Document Details


Title:
OPERATION HARDTACK, PROJECT 1.6 - WATER - WAVE MEASUREMENTS, APRIL - OCTOBER 1958 ( HARDTACK-I ) (DELETED)
Author(s):
KIDD, L W [SCRIPPS INSTITUTE OF OCEANOGRAPHY]; JOHNSON, R H [SCRIPPS INSTITUTE OF OCEANOGRAPHY]
Subject Terms:
HARDTACK I OPERATION; WAHOO EVENT; UMBRELLA EVENT; UNDERWATER EXPLOSIONS; RESEARCH PROGRAMS; MEASURING METHODS; SHOCK WAVES; CALCULATION METHODS
Document Location:
Location - NNSA/NSO Nuclear Testing Archive Address - P.O. Box 98521 City - Las Vegas State - NV Zip - 89193-8521 Phone - (702)794-5106 Fax - (702)862-4240 Email - CIC@NV.DOE.GOV
Document Type:
REPORT
Publication Date:
1961 Jun 23
Declassification Status:
Sanitized
Document Pages:
0072
Accession Number:
NV0051371
Document Number(s):
WT1611EX
OpenNet Entry Date:
1994 Aug 26
Description/Abstract:
THE OBJECTIVES WERE TO STUDY WAVE GENERATION MECHANISMS FOR TWO UNDERW ATER SHOTS, WAHOO AND UMBRELLA, AND TO EXAMINE THE TERMINAL EFFECTS OF THESE WAVES BY INUNDATION STUDIES. THESE STUDIES WERE TO BE INTEGRATE D WITH THE RESULTS OF PREVIOUS NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS UNDER RELATED GEOMET RIES TO THE END THAT RATIONAL PREDICTION MIGHT BE MADE OF THE WATER WA VES RESULTING FROM FUTURE NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS. INSTRUMENTATION FOR THES E SHOTS CONSISTED OF VARIOUS TYPES OF UNDERWATER PRESSURE-TIME RECORDE RS, SHIPBOARD-MOUNTED GYRO-REFERENCED INCLINOMETERS, CAMERAS, AND INUN DATION GAGES. INSTRUMENT FAILURE WAS VERY HIGH FOR WAHOO; HOWEVER, UMB RELLA WAS MORE SUCCESSFULLY DOCUMENTED. RESULTS OF WAHOO HAVE BEEN DED UCED PRIMARILY FROM A PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD OF THE MOTION OF A DEEP-MOOR ED FLOATING STATION ( CORACLE ) SUPPLEMENTED BY PIECES OF INFORMATION FROM OTHER INCOMPLETE RECORDS. THE PIECING TOGETHER OF THE DATA ALLOWE D A REASONABLY RELIABLE EXTRAPOLATION TO THE FIRST NODE OF THE WAVE EN VELOPE FOR A DEEP WATER RECORD AT 4,500 FEET RANGE FROM SURFACE ZERO. THIS RECORD WAS COMPARED WITH THE THEORY IN REFERENCE 1 AND FOUND TO G IVE VERY GOOD AGREEMENT FOR SOURCE CONDITIONS OF A PARABOLIC DEPRESSIO N WITH A 213-FOOT INITIAL DEPTH AND A 940-FOOT RADIUS. PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE PLUME AT + 7 SECONDS CORROBORATE THIS LATERAL DIMENSION. BECAUSE W IGWAM WAS THE ONLY OTHER NUCLEAR SHOT WHICH COULD BE READILY COMPARED WITH WAHOO, THE RESULTS FROM THAT SHOT WERE CLOSELY REEXAMINED AND THE SAME RECONSTRUCITON TECHNIQUES APPLIED AS FOR WAHOO. CRATER DIMENSION S DERIVED FROM APPLICATION OF THE THEORY OF REFERENCE 1 INDICATED A DE EPER AND NARROWER PARABOLOID THAN FOR WAHOO. CORRELATION OF THE THEORE TICAL WAVE ENVELOPE WITH THAT RECORDED WAS NOT AS CLOSE AS FOR WAHOO,B UT THIS CAN BE ASCRIBED TO THE FACT THAT ALL THE ENERGY FOR THE WIGWAM WAVES WAS NOT RELEASED FROM SURFACE ZERO AT A SPECIFIC TIME. THE SIGN IFICANT FACT IS THAT THE HIGHER GROUP VELOCITY MEASURED FOR WAHOO WAVE S WAS DUE TO ITS GREATER CRATER RADIUS DESPITE THE FACT THAT THE WIGWA M WAVES CONTAINED MORE ENERGY. A VERY ROUGH SCALING RELATIONSHIP BETWE EN WIGWAM AND WAHOO CAN BE DERIVED, BUT IT IS IMPORTANT TO RECOGNIZE T HE LIMITATIONS OF ANY FORMULA BASED ON SUCH SCANTY DATA. THE TRANSITIO N FROM CUBE ROOT TO FOURTH ROOT IN SCALING FROM SMALL TO LARGE YIELDS WAS EXPLORED AND ILLUSTRATED BY MEANS OF PROJECT SEAL DATA. UMBRELLA W AVE RECORDS WERE OBTAINED FROM THREE PRESSURE-TIME RECORDERS AT CLOSE RANGE, TWO PRESSURE-TIME RECORDERS AND AN INCLINOMETER AT INTERMEDIATE RANGE, AND A LONG-RANGE PRESSURE-TIME-RECORDING SHORE STATION. THE DA TA OBTAINED WAS ANALYZED IN THE SAME MANNER AS FOR LAGOON SHOTS IN PRE VIOUS OPERATIONS AND WAS FOUND TO COINCIDE WITH THE EXTRAPOLATED OPERA TION REDWING DATA FOR A DEVICE OF EQUAL YIELD DETONATED AT THE SURFACE . THE ENHANCEMENT OF WAVEMAKING EFFICIENCY DUE TO SUBMERGENCE, WHICH H AS BEEN OBSERVED FOR ALL OTHER UNDERWATER NUCLEAR SHOTS, WAS NOT OBSER VED FOR UMBRELLA. IT MAY BE HYPOTHESIZED THAT THE LOCATION OF THE DEVI CE ON THE BOTTOM ALLOWED IT TO TRANSMIT MUCH OF ITS ENERGY DIRECTLY IN TO THE EARTH, AS A SURFACE SHOT TRANSMITS THE PREPONDERANCE OF ITS ENE RGY INTO THE ATMOSPHERE. INUNDATION FROM WAHOO WAS MUCH GREATER THAN A NTICIPATED. INUNDATION FROM UMBRELLA WAS NEGLIGIBLE BECAUSE OF THE PRO TECTION AFFORDED THE ISLANDS BY AN EXTENSIVE LAGOON REEF.


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