Document Details


Title:
PLUTONIUM AND AMERICIUM IN SOILS OF BIKINI ATOLL ( REPRINT FROM " TRANSURANIUM NUCLIDES IN THE ENVIRONMENT ", IAEA, VIENA, 1976 )
Author(s):
NEVISSI, A [UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, SEATTLE]; SCHELL, W R [UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, SEATTLE]; NELSON, V A [UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, SEATTLE]
Document Location:
Location - NNSA/NSO Nuclear Testing Archive Address - P.O. Box 98521 City - Las Vegas State - NV Zip - 89193-8521 Phone - (702)794-5106 Fax - (702)862-4240 Email - CIC@NV.DOE.GOV
Document Type:
REPORT
Publication Date:
1976 Dec 31
Declassification Status:
Never classified
Document Pages:
0013
Accession Number:
NV0067594
Document Number(s):
IAEASM19963
Originating Research Org.:
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, SEATTLE
OpenNet Entry Date:
1994 Aug 26
Description/Abstract:
A SUDY HAS BEEN MADE TO DETERMINE THE CONCENTRATIONS OF PLUTONIUM AND AMERICIUM IN SURFACE SOILS AND IN SOIL PROFILES ON BIKINI ATOLL. THE S OILS CONSIST OF CALCAREOUS MATERIALS AND A THIN LAYER OF ORGANIC MATTE R, WHICH HAS PRODUCED A SHALLOW, ORGANICALLY RICH HORIZON SUITABLE FOR CERTAIN PLANT GROWTH. DURING THE TESTING PERIOD FROM 1946 THROUGH 195 8 BIKINI ATOLL WAS THE SITE OF 23 NUCLEAR DETONATIONS WHICH CONTAMINAT ED THE ISLANDS OF THE ATOLL WITH RADIOACTIVE FALL-OUT, INCLUDING THE T RANSURANIUM ELEMENTS. PLUTONIUM AND AMERICIUM MEASUREMENTS OF SURFACE SOIL SAMPLES COLLECTED ON 6 OF THE 26 ISLANDS OF THE ATOLL SHOW THAT P LUTONIUM-239 PLUTONIUM-240 VALUES VARY FROM 0.5 TO 360 PICO CURIES PER GRAM AND AMERICIUM-241 VALUES FROM 1.2 TO 45 PICO CURIES PER GRAM. TH E VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION PLUTONIUM IN SOIL VARIES FROM AREA TO AREA. AL THOUGH ABOUT 98 PERCENT OF THE PLUTONIU IS RETAINED IN THE TOP 25 CM I N ONE CORE PROFILE, THE REMAINING 2 PERCENT IS DETECTABLE AS DEEP AS 1 00 CM. THE SUSPENSION AND RESUSPENSION OF PLUTONIUM TRANSPORT IN THE S OIL. 00 CM. THE SUSPENSION AND RESUSPENSION OF PLUTONIUM AND PLUTONIUM-BEAR ING PARTICLES BY RAINWATER (150-175 CENTIMETERS PER ANNUM SEEMS TO BE THE PRINCIPAL MODE OF PLUTONIUM TRANSPORT IN THE SOIL. PLUTONIUM IS FO UND ASSOCIATED WITH THE ALGAL CRUST OF THE ATOLL SOILS. THE PRESENT CO NCENTRATIONS OF PLUTONIUM-239, 240 AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION AT BIKINI AR E NOT LIKELY TO CHANGE SIGNIFICANTLY, WHEREAS AMERICIUM-241 CONCENTRAT IONS WILL INCREASE BY PLUTONIUM-241 DECAY AND WILL APPROACH A MAXIMUM VALUE IN ABOUT 50 YEARS.


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