Document Details


Title:
OPERATION RANGER NTS 01/51-02/51 VOL.-IV PROGRAM REPORTS - GROSS WEAPONS MEASUREMENTS
Subject Terms:
RANGER OPERATION
Document Location:
Location - NNSA/NSO Nuclear Testing Archive Address - P.O. Box 98521 City - Las Vegas State - NV Zip - 89193-8521 Phone - (702)794-5106 Fax - (702)862-4240 Email - CIC@NV.DOE.GOV
Document Type:
REPORT
Publication Date:
1952 Jun 30
Declassification Status:
Unknown
Document Pages:
0267
Accession Number:
NV0000067
Document Number(s):
WT201
Originating Research Org.:
LOS ALAMOS SCIENTIFIC LABORATORY
OpenNet Entry Date:
1994 Aug 26
Description/Abstract:
REPORT 5; GAMMA-RADIATION EXPOSURES AS A FUNCTION OF DISTANCE WERE MEA SURED FOR RANGER TESTS ABLE, BAKER, EASY, BAKER-2, AND FOX. IN THIS S AME SEQUENCE, THESE TESTS ARE SOMETIMES REFERRED TO AS SHOTS 1, 2, 3, 4, AND 5. THE FILMS USED IN THIS EXPERIMENT COVERED AN EXPOSURE RANGE OF 0.1 TO 3000 R AND WERE CALIBRATED WITH A BETATRON OPERATING AT AN EFFECTIVE ENERGY OF 3.0 MEV. WITH THE EXCEPTION OF TEST ABLE, THE RAT IOS OF THE GAMMA-RADIATION EXPOSURE AT FIXED DISTANCES GAVE CALCULATED BOMB YIELDS WHICH AGREED TO WITHIN 5 PER CENT OF THE FIREBALL MEASURE MENTS. ON TEST ABLE, A 30 PER CENT LOWER YIELD WAS MEASURED BY THIS M ETHOD. THE 400-R SLANT RANGE INCREASED FROM 700 YD FROM THE 1-KT TEST S TO 1470 YD ON THE 22-KT TEST. THE APPARENT MEAN FREE PATH OF THE GA MMA RADIATION WAS FOUND TO BE ABOUT 400 YD. THE NEUTRON-INDUCED ACTIV ITY IN THE FILM AND BADGE CONTRIBUTED 3 TO 5 PER CENT OF THE TOTAL EXP OSURE FOUND ON THE FILM, WHEREAS THE NEUTRON-INDUCED ACTIVITY IN THE S OIL CONTRIBUTED LESS THAN 1 PER CENT OF THE TOTAL EXPOSURE. REPORT 6; THE OBJECTIVE OF THE TEST WAS TO DETERMINE THE DEGREE OF PRO TECTION AFFORDED BY ONE-MAN, TWO-MAN, AND PRONE FOXHOLES, ORIENTED PER PENDICULAR, PARALLEL, AND AT A 45 DEGREE ANGLE TO THE FOXHOLE-BURST LI NE AT RANGES OF 400 TO 2000 YD, AGAINST GAMMA RADIATION EMITTED AT THE TIME OF DETONATION OF AN AIR-BURST ATOMIC BOMB. RESULTS WERE OBTAINE D FROM DU PONT FILM NUMBER 552, INSENSITIVE, AND NUMBER 605 EXPOSED IN THE FOXHOLES. THE DATA ON EXPOSURES ARE GIVEN. THE AVERAGE GAMMA-RA Y DOSAGES IN ROENTGENS IN THE FOXHOLES FOR THE FIVE BURSTS WHICH OCCUR RED ARE TABULATED. THE GAMMA RADIATION RECEIVED AT FOXHOLE POSITIONS DUE TO SCATTERING BY THE ATMOSPHERE IS TABULATED IN PERCENTAGE OF SURF ACE EXPOSURE. IT IS CONCLUDED THAT (1) AT APPROXIMATELY 1000 YD OR GR EATER FROM GROUND ZERO A TWO-MAN FOXHOLE AFFORDS GOOD PROTECTION AGAIN ST GAMMA RADIATION EMITTED DURING THE DETONATION OF A 22-KT ATOMIC BOM B. (2) AT 1000 YD FROM GROUND ZERO THE GAMMA EXPOSURE IS LESS THAN 22 5R AT A 32-INCH OR GREATER DEPTH IN A TWO-MAN FOXHOLE FOR A 22-KT BOMB BURST AT 2000 FT ALTITUDE. (3) A ONE-MAN FOXHOLE AFFORDS BETTER PROT ECTION AGAINST GAMMA RADIATION THAN DOES A PRONE SHELTER OR TWO-MAN FO XHOLE, AND MAXIMUM PROTECTION IS AFFORDED AGAINST THE SIDE OF A FOXHOL E NEAREST THE BURST. IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT, FOR PROTECTION AGAINST G AMMA RADIATION DURING AN ATOMIC DETONATION, ONE-MAN FOXHOLES AT LEAST 4 FT DEEP BE USED. REPORT 8; THE WORK ORIGINALLY PLANNED FOR THIS MONTH WAS INTERRUPTED B Y AN URGENT REQUEST TO PROVIDE THE OFFICE OF THE QUARTERMASTER GENERAL WITH A REPORT ON A PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION OF CERTAIN MATERIALS EXPOS ED DURING THE NEVADA TESTS. THIS REPORT COVERS THE ESSENTIAL DETAILS GIVEN IN THE PRELIMINARY REPORT. IN VIEW OF SOME CONCLUSIONS DRAWN FR OM THE NEVADA TESTS, REFINEMENTS ARE BEING MADE IN THE TIMING MECHANIS M OF A HIGH-INTENSITY ARC SOURCE TO GIVE MORE ACCURATE RESULTS AT SHOR TER TIME INTERVALS. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A LOW-INTENSITY CARBON ARC WITH 3/4-INCH-DIAMETER ELECTRODES ARE BEING STUDIED TO OBTAIN THE DAT A NECESSARY FOR THE DESIGN OF AN ARC SOURCE WITH 1 1/2-INCH-DIAMETER E LECTRODES. REPORT 9; THE NAVAL MATERIAL LABORATORY PARTICIPATED IN OPERATION RANG ER BY PREPARING SEVERAL SETS OF MATERIAL SPECIMENS FOR EXPOSURE. THES E MATERIALS WERE USED AS PASSIVE INDICATORS OF THE ENERGY RECEIVED AT VARIOUS SET DISTANCES FROM THE EXPLOSIONS. WHEN MATERIALS ARE USED FO R THIS PURPOSE, THE VALIDITY OF THE DATA IS LIMITED BY THE SPECTRAL AB SORPTIVITY OF THE MATERIALS. A GOOD ESTIMATE OF THE ENERGY RECEIVED I S OBTAINED BY EMPLOYING THE DATA FROM THOSE SAMPLES WHOSE ABSORPTANCE FOR CARBON-ARC IRRADIATION DOES NOT DIFFER SIGNIFICANTLY FROM THAT FOR BLACK-BODY RADIATION AT TEMPERATURES CORRESPONDING TO FIELD CONDITION S. THE DATA INDICATE A THERMAL YIELD OF APPROXIMATELY 17 PER CENT OF THE TOTAL ENERGY RELEASED IN THE EXPLOSION.


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