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Title:
OPERATION TEAPOT, PROJ 37.3, EVALUATION OF THE ACUTE INHALATION HAZARD FR RADIOACTIVE FALL-OUT MATERIALS BY ANALYSIS OF RESULTS FR FIELD OPERATION + CONTROLLED INHALATION STUDIES IN THE LABORATORY
Document Location:
Location - DOE/NNSA NUCLEAR TESTING ARCHIVE Address - P.O. Box 98521 City - Las Vegas State - NV Zip - 89193-8521 Phone - (702)794-5106 Fax - (702)862-4240 Email - NTA@NV.DOE.GOV
Document Type:
REPORT
Publication Date:
1955 Feb 28
Declassification Status:
Unknown
Document Pages:
0026
Accession Number:
NV0006245
Document Number(s):
WT1172
Originating Research Org.:
Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
OpenNet Entry Date:
1994 Aug 26
OpenNet Modified Date:
2008 Mar 31
Description/Abstract:
AN EVALUATION OF THE ACUTE INHALATION HAZARD FROM RADIOACTIVE FALL-OUT MATERIALS HAS BEEN MADE BY ANALYSIS OF RESULTS FROM ANIMAL EXPOSURES DURING FIELD OPERATIONS AND FROM CONTROLLED INHALATION STUDIES IN THE LABORATORY. RABBITS AND RATS HAVE BEEN SUBJECTED TO CONTROLLED INHALA TION EXPOSURES TO DUSTS PREPARED BY MICROPULVERIZING FUSED INSOLUBLE-R ADIOACTIVE SILICEOUS MATERIAL OBTAINED FROM AREA 3 AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE, OPERATION UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE. IN THESE LABORATORY STUDIES, FIELD C ONDITIONS WERE SIMULATED IN RESPECT TO DURATION OF EXPOSURE, PARTICLE- SIZE DISTRIBUTION, AND LEVELS OF AIR-BORNE RADIOACTIVITY INVOLVED. TH E RELATION BETWEEN PARTICLE SIZE, DUST CONCENTRATION, AND DURATION OF EXPOSURES TO INITIAL DEPOSITION IN THE LUNGS AND GASTROINTESTINAL TRAC T HAS BEEN DETERMINED. IN ADDITION, THE RATES OF REMOVAL HAVE BEEN ME ASURED. THE LABORATORY STUDIES DEMONSTRATE TWO IMPORTANT PHYSIOLOGICA L-SAFETY FACTORS AGAINST THE RETENTION OF DANGEROUS QUANTITIES OF INHA LED PARTICULATE MATERIALS. THESE ARE, FIRST, THE FILTRATION MECHANISM OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY PASSAGES WHICH LIMITS PULMONARY RETENTION TO PARTICLES OF SMALL SIZE (BELOW 5.0 MICRONS), AND, SECOND, THE NORMAL CLEARANCE MECHANISMS OF THE UPPER AND LOWER LUNG PASSAGES WHICH REMOVE INITIALLY DEPOSITED LARGE AND SMALL PARTICLES AT RAPID RATES. THE RE SULTS FROM EXPOSING SEVERAL GROUPS OF RABBITS TO FALL-OUT MATERIAL (BY INHALATION ONLY) AT STATIONS LOCATED ALONG TWO ARCS, 7 AND 106 MILES F ROM A TOWER DETONATION, ARE ALMOST ENTIRELY NEGATIVE. URINE SPECIMENS OBTAINED DURING THE FIRST DAY FOLLOWING DETONATION CONTAINED MINUTE B UT MEASURABLE AMOUNTS OF SOLUBLE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL WHICH HAD A RELA TIVELY SHORT HALF LIFE (1 TO 2 DAYS). LUNG SPECIMENS HAD NO DETECTABL E RADIOACTIVITY WHEN MEASURED 6 TO 21 DAYS LATER; HOWEVER, SAMPLES OF INTESTINE FROM THE SAME ANIMALS STILL HAD MEASURABLE LEVELS OF BETA AC TIVITY. THE TOTAL INTEGRATED INTERNAL RADIATION EXPOSURE COULD BE EXP RESSED IN MILLIREP, EVEN AT THE CLOSE STATIONS, WHERE THE INTEGRATED E XTERNAL GAMMA-RAY EXPOSURE WAS FOUND TO BE 14 TO 32 R. AT THE 106-MIL E STATIONS, NO MEASURABLE RADIOACTIVITY WAS PRESENT IN SPECIMENS OF LU NG OR URINE; HOWEVER, THE LEVELS OF RADIOACTIVITY IN INTESTINE SAMPLES WERE EITHER NEGATIVE OR SEVERAL TIMES LOWER THAN THOSE FOUND IN ANIMA LS AT THE NEAR STATIONS. THE EXTERNAL GAMMA-RAY DOSE WAS LESS THAN 4. 0 R. FROM CAREFUL CONSIDERATION OF NUMEROUS PERTINENT PHYSICAL AND PH YSIOLOGICAL FACTORS AND FROM ANALYSIS OF FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIG ATIONS, IT IS EVIDENT THAT THERE IS NO APPARENT SITUATION IN NUCLEAR W ARFARE WHERE, DURING THE FIRST FEW DAYS AFTER THE DETONATION, ONE COUL D INHALE SUFFICIENT RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL TO INDUCE A SERIOUS RADIATION INJURY TO LUNGS OR INTESTINES WITHOUT SIMULTANEOUSLY BEING SUBJECTED TO SUPRALETHAL DOSES OF EXTERNAL BETA-GAMMA RADIATION.


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