Document Details


Title:
OPERATION HARDTACK-PROJECT 8.1: EFFECTS OF MATERIALS OF THERMAL RADIATION FROM NUCLEAR DETONATIONS (DELETED)
Author(s):
DERKSEN, W L [NAVAL MATERIAL LABORATORY, NEW YORK NAVAL SHIPYARD, BROOKLYN, NY]; CARTER, J A [NAVAL MATERIAL LABORATORY, NEW YORK NAVAL SHIPYARD, BROOKLYN, NY]; HIRSCHMAN, A [NAVAL MATERIAL LABORATORY, NEW YORK NAVAL SHIPYARD, BROOKLYN, NY]; DELHERY, G P [NAVAL MATERIAL LABORATORY, NEW YORK NAVAL SHIPYARD, BROOKLYN, NY]; KORBEL, H [NAVAL MATERIAL LABORATORY, NEW YORK NAVAL SHIPYARD, BROOKLYN, NY]
Subject Terms:
HARDTACK I OPERATION; THERMAL RADIATION; PROTECTIVE CLOTHING; YELLOWWOOD EVENT; WALNUT EVENT; TEAK EVENT; ORANGE EVENT; RADIATION EFFECTS; RADIATION PROTECTION; EQUIPMENT
Document Location:
Location - NNSA/NSO Nuclear Testing Archive Address - P.O. Box 98521 City - Las Vegas State - NV Zip - 89193-8521 Phone - (702)794-5106 Fax - (702)862-4240 Email - CIC@NV.DOE.GOV
Document Type:
REPORT
Publication Date:
1960 Sep 08
Declassification Status:
Sanitized
Document Pages:
0040
Accession Number:
NV0051049
Document Number(s):
WT1647EX
Originating Research Org.:
NAVAL MATERIAL LABORATORY, NEW YORK NAVAL SHIPYARD
OpenNet Entry Date:
1994 Aug 26
Description/Abstract:
THE PRIMARY OBJECTIVE WAS TO DETERMINE THE ADEQUACY OF LABORATORY METH ODS FOR INVESTIGATING THE PROTECTION AFFORDED BY CLOTHING AGAINST THE THERMAL RADIATION FROM NUCLEAR WEAPONS. THE SKIN SIMULANT THAT HAS BE EN USED EXTENSIVELY IN THE LABORATORY WAS USED AS THE RECEIVING INSTRU MENT. THE OTHER OBJECTIVE WAS TO MAKE BASIC THERMAL-RADIATION MEASURE MENTS ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE NEAR GROUND ZERO AND AT GREAT DISTANCES D URING VERY-HIGH ALTITUDE DETONATIONS (SHOTS TEAK AND ORANGE). TO BE I NVESTIGATED IN THE SKIN-SIMULANT STUDY WAS THE ADEQUACY OF LABORATORY THERMAL-RADIATION SOURCES AS TO TIME VARIATION OF IRRADIANCE, AREA OF IRRADIATION, AND SOURCE SPECTRUM. TO DETERMINE THE ADEQUACY OF LABORA TORY METHODS IN THESE RESPECTS, THE SKIN SIMULANTS WERE EXPOSED IN THR EE SPECTRALLY DIFFERENT ABSORBING SITUATIONS AND BEHIND APERTURES OF F OUR DIFFERENT DIAMETERS. EXPOSURES WERE MADE DURING SHOTS YELLOWWOOD AND WALNUT. THE RESULTING SKIN-SIMULANT TEMPERATURES, WHICH ARE RELAT ED TO BURN LEVEL, WERE COMPARED WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH THOSE PREDICT ED FROM LABORATORY RESULTS. THE AVERAGE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE LABOR ATORY AND FIELD IN MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE RISE IN THE SPECTRALLY NEUTRAL SPECIMENS WERE 15 PERCENT, THE LABORATORY VALES BEING LOWER. THIS DIF FERENCE INCLUDES AN ESTIMATED 10-PERCENT EXPERIMENTAL UNCERTAINTY; THE REMAINING DISCREPANCY IS ATTRIBUTED OT DIFFERENCES IN THE TIME VARIAT ION OF IRRADIANCE. IN BOTH DETONATIONS THE TEMPERATURE RISES OF THE S IMULANTS COVERED BY THE INFRARED-REFLECTING, HOT-WET (POPLIN) UNIFORM YIELDED LOWER TEMPERATURE RISES THAN THOSE OBTAINED WITH THE EQUIVALEN T PULSE DELIVERED BY THE LABORATORY SOURCE. THESE LOWER TEMPERATURES ARE RATIONAL AND RESULT FROM THE LOWER RADIATING TEMPERATURES OF THE S URFACE DETONATIONS. THE DEPENDENCE OF MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE RISE ON THE DIAMETER OF THE IRRADIATED AREA, FOR THE UNCOVERED SIMULANTS AND SIMU LANTS WITH CLOTH IN CONTACT, WAS AS PREDICTED BY THE LABORATORY MEASUR EMENTS. THE MEASURED IRRADIANCE HISTORIES OF BOTH SHOTS YELLOWWOOD AN D WALNUT WERE IN GOOD AGREEMENT WITH THE GENERALIZED FIELD PULSE FROM ZERO TIME TO APPROXIMATELY EIGHT TIMES THE TIME TO THE SECOND IRRADIAN CE MAXIMUM AT WHICH POINT OBSCURATION SET IN, GREATLY ATTENUATING THE REMAINDER OR "TAIL" OF EACH PULSE. ALTHOUGH THE ATTENUATION OF THE TA IL DID NOT AFFECT THE MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE RISE GENERATED IN THE SIMULA NT ASSEMBLIES, IT MAKES THE TOTAL PULSE INTEGRAL AN UNRELIABLE INDEX O F THE TOTAL FLUX IN THE CORRESPONDING GENERALIZED PULSE. THE RADIANT EXPOSURES AND IRRADIANCE HISTORIES WERE MEASURED DURING SHOTS TEAK AND ORANGE AT FOUR SURFACE STATIONS AND ONE AIRBORN STATION. DATA OBTAIN ED AT THESE STATIONS WAS EMPLOYED TO DOCUMENT THE THERMAL RADIATION FO R THE RETINAL-BURN STUDIES OF PROJECT 4.1. SKIN SIMULANTS WERE EXPOSE D AT THE NEAREST STATION FOR EACH SHOT TO OBTAIN DATA FOR SKIN-BURN ST UDIES. THE IRRADIANCE HISTORIES WERE OBTAINED WITH A RECEIVER SYSTEM THAT HAD A LIMITED TIME RESPONSE AND A SENSITIVITY IN ONLY THE VISIBLE AND NEAR-INFRARED REGIONS. THE IRRADIANCE HISTORY WAS NOT RESOLVED F OR THE FIRST 10 MSEC; THEREAFTER THE IRRADIANCE DECAYED IN A REGULAR M ANNER UNTIL 200 MESEC, WHEN THE TRACE DEFLECTIONS WERE TOO SMALL FOR D EFINITION. THE IRRADIANCE HISTORIES, WHEN NORMALIZED AT 100 MSEC, WER E THE SAME WITHIN 5 PERCENT AT EACH OF THE STATIONS. THE IRRADIANCE H ISTORY FOR SHOT ORANGE WAS FAIRLY CONSTANT FROM 40 TO 170 MSEC AND THE N DECAYED TO A SMALL VALUE IN ANOTHER 70 MSEC.


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