Document Details


Title:
OPERATION UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE, NEVADA PROVING GROUNDS, MARCH - JUNE 1953, PROJECT 27.2, ENVIRONMENTAL AND BIOLOGICAL FATE OF FALL-OUT FROM NUCLEAR DETONATIONS IN AREAS ADJACENT TO THE NPG
Subject Terms:
ACTIVITY LEVELS; ANIMALS; BACKGROUND RADIATION; BIOLOGY; BLADDER; BUSTER OPERATION; CALCULATIONS; CASCADE IMPACTORS; CHEMISTRY; CONTAMINATION; DATA; DECAY; DOSIMETRY; ECOLOGY; ENVIRONMENT; FALLOUT; FEMUR; FETUSES; FISSION PRODUCTS; GAMMA DETECTION; GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT; GRAPHS; HISTORICAL SUMMARY; INGESTION; INHALATION; JANGLE OPERATION; KIDNEYS; LIVER; LUNGS; MAMMALS; MANHATTAN PROJECT; MAPS; METABOLISM; MICE; MUSCLES; NUCLEAR WEAPONS; PARTICLE SIZE; PARTICLES; PHOTOGRAPHS; PLANTS; POPULATIONS; RABBITS; RADIOACTIVITY; RAIN; RANGER OPERATION; RATS; RECOMMENDATIONS; SAMPLING; SHRUBS; SOILS; SPLEEN; SURVEYS; TESTING; THYROID; TISSUES; TREES; TRINITY EVENT; TUMBLER-SNAPPER OPERATION; UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE OPERATION; BUSTER-JANGLE OPERATION
Document Location:
Location - NNSA/NSO Nuclear Testing Archive Address - P.O. Box 98521 City - Las Vegas State - NV Zip - 89193-8521 Phone - (702)794-5106 Fax - (702)862-4240 Email - CIC@NV.DOE.GOV
Document Type:
REPORT
Publication Date:
1954 Feb 28
Declassification Status:
Unknown
Document Pages:
0054
Accession Number:
NV0000071
Document Number(s):
WT812
Originating Research Org.:
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES
OpenNet Entry Date:
1994 Aug 26
Description/Abstract:
A RADIO-ECOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE AREA ADJACENT TO NEVADA PROVING GROUN DS HAS BEEN IN PROGRESS INTERMITTENTLY FROM SEPTEMBER 1951 TO JULY 195 3. SAMPLES HAVE BEEN TAKEN PERIODICALLY OF NATIVE SOILS, PLANTS, AND ANIMALS BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER VARIOUS TEST SERIES AT DISTANCES UP TO 30 MILES FROM RESPECTIVE GROUND ZEROS. DATA SUGGEST THAT MICROCURI E LEVELS OF RADIOACTIVE FALL-OUT ARE POTENTIALLY AVAILABLE FOR ABSORPT ION AND/OR METABOLISM BY GRAZING ANIMALS AT DISTANCES AT LEAST 15 MILE S FROM GROUND ZERO DURING THE 24 HOURS FOLLOWING A DETONATION. THE PE RSISTENCE OF ABSORBED RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN RODENT POPULATIONS, AS COMPARED TO THE RADIOACTIVE CONTENT OF THEIR ISOLATED TISSUES, SUGGEST S THAT ABSORPTION IS PRIMARILY A RESULT OF PHYSICAL DIFFUSION OF AVAIL ABLE IONS RATHER THAN ACTUAL METABOLIC SELECTION AND RETENTION OF THE MIXED FISSION PRODUCTS INGESTED OR INHALED. ABSORBED RADIOACTIVE MATE RIALS, THEREFORE, APPEAR TO BE IN EQUILIBRIUM WITH CERTAIN COMPONENTS OF RESIDUAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION DURING THE 90 DAYS FOLLOWING A DETONATION. IN AREAS REPEATEDLY CONTAMINATED BY RADIOACTIVE FALL-OUT DURING A TWO-YEAR PERIOD, APPROXIMATELY 90 PER CENT OF THE RESIDUAL R ADIOACTIVE MATERIAL IS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SURFACE INCH OF SOIL, INDIC ATING THAT RADIOACTIVE FALL-OUT CONTINUES TO BE A SURFACE PHENOMENON I N THE AREAS STUDIED, EVEN AFTER EXPOSURE OF UP TO TWO YEARS IN A NATUR AL SEMI-ARID ENVIRONMENT. THE AMOUNT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN JACK -RABBIT FEMURS AND LIVERS HAS INCREASED THREE-FOLD OVER VALUES ESTABLI SHED IN SEPTEMBER 1951 PRIOR TO ANY RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION OF THE S TUDY AREAS. THE AMOUNT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS ASSOCIATED WITH WASHE D PLANT SAMPLES IS APPROXIMATELY TWICE THE VALUES ESTABLISHED IN 1951. INHALATION AS A PATH OF UPTAKE FAILS TO ACCOUNT FOR THE MAJOR PORTIO N OF ABSORBED RADIO-ACTIVE MATERIALS IN RODENTS AND RABBITS. ABSORBED RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL IS MORE COMPLETELY ACCOUNTED FOR THROUGH INGESTI ON OF PRIMARY RADIOACTIVE FALL-OUT. NATIVE RODENTS ARE SUGGESTED AS R ELIABLE INDICATORS OF THE BIOLOGICAL AVAILABILITY OF RADIO-ACTIVE MATE RIALS.


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