.  The Englishman J. D. Cockcroft and the Irishman E. T. S. Walton, working jointly at the Cavendish Laboratory, were the first to split the atom when they bombarded lithium with protons generated by a type of particle accelerator (dubbed a "Cockcroft-Walton machine") and changed the resulting lithium nucleus into two helium nuclei.  Also in that year, Ernest O. Lawrence and his colleagues M. Stanley Livingston and Milton White successfully operated the first cyclotron at the University of California, Berkeley (right).

Previous    Next

Sources and notes for this page.

The text for this page was adapted from, and portions were taken directly from, the Office of History and Heritage Resources publication: F. G. Gosling, The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb (DOE/MA-0001; Washington: History Division, Department of Energy, January 1999), 1. The photograph of Ernest Rutherford (and James Chadwick in the background) is courtesy the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The atom graphic is a combination of graphics that were originally produced by the Washington State Department of Health (the nucleus) and the Environmental Protection Agency (everything else); the combination of the two graphics, the labels, and other customizations, are original to the Department of Energy's Office of History and Heritage Resources. The photograph of the cyclotron at the "Rad Lab," and its caption, are courtesy the National Archives. Click here for more information on the comic book images.

Home | History Office | OpenNet | DOE | Privacy and Security Notices
About this Site | How to Navigate this Site | Note on Sources | Site Map | Contact Us