National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for wood energy crops

  1. Wood energy system design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This handbook, Wood Energy System Design, was prepared with the support of the Council of Great Lakes Governors and the US Department of Energy. It contains: wood fuel properties; procurement; receiving, handling, and storage; combustion; gasification; emission control; electric power generation and cogeneration; and case studies. (JF)

  2. Daniel Wood | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Daniel Wood About Us Daniel Wood - Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Daniel Wood Daniel Wood is the Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist in the Office of Public Affairs at the Department of Energy. He develops creative and interactive ways of viewing the Energy Department's vast array of data. You can check out some of his work here. Prior to joining the Energy.gov team, Daniel worked at a large PR firm in Washington, D.C, doing web development

  3. Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 43.568752, -90.330887 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice"...

  4. Wood3 Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Wood3 Resources Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood3 Resources Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77056-2409 Product: Wood3 Resources is an energy project development firm run by former...

  5. Wood Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood Energy Ltd Place: Devon, United Kingdom Zip: EX16 9EU Product: Specialises in the design, installation and service of automatic...

  6. Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment Department of Energy Tribal Program Review Golden, Colorado March 26, 2014 Presented by: Kelda Britton CATG Department of Natural Resources Please contact me for a full list of citations. kelda@catg.org CATG is a consortium of 10 Gwich'in and Koyukon Athabascan tribes located throughout the Yukon Flats. Arctic Village, Beaver, Birch Creek, Canyon Village, Chalkyitsik, Circle, Fort Yukon, Rampart, Stevens Village and Venetie are the remote

  7. Wood and Wood Waste - Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding Energy

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    - Energy Information Administration Wood and Wood Waste Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) Degree-Days U.S. Energy Facts State and U.S. Territory Data Use of Energy In Industry For Transportation In Homes In Commercial Buildings Efficiency and Conservation Energy and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Greenhouse Gases Come From

  8. Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Facility Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Sector Wind energy...

  9. Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments - Wood Energy Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    0 November 2008 Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation CATG - AWEA For-Profit Wood Energy Business Model Fort Yukon * Forest Management Service - CATG * For-Profit Wood Utility Company -...

  10. Engineered High Energy Crop (EHEC) Programs

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    High Energy Crop Programs Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement DOEEIS-0481 JULY 2015 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Engineered High Energy Crop Programs ...

  11. CropEnergies | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name: CropEnergies Place: Mannheim, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany Zip: 68165 Sector: Biofuels Product: A German biofuels company focused on bioethanol production for use as...

  12. Wood Energy Scenarios and Southern Markets | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Wood Energy Scenarios and Southern Markets Wood Energy Scenarios and Southern Markets Breakout Session 1A: Assessing America's Biomass Potential (2016 Billion-Ton Report) Wood Energy Scenarios and Southern Markets Prakash Nepal, Research Assistant Professor, U.S. Department of Agriculture and North Carolina State University nepal_bioenergy_2016.pdf (1.96 MB) More Documents & Publications Bioenergy Demand in a Market Driven Forest Economy (U.S. South) U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply

  13. Feasibility for Wood Heat - Collaborative Integrated Wood Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    for Wood Heat * Non-Profit Consortium of Ten Tribal ... Forestry, Fire Management, Self- Governance, ... coordination's across organizations 2 boilers and one ...

  14. Wood Energy Scenarios and Southern Markets

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    WOOD ENERGY SCENARIOS AND SOUTHERN MARKETS PRAKASH NEPAL 1 , KAREN ABT 2 , KEN SKOG 3 , ROBERT ABT 1 1 DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY & ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES, NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY 2 USDA FOREST SERVICE, SOUTHERN RESEARCH STATION, RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK 3 USDA FOREST SERVICE, FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY, MADISON, WI (RETIRED) Photo: Juergen Henkelmann, Alamy Photo: conserve-energy-future.com Photo: Duke University BACKGROUND  Previous billion ton reports did not explicitly consider

  15. Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Oil cost per year for school 210,000 Fuel cost for electrical generation 1.4 M Cord Wood 275 - 300 per cord Kwh 0.77 (rate increase coming) Propane 203.89 per 100 ...

  16. Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.8456555, -74.0879195 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappin...

  17. Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    By: Karonhiakta'tie Bryan Maracle and Bill Wall - Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments (CATG) - Consortia of 10 Tribal Governments of Interior Alaska - Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation (GZ Corp) - Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Village Corporation - Alaska Village Initiatives (AVI) - Rural Alaska economic development organization - First off grid, off road system biomass CHP in the world - 8 miles north of the Arctic Circle - New Power House - Wood Chip Boiler - District Heating loop

  18. Wood To Fuel LLC | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    To Fuel LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood To Fuel LLC Place: Lackawana, New York Zip: 14208 Product: Wood fuelproduct supplier. Coordinates: 41.401932, -75.637848...

  19. Duffield Wood Pellets | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Duffield Wood Pellets Jump to: navigation, search Name: Duffield Wood Pellets Place: North Yorkshire, United Kingdom Zip: HG4 5JB Product: A Yorkshire-based, family-run producer of...

  20. Wood and Pellet Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Heat & Cool » Home Heating Systems » Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie Today you can choose from a new generation of wood- and pellet-burning appliances that are cleaner burning, more efficient, and powerful enough to heat many average-sized, modern homes. Pellet fuel appliances burn small pellets that measure 3/8 to 1

  1. Engineered High Energy Crop (EHEC) Programs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Engineered High Energy Crop Programs Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement DOE/EIS-0481 JULY 2015 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Engineered High Energy Crop Programs Final PEIS Responsible Federal Agency: U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy Cooperating Agencies: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Title: Engineered High Energy

  2. Wood Energy Production Credit | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    be claimed for a period of five years; total tax credits cap set at 6,000,000 annually, subject to appropriations Program Info Sector Name State Administrator Division of Energy...

  3. Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: AB30 1PA Product: Wood pellet producer. Coordinates: 56.932781, -2.42531 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlema...

  4. Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Total cost, exclusive of taxes, interest and other finance charges Summary This incentive allows Arizona taxpayers to deduct the cost of converting an existing wood fireplace to a ...

  5. Rachel Woods-Robinson | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Rachel Woods-Robinson About Us Rachel Woods-Robinson - Guest Blogger, Cycle for Science Most Recent Rain or Shine: We Cycle for Science July 2 Mountains, and Teachers, and a Bear, Oh My! June 2 Sol-Cycle: Biking Across America for Science Education May

  6. Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Bolling

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

  7. 2016 Bioenergizeme Infographic Challenge: Energy Crops: The Future...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Crops: The Future of Bioenergy Feedstocks 2016 Bioenergizeme Infographic Challenge: Energy Crops: The Future of Bioenergy Feedstocks 2016 Bioenergizeme Infographic ...

  8. Potential Yield Mapping of Dedicated Energy Crops

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1B—Integration of Supply Chains I: Breaking Down Barriers Potential Yield Mapping of Dedicated Energy Crops Chris Daly, Director, PRISM Climate Group, Oregon State University

  9. Wood Fuel LP | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    77034 Region: Texas Area Sector: Biomass Product: Wood by-products consulting and marketing Website: www.woodfuel.com Coordinates: 29.6221328, -95.1872605 Show Map Loading...

  10. Wood and Pellet Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    to avoid overheating, which wastes fuel and is one of the biggest causes of air pollution. ... urban and rural areas, smoke from wood burning is a major contributor to air pollution. ...

  11. Opportunities for Energy Crop Production Based on Subfield Scale...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Incorporation of dedicated herbaceous energy crops into row crop landscapes is a promising means to supply an expanding biofuel industry while increasing biomass yields, benefiting ...

  12. Minnesota wood energy scale-up project 1994 establishment cost data

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; Pierce, R.; Kroll, T.

    1996-03-18

    The Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-up Project began in late 1993 with the first trees planted in the spring of 1994. The purpose of the project is to track and monitor economic costs of planting, maintaining and monitoring larger scale commercial plantings. For 15 years, smaller scale research plantings of hybrid poplar have been used to screen for promising, high-yielding poplar clones. In this project 1000 acres of hybrid poplar trees were planted on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land near Alexandria, Minnesota in 1994. The fourteen landowners involved re-contracted with the CRP for five-year extensions of their existing 10-year contracts. These extended contracts will expire in 2001, when the plantings are 7 years old. The end use for the trees planted in the Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-up Project is undetermined. They will belong to the owner of the land on which they are planted. There are no current contracts in place for the wood these trees are projected to supply. The structure of the wood industry in the Minnesota has changed drastically over the past 5 years. Stumpage values for fiber have risen to more than $20 per cord in some areas raising the possibility that these trees could be used for fiber rather than energy. Several legislative mandates have forced the State of Minnesota to pursue renewable energy including biomass energy. These mandates, a potential need for an additional 1700 MW of power by 2008 by Northern States Power, and agricultural policies will all affect development of energy markets for wood produced much like agricultural crops. There has been a tremendous amount of local and international interest in the project. Contractual negotiations between area landowners, the CRP, a local Resource Conservation and Development District, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and others are currently underway for additional planting of 1000 acres in spring 1995.

  13. Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Stanford- Woods Institute for the Environment Name: Stanford- Woods Institute for the Environment...

  14. Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments - Wood Energy Program...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    - Diesel Biomass - Wood diesel hybrid power plant CHP - still dreaming for 200-700 Kwh technology Wood Harvest Company * Harvests wood from GZ lands summer and winter - start ...

  15. Wood energy in Georgia: a five-year progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An increasing number of industrial plants and public and residential facilities in Georgia are using wood, Georgia's greatest renewable energy source, to replace gas, oil, coal, and electricity. All wood systems described in this report are or will soon be in operation in schools, prisons, hospitals, and other state facilities, and are producing substantial financial savings. The economic values from increased markets and jobs are important in all areas of the state, with total benefits projected at $2.9 million a year for state taxpayers. 2 figures.

  16. Wood and Pellet Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Saver

    Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or ... Modern, centralized wood heaters use wood gasification technology that burns both the wood ...

  17. Switchgrass as a High-Potential Energy Crop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Historical Perspective on How and Why Switchgrass was Selected as a “Model” High-Potential Energy Crop

  18. Wood Heating Fuel Exemption | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    6%. Source http:programs.dsireusa.orgsystemprogramdetail143 Careers & Internships Contact Us link to facebook link to twitter Email Signup Sign up for updates Go Energy.gov...

  19. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  20. Huntington Woods, Michigan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Huntington Woods is a city in Oakland County, Michigan. It falls under Michigan's 12th...

  1. Laguna Woods, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Laguna Woods is a city in Orange County, California. It falls under California's 48th...

  2. Mission Woods, Kansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Mission Woods is a city in Johnson County, Kansas. It falls under Kansas's 3rd congressional district.12 References...

  3. Wood Dale, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood Dale is a city in DuPage County, Illinois. It falls under Illinois' 6th congressional...

  4. Wood County, West Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood County is a county in West Virginia. Its FIPS County Code is 107. It is classified as...

  5. Wood County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood County is a county in Texas. Its FIPS County Code is 499. It is classified as ASHRAE...

  6. Wood Village, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood Village is a city in Multnomah County, Oregon. It falls under Oregon's 3rd...

  7. Energy generation and cogeneration from wood

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The papers presented at the conference are included in this volume. Discussions from the four workshops are also provided. The subjects covered in the workshops are: materials handling; combustion technologies - pile, grate, and suspension systems; gasification and pyrolysis systems; and cogeneration. Separate abstracts for each paper have been prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  8. Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota Baudette, Minnesota Roosevelt, Minnesota Williams, Minnesota Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLakeoftheWoodsC...

  9. Engineered High Energy Crop Programs Draft Programmatic Environmental...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Engineered High Energy Crop Programs Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement DOEEIS-0481 DECEMBER 2014 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK...

  10. Switchgrass as a High-Potential Energy Crop

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    ... published September 1986 by the Solar Energy Research Institute. (6) This document ... After reviewing all of the pros and cons of various approaches, the Herbaceous Crops ...

  11. New England Wood Pellet LLC | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Pellet LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: New England Wood Pellet LLC Place: Jaffrey, New Hampshire Zip: NH 03452 Product: New England Wood Pellet LLC is a manufacturer and...

  12. City of Wood River, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    City of Wood River, Nebraska (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood River Municipal Power Place: Nebraska Phone Number: 308.583-2515; 308-583-2066 Website:...

  13. Wood County Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Place: Texas Phone Number: 1-866-415-2951 Website: www.wcec.org Facebook: https:...

  14. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    SciTech Connect

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  15. Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets August 20, 2015 - 5:22pm Addthis Art created by a student at John Briggs Elementary School as part of their recent Green Ceremony. John Briggs Elementary is one of the Massachusetts schools switching their heating fuel source from petroleum based fuels to wood pellets. Art created by a student at John Briggs Elementary School as part of their recent Green Ceremony. John Briggs Elementary is one of the

  16. From the Woods to the Refinery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    From the Woods to the Refinery From the Woods to the Refinery Breakout Session 2D-Building Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels From the Woods to the Refinery Stephen S. Kelley, Principal and Department Head, Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University kelley_biomass_2014.pdf (1.77 MB) More Documents & Publications GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody Feedstocks Biomass Program Peer Review Sustainability

  17. Wood-Burning Heating System Deduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    State Alabama Program Type Rebate Amount 100% Summary This statute allows individual taxpayers a deduction for the purchase and installation of a wood-burning heating system. The...

  18. Water Sampling At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  19. Water Sampling At Salton Sea Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Salton Sea Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Salton...

  20. Water Sampling At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Heber Area...

  1. Energy and environmental innovations for chemically-preserved wood wastes

    SciTech Connect

    NREL

    2000-04-10

    This report is a fact sheet written for the Inventions and Innovation Program about a new method of disposing of chemically treated wood wastes.

  2. International WoodFuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Maine Zip: 4101 Product: Maine-based pellet producer and installer of commercial wood pellet heating systems. Coordinates: 45.511795, -122.675629 Show Map Loading map......

  3. Feasibility for Wood Heat - Collaborative Integrated Wood Energy Program for Yukon Flats Villages

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    for Wood Heat * Non-Profit Consortium of Ten Tribal Governments within the Yukon Flats. * CATG Administers several Tribal Programs on behalf of the Tribes. * CATG also applies for and administers several other grants. - IHS, Regional Clinic (Fort Yukon), Health Aids in Each Village, drug and alcohol programs, and other health related programs. - Natural Resources, EPA/IGAP, ANA (Traditional Land use Planning and Mapping), GIS, USDA RC&D, Contracts/Compacts with the USF&W (first tribal

  4. Synthetic biology and crop engineering | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Synthetic biology and crop engineering Synthetic biology and crop engineering Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-A: Synthetic Biology and the Promise of Biofuels Jonathan Burbaum, Program Director, Department of Energy, Office of Science, ARPA-E b13_burbaum_2-a.pdf (1.63 MB) More Documents & Publications EIS-0481: Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0481: Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0481: Notice of Intent to Prepare a Programmatic

  5. Watershed Scale Optimization to Meet Sustainable Cellulosic Energy Crop Demands

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Demands March 23, 2015 Analysis and Sustainability Peer Review Drs. Indrajeet Chaubey and Ben Gramig Purdue University This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement 2 * Overall goal is to conduct a watershed-scale sustainability assessment of multiple energy crops and removal of crop residues * Assessment conducted in two watersheds representative of Upper Midwest - Wildcat Creek watershed - St. Joseph River watershed 3 Quad

  6. Watershed Scale Optimization to Meet Sustainable Cellulosic Energy Crop Demands

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Demands May 22, 2013 Analysis and Sustainability Peer Review Dr. Indrajeet Chaubey Purdue University This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement 2 * Overall goal is to conduct a watershed-scale sustainability assessment of multiple energy crops and removal of crop residues * Assessment conducted in two watersheds representative of Upper Midwest - Wildcat Creek watershed - St. Joseph River watershed 3 Quad Chart Overview *

  7. BT16 Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops Factsheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    agricultural sector. POLYSYS was developed to simulate changes in eco- nomic policy, agricultural management, and natural resource conditions, as well as to estimate how agricultural producers may respond to new agricultural market opportunities, such as new demand for biomass, while considering the impact on other non-energy crops. For this analysis, the data in POLYSYS is anchored in a USDA-published baseline of yield, acreage, and price projec- tions for the agriculture sector, which are

  8. Engineering Enzymes in Energy Crops: Conditionally Activated Enzymes Expressed in Cellulosic Energy Crops

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Enzymes are required to break plant biomass down into the fermentable sugars that are used to create biofuel. Currently, costly enzymes must be added to the biofuel production process. Engineering crops to already contain these enzymes will reduce costs and produce biomass that is more easily digested. In fact, enzyme costs alone account for $0.50-$0.75/gallon of the cost of a biomass-derived biofuel like ethanol. Agrivida is genetically engineering plants to contain high concentrations of enzymes that break down cell walls. These enzymes can be “switched on” after harvest so they won’t damage the plant while it’s growing.

  9. BIA Southwest Region - Wood Energy Assessment for BIA Schools and Facilities in the Southwest Region

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Wood Energy Assessment for BIA Schools and Facilities in Southwest Region John Waconda, BIA Southwest Region Regional Forester 505-563-3360 Tribal Energy Review October 26, 2006 Project Objectives/Goals * Seek viable solutions to forest product utilization challenges in support of fuels reduction activities, forest health/timber stand improvement projects, and assisting tribal and other forest enterprises seeking higher valued use for waste material. * Demonstrate to tribes and ourselves that

  10. D1 Fuel Crops Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    D1 Fuel Crops Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: D1 Fuel Crops Ltd Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: SE1 2RE Product: London-based JV between BP and D1 oils focusing on the...

  11. Crops, Bots and Bytes: Check Out the Robots Behind ARPA-E's Agro-Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Program | Department of Energy Crops, Bots and Bytes: Check Out the Robots Behind ARPA-E's Agro-Energy Program Crops, Bots and Bytes: Check Out the Robots Behind ARPA-E's Agro-Energy Program June 9, 2016 - 5:02pm Addthis Crops, Bots and Bytes: Check Out the Robots Behind ARPA-E’s Agro-Energy Program Biofuels have huge potential as a low-carbon alternative to fossil fuels for transportation. But farming crops for biofuel takes land, fresh water and other resources that are increasingly

  12. Demonstration of On-Farm Production of a Dedicated Energy Crop...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Demonstration of On-Farm Production of a Dedicated Energy Crop incorporating Multiple ... varietal trials and plots for demonstration of switchgrass production using ...

  13. Biomass energies: resources, links, constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Smil, V.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: radiation and photosynthesis; primary production and biomass; resources; wood for energy; silviculture; requirements and effects; crop residues; residues for energy conversion; sugar crops and grain; cassava; fuel crops; aquatic plants; freshwater plants; ocean algae; animal wastes; Chinese biogas generation; and ecodisasters.

  14. Chapter 4- At the Farmgate: Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1A: Assessing America's Biomass Potential (2016 Billion-Ton Report) Chapter 4 - At the Farmgate: Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops Maggie Davis, Associate, Climate Change Science Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  15. A National Assessment of Promising Areas for Switchgrass, Hybrid Poplar, or Willow Energy Crop Production

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Walsh, M.E.

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to systematically assess the cropland acreage that could support energy crops and the expected farm gate and delivered prices of energy crops. The assessment is based on output from two modeling approaches: (1) the Oak Ridge County-Level Energy Crop (ORECCL) database (1996 version) and (2) the Oak Ridge Integrated Bioenergy Analysis System (ORIBAS). The former provides county-level estimates of suitable acres, yields, and farmgate prices of energy crops (switchgrass, hybrid poplar, willow) for all fifty states. The latter estimates delivered feedstock prices and quantities within a state at a fine resolution (1 km2) and considers the interplay between transportation costs, farmgate prices, cropland density, and facility demand. It can be used to look at any type of feedstock given the appropriate input parameters. For the purposes of this assessment, ORIBAS has been used to estimate farmgate and delivered switchgrass prices in 11 states (AL, FL, GA, IA, M N, MO, ND, NE, SC, SD, and TN). Because the potential for energy crop production can be considered from several perspectives, and is evolving as policies, economics and our basic understanding of energy crop yields and production costs change, this assessment should be viewed as a snapshot in time.

  16. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  17. Wood energy and preservation of woodlands in semi-arid developing countries. The case of Dodoma region, Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    At present little land and labour resources are expended on energy production, but the woodlands in Dodoma are disappearing, causing villagers to save time by switching from fuelwood collected on foot to charcoal shipped in by truck. Results of a linear program show that if the costs of growing the wood for charcoal are counted the switch to charcoal saves time only in areas where population is relatively dense and natural woodland remote. Woodland preservation in Dodoma will require more plantations, increased plantation productivity, improved efficiency of charcoal kilns or stoves and ultimately a switch to some other fuel than wood.

  18. Water Sampling At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Hot Lake...

  19. Energy Crops Engineered for Increased Sugar Extraction through Inhibition

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Basics Website Contact Energy Basics Website Contact Use this form to send us your comments, report problems, and/or ask questions about information on the Energy Basics website. Your Email Message Here * CAPTCHA This question is for testing whether you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Submit

    Services » Energy Basics Energy Basics The basics about renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies: learn how they work, what they're used for, and how they

  20. Watershed Scale Evaluation of the Sustainability and Productivity of Dedicated Energy Crop and Woody Biomass Operations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Southeastern Forest Biomass Crop Production: Watershed Scale Evaluation of the Sustainability and Productivity of Dedicated Energy Crop and Woody Biomass Operations DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review March 23, 2015 Sustainability and Strategic Analysis George Chescheir N. C. State University Jami Nettles Weyerhaeuser Company Goal Statement Develop and disseminate science-based information for sustainable production of biofuel feedstock in a forestry setting in

  1. Wood pellet production

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Southern Energy Limited's wood pellet refinery, Bristol, Florida, produces wood pellets for fuel from scrap wood from a nearby sawmill and other hog fuel delivered to the plant from nearby forest lands. The refinery will provide 50,000 tons of pellets per year to the Florida State Hospital at Chattahoochee to fire recently converted boilers in the central power plant. The pellets are densified wood, having a moisture content of about 10% and a heating value of 8000 Btu/lb. They are 0.5 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 inches in length.

  2. Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    United States Department of Agriculture Partner: Farm Service Agency Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass...

  3. Opportunities for Energy Crop Production Based on Subfield Scale Distribution of Profitability

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, Ian J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Muth, Jr., David J.; Tomer, Mark; James, David; Porter, Sarah; Karlen, Douglas

    2014-10-01

    Incorporation of dedicated herbaceous energy crops into row crop landscapes is a promising means to supply an expanding biofuel industry while increasing biomass yields, benefiting soil and water quality, and increasing biodiversity. Despite these positive traits energy crops remain largely unaccepted due to concerns over their practicality and cost of implementation. This paper presents a case study on Hardin County, Iowa to demonstrate how subfield decision making can be used to target candidate areas for conversion to energy crop production. The strategy presented integrates switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) into subfield landscape positions where corn (Zea mays L.) grain is modeled to operate at a net economic loss. The results of this analysis show that switchgrass integration has the potential to increase sustainable biomass production from 48 to 99% (depending on the rigor of conservation practices applied to corn stover collection) while also improving field level profitability. Candidate land area is highly sensitive to grain price (0.18 to 0.26 US$ kg-1) and dependent on the acceptable net profit for corn production (ranging from 0 to -1,000 US$ ha-1). This work presents the case that switchgrass can be economically implemented into row crop production landscapes when management decisions are applied at a subfield scale and compete against areas of the field operating at a negative net profit.

  4. Opportunities for Energy Crop Production Based on Subfield Scale Distribution of Profitability

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Bonner, Ian J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Muth, Jr., David J.; Tomer, Mark; James, David; Porter, Sarah; Karlen, Douglas

    2014-10-01

    Incorporation of dedicated herbaceous energy crops into row crop landscapes is a promising means to supply an expanding biofuel industry while increasing biomass yields, benefiting soil and water quality, and increasing biodiversity. Despite these positive traits energy crops remain largely unaccepted due to concerns over their practicality and cost of implementation. This paper presents a case study on Hardin County, Iowa to demonstrate how subfield decision making can be used to target candidate areas for conversion to energy crop production. The strategy presented integrates switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) into subfield landscape positions where corn (Zea mays L.) grain is modeledmore » to operate at a net economic loss. The results of this analysis show that switchgrass integration has the potential to increase sustainable biomass production from 48 to 99% (depending on the rigor of conservation practices applied to corn stover collection) while also improving field level profitability. Candidate land area is highly sensitive to grain price (0.18 to 0.26 US$ kg-1) and dependent on the acceptable net profit for corn production (ranging from 0 to -1,000 US$ ha-1). This work presents the case that switchgrass can be economically implemented into row crop production landscapes when management decisions are applied at a subfield scale and compete against areas of the field operating at a negative net profit.« less

  5. The Regional Feedstock Partnership: Herbaceous Energy Crops and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... New York State. In ASA Abstracts Urbana, IL. University of Illinois Center for Advanced Bioenergy Research Seminar. ... February 14, 2013. Illinois Energy Farm Field Tours to ...

  6. Optimization of Southeastern Forest Biomass Crop Production: Watershed Scale Evaluation of the Sustainability and Productivity of Dedicated Energy Crop and Woody Biomass Operations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Southeastern Forest Biomass Crop Production: Watershed Scale Evaluation of the Sustainability and Productivity of Dedicated Energy Crop and Woody Biomass Operations May 22, 2013 Principle Investigators: George Chescheir N. C. State University Jami Nettles Weyerhaeuser Co. NC STATE UNIVERSITY Goal Statement Develop and disseminate science-based information for sustainable production of forest biofuel feedstock in the Southeast. NC STATE UNIVERSITY Quad Chart Overview 3 * Start date - Sept. 30,

  7. Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy- Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David N.; Emerick, Robert W.; England, Alfred B.; Flanders, James P.; Loge, Frank J.; Wiedeman, Katherine A.; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2010-03-31

    In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered Wood Products (EWP). Utilizing bio-based thermoplastics for these materials can reduce our dependence on foreign petroleum. We have demonstrated that biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) can be successfully produced from wood pulping waste streams and that viable wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite products can be produced from these materials. The results show that microbial polyester (PHB in this study) can be extruded together with wastewater-derived cell mass and wood flour into deck products having performance properties comparable to existing commercial HDPE/WF composite products. This study has thus proven the underlying concept that the microbial polyesters produced from waste effluents can be used to make cost-effective and energy-efficient wood-plastic composites. The cost of purified microbial polyesters is about 5-20 times that of HDPE depending on the cost of crude oil, due to high purification (40%), carbon substrate (40%) and sterilized fermentation (20%) costs for the PHB. Hence, the ability to produce competitive and functional composites with unpurified PHA-biomass mixtures from waste carbon sources in unsterile systems—without cell debris removal—is a significant step forward in producing competitive value-added structural composites from forest products residuals using a biorefinery approach. As demonstrated in the energy and waste analysis for the project, significant energy savings and waste reductions can also be realized using this approach. We recommend that the next step for development of

  8. Title 43 CFR 3620 Free Use of Petrified Wood | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    620 Free Use of Petrified Wood Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Federal RegulationFederal Regulation: Title 43 CFR 3620 Free Use...

  9. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production

    SciTech Connect

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu Xinmei; Bjoernsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study demonstrates the feasibility of co-digestion food industrial waste with energy crops. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laboratory batch co-digestion led to improved methane yield and carbon to nitrogen ratio as compared to mono-digestion of industrial waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion was also seen as a means of degrading energy crops with nutrients addition as crops are poor in nutrients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was concluded that co-digestion led an over all economically viable process and ensured a constant supply of feedstock. - Abstract: Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas

  10. James F. Wood

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    James F. Wood is currently Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal in the Office of Fossil Energy (FE). In this position, he is responsible for the management and direction of the Office's...

  11. Top Crop Wind Farm (Phase II) | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    (MW) 198198 MW 198,000 kW 198,000,000 W 198,000,000,000 mW 0.198 GW Number of Units 132 Commercial Online Date 2010 Wind Turbine Manufacturer GE Energy References WENDI1...

  12. STEO October 2012 - wood

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    More U.S. households burning wood this winter to stay warm, reversing two-decade decline Burning wood as the primary heating source in U.S. households has risen over the last 10 years, reversing the decline seen in the 1980s and 1990s. About 2.6 million households out of 115 million will rely on wood as the main way to warm their homes this winter. That's up 3 percent from last year, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new winter fuels forecast. The West will have the most

  13. Development of a farm-firm modelling system for evaluation of herbaceous energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    English, B.C.; Alexander, R.R.; Loewen, K.H.; Coady, S.A.; Cole, G.V.; Goodman, W.R. . Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology)

    1992-01-01

    A complete analysis is performed to simulate biomass production incorporated into a realistic whole farm situation, including or replacing a typical crop mix. Representative farms are constructed to accommodate such simulation. Four management systems are simulated for each firm, with each simulation depicting a different crop mix and/or use of different farming technologies and production methods. The first simulation was a base farm plan in which the operator would maintain the historical crop mix for the area, participate in all price support programs, and not participate in either a conservative reserve or a biomass production program. In the second simulation, the operator would again maintain the historical crop mix, would not participate in a conservation reserve or biomass production program, and would be ineligible to participate in any price support system. The third simulation introduced the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and included participation in all price support programs. The fourth simulation introduced a biomass crop production enterprise (switchgrass) as an alternative to enrolling highly erodible cropland in the CRP and allowed participation in price support programs. Simulations were made for three farms, two in West Tennessee and on in South Georgia. Results indicate that erosion is likely to be reduced more by the diversion of cropland to permanent vegetative cover on farms similar to the more highly erodible West Tennessee farms than on the less erodible Tift County, Georgia farm. Equivalent reductions in erosion rates result from entering highly erodible cropland in the CRP and from production of switchgrass as a biomass energy crop. Both switchgrass and CRP farm plans result in decreased net returns from the base plan, although the biomass farm plans are, in general, more profitable than the CRP plans.

  14. Determine metrics and set targets for soil quality on agriculture residue and energy crop pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Bonner; David Muth

    2013-09-01

    There are three objectives for this project: 1) support OBP in meeting MYPP stated performance goals for the Sustainability Platform, 2) develop integrated feedstock production system designs that increase total productivity of the land, decrease delivered feedstock cost to the conversion facilities, and increase environmental performance of the production system, and 3) deliver to the bioenergy community robust datasets and flexible analysis tools for establishing sustainable and viable use of agricultural residues and dedicated energy crops. The key project outcome to date has been the development and deployment of a sustainable agricultural residue removal decision support framework. The modeling framework has been used to produce a revised national assessment of sustainable residue removal potential. The national assessment datasets are being used to update national resource assessment supply curves using POLYSIS. The residue removal modeling framework has also been enhanced to support high fidelity sub-field scale sustainable removal analyses. The framework has been deployed through a web application and a mobile application. The mobile application is being used extensively in the field with industry, research, and USDA NRCS partners to support and validate sustainable residue removal decisions. The results detailed in this report have set targets for increasing soil sustainability by focusing on primary soil quality indicators (total organic carbon and erosion) in two agricultural residue management pathways and a dedicated energy crop pathway. The two residue pathway targets were set to, 1) increase residue removal by 50% while maintaining soil quality, and 2) increase soil quality by 5% as measured by Soil Management Assessment Framework indicators. The energy crop pathway was set to increase soil quality by 10% using these same indicators. To demonstrate the feasibility and impact of each of these targets, seven case studies spanning the US are presented

  15. Leucaena and tall grasses as energy crops in humid lower south USA

    SciTech Connect

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R.; Cunilio, T.V.

    1994-12-31

    The tropical leguminous shrub/tree, leucaena (Leucaena spp. mainly leucocephala), and perennial tropical tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane, and energycane (Saccharum spp.) are well adapted to the long growing seasons and high rainfall of the humid lower South. In much of the area the topgrowth is killed by frost during winter and plants regenerate from underground parts in spring. Selected accessions from a duplicated 373 accession leucaena nursery had an average annual woody stem dry matter production of 31.4 Mg ha{sup -1}. Average oven dry stem wood yields from selected accessions adjusted for environmental enrichment over the 4 growth seasons were 78.9 Mg ha{sup -1} total and average annual yield of 19.7 Mg ha{sup -1}. The tall perennial grasses have linear growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2}d{sup -1} for long periods (140 to 196 d and sometimes longer) each season. Oven dry biomass yields of tall grasses have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup -1} in mild temperature locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in warm subtropics of the lower Florida peninsula. Tall grasses and leucaena, once established, may persist for many seasons. A map showing the possible range of the crops in lower South is shown. Highest biomass yields of tall grasses have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils of south Florida. Several companies are considering using leucaena and/or tall grasses for bioenergy in the phosphatic mining area of Polk County, Florida.

  16. EIS-0481: Engineered High Energy Crop Programs Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Programmatic EIS (PEIS) evaluates the potential environmental impacts of implementing one or more programs to catalyze the deployment of engineered high energy crops (EHECs). A main component of the proposed EHEC programs would be providing financial assistance to evaluate the performance of EHECs. This PEIS assesses the potential environmental impacts of such confined field trials in the southeastern United States. DOE’s proposed action under this PEIS will be limited to the states of Alabama, Florida (excluding the Everglades/Southern Florida coastal plain ecoregion), Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia.

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis of miRNA targets in Brachypodium and Biomass Energy Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Pamela J.

    2015-08-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the control of numerous biological processes through the regulation of specific target mRNAs. Although the identities of these targets are essential to elucidate miRNA function, the targets are much more difficult to identify than the small RNAs themselves. Before this work, we pioneered the genome-wide identification of the targets of Arabidopsis miRNAs using an approach called PARE (German et al., Nature Biotech. 2008; Nature Protocols, 2009). Under this project, we applied PARE to Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), a model plant in the Poaceae family, which includes the major food grain and bioenergy crops. Through in-depth global analysis and examination of specific examples, this research greatly expanded our knowledge of miRNAs and target RNAs of Brachypodium. New regulation in response to environmental stress or tissue type was found, and many new miRNAs were discovered. More than 260 targets of new and known miRNAs with PARE sequences at the precise sites of miRNA-guided cleavage were identified and characterized. Combining PARE data with the small RNA data also identified the miRNAs responsible for initiating approximately 500 phased loci, including one of the novel miRNAs. PARE analysis also revealed that differentially expressed miRNAs in the same family guide specific target RNA cleavage in a correspondingly tissue-preferential manner. The project included generation of small RNA and PARE resources for bioenergy crops, to facilitate ongoing discovery of conserved miRNA-target RNA regulation. By associating specific miRNA-target RNA pairs with known physiological functions, the research provides insights about gene regulation in different tissues and in response to environmental stress. This, and release of new PARE and small RNA data sets should contribute basic knowledge to enhance breeding and may suggest new strategies for improvement of biomass energy crops.

  18. Processes change the look of wood fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1980-06-01

    The various forms of wood-derived fuels are reviewed, these include briquetted and pelleted wood products. Charcoal, obtained by pyrolysis has a heating value one and a half times the equivalent weight of the dry wood from which it was made. By process modifications, more oil and gas may be produced instead of charcoal. At Albany, Oregon two barrels of oil are produced daily by hydrogenation of one ton of dry wood chips. It is stated that methanol can be synthesized from solid wood - by wood gasification - with a 38% energy efficiency while ethanol can also be made from wood. The use of wood fuels for electric power generation and cogeneration are also mentioned.

  19. Processes change the look of wood fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1980-06-01

    The various forms of wood-derived fuels are reviewed; these include briquetted and pelleted wood products. Charcoal, obtained by pyrolysis has a heating value one and a half times the equivalent weight of the dry wood from which it was made. By process modifications, more oil and gas may be produced instead of charcoal. At Albany, Oregon two barrels of oil are produced daily by hydrogenation of one ton of dry wood chips. It is stated that methanol can be synthesized from solid wood - by wood gasification - with a 38% energy efficiency while ethanol can also be made from wood. The use of wood fuels for electric power generation and cogeneration are also mentioned.

  20. Forest and wood products role in carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of the use of U.S. forests and forest products for carbon emission mitigation is presented. The current role of forests in carbon sequestration is described in terms of regional differences and forest management techniques. The potential for increasing carbon storage by converting marginal crop and pasture land, increasing timberland growth, reducing wildfire losses, and changing timber harvest methods is examined. Post-harvest carbon flows, environmental impacts of wood products, biomass energy crops, and increased use of energy-conserving trees are reviewed for their potential in reducing or offsetting carbon emissions. It is estimated that these techniques could offset 20 to 40 percent of the carbon emitted annually in the U.S. 39 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. Comparative net energy ratio analysis of pellet produced from steam pretreated biomass from agricultural residues and energy crops

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Shahrukh, Hassan; Oyedun, Adetoyese Olajire; Kumar, Amit; Ghiasi, Bahman; Kumar, Linoj; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2016-04-05

    Here, a process model was developed to determine the net energy ratio (NER) for production of pellets from steam pretreated agricultural residue (AR) and energy crop (i.e. switchgrass in this case). The NER is a ratio of the net energy output to the total net energy input from non-renewable energy sources into a system. Scenarios were developed to measure the effects of temperature and level of steam pretreatment on the NER of steam pretreated AR- and switch grass-based pellets. The NER for the base case at 6 kg h-1 is 1.76 and 1.37 for steam-pretreated AR- and switchgrass-based pellets, respectively.more » The reason behind the difference is that more energy is required to dry switchgrass pellets than AR pellets. The sensitivity analysis for the model shows that the optimum temperature for steam pretreatment is 160 C with 50% pretreatment (half the feedstock is pretreated, while the rest is undergoes regular pelletization). The uncertainty results for NER for steam pretreated AR and switch grass pellets are 1.62 ± 0.10 and 1.42 ± 0.11, respectively.« less

  2. Biomass Energy Basics | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Energy Basics We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy"-the energy from plants and plant-derived materials-since people began burning wood to cook food and keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomass energy resource today, but other sources of biomass can also be used. These include food crops, grassy and woody plants, residues from agriculture or forestry, oil-rich algae, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes. Even the fumes from landfills (which are

  3. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

  4. Development of a farm-firm modelling system for evaluation of herbaceous energy crops. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    English, B.C.; Alexander, R.R.; Loewen, K.H.; Coady, S.A.; Cole, G.V.; Goodman, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    A complete analysis is performed to simulate biomass production incorporated into a realistic whole farm situation, including or replacing a typical crop mix. Representative farms are constructed to accommodate such simulation. Four management systems are simulated for each firm, with each simulation depicting a different crop mix and/or use of different farming technologies and production methods. The first simulation was a base farm plan in which the operator would maintain the historical crop mix for the area, participate in all price support programs, and not participate in either a conservative reserve or a biomass production program. In the second simulation, the operator would again maintain the historical crop mix, would not participate in a conservation reserve or biomass production program, and would be ineligible to participate in any price support system. The third simulation introduced the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and included participation in all price support programs. The fourth simulation introduced a biomass crop production enterprise (switchgrass) as an alternative to enrolling highly erodible cropland in the CRP and allowed participation in price support programs. Simulations were made for three farms, two in West Tennessee and on in South Georgia. Results indicate that erosion is likely to be reduced more by the diversion of cropland to permanent vegetative cover on farms similar to the more highly erodible West Tennessee farms than on the less erodible Tift County, Georgia farm. Equivalent reductions in erosion rates result from entering highly erodible cropland in the CRP and from production of switchgrass as a biomass energy crop. Both switchgrass and CRP farm plans result in decreased net returns from the base plan, although the biomass farm plans are, in general, more profitable than the CRP plans.

  5. Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e) Refuse(f) Total United States 311 Food 0 44 43 * * 1 311221 Wet Corn Milling 0 1 1 0 0 0

  6. Sun Grant/DOE Regional Biomass Feedstock Partnership:Herbaceous Energy Crops and CRP Land for Biomass Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Review Sun Grant/DOE Regional Biomass Feedstock Partnership: Herbaceous Energy Crops and CRP Land for Biomass Production (Award # GO85041; WBS 7.6.2.5) 23-27 March 2015 Technology Area Review: Feedstock Supply and Logistics Vance Owens, Director North Central Sun Grant Center South Dakota State University This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement  Development of more accurate cost supply information and improved

  7. Biomass: Wood as Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Coordinator USDA Forest Service State & Private Forestry ... habitat and forest health Modern Woody Biomass ... Requires manual fuel delivery & stoking Pellets Meter ...

  8. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Clean energy can come from the sun. The energy in wind can make electricity. Bioenergy comes from plants we can turn into fuel. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass We can use ...

  9. Historical Perspective on How and Why Switchgrass was Selected as a "Model" High-Potential Energy Crop

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Lynn L

    2007-11-01

    A review of several publications of the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program, and final reports from the herbaceous crop screening trials suggests that there were several technical and non-technical factors that influenced the decision to focus on one herbaceous "model" crop species. The screening trials funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in the late 1980's to early 1990's assessed a wide range of about 34 species with trials being conducted on a wide range of soil types in 31 different sites spread over seven states in crop producing regions of the U.S. While several species, including sorghums, reed canarygrass and other crops, were identified as having merit for further development, the majority of institutions involved in the herbaceous species screening studies identified switchgrass as having high priority for further development. Six of the seven institutions included switchgrass among the species recommended for further development in their region and all institutions recommended that perennial grasses be given high research priority. Reasons for the selection of switchgrass included the demonstration of relatively high, reliable productivity across a wide geographical range, suitability for marginal quality land, low water and nutrient requirements, and positive environmental attributes. Economic and environmental assessments by Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program staff together with the screening project results, and funding limitations lead to making the decision to further develop only switchgrass as a "model" or "prototype" species in about 1990. This paper describes the conditions under which the herbaceous species were screened, summarizes results from those trials, discusses the various factors which influenced the selection of switchgrass, and provides a brief evaluation of switchgrass with respect to criteria that should be considered when selecting and developing a crop for biofuels and bioproducts.

  10. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Product, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, James A

    2006-09-30

    technology and/or knowledge of reforestation practices in these situations may provide opportunities to reduce the costs of converting many of these sites as research continues into these practices. It also appears that in many cases substantial payments, non-revenue values, or carbon values are required to reach profitability under the present circumstances. It is unclear when, or in what form, markets will develop to support any of these add-on values to supplement commercial forestry revenues. However, as these markets do develop, they will only enhance the viability of forestry on reclaimed mined lands, although as we demonstrate in our analysis of carbon payments, the form of the revenue source may itself influence management, potentially mitigating some of the benefits of reforestation. For a representative mined-land resource base, reforestation of mined lands with mixed pine-hardwood species would result in an average estimated C accumulation in forms that can be harvested for use as wood products or are likely to remain in the soil C pool at ~250 Mg C ha{sup -1} over a 60 year period following reforestation. The additionality of this potential C sequestration was estimated considering data in scientific literature that defines C accumulation in mined-land grasslands over the long term. Given assumptions detailed in the text, these lands have the potential to sequester ~180 Mg C ha{sup -1}, a total of 53.5 x 10{sup 6} Mg C, over 60 years, an average of ~900,000 Mg C / yr, an amount equivalent to about 0.04% of projected US C emissions at the midpoint of a 60-year period (circa 2040) following assumed reforestation. Although potential sequestration quantities are not great relative to potential national needs should an energy-related C emissions offset requirement be developed at some future date, these lands are available and unused for other economically valued purposes and many possess soil and site properties that are well-suited to reforestation. Should such

  11. Accelerating Biofuel Feedstock Crop Improvement with Miscanthus Genomics (2014 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, Kankshita

    2014-03-20

    Kankshita Swaminathan of the Energy Biosciences Institute speaks at the 9th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 20, 2014 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  12. Herbaceous crops for energy in Italy: Present status of the research program promoted by ENEL (Italian Electric Company)

    SciTech Connect

    Schenone, G.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a synthesis of the main results of the research program promoted by ENEL (Italian Electric Company) on herbaceous energy crops. The objective of the program is to evaluate the potentials of different species and cultivars for biomass fuel production in Italy. For the most promising species, all the links of the chain from cultivation to delivery at the plant gate at the lowest possible cost have to be organized. So far the following species gave annual productivities above 20 dry tons/ha: fiber sorghum (Sorghum sp.); miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis); and giant reed (Arundo donax). The highest biomass yields, well above 40 dry tons/ha in several trials, were given by giant reed.

  13. 2016 Bioenergizeme Infographic Challenge: Energy Crops: The Future of Bioenergy Feedstocks

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Franklin High School in Franklin, MA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic...

  14. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2003-12-18

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration benefits for two forest types used to convert abandoned grasslands for carbon sequestration. Annual mixed hardwood benefits, based on total stand carbon volume present at the end of a given year, range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $5.26/ton of carbon (low prices). White pine benefits based on carbon volume range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $18.61/ton of carbon (high prices). The higher maximum white pine carbon payment can primarily be attributed to the fact that the shorter rotation means that payments for white pine carbon are being made on far less cumulative carbon tonnage than for that of the long-rotation hardwoods. Therefore, the payment per ton of white pine carbon needs to be higher than that of the hardwoods in order to render the conversion to white pine profitable by the end of a rotation. These carbon payments may seem appealingly low to the incentive provider. However, payments (not discounted) made over a full rotation may add up to approximately $17,493/ha for white pine (30-year rotation), and $18,820/ha for mixed hardwoods (60-year rotation). The literature suggests a range of carbon sequestration costs, from $0/ton of carbon to $120/ton of carbon, although the majority of studies suggest a cost below $50/ ton of carbon, with van Kooten et al. (2000) suggesting a cutoff cost of $20/ton of carbon sequestered. Thus, the ranges of carbon payments estimated for this study fall well within the ranges of carbon sequestration costs estimated in previous studies.

  15. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-06-04

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration potential of forests growing on 14 mined sites in a seven-state region in the Midwestern and Eastern Coalfields. Carbon contents of these forests were compared to adjacent forests on non-mined land. The study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each location. The treatments include three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Analysis of soil samples was completed and these data are being used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions. Fertilizer prescripts will be developed for each site. Fertilizer will be applied during the second quarter 2004. Data are included as appendices in this report. As part of our economic analysis of mined land reforestation, we focused on the implications of a shift in reforestation burden from the landowner to the mine operator. Results suggest that the reforestation of mined lands as part of the mining operation creates a viable and profitable forest enterprise for landowners with greater potential for carbon sequestration.

  16. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Aggett

    2003-12-15

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this segment of work, our goal was to review methods for estimating tree survival, growth, yield and value of forests growing on surface mined land in the eastern coalfields of the USA, and to determine the extent to which carbon sequestration is influenced by these factors. Public Law 95-87, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), mandates that mined land be reclaimed in a fashion that renders the land at least as productive after mining as it was before mining. In the central Appalachian region, where prime farmland and economic development opportunities for mined land are scarce, the most practical land use choices are hayland/pasture, wildlife habitat, or forest land. Since 1977, the majority of mined land has been reclaimed as hayland/pasture or wildlife habitat, which is less expensive to reclaim than forest land, since there are no tree planting costs. As a result, there are now hundreds of thousands of hectares of grasslands and scrublands in various stages of natural succession located throughout otherwise forested mountains in the U.S. A literature review was done to develop the basis for an economic feasibility study of a range of land-use conversion scenarios. Procedures were developed for both mixed hardwoods and white pine under a set of low product prices and under a set of high product prices. Economic feasibility is based on land expectation values. Further, our review shows that three types of incentive schemes might be important: (1) lump sum payment at planting (and equivalent series of annual payments); (2) revenue incentive at harvest; and (3) benefit based on carbon volume.

  17. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-12-01

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. Regression models of chemical and physical soil properties were created in order to estimate the SOC content down the soil profile. Soil organic carbon concentration and volumetric percent of the fines decreased exponentially down the soil profile. The results indicated that one-third of the total SOC content on mined lands was found in the surface 0-13 cm soil layer, and more than two-thirds of it was located in the 0-53 cm soil profile. A relative estimate of soil density may be best in broad-scale mine soil mapping since actual D{sub b} values are often inaccurate and difficult to obtain in rocky mine soils. Carbon sequestration potential is also a function of silvicultural practices used for reforestation success. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and

  18. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-06-08

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we compiled and evaluated all soil properties measured on the study sites. Statistical analysis of the properties was conducted, and first year survival and growth of white pine, hybrid poplars, and native hardwoods was assessed. Hardwood species survived better at all sites than white pine or hybrid poplar. Hardwood survival across treatments was 80%, 85%, and 50% for sites in Virginia, West Virginia, and Ohio, respectively, while white pine survival was 27%, 41%, and 58%, and hybrid poplar survival was 37%, 41%, and 72% for the same sites, respectively. Hybrid poplar height and diameter growth were superior to those of the other species tested, with the height growth of this species reaching 126.6cm after one year in the most intensive treatment at the site in Virginia. To determine carbon in soils on these

  19. Wood fuel technologies and group-oriented Timber Stand Improvement Program: model for waste wood utilization and resource renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: educating and assisting landowners in the most efficient and profitable use of wood resources; developing local timber resources as energy alternatives by representing collective interests to Consumers Power, the woodchip industry, firewood retailers, country residents, and woodlot owners; and providing public information on the economics and methods of wood heat as a supplemental energy source. (MHR)

  20. Blog Feed: Vehicles | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    class"field-item odd">Source: Energy Information Administration Short Term Energy Outlook. Chart by energy.govcontributorsdaniel-wood">Daniel Wood.<...

  1. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, James A

    2005-07-20

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we determined that by grinding the soil samples to a finer particle size of less than 250 μm (sieve No. 60), the effect of mine soil coal particle size on the extent to which these particles will be oxidized during the thermal treatment of the carbon partitioning procedure will be eliminated, thus making the procedure more accurate and precise. In the second phase of the carbon sequestration project, we focused our attention on determining the sample size required for carbon accounting on grassland mined fields in order to achieve a desired accuracy and precision of the final soil organic carbon (SOC) estimate. A mine land site quality classification scheme was developed and some field-testing of the methods of implementation was completed. The classification model

  2. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Trojanowski, R.; Wei, G.

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  3. ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Integration of Advanced Logistical Systems and Focused Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues and Energy Crops in a Densified Large Square Bale Format OBP WBS: ...

  4. Generating power with waste wood

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, R.S.

    1995-02-01

    Among the biomass renewables, waste wood has great potential with environmental and economic benefits highlighting its resume. The topics of this article include alternate waste wood fuel streams; combustion benefits; waste wood comparisons; waste wood ash; pilot scale tests; full-scale test data; permitting difficulties; and future needs.

  5. Transportation fuels from wood

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

  6. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment III. Florida's eucalyptus energy farm and methanol refinery: the background environment

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    A wide array of general background information is presented on the Central Florida area in which the eucalyptus energy plantation and methanol refinery will be located. Five counties in Central Florida may be affected by the project, DeSoto, Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk. The human resources of the area are reviewed. Included are overviews of population demographic and economic trends. Land use patterns and the transportation are system described, and the region's archeological and recreational resources are evaluated. The region's air quality is emphasized. The overall climate is described along with noise and air shed properties. An analysis of the region's water resources is included. Ground water is discussed first followed by an analysis of surface water. Then the overall quality and water supply/demand balance for the area is evaluated. An overview of the region's biota is presented. Included here are discussions of the general ecosystems in Central Florida, and an analysis of areas with important biological significance. Finally, land resources are examined.

  7. Handbook of energy utilization in agriculture. [Collection of available data

    SciTech Connect

    Pimentel, D.

    1980-01-01

    Available data, published and unpublished, on energy use in agriculture and forestry production are presented. The data specifically focus on the energy-input aspects of crop, livestock, and forest production. Energy values for various agricultural inputs are discussed in the following: Energy Inputs for Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potash Fertilizers; Energy Used in the US for Agricultural Liming Materials; Assessing the Fossil Energy Costs of Propagating Agricultural Crops; Energy Requirements for Irrigation; Energy Inputs for the Production, Formulation, Packaging, and Transport of Various Pesticides; Energy Requirements for Various Methods of Crop Drying; Energy Used for Transporting Supplies to the Farm; and Unit Energy Cost of Farm Buildings. Energy inputs and outputs for field crop systems are discussed for barley, corn, oats, rice, rye, sorghum, wheat, soybeans, dry beans, snap beans, peas, safflower, sugarcane in Louisiana, sugar beet, alfalfa, hay, and corn silage. Energy inputs for vegetables are discussed for cabbage, Florida celery, lettuce, potato, pickling cucumbers, cantaloupes, watermelon, peppers, and spinach. Energy inputs and outputs for fruits and tree crops discussed are: Eastern US apples, apricots, cherries, peaches, pears, plums and prunes, grapes in the US, US citrus, banana in selected areas, strawberries in the US, red raspberries, blueberries, cranberries, pecans, walnuts, almonds, and maple production in Vermont. Energy inputs and outputs for livestock production are determined for dairy products, poultry, swine, beef, sheep, and aquaculture. Energy requirments for inshore and offshore fishing crafts (the case of the Northeast fishery) and energy production and consumption in wood harvest are presented.

  8. Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " ","

  9. Effect of wood chip size on update gasifier-combustor operation

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, F.A.; Dunlap, J.L.; Caussanel, P.

    1984-01-01

    Three wood chip sizes were tested in a 0.3 GJ/h updraft gasifier-combustor. Thermal output did not vary significantly between wood chips. Pressure and temperature profiles were measured in the gasifier bed. Channeling occurred with the small wood chips. Efficiency of the combustor was determined by a mass and energy balance and an enthalpy technique.

  10. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  11. Gas pollution control apparatus and method and wood drying system employing same

    SciTech Connect

    Eatherton, J.R.

    1984-02-14

    Pollution control apparatus and method are disclosed in which hot exhaust gas containing pollutants including solid particles and hydrocarbon vapors is treated by transmitting such exhaust gas through a container containing wood members, such as wood chips, which serve as a filter media for filtering out such pollutants by causing such solids to deposit and such hydrocarbon vapors to condense upon the surface of the wood members. The contaminated wood chips are discharged from the filter and further processed into chip board or other commercial wood products thereby disposing of the pollutants. Lumber may be used as the wood members of the filter in a lumber kiln by deposition of solid particles on the rough surface of such lumber. The contaminated surfaces of the lumber are removed by a planer which produces a smooth finished lumber and contaminated wood chips that may be processed into chip board or other commercial wood products. A wood drying system employing such pollution control apparatus and method includes a hot air dryer for wood or other organic material, such as a wood chip rotary dryer or a wood veneer dryer, which produces hot exhaust gases containing pollutants including hydrocarbon vapors and solid particles. This hot exhaust air is transmitted through a lumber kiln to dry lumber thereby conserving heat energy and causing solid particle pollutants to deposit on the surface of the lumber. The kiln exhaust air containing solid and hydrocarbon vapor pollutants is then transmitted up through a filter stack of wood chips.

  12. How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    North Country School in Lake Placid, New York, recently installed a high-efficiency wood chip boiler using Recovery Act funds from the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Using wood sourced from their sustainably managed woodlot and local forests, the school will be able to cut energy costs by $38,970 annually and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 184 tons per year.

  13. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, J.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Preto, F.; Melin, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

  14. Historical Perspective on How and Why Switchgrass was Seleced as a "Model" High-Potential Energy Crop

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Lynn

    2007-07-01

    Economic and environmental assessments by Oak Ridge National Laboratorys Biofuels Feedstock Development Program staff together with the screening project results, and funding limitations lead to making the decision to further develop only switchgrass as a model or prototype species in about 1990. This paper describes the conditions under which the herbaceous species were screened, summarizes results from those trials, discusses the various factors which influenced the selection of switchgrass, and provides a brief evaluation of switchgrass with respect to criteria that should be considered when selecting and developing a crop for biofuels and bioproducts.

  15. Mann Naturenergie GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Biofuels, Renewable Energy Product: Mann Naturenergie is engaged in renewable energy production and distribution. It offers biofuels like wood chips, wood briquettes or...

  16. Evaluation of processes for producing gasoline from wood. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    Three processes for producing gasoline from wood by pyrolysis have been investigated. Technical and economic comparisons among the processes have been made, based on a hypothetical common plant size of 2000 tons per day green wood chip feedstock. In order to consider the entire fuel production process, the energy and cost inputs for producing and delivering the feedstock were included in the analysis. In addition, perspective has been provided by comparisons of the wood-to-gasoline technologies with other similar systems, including coal-to-methanol and various biomass-to-alcohol systems. Based on several assumptions that were required because of the candidate processes' information gaps, comparisons of energy efficiency were made. Several descriptors of energy efficiency were used, but all showed that methanol production from wood, with or without subsequent processing by the Mobil route to gasoline, appears most promising. It must be emphasized, however, that the critical wood-to-methanol system remains conceptual. Another observation was that the ethanol production systems appear inferior to the wood-to-gasoline processes. Each of the processes investigated requires further research and development to answer the questions about their potential contributions confidently. The processes each have so many unknowns that it appears unwise to pursue any one while abandoning the others.

  17. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-04-26

    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An

  18. WWS-ceremony-WW%2C-LAJ%2C-BH_crop.jpg | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information WWS-ceremony-WW%2C-LAJ%2C-BH_crop

  19. Higher U.S. Crop Prices Trigger Little Area Expansion so Marginal Land for Biofuel Crops Is Limited

    SciTech Connect

    Swinton, S.; Babcock, Bruce; James, Laura; Bandaru, Varaprasad

    2011-06-12

    By expanding energy biomass production on marginal lands that are not currently used for crops, food price increases and indirect climate change effects can be mitigated. Studies of the availability of marginal lands for dedicated bioenergy crops have focused on biophysical land traits, ignoring the human role in decisions to convert marginal land to bioenergy crops. Recent history offers insights about farmer willingness to put non-crop land into crop production. The 2006-09 leap in field crop prices and the attendant 64% gain in typical profitability led to only a 2% increase in crop planted area, mostly in the prairie states

  20. Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... 5) operating the Kubota Pictured below (Fig 6), Cynthia James training on the New Holland. ... Shawn Champagne Equipment Training New Holland Tractor and Kubota Kubota Training: ...

  1. Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Safety Operational efficiency Regulatory compliance Gerald James pictured above (Fig 5) operating the Kubota Pictured below (Fig 6), Cynthia James training on the New Holland. ...

  2. PETRO: Higher Productivity Crops for Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: The 10 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s PETRO Project, short for “Plants Engineered to Replace Oil,” aim to develop non-food crops that directly produce transportation fuel. These crops can help supply the transportation sector with agriculturally derived fuels that are cost-competitive with petroleum and do not affect U.S. food supply. PETRO aims to redirect the processes for energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture in plants toward fuel production. This would create dedicated energy crops that serve as a domestic alternative to petroleum-based fuels and deliver more energy per acre with less processing prior to the pump.

  3. Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

    2001-12-28

    New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of cobalt

  4. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Melin, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

  5. This research was supported as part of the Catalysis Center for Energy Innovatio

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New Generations of Zeolite Catalysts This research was conducted by the group of George Huber at University of Massachusetts Amherst. Researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst are developing a single-step process to convert solid biomass (including wood, agricultural wastes, and energy crops) directly into aromatics and olefins with zeolite catalysts in a fluidized bed reactor in a process

  6. British Thermal Units (Btu) - Energy Explained, Your Guide To...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Wood and Wood Waste Waste-to-Energy (MSW) Landfill Gas and Biogas Biomass & the Environment See also: Biofuels Biofuels: Ethanol & Biodiesel Ethanol Use of Ethanol Ethanol & the ...

  7. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILERPLANT

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; Thomas Stickle; Jun Wang; Hongming Li; William P. Barry

    2002-06-13

    During the third quarter, the experimental portion of the project was carried out. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NIOSH Boiler Plant (NBP). Blends using hammer-milled wood were operationally successful and can form the basis of Phase II. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and the mathematical modeling of mercury speciation reactions continued, yielding many interesting results. Material and energy balances for the test periods at the NBP, as well as at the Bellefield Boiler Plant, were prepared. Steps were taken to remove severe constraints from the Pennsylvania Switchgrass Energy and Conservation Project and to organize the supplying of landfill gas to the Bruceton federal complex. Two presentations were made to meetings of the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Energy Technology Laboratory.

  8. Wind Turbines Benefit Crops

    ScienceCinema

    Takle, Gene

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory associate scientist Gene Takle talks about research into the effect of wind turbines on nearby crops. Preliminary results show the turbines may have a positive effect by cooling and drying the crops and assisting with carbon dioxide uptake.

  9. Alpha Renewable Energy | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Renewable Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Alpha Renewable Energy Place: Atlanta, Georgia Sector: Biomass Product: Manufacturer of biomass wood gas stoves and standalone...

  10. Point Bio Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Point Bio Energy LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Point Bio Energy LLC Place: La Pointe, Wisconsin Product: Wisconsin-based wood fuel pellet producer. References: Point Bio...

  11. Creating a Multi-functional Library of Grass Transcription Factors for the Energy Crop Model System Brachypodium Distachyon (2014 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Coomey, Joshua

    2014-03-20

    Joshua Coomey of the University of Massachusetts Amherst, speaks at the 9th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 20, 2014 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  12. Energy Information Administration - Energy Efficiency-table 8b...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    sum of all of the listed energy sources, and other energy sources such as wood waste, hydrogen, and waste oils and tars. Sources: Energy Information Administration, Manufacturing...

  13. Energy Information Administration - Energy Efficiency-table 8b...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    sum of all of the listed energy sources, and other energy sources such as wood waste, hydrogen, and waste oils and tars. Sources:Energy Information Administration, Manufacturing...

  14. U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    87 Section 5. Renewable Energy Renewable energy sources included in the State Energy Data System (SEDS) comprise fuel ethanol, wood, waste, hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, ...

  15. Biomass fuel from woody crops for electric power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.; Wright, L.L.; Huston, M.A.; Schramm, W.E.

    1995-06-22

    This report discusses the biologic, environmental, economic, and operational issues associated with growing wood crops in managed plantations. Information on plantation productivity, environmental issues and impacts, and costs is drawn from DOE`s Biofuels Feedstock Development as well as commercial operations in the US and elsewhere. The particular experiences of three countries--Brazil, the Philippines, and Hawaii (US)--are discussed in considerable detail.

  16. Measure Guideline. Wood Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  17. Fossil | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    by Daniel Wood, Energy Department. Fossil energy sources, including oil, coal and natural gas, are non-renewable resources that formed when prehistoric plants and animals died...

  18. Marcia A. Wood | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Marcia A. Wood Group Leader, Information Solutions and Technology Assurance B.S. Computer Science, University of St. Francis Telephone 630.252.4656 Fax 630.252.6866 E-mail wood@anl.gov

  19. Wanda Woods | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Wanda Woods Budget & Resource Administrator Wanda Woods Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue Building 240 - Wkstn. 1C9 Argonne, IL 60439 630-252-1353 wwoods@alcf.anl.gov

  20. Kenneth L. Wood | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Kenneth L. Wood Senior Engineering Specialist Telephone (630) 252-3971 E-mail klw@hep.anl

  1. Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, GE

    2003-09-18

    The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

  2. Thermal Impact of Fasteners in High-Performance Wood-Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Dane Christensen

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses high-performance wood-framed walls that use much less than 40% of the energy consumed by similar homes built to minimum code, and evaluates the thermal impact of fasteners used to construct these walls.

  3. ART ICHMI DOE Review Oct2015 Wood-1.pptx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Technologies- Instrumentation, Control, and Human- Machine Interface (ICHMI) Technology Area Overview Richard Wood Oak Ridge National Laboratory Presented during 2015 Nuclear Energy I&C Review U.S. Department of Energy - Webinar October 28, 2015 2 ICHMI Technology Area Focus is on Achieving Goals and Resolving Challenges for Advanced Reactors * DOE-NE R&D Objective #2 [Develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors...] establishes the primary goal for ART ICHMI research -

  4. Argonne National Laboratory Scientists Study Benefits of Bioenergy Crop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Integration | Department of Energy Argonne National Laboratory Scientists Study Benefits of Bioenergy Crop Integration Argonne National Laboratory Scientists Study Benefits of Bioenergy Crop Integration August 5, 2015 - 4:47pm Addthis How can our landscapes be managed most effectively to produce crops for food, feed, and bioenergy, while also protecting our water resources by preventing the loss of nutrients from the soil? Dr. Cristina Negri and her team at the U.S. Department of Energy's

  5. Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Angie; Bertjens, Steve; Lieurance, Mike; Berguson, Bill; Buchman, Dan

    2012-12-31

    The Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project evaluated the potential for biomass energy production and utilization throughout the Driftless Region of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The research and demonstration aspect of the project specifically focused on biomass energy feedstock availability and production potential in the region, as well as utilization potential of biomass feedstocks for heat, electrical energy production, or combined heat and power operations. The Driftless Region was evaluated because the topography of the area offers more acres of marginal soils on steep slopes, wooded areas, and riparian corridors than the surrounding “Corn Belt”. These regional land characteristics were identified as potentially providing opportunity for biomass feedstock production that could compete with traditional agriculture commodity crops economically. The project researched establishment methods and costs for growing switchgrass on marginal agricultural lands to determine the economic and quantitative feasibility of switchgrass production for biomass energy purposes. The project was successful in identifying the best management and establishment practices for switchgrass in the Driftless Area, but also demonstrated that simple economic payback versus commodity crops could not be achieved at the time of the research. The project also analyzed the availability of woody biomass and production potential for growing woody biomass for large scale biomass energy production in the Driftless Area. Analysis determined that significant resources exist, but costs to harvest and deliver to the site were roughly 60% greater than that of natural gas at the time of the study. The project contributed significantly to identifying both production potential of biomass energy crops and existing feedstock availability in the Driftless Area. The project also analyzed the economic feasibility of dedicated energy crops in the Driftless Area. High commodity crop prices

  6. Energy.gov's Spooky Energy Units Calculator | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy.gov's Spooky Energy Units Calculator Energy.gov's Spooky Energy Units Calculator This interactive map is not viewable in your browser. Please view it in a modern browser. Calculator by Daniel Wood.

  7. Energy 101: Biofuels

    Education - Teach & Learn

    Biomass is an organic renewable energy source that includes materials such as agriculture and forest residues, energy crops, and algae.

  8. Densified fuels from wood waste

    SciTech Connect

    Pickering, W.H.

    1995-11-01

    Wood compressed to a specific gravity of about 1.2 constitutes an excellent clean burning fuel. {open_quotes}Prestologs{close_quotes} were marketed before 1940, but in the past ten years a much larger and growing market is densified pellet fuel has developed. The market for pellet fuel is about 90% residential, using special pellet burning stoves. Initial sales were almost entirely in the northwest, but sales in other parts of the country are now growing rapidly. Approximately 300,000 stoves are in use. Note that this industry developed from the private sector with little or no support from federal or state governments. Densified fuel is manufactured by drying and compressing sawdust feedstock. Combustion is different than that of normal wood. For example, wood pellets require ample supplies of air. They then burn with a hot flame and very low particulate emissions. Volatile organic compounds are burned almost completely and carbon monoxide can also be kept very low. Stoves burning pellets easily meet EPA standards. This paper discusses technical and economic factors associated with densified fuel and considers the future of the industry.

  9. Monthly Energy Review The Monthly Energy Review

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    generated for distribution from wood, waste, geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. e Includes supplemental gaseous fuels. f Products obtained from the...

  10. Dynamics of Wood Chip Storage: Task I

    SciTech Connect

    Sworden, P. G.

    1982-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to document Dow Corning's decision making process in establishing a fuelwood supply and procurement system with emphasis on how this relates to private forest landowners. The report will provide background on the decision to investigate wood energy systems and key management questions in that decision process. Information used to answer the key management questions will be high-lighted and its usefulness documented, including resource assessment and requirements. The report will discuss the development and implementation of the landowner assistance program and supplier-producer program. At the end of the report, Dow Corning's experiences will be summarized and some conclusions drawn concerning the success of the program.

  11. Home Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Heating Home Heating Energy Saver 101 Infographic: Home Heating Energy Saver 101 Infographic: Home Heating Everything you need to know about home heating, including how heating systems work, the different types on the market and proper maintenance. Read more Thermostats Thermostats Save money on heating by automatically setting back your thermostat when you are asleep or away. Read more Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and pellets are renewable fuel sources, and modern wood

  12. Energy Information Administration - Energy Efficiency-Table 4...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    3. 'Total' is the sum of all of the listed energy sources, including wood waste, hydrogen, and waste oils and tars. Sources: Energy Information Administration, Manufacturing...

  13. U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    of hydropower and geothermal, wind, wood, waste, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. ... Hydroelectric, Geothermal, Wind, Photovoltaic, and Solar Thermal Energy In SEDS, it is ...

  14. U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Expenditures developed in the EIA State Energy Data System (SEDS) are calculated by ... geothermal, wind, solar thermal and photovoltaic energy sources, and some wood and waste. ...

  15. Alice Dasek | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Alice Dasek About Us Alice Dasek - Project Officer, Department of Energy State Energy Program Most Recent How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip November...

  16. Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... for any table cell, multiply the cell's" "corresponding RSE column and RSE row factors. ... "Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: ...

  17. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  18. Wood and Pellet Heating | Department of Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    a low smolder to avoid overheating, which wastes fuel and is one of the biggest causes of air pollution. An under-sized unit will not provide sufficient heat. You should discuss...

  19. Waste wood processing and combustion for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Fifth Annual National Biofuels Conference and Exhibition held October 19--22, 1992 in Newton, Massachusetts. Individual papers have been abstracted and indexed for the database.

  20. Grant F. Wood | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Grant F. Wood Consultant - Project Management 9700 S. Cass Avenue Building 240 Wkstn. 3D18 Argonne, IL 60439 630-252-5315 gfwood

  1. The effects of storage on the net calorific value of wood pellets

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Lee, Jun Sian; Sokhansanj, S.; Lau, A. K.; Lim, C. J.; Bi, X. T.; Basset, Vaughan; Yazdanpanah, F.; Melin, S.

    2015-06-30

    The wood pellet export from Canada to Europe has been increasing steadily in recent years (roughly 1.8 million ton in 2013). Due to distances involved, wood pellets remain in transit and storage for months before their final consumption. The net calorific value determines the price of wood pellet purchase in Europe. There have been concerns about the changes of net calorific values over time. In this study, the effects of storage time, storage configuration, storage temperature, and wood pellet quality on the net calorific value of wood pellets for a period of 6 months were investigated. Storage configurations were openmore » or closed and storage temperatures were 25 °C, 35 °C and 45 °C. Two types of wood pellets used were whitewood and mixed. The results in closed storage indicated that storage time had a positive effect on the net calorific value where the net calorific value increased by 1% to 2% over the storage period. In open storage, the moisture content had the most significant impact on the net calorific value. The net calorific values of the two types of wood pellets were found to be significantly different at p < 0.001. A multivariable linear regression and analyses of variance performed verified the graphical results. Lastly, the authors postulated that the higher energy potential compounds, such as aldehyde and ketone, produced during pellet storage, caused the increase in net calorific values.« less

  2. The effects of storage on the net calorific value of wood pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jun Sian; Sokhansanj, S.; Lau, A. K.; Lim, C. J.; Bi, X. T.; Basset, Vaughan; Yazdanpanah, F.; Melin, S.

    2015-06-30

    The wood pellet export from Canada to Europe has been increasing steadily in recent years (roughly 1.8 million ton in 2013). Due to distances involved, wood pellets remain in transit and storage for months before their final consumption. The net calorific value determines the price of wood pellet purchase in Europe. There have been concerns about the changes of net calorific values over time. In this study, the effects of storage time, storage configuration, storage temperature, and wood pellet quality on the net calorific value of wood pellets for a period of 6 months were investigated. Storage configurations were open or closed and storage temperatures were 25 °C, 35 °C and 45 °C. Two types of wood pellets used were whitewood and mixed. The results in closed storage indicated that storage time had a positive effect on the net calorific value where the net calorific value increased by 1% to 2% over the storage period. In open storage, the moisture content had the most significant impact on the net calorific value. The net calorific values of the two types of wood pellets were found to be significantly different at p < 0.001. A multivariable linear regression and analyses of variance performed verified the graphical results. Lastly, the authors postulated that the higher energy potential compounds, such as aldehyde and ketone, produced during pellet storage, caused the increase in net calorific values.

  3. Waste to Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    pellets or logs from wood, plants, or paper So, what ... Waste to energy - gasification http:... George Roe Research Professor Alaska Center ...

  4. Renewable Energy Systems Exemption

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recognized forms of energy generation include solar photovoltaics, passive solar, wind, solid waste, decomposition of organic wastes, geothermal, small hydropower plants, low-emission wood or...

  5. Marcegaglia | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Place: Italy Product: Italy-based steel manufacturer. The company is involved in wood to energy processing and PV module production. References: Marcegaglia1 This article...

  6. Flash pyrolysis products from beech wood

    SciTech Connect

    Beaumont, O.

    1985-04-01

    Flash pyrolysis products from beech wood obtained in an original pyrolysis apparatus were analyzed. The analytical procedure is described, and the composition of pyrolytic oil presented with more than 50 compounds. Comparison of pyrolytic products of cellulose, hemicellulose, and wood indicates the origin of each product. 19 references.

  7. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood,...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood,...

  8. Incorporation of metal nanoparticles into wood substrate and methods

    DOEpatents

    Rector, Kirk D; Lucas, Marcel

    2015-11-04

    Metal nanoparticles were incorporated into wood. Ionic liquids were used to expand the wood cell wall structure for nanoparticle incorporation into the cell wall structure. Nanoparticles of elemental gold or silver were found to be effective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) imaging contrast or sensing agents. Nanoparticles of elemental iron were found to be efficient microwave absorbers and caused localized heating for disrupting the integrity of the lignocellulosic matrix. Controls suggest that the localized heating around the iron nanoparticles reduces losses of cellulose in the form of water, volatiles and CO.sub.2. The ionic liquid is needed during the incorporation process at room temperature. The use of small amounts of ionic liquid combined with the absence of an ionic liquid purification step and a lower energy and water use are expected to reduce costs in an up-scaled pretreatment process.

  9. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; William P. Barry; Jun Wang; Hongming Li

    2004-04-08

    An Environmental Questionnaire for the demonstration at the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP) was submitted to the national Energy Technology Laboratory. An R&D variance for the air permit at the BBP was sought from the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD). R&D variances for the solid waste permits at the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS) were sought from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). Construction wood was acquired from Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation. Verbal authorizations were received in all cases. Memoranda of understanding were executed by the University of Pittsburgh with BBP, JARC and ETS. Construction wood was collected from Thompson Properties and from Seven D Corporation. Forty tons of pallet and construction wood were ground to produce BioGrind Wood Chips at JARC and delivered to Mon Valley Transportation Company (MVTC). Five tons of construction wood were hammer milled at ETS and half of the product delivered to MVTC. Blends of wood and coal, produced at MVTC by staff of JARC and MVTC, were shipped by rail to BBP. The experimental portion of the project was carried out at BBP in late March and early April 2001. Several preliminary tests were successfully conducted using blends of 20% and 33% wood by volume. Four one-day tests using a blend of 40% wood by volume were then carried out. Problems of feeding and slagging were experienced with the 40% blend. Light-colored fly ash was observed coming from the stack during all four tests. Emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx and total particulates, measured by Energy Systems Associates, decreased when compared with combusting coal alone. A procedure for calculating material and energy balances on BBP's Boiler No.1 was developed, using the results of an earlier compliance test at the plant. Material and energy balances were then calculated for the four test periods. Boiler efficiency was found to decrease slightly when the fuel was shifted from coal

  10. Energy Markets

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets November 16, 2015 0 2 4 6 8 10 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 biofuels geothermal solar wind waste hydroelectric wood 0 2 4 6 8 10 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010...

  11. Energy Markets

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets October 22, 2015 0 2 4 6 8 10 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 biofuels geothermal solar wind waste hydroelectric wood 0 2 4 6 8 10 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010...

  12. Energy Markets

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets October 29, 2015 0 2 4 6 8 10 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 biofuels geothermal solar wind waste hydroelectric wood 0 2 4 6 8 10 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010...

  13. Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.M.

    1982-04-01

    Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

  14. Department of Energy Announces 18 New Projects to Accelerate Technologies for Efficient Residential Combined Heat and Power Generation and Bioenergy Crop Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Energy Department’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) today announced $55 million in funding for 18 innovative projects as part of ARPA-E’s two newest programs: GENerators for Small Electrical and Thermal Systems (GENSETS) and Transportation Energy Resources from Renewable Agriculture (TERRA).

  15. How Much Energy Does Your State Produce? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Does Your State Produce? How Much Energy Does Your State Produce? November 10, 2014 - 2:52pm Addthis Energy Production in Trillion Btu: 2012 Click on each state to learn more about how much energy it produces Source: EIA State Energy Data Systems Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs More Energy Maps Interested in learning more about national energy trends? Learn how much you spend on energy and how much energy you consume. Here

  16. Wood fuel in fluidized bed boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Virr, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Development of fluidized bed fire-tube and water-tube boilers for the burning of wood, gas, and refuse-derived fuel will be reviewed. Experience gained in already installed plants will be outlined. Research experiments results on the use of various forms of wood and other biomass fuels, such as wood chips, pellets, peach pits, nut shells and kernels and refuse-derived fuels, will be described for small and medium sized fire-tube boilers, and for larger water-tube boilers for co-generation. (Refs. 4).

  17. Assessment of potential wood supply for intermediate scale thermoconversion facilities, Tasks I, II, III

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-01

    The Department of Energy's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program has been concerned with the potential of wood biomass to contribute to the Nation's energy supply. One of the factors inhibiting the selection of wood biomass for energy by non-forest industries, especially by those requiring large quantities (500 to 2000 green tons per day), is concern with adequate fuel supply in terms of both a supply system and an adequate resource base. With respect to the latter, this report looks at the gross resource base as has been historically reported and also examines factors other than traditional product removals that could reduce to some degree the amount of resource that is available. The study also examined the conversion of a New England utility from coal to wood chips.

  18. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1992...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Consumption and Expenditures Electricity Consumption Natural Gas Consumption Wood and Solar Energy Consumption Fuel Oil and District Heat Consumption Energy Consumption in...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Residential Alternative Energy Tax Deduction Eligible biomass energy devices include a pellet stove or EPA-certified wood stove if: Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Solar...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Wind (Small), Geothermal Direct-Use Residential Alternative Energy Tax Deduction Eligible biomass energy devices include a pellet stove or EPA-certified wood stove if: Eligibility:...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Residential Alternative Energy Tax Deduction Eligible biomass energy devices include a pellet stove or EPA-certified wood stove if: Eligibility:...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Hydroelectric, Landfill Gas Residential Alternative Energy Tax Deduction Eligible biomass energy devices include a pellet stove or EPA-certified wood stove if: Eligibility:...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Residential Alternative Energy Tax Deduction Eligible biomass energy devices include a pellet stove or EPA-certified wood stove if: Eligibility: Residential Savings Category:...

  4. Energy from biological processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This assessment responds to a request by the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation for an evaluation of the energy potential of various sources of plant and animal matter (biomass). This report complements an earlier OTA report on the Application of Solar Technology to Today's Energy Needs in evaluating the major solar energy resources available to the United States. The findings also will serve as part of the material to be used in an upcoming OTA assessment of synthetic fuels for transportation. This volume presents analyses of prominent biomass issues, summaries of four biomass fuel cycles, a description of biomass' place in two plausible energy futures, and discussions of policy options for promoting energy from biomass. The four fuel cycles - wood, alcohol fuels, grasses and crop residues, and animal wastes - were chosen because of their near- to mid-term energy potential and because of the public interest in them. A second volume presents technical analyses of the resource base, conversion technologies, and end uses that provide a basis for the discussion in this volume. Also included in Volume II are various unconventional approaches to bioenergy production as well as the use of biomass to produce chemicals.

  5. Renewable Energy Resources Trust Fund

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Renewable-energy projects eligible for RERTF support include wind energy, solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, dedicated crops grown for energy production and organic waste biomass, hydropower th...

  6. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; William P. Barry; Jun Wang; Hongming Li

    2001-08-21

    During the third quarter, important preparatory work was continued so that the experimental activities can begin early in the fourth quarter. Authorization was awaited in response to the letter that was submitted to the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) seeking an R&D variance for the air permit at the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP). Verbal authorizations were received from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) for R&D variances for solid waste permits at the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS). Construction wood was acquired from Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation. Forty tons of pallet and construction wood were ground to produce BioGrind Wood Chips at JARC and delivered to Mon Valley Transportation Company (MVTC). Five tons of construction wood were milled at ETS and half of the product delivered to MVTC. Discussions were held with BBP and Energy Systems Associates (ESA) about the test program. Material and energy balances on Boiler No.1 and a plan for data collection were prepared. Presentations describing the University of Pittsburgh Wood/Coal Co-Firing Program were provided to the Pittsburgh Chapter of the Pennsylvania Society of Professional Engineers, and the Upgraded Coal Interest Group and the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). An article describing the program appeared in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. An application was submitted for authorization for a Pennsylvania Switchgrass Energy and Conservation Program.

  7. From the Woods to the Refinery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    the Woods to the Refinery CORRIM Life Cycle Analyses of Woody Feedstocks Dr. Steve Kelley ... composition, sugar types, residue fuel value * TC models are sensitive to MC, much less ...

  8. Marin County- Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Homes in the San Geronimo Valley (Forest Knolls, Lagunitas, San Geronimo, and Woodacre) can receive a rebate of $1,500 for the removal and replacement of non-certified wood burning appliances with...

  9. Cheshire County, New Hampshire: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    5 Climate Zone Subtype A. Registered Energy Companies in Cheshire County, New Hampshire New England Wood Pellet LLC Places in Cheshire County, New Hampshire Alstead, New...

  10. Jaffrey, New Hampshire: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Cheshire County, New Hampshire.1 Registered Energy Companies in Jaffrey, New Hampshire New England Wood Pellet LLC References US Census Bureau Incorporated place and minor...

  11. Amelia County, Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    4 Climate Zone Subtype A. Energy Generation Facilities in Amelia County, Virginia Scott Wood Biomass Facility Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAmeliaCo...

  12. Energy Efficiency in Log Homes | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    or purchasing a manufactured log home, you should consider several factors related to energy efficiency. The R-Value of Wood A material's thermal resistance or resistance to...

  13. Worcester Energy Partners Inc WECO | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Worcester Energy Partners Inc (WECO) Place: Deblois, Maine Sector: Biomass Product: Wood processing and biomass power generation business. Coordinates: 44.741278,...

  14. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ago. Besides grinding flour, the power of the water was used to saw wood and power textile mills and manufacturing plants. http:energy.goveerewaterhistory-hydropower...

  15. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ago. Besides grinding flour, the power of the water was used to saw wood and power textile mills and manufacturing plants. http:energy.goveerewaterhistory-hydropower Page...

  16. Biofuel Solutions | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    developer, which had been developing one plant in Fairmont, Minnesota and another in Wood River, Biofuel Energy LLC took over plant development of Biofuel Solutions' projects in...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Energy Resources Trust Fund Renewable-energy projects eligible for RERTF support include wind energy, solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, dedicated crops grown for energy...

  18. Electric co-generation units equipped with wood gasifier and Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolini, C.M.; Caresana, F.; Pelagalli, L.

    1998-07-01

    The disposal of industrial waste such as oil sludges, waste plastic, lubricant oils, paper and wood poses serious problems due to the ever increasing amount of material to be disposed of and to the difficulty in finding new dumping sites. The interest in energy recovery technologies is accordingly on the increase. In particular, large amounts of waste wood are simply burned or thrown away causing considerable environmental damage. In this context the co-generation technique represents one of the possible solutions for efficient energy conversion. The present paper proposes the employment of a Stirling engine as prime mover in a co-generation set equipped with a wood gasifier. A Stirling engine prototype previously developed in a joint project with Mase Generators, an Italian manufacturer of fixed and portable electrogenerators, is illustrated and its design is described.

  19. Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Project Financing

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    For the purposes of this program, renewable energy projects include those that utilize wind, solar thermal energy, photovoltaic cells and panels, biodiesel, crops and organic waste biomass, trees...

  20. Chimeric enzymes with improved cellulase activities - Energy...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    a strong desire to produce bio-based fuels from renewable cellulosic materials from non-food based feedstocks such as crop residues, woodchips, dedicated energy crops, industrial...

  1. Biomass/Biogas | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    may include: * Municipal solid waste located adjacent to urban centers * Dedicated energy crops * Manure * Vegetable crops * Liquid food processing wastes Retrieved from...

  2. Appendix A: Crop/Team Reports

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    A: TABLE OF CONTENTS 0 | Regional Feedstock Partnership Report This is a supplemental appendix to the Regional Feedstock Partnership Summary Report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office, July 2016, by the Sun Grant Initiative and Idaho National Laboratory. APPENDIX A: TABLE OF CONTENTS Regional Feedstock Partnership Report - Bioenergy Technologies Office | 1 Appendix A: Crop/Team Reports Contents 1. Corn Stover

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    energy, photovoltaics, dedicated crops grown for energy production and organic waste biomass, hydropower th... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Investor-Owned...

  4. Hawaii Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Generation, by Energy...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Hawaii" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal",212,230,234,168,201 "Hydro Conventional",120,92,84,113,70 "Solar","-","-","s",1,2 "Wind",80,238,240,251,261 "WoodWood ...

  5. Lowell L. Wood, 1981 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Lowell L. Wood, 1981 The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award Lawrence Award Home Nomination & Selection Guidelines Award Laureates 2010's 2000's 1990's 1980's 1970's 1960's Ceremony The Life of Ernest Orlando Lawrence Contact Information The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award U.S. Department of Energy SC-2/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-2411 E: Email Us 1980's Lowell L. Wood, 1981 Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page National Security: For his

  6. U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    ... Organic non-fossil material of biological origin constituting a re- newable energy source. ... Note: EIA biomass waste data also include energy crops grown specifically for energy ...

  7. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  8. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    that includes materials such as agriculture and forest residues, energy crops, and algae. http:energy.goveerevideosenergy-101-biofuels Video Energy 101: Algae-to-Fuel One...

  9. Residential Wood Heating Fuel Exemption

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The New York Department of Taxation and Finance publishes a variety of sales tax reports detailing local tax rates and exemptions, including those for residential energy services. The residential...

  10. Woods County, Oklahoma: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    County, Oklahoma Alva, Oklahoma Avard, Oklahoma Capron, Oklahoma Dacoma, Oklahoma Freedom, Oklahoma Waynoka, Oklahoma Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  11. Wood County, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Ohio Haskins, Ohio Hoytville, Ohio Jerry City, Ohio Luckey, Ohio Millbury, Ohio Milton Center, Ohio North Baltimore, Ohio Northwood, Ohio Pemberville, Ohio Perrysburg, Ohio...

  12. Wood County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Marshfield, Wisconsin Milladore, Wisconsin Nekoosa, Wisconsin Pittsville, Wisconsin Port Edwards, Wisconsin Remington, Wisconsin Richfield, Wisconsin Rock, Wisconsin Rudolph,...

  13. Method of predicting mechanical properties of decayed wood

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-07-15

    A method for determining the mechanical properties of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms, comprising: a) illuminating a surface of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms with wavelengths from visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectra; b) analyzing the surface of the decayed wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra region; and c) using a multivariate analysis to predict mechanical properties of decayed wood by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference decay wood, the second spectral data being correlated with a known mechanical property analytical result obtained from the reference decayed wood.

  14. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Prev Next Title: Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Authors: Ohm, Robin A. ; Riley, Robert ; Salamov, Asaf ; Min, Byoungnam ; Choi, In-Geol ; ...

  15. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... program Wood stove replacement program Bio diesel Bio diesel Hired Biodiesel expertise Hired Biodiesel expertise Energy Policy Act mandates alternative fuels in Energy Policy ...

  16. US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports Source: Energy Information Administration Short Term Energy Outlook. Chart by Daniel Wood.

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Trust Fund Renewable-energy projects eligible for RERTF support include wind energy, solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, dedicated crops grown for energy production and organic...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Resources Trust Fund Renewable-energy projects eligible for RERTF support include wind energy, solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, dedicated crops grown for energy production...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Trust Fund Renewable-energy projects eligible for RERTF support include wind energy, solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, dedicated crops grown for energy production and...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Renewable-energy projects eligible for RERTF support include wind energy, solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, dedicated crops grown for energy production and organic waste...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Renewable Energy Resources Trust Fund Renewable-energy projects eligible for RERTF support include wind energy, solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, dedicated crops grown for...

  2. Size, shape and flow characterization of ground wood chip and ground wood pellet particles

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Rezaei, Hamid; Lim, C. Jim; Lau, Anthony; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2016-07-11

    Size, shape and density of biomass particles influence their transportation, fluidization, rates of drying and thermal decomposition. Pelleting wood particles increases the particle density and reduces the variability of physical properties among biomass particles. In this study, pine chips prepared for pulping and commercially produced pine pellets were ground in a hammer mill using grinder screens of 3.2, 6.3, 12.7 and 25.4mmperforations. Pellets consumed about 7 times lower specific grinding energy than chips to produce the same size of particles. Grinding pellets produced the smaller particles with narrower size distribution than grinding chips. Derived shape factors in digital image analysismore » showed that chip particles were rectangular and had the aspect ratios about one third of pellet particles. Pellet particles were more circular shape. The mechanical sieving underestimated the actual particle size and did not represent the size of particles correctly. Instead, digital imaging is preferred. Angle of repose and compressibility tests represented the flow properties of ground particles. Pellet particles made a less compacted bulk, had lower cohesion and did flow easier in a pile of particles. In conclusion, particle shape affected the flow properties more than particle size« less

  3. Developing Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop

    SciTech Connect

    Bouton, J.; Bransby, D.; Conger, B.; McLaughlin, S.; Ocumpaugh, W.; Parrish, D.; Taliaferro, C.; Vogel, K.; Wullschleger, S.

    1998-11-08

    The utilization of energy crops produced on American farms as a source of renewable fuels is a concept with great relevance to current ecological and economic issues at both national and global scales. Development of a significant national capacity to utilize perennial forage crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.) as biofuels could benefit our agricultural economy by providing an important new source of income for farmers. In addition energy production from perennial cropping systems, which are compatible with conventional fining practices, would help reduce degradation of agricultural soils, lower national dependence on foreign oil supplies, and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and toxic pollutants to the atmosphere (McLaughlin 1998). Interestingly, on-farm energy production is a very old concept, extending back to 19th century America when both transpofiation and work on the farm were powered by approximately 27 million draft animals and fueled by 34 million hectares of grasslands (Vogel 1996). Today a new form of energy production is envisioned for some of this same acreage. The method of energy production is exactly the same - solar energy captured in photosynthesis, but the subsequent modes of energy conversion are vastly different, leading to the production of electricity, transportation fuels, and chemicals from the renewable feedstocks. While energy prices in the United States are among the cheapest in the world, the issues of high dependency on imported oil, the uncertainties of maintaining stable supplies of imported oil from finite reserves, and the environmental costs associated with mining, processing, and combusting fossil fuels have been important drivers in the search for cleaner burning fuels that can be produced and renewed from the landscape. At present biomass and bioenergy combine provide only about 4% of the total primary energy used in the U.S. (Overend 1997). By contrast, imported oil accounts for approximately 44% of the

  4. Effect of species and wood to bark ratio on pelleting of southern woods

    SciTech Connect

    Bradfield, J.; Levi, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    Six common southern hardwoods and loblolly pine were pelleted in a laboratory pellet mill. The pellet furnishes were blended to test the effect of different wood to bark ratios on pellet durability and production rate. Included was a ratio chosen to simulate the wood to bark ratio found in whole-tree chips. This furnish produced good quality pellets for all species tested. Pelleting of the pure wood of hardwoods was not successful; furnish routinely blocked the pellet mill dies. Pure pine wood, however, did produce acceptable pellets. It was noted that, as lignin and extractive content increased above a threshold level, the precentage of fines produced in a pellet durability test increased. Thus, all pine and tupelo wood/bark mixes produces high fines. This reduces the desirability of the pellets in the marketplace. Further research is necessary to confirm this relationship. This study suggests that both tree species and wood/bark ratio affect the durability of pellets and the rate with which they can be produced in a laboratory pellet mill. 9 references.

  5. Byggmeister Test Home. Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, C.

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals that will benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. This report describes a deep retrofit project of a two-family wood-framed home in Belmont, Massachusetts, and examines the retrofit measures for the enclosure amd mechanical systems and reviews the decision-making process that took place during planning.

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of energy generation include solar photovoltaics, passive solar, wind, solid waste, decomposition of organic wastes, geothermal, small hydropower plants, low-emission wood or......

  7. Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) - Analysis & Projection...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    iron and steel, paper, wood products, and food, as well as less energy-intensive industries such as textiles, leather, apparel, furniture, machinery, and electrical equipment. ...

  8. Small-Scale Renewable Energy Incentive Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Vermont's Small Scale Renewable Energy Incentive Program (SSREIP), initiated in June 2003, currently provides funding for new solar water heating and advanced wood pellet heating installations. T...

  9. A Common Definition for Zero Energy Buildings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... electricity, steam, hot water or chilled water, natural ... fuel oil, alcohol based fuels, wood, biomass and ... energy consumed in the extraction, processing and ...

  10. Wheelabrator Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Inc Place: Hampton, New Hampshire Zip: 3842 Product: Owner and operator of 17 waste to energy facilities (>750MW) in the USA, processing municipal solid waste, wood,...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Deduction Eligible biomass energy devices include a pellet stove or EPA-certified wood stove if: Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Solar - Passive, Solar Water Heat,...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Energy Incentive Program (SSREIP), initiated in June 2003, provides funding for new solar water heating, solar electric (photovoltaic), modern wood pellet heating,... Eligibility:...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Tax Deduction Eligible biomass energy devices include a pellet stove or EPA-certified wood stove if: Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Solar - Passive, Solar Water Heat,...

  14. Feasibility study of wood-fired cogeneration at a Wood Products Industrial Park, Belington, WV. Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Vasenda, S.K.; Hassler, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Customarily, electricity is generated in a utility power plant while thermal energy is generated in a heating/cooling plant; the electricity produced at the power plant is transmitted to the heating/cooling plant to power equipments. These two separate systems waste vast amounts of heat and result in individual efficiencies of about 35%. Cogeneration is the sequential production of power (electrical or mechanical) and thermal energy (process steam, hot/chilled water) from a single power source; the reject heat of one process issued as input into the subsequent process. Cogeneration increases the efficiency of these stand-alone systems by producing these two products sequentially at one location using a small additional amount of fuel, rendering the system efficiency greater than 70%. This report discusses cogeneration technologies as applied to wood fuel fired system.

  15. Laidlaw Energy Group Inc | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    The first project is with NYSERDA to convert a plant from natural gas to clean wood chips. References: Laidlaw Energy Group Inc1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  16. Overview of fuel alcohol from agricultural crops with emphasis on the Tennessee Valley. Bulletin Y-171

    SciTech Connect

    Roetheli, J.C.; Pile, R.S.; Young, H.C.

    1982-02-01

    An overview is presented of the factors and concerns associated with producing fuel alcohol from agricultural crops. Areas covered include: an assessment of energy used in agriculture; a categorization of grain crop production, land suitable for energy crop production, and livestock production in the 201-county TVA region; a summary of technical and economic information on fuel alcohol production; a discussion of acreages required to produce fuel for benchmark farms in the Tennessee Valley and possible erosion impacts; and a discussion of other pertinent advantages and disadvantages of fuel alcohol production from crops.

  17. U.S. Energy Production Through the Years | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Production Through the Years U.S. Energy Production Through the Years December 10, 2014 - 1:00pm Addthis US Energy Production Through the Years Click on each state to learn more about how much energy it produces Pick an energy source Total Energy Produced Coal Crude Oil Natural Gas Total Renewable Energy Non-Biofuel Renewable Energy Biofuels Nuclear Power Source: EIA State Energy Data Systems Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs

  18. Energy for underdeveloped areas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on energy sources for developing countries. Topics considered at the conference included energy consumption, wood fuel requirements of rural populations, tree species for fuelwood production, a graduate program in alternative energy technologies, wood stoves, solar water heaters, biogas, rural electrification, small-scale hydro plants, windmills to pump rural water supplies, and a straight bladed Darrieus wind turbine for low technology applications.

  19. Doors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Design » Windows, Doors, & Skylights » Doors Doors Although many people choose wood doors for their beauty, insulated steel and fiberglass doors are more energy-efficient. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/cstewart Although many people choose wood doors for their beauty, insulated steel and fiberglass doors are more energy-efficient. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/cstewart Your home's exterior doors can contribute significantly to air leakage, and can also waste energy through

  20. 2016 ASI Annual Review UTK Wood Final

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Annual Review Meeting Development and Demonstration of a Model Based Assessment Process for Qualification of Embedded Digital Devices in Nuclear Power Applications Richard Wood The University of Tennessee NEET Project No.: 15-8097 October 12-13, 2016 2 Project Overview nProject Goal Develop an effective approach to resolve concerns about common-cause failure (CCF) vulnerabilities in embedded digital devices (EDDs) nFocus Address the challenge of establishing high levels of safety and reliability

  1. Fresh Way to Cut Combustion, Crop and Air Heating Costs Avoids Million BTU Purchases: Inventions and Innovation Combustion Success Story

    SciTech Connect

    Wogsland, J.

    2001-01-17

    Success story written for the Inventions and Innovation Program about a new space heating method that uses solar energy to heat incoming combustion, crop, and ventilation air.

  2. Western BioEnergy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    BioEnergy Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Western BioEnergy Ltd Place: Cardiff, United Kingdom Zip: CF24 0EB Product: Developing a 13.8MW wood burning project in Margam,...

  3. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Renewable Energy...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    5 Table 1.20 Total renewable net generation by energy source and State, 2009 (thousand ... Waste Wood and Derived Fuels 3 46 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Renewable ...

  4. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Renewable Energy...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    7 Table 1.26 Total renewable net summer capacity by energy source and State, 2009 ... Waste Wood and Derived Fuels 3 58 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Renewable ...

  5. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Renewable Energy...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    9 Table 1.17 Total renewable net generation by energy source and State, 2008 (thousand ... Waste Wood and Derived Fuels 3 40 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Renewable ...

  6. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Renewable Energy...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    3 Table 1.19 Renewable commercial and industrial sector net generation by energy source ... Waste Wood and Derived Fuels 3 44 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Renewable ...

  7. Senegal food and energy study: energy use and opportunities for energy-related improvements in the food system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The growth of agriculture, the mainstay of Senegal's economy, is contingent upon the acquisition of imported energy. This study examines the key constituents of the Senegalese food system in relation to energy supply and demand. The study first analyzes the food system (crop characteristics, and physical and institutional components) and the energy system (sources, costs, supply/conversion technologies, and consumption patterns). Next, energy-use profiles are provided on the production and distribution processes of millet/sorghum, rice, groundnuts, and fish. Household cooking practices are also discussed. Recommendations to improve irrigation, the second key to increasing food supplies, include funding for low-capacity photovoltaic and solar-thermal systems, setting up windmills in coastal areas, and designing large-capacity solar plants similar to those at Bakel. To save energy at the household level, wood or charcoal cooking stoves must be made more efficient and the use of biogas plants should be studied. To counter the serious depletion of fuelwood, Senegal's main indigenous energy resource, energy-efficient charcoal production should be developed, the charcoal industry reorganized, and afforestation and forest management programs expanded.

  8. S U M M A R I E S U.S. Energy Information Administration | State...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    State Coal a Natural Gas b Petroleum Biomass Geothermal SolarPV e Retail Electricity ... and olefins. d Wood and wood-derived fuels. e Solar thermal and photovoltaic energy. ...

  9. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-15

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Ecological objectives can be achieved with wood-derived bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Marland, Gregg; Miner, Reid A.

    2015-08-01

    Renewable, biomass-based energy options can reduce the climate impacts of fossil fuels. However, calculating the effects of wood-derived bioenergy on greenhouse gases (GHGs), and thus on climate, is complicated (Miner et al. 2015). To clarify concerns and options about bioenergy, in November 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a second draft of its Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions fromStationary Sources (http://1.usa.gov/1dikgHq), which considers the latest scientific information and input from stakeholders. Furthermore, the EPA is expected to make decisions soon about the use of woody biomass under the Clean Power Plan, which sets targets for carbon pollution from power plants.

  11. Ecological objectives can be achieved with wood-derived bioenergy

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Marland, Gregg; Miner, Reid A.

    2015-08-01

    Renewable, biomass-based energy options can reduce the climate impacts of fossil fuels. However, calculating the effects of wood-derived bioenergy on greenhouse gases (GHGs), and thus on climate, is complicated (Miner et al. 2015). To clarify concerns and options about bioenergy, in November 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a second draft of its Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions fromStationary Sources (http://1.usa.gov/1dikgHq), which considers the latest scientific information and input from stakeholders. Furthermore, the EPA is expected to make decisions soon about the use of woody biomass under the Clean Power Plan, which sets targets for carbon pollutionmore » from power plants.« less

  12. Ecological objectives can be achieved with wood-derived bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Marland, Gregg; Miner, Reid A.

    2015-08-01

    Renewable, biomass-based energy options can reduce the climate impacts of fossil fuels. However, calculating the effects of wood-derived bioenergy on greenhouse gases (GHGs), and thus on climate, is complicated (Miner et al. 2015). To clarify concerns and options about bioenergy, in November 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a second draft of its Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions fromStationary Sources (http://1.usa.gov/1dikgHq), which considers the latest scientific information and input from stakeholders. In addition, the EPA is expected to make decisions soon about the use of woody biomass under the Clean Power Plan, which sets targets for carbon pollution from power plants.

  13. The U. S. Department of Energy biofuels research program

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, S.R. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that biomass encompasses agricultural and forestry residues, woody and herbaceous energy crops, municipal solid waste, and underutilized traditional forests. The contribution of biomass to the nation's energy supply stands at 3.1 quads per year and is continuing to grow. Increasing our use of fuels derived from biomass can improve air quality, mitigate global warming, reduce dependency on foreign oil imports, and strengthen a weak farm economy. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Biofuels and Municipal Waster Technology Program has focuses mainly on liquid fuels such as ethanol, methanol, biocrude-derived gasoline, and plant-oil-derived diesel fuel, with some emphasis on gaseous fuels such as biogas. Researchers have improved the economics of the wood to ethanol process to approximately $1.35/gas by developing a method to ferment ethanol from the xylose fraction of wood with greater than 70% efficiency. The program goal of $0.60/gal would provide ethanol at a competitive cost without tax credits. Doe has increased the emphasis on cooperative ventures with industry and it developing plans for a cost-shared project to scale up gasification technologies for both syngas and methanol fuel production testing.

  14. Top Crop Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    In Service Owner Horizon-EDPR Developer Horizon-EDPR Location GrundyLivingstonLa Salle Counties IL Coordinates 41.159826, -88.637381 Show Map Loading map......

  15. Potential Yield Mapping of Dedicated Energy Crops

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon, USA Sun Grant Initiative Consortium of the ... for assimilating and interpreting field data, which in turn, refines the first guess ...

  16. Haneco sro | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    sro Place: Zru-Senec, Czech Republic Zip: 330 08 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Wood processing company active in renewable energy sector currently operating 0.6MW PV plant...

  17. Bharat Renewable Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Limited Place: Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India Product: Uttar Pradesh-based joint venture company for the production, procurement, cultivation and plantation of crops...

  18. U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Note: EIA "biomass waste" data also include energy crops grown specifically for energy production, which would not normally constitute waste. British thermal unit (Btu): The ...

  19. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    wind energy, solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, dedicated crops grown for energy production and organic waste biomass, hydropower th... Eligibility: Commercial,...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    for RERTF support include wind energy, solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, dedicated crops grown for energy production and organic waste biomass, hydropower th... Eligibility:...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    projects eligible for RERTF support include wind energy, solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, dedicated crops grown for energy production and organic waste biomass, hydropower...

  3. file://C:\\Documents and Settings\\bh5\\My Documents\\Energy Effici

    Annual Energy Outlook

    3. 'Total' is the sum of all of the listed energy sources, including wood waste, hydrogen, and waste oils and tars. Sources: Energy Information Administration, Manufacturing...

  4. Building America Case Study: Retrofit Measure for Embedded Wood...

    Energy Saver

    Existing Homes Building America Case Study Retrofit Measures for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls Lawrence, Massachusetts PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: The...

  5. Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasification/cofiring of Biomass...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...cofiring of Biomass and Coal Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasificationcofiring of Biomass and Coal Utilization of biomass as a ...

  6. Water Sampling At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) ...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  7. Water Sampling At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  8. Water Sampling At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  9. Water Sampling At Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  10. Water Sampling At Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  11. Water Sampling At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity...

  12. Water Sampling At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) ...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  13. Water Sampling At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  14. Water Sampling At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  15. Title: Ames Blue Alert- Wood Cabinet Falls Apart

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Ames Blue Alert- Wood Cabinet Falls Apart Lessons Learned Statement- Cumulative damage can cause a loss of structural integrity. When furnishings are repeatedly exposed to water,...

  16. Commercial Demonstration of Wood Recovery, Recycling, and Value Adding Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Auburn Machinery, Inc.

    2004-07-15

    This commercial demonstration project demonstrated the technical feasibility of converting low-value, underutilized and waste stream solid wood fiber material into higher valued products. With a growing need to increase product/production yield and reduce waste in most sawmills, few recovery operations and practically no data existed to support the viability of recovery operations. Prior to our efforts, most all in the forest products industry believed that recovery was difficult, extremely labor intensive, not cost effective, and that recovered products had low value and were difficult to sell. This project provided an opportunity for many within the industry to see through demonstration that converting waste stream material into higher valued products does in fact offer a solution. Our work, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, throughout the project aimed to demonstrate a reasonable approach to reducing the millions of recoverable solid wood fiber tons that are annually treated as and converted into low value chips, mulch and fuel. Consequently sawmills continue to suffer from reduced availability of forest resources, higher raw material costs, growing waste disposal problems, increased global competition, and more pressure to operate in an Environmentally Friendly manner. It is our belief (based upon the experience of this project) that the successful mainstreaming of the recovery concept would assist in alleviating this burden as well as provide for a realistically achievable economic benefit to those who would seriously pursue the concept and tap into the rapidly growing ''GREEN'' building marketplace. Ultimately, with participation and aggressive pursuit of the recovery concept, the public would benefit in that: (1) Landfill/disposal waste volume could be reduced adding greater life to existing municipal landfill sites thereby minimizing the need to prematurely license and open added facilities. Also, there would be a cost avoidance benefit associated

  17. Genetics of Wood Formation | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Genetics of Wood Formation Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3251 F: (301) 903-5051 E:

  18. Can crops tolerate acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.K.

    1989-11-01

    This brief article describes work by scientists at the ARS Air Quality-Plant Growth and Development Laboratory in Raleigh, North Carolina, that indicates little damage to crops as a result of acid rain. In studies with simulated acid rain and 216 exposed varieties of 18 crops, there were no significant injuries nor was there reduced growth in most species. Results of chronic and acute exposures were correlated in sensitive tomato and soybean plants and in tolerant winter wheat and lettuce plants. These results suggest that 1-hour exposures could be used in the future to screen varieties for sensitivity to acid rain.

  19. How chip size impacts steam pretreatment effectiveness for biological conversion of poplar wood into fermentable sugars

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn D.; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Jung, Seokwon; Kumar, Rajeev; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Wyman, Charles E.

    2015-12-09

    We report that woody biomass is highly recalcitrant to enzymatic sugar release and often requires significant size reduction and severe pretreatments to achieve economically viable sugar yields in biological production of sustainable fuels and chemicals. However, because mechanical size reduction of woody biomass can consume significant amounts of energy, it is desirable to minimize size reduction and instead pretreat larger wood chips prior to biological conversion. To date, however, most laboratory research has been performed on materials that are significantly smaller than applicable in a commercial setting. As a result, there is a limited understanding of the effects that largermore » biomass particle size has on the effectiveness of steam explosion pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of wood chips. To address these concerns, novel downscaled analysis and high throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis (HTPH) were applied to examine whether differences exist in the composition and digestibility within a single pretreated wood chip due to heterogeneous pretreatment across its thickness. Heat transfer modeling, Simons’ stain testing, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to probe the effects of pretreatment within and between pretreated wood samples to shed light on potential causes of variation, pointing to enzyme accessibility (i.e., pore size) distribution being a key factor dictating enzyme digestibility in these samples. Application of these techniques demonstrated that the effectiveness of pretreatment of Populus tremuloides can vary substantially over the chip thickness at short pretreatment times, resulting in spatial digestibility effects and overall lower sugar yields in subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, these results indicate that rapid decompression pretreatments (e.g., steam explosion) that specifically alter accessibility at lower temperature conditions are well suited for larger

  20. How chip size impacts steam pretreatment effectiveness for biological conversion of poplar wood into fermentable sugars

    SciTech Connect

    DeMartini, Jaclyn D.; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Jung, Seokwon; Kumar, Rajeev; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Wyman, Charles E.

    2015-12-09

    We report that woody biomass is highly recalcitrant to enzymatic sugar release and often requires significant size reduction and severe pretreatments to achieve economically viable sugar yields in biological production of sustainable fuels and chemicals. However, because mechanical size reduction of woody biomass can consume significant amounts of energy, it is desirable to minimize size reduction and instead pretreat larger wood chips prior to biological conversion. To date, however, most laboratory research has been performed on materials that are significantly smaller than applicable in a commercial setting. As a result, there is a limited understanding of the effects that larger biomass particle size has on the effectiveness of steam explosion pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of wood chips. To address these concerns, novel downscaled analysis and high throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis (HTPH) were applied to examine whether differences exist in the composition and digestibility within a single pretreated wood chip due to heterogeneous pretreatment across its thickness. Heat transfer modeling, Simons’ stain testing, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to probe the effects of pretreatment within and between pretreated wood samples to shed light on potential causes of variation, pointing to enzyme accessibility (i.e., pore size) distribution being a key factor dictating enzyme digestibility in these samples. Application of these techniques demonstrated that the effectiveness of pretreatment of Populus tremuloides can vary substantially over the chip thickness at short pretreatment times, resulting in spatial digestibility effects and overall lower sugar yields in subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, these results indicate that rapid decompression pretreatments (e.g., steam explosion) that specifically alter accessibility at lower temperature conditions are well suited for larger wood

  1. Biomass Resource Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:22pm Addthis Biomass resources that are used directly as a fuel, or converted to another form or energy product that are available on a renewable basis are commonly referred to as feedstocks. Biomass Feedstocks Biomass feedstocks include dedicated energy crops, agricultural crops, forestry residues, algae, biomass processing residues, municipal waste, and animal waste. Dedicated Energy Crops Dedicated energy crops are non-food

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    wind, solar thermal energy, photovoltaic cells and panels, biodiesel, crops and organic waste biomass, trees... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Nonprofit, Schools,...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    energy, photovoltaic cells and panels, biodiesel, crops and organic waste biomass, trees... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Nonprofit, Schools, Institutional Savings...

  4. Press Room - Press Releases - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    iron and steel, paper, wood products, and food, as well as less energy-intensive industries such as textiles, leather, apparel, furniture, machinery, and electrical equipment. ...

  5. Southeast Alaska Energy Efficiency Audit, Assessment, and Alternative...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... insulation) * Air Source Heat Pumps * Biomass Heating * Solar PV * Improved ventilation ... Center is highly energy efficient and is heated with a cord wood gasification boiler. ...

  6. Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 - Residential Demand...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    oil, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, kerosene, electricity, wood, geothermal, and solar energy. The module's output includes number of households, equipment stock, average...

  7. Where to Insulate in a Home | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Provides a continuous layer of insulation, which reduces thermal bridging through wood studs, saving energy and improving comfort. Is easier to cut and install than heavier ...

  8. Fuels for Schools Program Uses Leftover Wood to Warm Buildings

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In parts of this country, wood seems like the outsider in the biomass family. New ethanol plants that grind down millions of bushels of corn in the Midwest and breakthroughs in algae along the coasts always garner the most attention. But in states like Montana, a place with over 70 million acres of forest, wood is the biofuel of choice.

  9. Thermal Impact of Fasteners in High-Performance Wood-Framed Walls: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.

    2011-01-01

    Buildings are heavy consumers of energy, and residential building design is rapidly addressing topics to maximize energy conservation en route to net-zero energy consumption. Annual energy analysis of a building informs the choice among disparate energy measures, for cost, durability, occupant comfort, and whole-house energy use. Physics-based and empirical models of elements of a building are used in such analyses. High-performance wood-framed walls enable builders to construct homes that use much less than 40% of the energy consumed by similar homes built to minimum code. Modeling for these walls has considered physical features such as framing factor, insulation and framing properties, roughness and convective effects, and air leakage. The thermal effects of fasteners used to construct these walls have not been fully evaluated, even though their thermal conductivity is orders of magnitudes higher than that of other building materials. Drywall screws and siding nails are considered in this finite element thermal conductivity analysis of wall sections that represent wood-framed walls that are often used in high-performance homes. Nails and screws reduce even the best walls' insulating performance by approximately 3% and become increasingly significant as the framing factor increases.

  10. Review of the Regional Biomass Energy Program: Technical projects

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.

    1994-12-31

    This article summarizes technical projects of the regional Biomass Energy Program. Projects included are as follows: economic impact studies for renewable energy resources; alternative liquid fuels; Wood pellets fuels forum; residential fuel wood consumption; waste to energy decision-makers guide; fuel assessment for cogeneration facilities; municipal solid waste combustion characteristics.

  11. Effects of climate change on suitable rice cropping areas, cropping systems and crop water requirements in southern China

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ye, Qing; Yang, Xiaoguang; Dai, Shuwei; Chen, Guangsheng; Li, Yong; Zhang, Caixia

    2015-06-05

    Here, we discuss that rice is one of the main crops grown in southern China. Global climate change has significantly altered the local water availability and temperature regime for rice production. In this study, we explored the influence of climate change on suitable rice cropping areas, rice cropping systems and crop water requirements (CWRs) during the growing season for historical (from 1951 to 2010) and future (from 2011 to 2100) time periods. The results indicated that the land areas suitable for rice cropping systems shifted northward and westward from 1951 to 2100 but with different amplitudes.

  12. USDA and DOE Fund 10 Research Projects to Accelerate Bioenergy Crop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Production and Spur Economic Impact | Department of Energy 10 Research Projects to Accelerate Bioenergy Crop Production and Spur Economic Impact USDA and DOE Fund 10 Research Projects to Accelerate Bioenergy Crop Production and Spur Economic Impact August 11, 2011 - 3:55pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -- The U.S. Departments of Energy and Agriculture have awarded 10 grants totaling $12.2 million to spur research into improving the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of growing biofuel and bioenergy

  13. Multipass comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2014-05-27

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel.

  14. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal

  15. NuPower LLC | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Product: Renewable energy project developer, involved in a JV for a 30.0MW wood-fueled power project in Plainfield. Coordinates: 43.83033, -90.622007 Show Map...

  16. Agronomic Suitability of Bioenergy Crops in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Lemus, Rocky; Baldwin, Brian; Lang, David

    2011-10-01

    ‚€Ã‚¢ How will these crops affect fertilizer use and water quality? • What kind of water management is needed to maintain a productive crop? The answers to these questions will help supporting institutions across the state to improve land assessment and agronomic management practices for biomass production. In the last decade, energy supply has become a worldwide problem. Bioenergy crops could supply energy in the future. Bioenergy crops are plants, usually perennial grasses and trees, that produce a lot of biomass that can be converted into energy. Bioenergy crops can be grown for two energy markets: power generation, such as heat and electricity, or liquid fuel, such as cellulosic ethanol. These resources could reduce petroleum dependency and greenhouse gas production. Woody plants and herbaceous warm-season grasses, such as switchgrass, giant miscanthus,energy cane, and high yielding sorghums, could be major sources of biomass in Mississippi.

  17. #AskEnergySaver: Home Heating | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    via email IW: It's not the fuel, it's how you burn it. Any fossil fuel -- gas, oil or propane -- or even wood or coal needs to be completely burned and its energy extracted as...

  18. Wood chips: an exploration of problems and opportunities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report evaluates the current use of and potential market for wood chips as a fuel in the Northeast. This study covers the residential, commercial, and light industrial sectors and addresses cost, reliability, marketing systems, and technology improvements. A review of the available equipment for wood chip harvesting, processing, handling, drying, and transport is included. Three representative strategic business guides for different chip suppliers are presented. There is also a recommended action plan for future programs with initiatives that could facilitate the development of the wood chip market. 25 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Wood-Polymer composites obtained by gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gago, J.; Lopez, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Santiago, J.; Acevedo, M.

    2007-10-26

    In this work we impregnate three Peruvian woods (Calycophy spruceanum Be, Aniba amazonica Meiz and Hura crepitans L) with styrene-polyester resin and methyl methacrylate. The polymerization of the system was promoted by gamma radiation and the experimental optimal condition was obtained with styrene-polyester 1:1 and 15 kGy. The obtained composites show reduced water absorption and better mechanical properties compared to the original wood. The structure of the wood-polymer composites was studied by light microscopy. Water absorption and hardness were also obtained.

  20. An economical and market analysis of Canadian wood pellets.

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, J.

    2010-08-01

    This study systematically examined the current and future wood pellet market, estimated the cost of Canadian torrefied pellets, and compared the torrefied pellets with the conventional pellets based on literature and industrial data. The results showed that the wood pellet industry has been gaining significant momentum due to the European bioenergy incentives and the rising oil and natural gas prices. With the new bioenergy incentives in USA, the future pellets market may shift to North America, and Canada can potentially become the largest pellet production centre, supported by the abundant wood residues and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infested trees.

  1. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, H.; Pettit, B.

    2015-05-01

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat, wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls, using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat, wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  2. Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, H.; Pettit, B.

    2015-05-29

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  3. SO/sub 2/ dose-response sensitivity classification data for crops and natural vegetation species

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, P.M.; Ballou, S.W.

    1980-09-01

    Over the past several years studies have been made on the interaction of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and vegetation by performing field research and by developing analytical procedures for applying field observation data to energy impact assessments. As a result of this work, numerous reports have been prepared on crop-pollutant interactions, such as dose-response data; on the applications of such data to screening approaches for identifying crops at risk; and on models that predict crop yield reductions from point source emissions of SO/sub 2/. Data that were used for these studies, such as the crop-at-risk screening procedure, are presented in this report. Maps are also presented that show the national distribution of SO/sub 2/-sensitive crops and natural vegetation.

  4. Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency ...

  5. Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion ...

  6. Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    2 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion ...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    renewable energy projects include those that utilize wind, solar thermal energy, photovoltaic cells and panels, biodiesel, crops and organic waste biomass, trees... Eligibility:...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    the purposes of this program, renewable energy projects include those that utilize wind, solar thermal energy, photovoltaic cells and panels, biodiesel, crops and organic waste...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    program, renewable energy projects include those that utilize wind, solar thermal energy, photovoltaic cells and panels, biodiesel, crops and organic waste biomass, trees......

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    energy, photovoltaics, dedicated crops grown for energy production and organic waste biomass, hydropower th... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Investor-Owned Utility,...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    of this program, renewable energy projects include those that utilize wind, solar thermal energy, photovoltaic cells and panels, biodiesel, crops and organic waste biomass,...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    this program, renewable energy projects include those that utilize wind, solar thermal energy, photovoltaic cells and panels, biodiesel, crops and organic waste biomass, trees......

  13. Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products

    DOEpatents

    Banerjee, Sujit (1832 Jacksons Creek Point, Marietta, GA 30068); Boerner, James Robert (154 Junedale Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45218); Su, Wei (2262 Orleans Ave., Marietta, GA 30062)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

  14. One on One - Douglas K Woods | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Mays, Gas Technology Institute U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Program Review Meeting Washington, D.C. June 14-15, 2016 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective  Develop low-cost hydrogen production technology, utilizing Sorption Enhanced Reforming (SER), for large-scale commercial applications  Reducing cost of hydrogen by 15-20% vs. current technology  Reducing cost of carbon capture from natural

  15. Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments - Wood Energy Feasibility...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    G. Z. has 600+ shareholders, not all tribal members are shareholders, because the corporation hasn't voted to enroll children born after 1971. Some of the economic projects the ...

  16. Council of Athabascan Tribal Government - Wood Energy Program...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    -20F Rural AK Powered by Diesel Fuel Oil Rural AK Powered ... 30,000gals 125K *Run Generators 197,000gals 837K ... with proven with proven reliability reliability will be will ...

  17. Hancock-Wood Electric Coop Inc | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    www.facebook.comhwe.coop Outage Hotline: 800-445-4840 or 888-417-3010 Outage Map: oms.hwe.coop References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 EIA Form...

  18. Renewables in Alaska Native Villages: Fort Yukon Wood Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    : B : kC : d P eo A oP : k d : p nd P p P : K o ' : P l ' : K kK oa P a K K P d o i : p S a P p K d : o o : oP P : p i i : nK P B P p : P K o: P ...

  19. Enhanced Biomass Digestion with Wood Wasp Bacteria - Energy Innovation...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    In nature, certain microbes can deconstruct biomass into simple sugars by secreting combinations of enzymes. Two organisms that utilize cellulose are Clostridium thermocellum - a ...

  20. Study of emissions from small woods - fired boiler systems

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This short article announces a testing project RFP to determine the air emissions produced by small wood-chip fired combustion systems and to determine associated health risks if any.

  1. Improving combustion in residential size wood chip fireboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, E.R.

    1982-12-01

    In a small experimental wood chip firebox with separate control of grate and overfire air, combustion intensity was increased with reduction in flyash and carbon monoxide by reducing air through the grate to a small fraction of stoichiometric air.

  2. Community Based Wood Heat System for Fort Yukon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    80,000 acres in one month Proposed Rural Wood Fuel Supply System *Capital costs for system capable of producing 7,000 TPY: 600,000 Key Obstacles to Overcome Development...

  3. Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    that wood-composite development is something that will bolster the U.S. economy, matches the funding from the WBC. "People in this industry are always looking for ways to...

  4. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Title: Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Authors: Ohm, Robin A. ; Riley, Robert ; Salamov, Asaf ; Min, Byoungnam ; Choi, In-Geol ; Grigoriev, Igor V. Publication Date: 2014-11-01 OSTI Identifier: 1222394 Grant/Contract Number: AC02-05CH11231 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Fungal Genetics and Biology (Print) Additional Journal Information: Journal Name: Fungal Genetics and Biology (Print); Journal Volume: 72; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN

  5. Fuel switching from wood to LPG can benefit the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nautiyal, Sunil Kaechele, Harald

    2008-11-15

    The Himalaya in India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Various scientific studies have reported and proven that many factors are responsible for the tremendous decline of the Himalayan forests. Extraction of wood biomass from the forests for fuel is one of the factors, as rural households rely entirely on this for their domestic energy. Efforts continue for both conservation and development of the Himalayan forests and landscape. It has been reported that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them to improve their lifestyle as well as facilitate ecosystem conservation and preservation of existing biodiversity. In this direction, we have documented the potential of the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is one of the solutions that have been offered to the local people as a substitute for woodfuel to help meet their domestic energy demand. The results of the current study found dramatic change in per capita woodfuel consumption in the last two decades in the villages where people are using LPG. The outcome showed that woodfuel consumption had been about 475 kg per capita per year in the region, but after introduction of LPG, this was reduced to 285 kg per capita per year in 1990-1995, and was further reduced to 46 kg per capita per year in 2000-2005. Besides improving the living conditions of the local people, this transformation has had great environmental consequences. Empirical evidence shows that this new paradigm shift is having positive external effects on the surrounding forests. Consequently, we have observed a high density of tree saplings and seedlings in adjacent forests, which serves as an assessment indicator of forest health. With the help of the current study, we propose that when thinking about a top-down approach to conservation, better solutions, which are often ignored, should be offered to local people.

  6. DOE/EIA-0035(93/05) Energy R*y

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    wind, photovoltaic, and solar b Production and consumption totals exclude wood, waste, geothermal, thermal energy; and net imports of electricity and coal coke. wind,...

  7. DOE/EIA-0035(93/07) Monthly Energy Review W S. IRA W,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    wind, photovoltaic, and solar b Production and consumption totals exclude wood, waste, geothermal, thermal energy; and net imports of electricity and coal coke. wind,...

  8. Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity in varying thicknesses of wood and steel cargo

    SciTech Connect

    Church, J; Slaughter, D; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Manatt, D; Mauger, J; Norman, E; Petersen, D; Prussin, S

    2006-10-05

    The influence of incident neutron attenuation on signal strengths in the Nuclear Car Wash has been observed experimentally for both wood and steel-pipe mock cargos. Measured decay curves are presented for {beta}-delayed high-energy {gamma}-rays and thermalized neutrons following neutron-induced fission of HEU through varying irradiation lengths. Error rates are extracted for delayed-{gamma} and delayed-n signals integrated to 30 seconds, assuming Gaussian distributions for the active background. The extrapolation to a field system of 1 mA deuterium current and to a 5 kg sample size is discussed.

  9. NREL: Learning - Biomass Energy Basics

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Energy Basics Photo of a farmer standing in a field and inspecting corn crops. We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy"-the energy from plants and plant-derived...

  10. Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasification/cofiring of Biomass and Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ping; Howard, Bret; Hedges, Sheila; Morreale, Bryan; Van Essendelft, Dirk; Berry, David

    2013-10-29

    Utilization of biomass as a co-feed in coal and biomass co-firing and co-gasification requires size reduction of the biomass. Reducing biomass to below 0.2 mm without pretreatment is difficult and costly because biomass is fibrous and compressible. Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment process and has the advantages of increasing energy density, improving grindability, producing fuels with more homogenous compositions and hydrophobic behavior. Temperature is the most important factor for the torrefaction process. Biomass grindability is related to cell wall structure, thickness and composition. Thermal treatment such as torrefaction can cause chemical changes that significantly affect the strength of biomass. The objectives of this study are to understand the mechanism by which torrefaction improves the grindability of biomass and discuss suitable temperatures for thermal pretreatment for co-gasification/cofiring of biomass and coal. Wild cherry wood was selected as the model for this study. Samples were prepared by sawing a single tangential section from the heartwood and cutting it into eleven pieces. The samples were consecutively heated at 220, 260, 300, 350, 450 and 550oC for 0.5 hr under flowing nitrogen in a tube furnace. Untreated and treated samples were characterized for physical properties (color, dimensions and weight), microstructural changes by SEM, and cell wall composition changes and thermal behaviors by TGA and DSC. The morphology of the wood remained intact through the treatment range but the cell walls were thinner. Thermal treatments were observed to decompose the cell wall components. Hemicellulose decomposed over the range of ~200 to 300oC and resulted in weakening of the cell walls and subsequently improved grindability. Furthermore, wood samples treated above 300oC lost more than 39% in mass. Therefore, thermal pretreatment above the hemicelluloses decomposition temperature but below 300oC is probably sufficient to improve

  11. Cofiring Wood and Coal to Stoker Boilers in Pittsburgh

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.

    1997-07-01

    The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.

  12. Could crop height affect the wind resource at agriculturally productive wind farm sites?

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-07

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. As a result, these considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  13. State of the Union Remarks on Energy in Four Charts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    State of the Union Remarks on Energy in Four Charts State of the Union Remarks on Energy in Four Charts January 22, 2015 - 10:23am Addthis Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs More State of the Union Coverage Interested in hearing the President's energy and climate change related remarks from the State of the Union? Watch the video! In Tuesday's State of the

  14. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.

    2015-06-23

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, wherein W.sub.C>L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is less than T.sub.D.

  15. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-08-13

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is greater than T.sub.D.

  16. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Trends in Energy Consumption...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    the use of the four major sources and other energy sources (e.g., district chilled water, solar, wood). Energy consumed in commercial buildings is a significant fraction of that...

  17. A Look at Commercial Buldings in 1995: Characteristics, Energy...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    to collect information on the use of renewable energy sources by including wood and solar thermal panels in the list of possible energy sources that were used to supply...

  18. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources

  19. Crop physiology calibration in the CLM

    SciTech Connect

    Bilionis, I.; Drewniak, B. A.; Constantinescu, E. M.

    2015-04-15

    Farming is using more of the land surface, as population increases and agriculture is increasingly applied for non-nutritional purposes such as biofuel production. This agricultural expansion exerts an increasing impact on the terrestrial carbon cycle. In order to understand the impact of such processes, the Community Land Model (CLM) has been augmented with a CLM-Crop extension that simulates the development of three crop types: maize, soybean, and spring wheat. The CLM-Crop model is a complex system that relies on a suite of parametric inputs that govern plant growth under a given atmospheric forcing and available resources. CLM-Crop development used measurements of gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from AmeriFlux sites to choose parameter values that optimize crop productivity in the model. In this paper, we calibrate these parameters for one crop type, soybean, in order to provide a faithful projection in terms of both plant development and net carbon exchange. Calibration is performed in a Bayesian framework by developing a scalable and adaptive scheme based on sequential Monte Carlo (SMC). The model showed significant improvement of crop productivity with the new calibrated parameters. We demonstrate that the calibrated parameters are applicable across alternative years and different sites.

  20. Crop physiology calibration in the CLM

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Bilionis, I.; Drewniak, B. A.; Constantinescu, E. M.

    2015-04-15

    Farming is using more of the land surface, as population increases and agriculture is increasingly applied for non-nutritional purposes such as biofuel production. This agricultural expansion exerts an increasing impact on the terrestrial carbon cycle. In order to understand the impact of such processes, the Community Land Model (CLM) has been augmented with a CLM-Crop extension that simulates the development of three crop types: maize, soybean, and spring wheat. The CLM-Crop model is a complex system that relies on a suite of parametric inputs that govern plant growth under a given atmospheric forcing and available resources. CLM-Crop development used measurementsmore » of gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from AmeriFlux sites to choose parameter values that optimize crop productivity in the model. In this paper, we calibrate these parameters for one crop type, soybean, in order to provide a faithful projection in terms of both plant development and net carbon exchange. Calibration is performed in a Bayesian framework by developing a scalable and adaptive scheme based on sequential Monte Carlo (SMC). The model showed significant improvement of crop productivity with the new calibrated parameters. We demonstrate that the calibrated parameters are applicable across alternative years and different sites.« less

  1. Michigan Save Energy Now | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Michigan Save Energy Now Michigan Save Energy Now Map highlighting Michigan Industry is a vital part of Michigan's economy. The state's major industries-which include primary metals, automotive manufacturers, chemical plants, paper and wood products manufacturers, metal casters, and petroleum refineries-are extremely energy intensive and are facing increased global competition. In 2009, the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO; formerly the Industrial Technologies Program) of the U.S. Department

  2. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics Jump to: navigation, search Name: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Place: India Sector: Biofuels...

  3. ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    advanced logistical systems and focused bioenergy harvesting technologies that supply crop ... More Documents & Publications ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop ...

  4. Residential Central Wood Pellet Heating Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project sites must be located in a utility territory that contributes to the Renewable Energy Trust Fund (National Grid, Eversource, Unitil, and municipal light plants that have agreed to pay int...

  5. Crop production with conservation in the 80's

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Crop production with conservation of the resources used is needed now and will continue to be needed in the future. The need for energy conservation has received emphasis since the oil embargo of 1973-74 and evidently the emphasis will continue for the foreseeable future. Soil conservation is a continuing goal. The task is to reduce soil-erosion losses due to wind and water in order to prevent loss of soil productivity permanently and to provide improved water quality. In many states soil conservation has become a public goal arrived at through public input in the decision-making process. The goal of this Conference on Crop Production with Conservation in the 80's was to explore and make available current research, thoughts, and trends on resource conservation in conjunction with crop production. The Conference was held at The Palmer House in Chicago on December 1 and 2, 1980. This conference report consists of 29 papers. 415 references, 47 figures, 106 tables.

  6. 01-02-2008 - Wood Cabinet Falls Apart | The Ames Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    8 - Wood Cabinet Falls Apart Document Number: NA Effective Date: 012008 File (public): PDF icon 01-02-2008blue...

  7. Methanol and the productivity of tropical crops

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, T.U.

    1995-12-31

    Studies are being conducted in Trinidad and Tobago, St. Lucia and St. Kitts/Nevis to determine the effect of aqueous solutions of methanol on the growth and yield of a wide range of vegetable, field and perennial crops. The paper presents a summary of results to data for ten of the crops studied. Six of these crops, lettuce, sweet pepper, tomato, mango and breadfruit, have shown significant increases in growth or yield with methanol application, while others such as pigeon pea, rice, banana and cocoa have shown more limited responses. There appears to be some potential for the use of methanol in tropical crop production but further studies are required before this apparent potential can be harnessed.

  8. Understanding Energy Consumption, One Candy Corn at a Time | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Understanding Energy Consumption, One Candy Corn at a Time Understanding Energy Consumption, One Candy Corn at a Time October 21, 2016 - 5:50pm Addthis Understanding Energy Consumption, One Candy Corn at a Time Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Click here to see the calculator in action! To commemorate National Energy Action Month, we're featuring some scarily effective ways to save energy at home. As cooler weather lurks

  9. Wood pellet market and trade: a global perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Chun Sheng Goh; Martin Junginger; Maurizio Cocchi; Didier Marchal; Daniela Thran; Christiane Hennig; Jussi Heinimo; Lars Nikolaisen; Peter-Paul Schouwenberg; Douglas Bradley; J. Richard Hess; Jacob J. Jacobson; Leslie Ovard; Michael Deutmeyer

    2001-01-01

    This perspective provides an overview of wood pellet markets in a number of countries of high significance, together with an inventory of market factors and relevant past or existing policies. In 2010, the estimated global wood pellet production and consumption were close to 14.3 Mt (million metric tonnes) and 13.5 Mt, respectively, while the global installed production capacity had reached over 28 Mt. Two types of pellets are mainly traded (i) for residential heating and (ii) for large-scale district heating or co-fi ring installations. The EU was the primary market, responsible for nearly 61% and 85% of global production and consumption, respectively in 2010. EU markets were divided according to end use: (i) residential and district heating, (ii) power plants driven market, (iii) mixed market, and (iv) export-driven countries. North America basically serves as an exporter, but also with signifi cant domestic consumption in USA. East Asia is predicted to become the second-largest consumer after the EU in the near future. The development perspective in Latin America remains unclear. Five factors that determine the market characteristics are: (i) the existence of coal-based power plants, (ii) the development of heating systems, (iii) feedstock availability, (iv) interactions with wood industry, and (v) logistics factor. Furthermore, intervention policies play a pivotal role in market development. The perspective of wood pellets industry was also analyzed from four major aspects: (i) supply potential, (ii) logistics issues, (iii) sustainability considerations, and (iv) technology development.

  10. Engineering methods for the design and employment of wood cribs

    SciTech Connect

    Barczak, T.M. ); Gearhart, D.F. )

    1993-01-01

    Wood cribs are used extensively by the mining industry to stabilize mine openings. While the cost per crib is relatively low, their extensive use can result in annual mine costs of over $1 million. In an effort to improve the utilization of these supports and to reduce ground control hazards, the US Bureau of Mines has developed engineering methods to assist mine operators in wood-crib design and employment. Design and employment criteria are established based on the strength, stiffness, and stability of the crib structure in relation to the load conditions imposed by the mine environment. Models have been developed based on full-scale tests in the USBM's Mine Roof Simulator that compute the capacity of wood cribs of various configurations and material constructions as a function of displacement of the crib structure due to roof-and-floor convergence. These models permit the comparison of the loading characteristics and cost of employment of different crib designs, and in conjunction with roof behavior models, provide a means to determine the optimum design and employment strategy. In eastern coal mines, wood cribs generally are constructed from hardwood timbers, while softwood timbers generally are used in western coal mines. 11 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Richard C.

    1982-01-01

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  12. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  13. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1983-06-01

    A process is discussed for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700/sup 0/C to 1200/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  14. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, Meyer; Fallon, Peter

    1984-07-31

    A process for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C., at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  15. Improved Wood Properties Through Genetic Manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-01

    This factsheet describes a research project to replacing the more chemically resistant guaiacyl (G) lignin with the less resistant hardwood guaiacyl (G)-syringyl (S) lignin genes. Achieving this genetic change would reduce the energy, chemical, and bleaching required in Kraft pulp production of softwoods.

  16. Using recycled wood waste as a fuel in the northeast: A handbook for prospective urban wood waste producers, suppliers and consumers

    SciTech Connect

    Prast, W.G.; Donovan, C.T.

    1988-03-01

    This report provides a comprehensive analysis of existing and future markets for recycled wood wastes in the eleven-state northeast region. The purpose of the report is to estimate the availability of wood and woody materials in the solid waste stream and to determine the technical and economic viability of separating and recycling them for other uses. The topics discussed include: current and future markets for recycled wood wastes; key components of successful wood waste processing facilities; decisionmaking process used to determine technical and economic viability of a proposed processing facility; environmental regulations and the permitting process required for recycled wood waste processors and users; case studies and annotated listings of existing wood waste processors and uses; detailed assessments of market opportunities in three metropolitan areas including Boston, New York, and Philadelphia; and a proposed action plan to stimulate and facilitate future market development.

  17. ENERGY

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    U.S. Department of ENERGY Department of Energy Quadrennial Technology Review-2015 Framing Document http:energy.govqtr 2015-01-13 Page 2 The United States faces serious ...

  18. Energy

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Energy Washington; DC 20585 : . ' , - o" ' ' ,' DEC ?; ;y4,,, ' . The Honorable ... Dear,Mayor 'Kalwitz: " . " Secretary of Energy Hazel' O'Leary has announceha new,approach ...

  19. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-31

    In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    those that utilize wind, solar thermal energy, photovoltaic cells and panels, biodiesel, crops and organic waste biomass, trees... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Nonprofit,...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    projects include those that utilize wind, solar thermal energy, photovoltaic cells and panels, biodiesel, crops and organic waste biomass, trees... Eligibility: Commercial,...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    dedicated crops grown for energy production and organic waste biomass, hydropower th... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Investor-Owned Utility, Municipal Utilities,...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    utilize wind, solar thermal energy, photovoltaic cells and panels, biodiesel, crops and organic waste biomass, trees... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Nonprofit, Schools,...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    include those that utilize wind, solar thermal energy, photovoltaic cells and panels, biodiesel, crops and organic waste biomass, trees... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial,...

  5. Renewable energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  6. DOE to Provide up to $40 Million in Funding for Small-Scale Biorefiner...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... array of biomass feedstocks, including sugarcane bagasse, agricultural byproducts, waste wood products, and other non-food based energy crops. The Jennings, Louisiana ...

  7. INTERACTIVE: Energy Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy INTERACTIVE: Energy Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers INTERACTIVE: Energy Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers February 19, 2016 - 11:53am Addthis Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Watch our CO2 drop dramatically compared to other countries in this interactive Curious about the total amount of carbon we emit into the atmosphere? Compare countries from around the globe using this tool. If

  8. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb Jr.

    2005-02-10

    Phase I of this project began by obtaining R&D variances for permits at the NIOSH boilerplant (NBP), Emery Tree Service (ETS) and the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC) for their portions of the project. Wood for the test burn was obtained from the JARC inventory (pallets), Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation (construction wood), and the Arlington Heights Housing Project (demolition wood). The wood was ground at ETS and JARC, delivered to the Three Rivers Terminal and blended with coal. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NBP. Blends using hammermilled wood were operationally successful. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and evaluated. During the first year of Phase II the principal work focused upon searching for a replacement boilerplant and developing a commercial supply of demolition wood. The NBP withdrew from the project and a search began for another stoker boilerplant in Pennsylvania to replace it on the project. Three potential commercial demolition wood providers were contacted. Two were not be able to supply wood. At the end of the first year of Phase II, discussions were continuing with the third one, a commercial demolition wood provider from northern New Jersey. During the two-and-a-third years of the contract extension it was determined that the demolition wood from northern New Jersey was impractical for use in Pittsburgh, in another power plant in central New Jersey, and in a new wood gasifier being planned in Philadelphia. However, the project team did identify sufficient wood from other sources for the gasifier project. The Principal Investigator of this project assisted a feasibility study of wood gasification in Clarion County, Pennsylvania. As a result of the study, an independent power producer in the county has initiated a small wood

  9. Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Energy National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. Energy Overview Charlie McMillan, Director of Los Alamos National Laboratory 0:50 Director McMillan on energy security With energy use increasing across the nation and the world, Los Alamos National Laboratory is using its world-class scientific capabilities to enhance

  10. Building America Case Study: Retrofit Measure for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls, Lawrence, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-01

    ?There are many existing buildings with load-bearing mass masonry walls, whose energy performance could be improved with the retrofit of insulation. However, adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw have known solutions. But wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content and relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100 percent RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated vs. non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15 percent) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction This incentive allows Arizona taxpayers to deduct the cost of converting an existing wood fireplace to a qualifying wood stove, a qualified wood...

  12. Assessment of superheated steam drying of wood waste

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, B.G.; Nguyen, Y.; Bruce, S.

    1994-12-31

    A 5 MW co-generation facility using wood waste is described which will supply power to Ontario Hydro, steam to the sawmill for process heating, and hot water for district heating customers in the town. The use of superheated steam for drying the wood was investigated to determine the impact on boiler performance, the environmental impact and the economic feasibility. The main benefit with superheated steam drying is the reduction in VOC emissions. The capital cost is currently higher with superheated steam drying, but further investigation is warranted to determine if the cost reductions which could be achieved by manufacturing the major components in North America are sufficient to make the technology cost competitive.

  13. Kinetics of fluidized bed combustion of wood pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Leckner, B.; Hansson, K.M.; Tullin, C.; Borodulya, A.V.; Dikalenko, V.I.; Palchonok, G.I.

    1999-07-01

    Devolatilization and char combustion of a single wood pellet in a fluidized bed has been studied. The effect of operation parameters (bed temperature, bed particle size, oxygen concentration) and pellet characteristics has been investigated. A simplified analytical model of heat-transfer controlled pyrolysis has been developed to interpret the measured volatiles release time. The model predictions are in a good agreement with the experimental data, provided that the initial physical properties of the pellet are used. The model can be used to estimate the devolatilization times in other combustion systems. Kinetic parameters of char combustion are obtained, based on the measured burnout times and simple model considerations. The physical properties of wood pellets need further study.

  14. Characterization of ashes from co-combustion of refuse-derived fuel with coal, wood and bark in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Zevenhoven, R.; Skrifvars, B.J.; Hupa, M.

    1998-12-31

    The technical and environmental feasibility of co-combustion of a recovered fuel (RF) prepared from combustible waste fractions (separated at the source), together with coal, peat, wood or wood-waste in thermal power/electricity generation has been studied in several R and D projects within Finland. The current work focuses on eventual changes in ash characteristics during co-combustion of RF with coal, wood or bark, which could lead to bed agglomeration, slagging, fouling and even corrosion in the boiler. Ashes were produced in a 15 kW bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustion reactor, the fly ash captured by the cyclone was further analyzed by XRF. The sintering tendency behavior of these ashes was investigated using a test procedure developed at Aabo Akademi University. Earlier, a screening program involved ashes from RF (from a waste separation scheme in Finland) co-combustion with peat, wood and bark, in which ash pellets were thermally treated in air. This showed significant sintering below 600 C as well as above 800 C for RF/wood and RF/bark, but not for RF/peat. This seemed to correlate with alkali chloride and sulfate concentrations in the ashes. The current work addresses a Danish refuse-derived fuel (RDF), co-combusted with bark, coal, bark+coal, wood, and wood+coal (eight tests). Ash pellets were thermally treated in nitrogen in order to avoid residual carbon combustion. The results obtained show no sintering tendencies below 600 C, significant changes in sintering are seen with pellets treated at 1,000 C. Ash from 100% RDF combustion does not sinter, 25% RDF co-combustion with wood and peat, respectively, gives an insignificant effect. The most severe sintering occurs during co-combustion of RDF with bark. Furthermore, it appears that the presence of a 25% coal fraction (on energy basis) seems to have a negative effect on all fuel blends. Analysis of the sintering results versus ash chemical composition shows that, in general, an increased level of

  15. Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export

    SciTech Connect

    J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  16. QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, J.S.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, X.T.; Lau, A.K.; Melin, Staffan; Oveisi, E.; Sowlati, T.

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  17. Mechanics of compression drying solid wood cubes and chip mats

    SciTech Connect

    Haygreen, J.G.

    1982-10-01

    Wood cubes and chip mats were compressed in a cell under ram face pressures to 13,000 psi. The amount of water removed was determined for a range of species of various specific gravities and at several green moisture contents (MCs). The time dependence of the process was also studied. The purpose of this work was to describe the mechanics of compression drying which must be considered in designing commercial equipment. Green MC of wood chip mats was reduced to 45 to 50 percent MC (31% to 33% MC, wet basis) at pressures of 13,000 psi. At low pressures of 1,000 to 2,000 psi, moisture was reduced to 60 to 75 percent MC (38% to 43% MC, wet basis). There was a significantly greater moisture reduction at these low pressures if the pressure is maintained for up to 2 minutes rather than releasing it immediately once the target pressure is obtained. Water can be removed from high density species but pressures required are higher by a factor of 2 to 3. The chip mat is reduced to about one-sixth of its original volume at 2,000 psi and one-seventh at 6,000 psi. When pressing cubes of high green MC, about 7,000 foot-pounds of work (equivalent to 9 Btu) applied to the wood will remove up to 1 pound of water. (Refs. 9).

  18. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  19. Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Robert P.

    1980-09-01

    The following systems are discussed: energy self-sufficient farms, wood gasification, energy from high-yield silviculture farms, and solar district heating and cooling. System descriptions and environmental data are included for each one. (MHR)

  20. Could crop height affect the wind resource at agriculturally productive wind farm sites?

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-07

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length inmore » a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. As a result, these considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.« less

  1. Bioenergy Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Education & Workforce Development » Bioenergy Basics Bioenergy Basics Biomass is an energy resource derived from organic matter, which includes wood, agricultural waste, and other living-cell material that can be burned to produce heat energy. It also includes algae, sewage, and other organic substances that may be used to make energy through chemical processes. Biomass currently supplies about 3% of total U.S. energy consumption in the form of electricity, process heat, and transportation

  2. Energy Statistics, Third Quarter, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Data are presented on 104 tables on the following energy sources: petroleum, coal, natural gas, biomass, and electric power by hydroelectric, nuclear, and renewable sources (wood, waste, geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal). Tables include information on imports, energy production, energy consumption, prices, well drilling, seismic survey activity, pipeline mileage, reserves, energy supplies, storage facilities, exports, residential sector use, regional analyses, and business indicators (e.g., price indexes, balance of trade, exchange rates). Gas liquids, petroleum products, and peat information is included.

  3. Wood-fuel use in Papua New Guinea: an assessment of industrial combustion equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Mendis, M.S.

    1980-11-01

    This report presents the results of an engineering and economic assessment of new and retrofit industrial combustion equipment for wood-fuel use in Papua New Guinea. Existing industrial combustion equipment and practices in Papua New Guinea are appraised. Potential industrial wood-fuel systems that utilize wood, wood wastes, charcoal and pyrolytic oils and which are particularly applicable to Papua New Guinea are identified. An economic assessment of wood-fuel systems is conducted for eleven case studies which are representative of a cross-section of Papua New Guinea industry. Conclusions and recommendations are presented to aid both government and industry in Papua New Guinea in fostering the development of appropriate wood-fuel technologies and thereby help displace the consumption of imported petroleum.

  4. Method for predicting dry mechanical properties from wet wood and standing trees

    DOEpatents

    Meglen, Robert R.; Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-08-12

    A method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood comprising: illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with light between 350-2,500 nm, the wood having a green moisture content; analyzing the surface using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data, and using a multivariate analysis to predict the dry mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral data correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from a reference wood when dried and having a dry moisture content.

  5. ITP Forest Products: Energy and Environmental Profile of the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Energy UseYr: 554 10 12 Btu (based on annual paper production of 88.4 ... wood chips prior to pulping using hot water extraction in low-pressure digesters (Thorp 2004). ...

  6. Space-Based Solar Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Space-Based Solar Power Space-Based Solar Power March 6, 2014 - 12:10pm Addthis Graphics by Sarah Gerrity. Interactivity by Daniel Wood. Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs SPACEWEEK: It's Space Week on Energy.gov -- and we're highlighting the contributions of the Energy Department and our National Labs to the U.S. space program. Want to learn more about SBSP? Read up on what current technologies can be used in SBSP by this paper from

  7. Hemicellulolytic organisms in the particle-associated microbiota of the hoatzin crop

    SciTech Connect

    Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa; Malfatti, Stephanie; Garcia-Amado, Maria A.; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Hugenholtz, Phillip; Tringe, Susannah

    2011-05-31

    The hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin) is a South American herbivorous bird, that has an enlarged crop analogous to the rumen, where foregut microbes degrade the otherwise indigestible plant materials, providing energy to the host. The crop harbors an impressive array of microorganisms with potentially novel cellulolytic enzymes. Thie study describes the composition ofthe particle-associated microbiota in the hoatzin crop, combining a survey of 16S rRNA genes in 7 adult birds and metagenome sequencing of two animals. The pyrotag survey demonstrates that Prevotellaceae, are the most abundant and ubiquitous taxa, suggesting that the degradation of hemicellulose is an important activity in the crop. Nonetheless, preliminary results from the metagnome of the particle-associated microbiota of two adult birds show that the crop microbiome contains a high number of genes encoding cellulases (such as GH5) more abundant than those of the termite gut, as well as genes encoding hemicellulases. These preliminary results show that the carbohydate-active enzyme genes in the cropmetagenome could be a source of biochemical catalysts able to deconstruct plant biomass.

  8. 6 Charts that Will Make You Optimistic About America's Clean Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Future | Department of Energy 6 Charts that Will Make You Optimistic About America's Clean Energy Future 6 Charts that Will Make You Optimistic About America's Clean Energy Future September 28, 2016 - 11:47am Addthis Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Over the last few years, we've been in the midst of a clean energy revolution. New technologies, once unthinkably expensive to install and use, have become increasingly

  9. Improving the Way We Harvest & Deliver Biofuels Crops

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Sharing the innovative solutions companies are developing to simplify the way we harvest and deliver biofuel crops.

  10. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  11. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on November 1, 2015 Title: Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Authors: Ohm, Robin A. ; Riley, Robert ;...

  12. Water Sampling At Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area (Wood...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity...

  13. New Methods for Investigating Wood Formation | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC)

    analyses of the evolution of genetic regulation and modifications relating to or ... transcription factor-DNA interactions associated with the regulation of wood formation. ...

  14. In the OSTI Collections: Biofuels | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This is a major reason for interest in one method of supplying energy: growing crops for ... investigations that the Department of Energy has sponsored, along with the ...

  15. Development of size reduction equations for calculating power input for grinding pine wood chips using hammer mill

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Naimi, Ladan J.; Collard, Flavien; Bi, Xiaotao; Lim, C. Jim; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2016-01-05

    Size reduction is an unavoidable operation for preparing biomass for biofuels and bioproduct conversion. Yet, there is considerable uncertainty in power input requirement and the uniformity of ground biomass. Considerable gains are possible if the required power input for a size reduction ratio is estimated accurately. In this research three well-known mechanistic equations attributed to Rittinger, Kick, and Bond available for predicting energy input for grinding pine wood chips were tested against experimental grinding data. Prior to testing, samples of pine wood chips were conditioned to 11.7% wb, moisture content. The wood chips were successively ground in a hammer millmore » using screen sizes of 25.4 mm, 10 mm, 6.4 mm, and 3.2 mm. The input power and the flow of material into the grinder were recorded continuously. The recorded power input vs. mean particle size showed that the Rittinger equation had the best fit to the experimental data. The ground particle sizes were 4 to 7 times smaller than the size of installed screen. Geometric mean size of particles were calculated using two methods (1) Tyler sieves and using particle size analysis and (2) Sauter mean diameter calculated from the ratio of volume to surface that were estimated from measured length and width. The two mean diameters agreed well, pointing to the fact that either mechanical sieving or particle imaging can be used to characterize particle size. In conclusion, specific energy input to the hammer mill increased from 1.4 kWh t–1 (5.2 J g–1) for large 25.1-mm screen to 25 kWh t–1 (90.4 J g–1) for small 3.2-mm screen.« less

  16. Energy 101: Biofuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Biofuels Energy 101: Biofuels August 16, 2013 - 12:11pm Addthis Learn how biomass is converted into clean, renewable transportation fuels to power our cars, trucks, planes, and trains. Biomass is an organic renewable energy source that includes materials such as agriculture and forest residues, energy crops, and algae. Scientists and engineers at the U.S. Department of Energy and its national laboratories are finding new, more efficient ways to convert biomass into biofuels that can take the

  17. Environmental characterization studies of a high-throughput wood gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.; Niemann, R.C.; Wilzbach, K.E.; Paisley, M.

    1983-01-01

    Potential environmental effects associated with thermochemical biomass gasification have been studied by Argonne National Laboratory in cooperation with Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL). A series of samples from the process research unit of an indirectly heated, high-throughput wood gasifier operated by BCL has been analyzed for potentially toxic organic compounds and trace elements. The results indicate that, under the test-run conditions, the gasification of both pine and hardwood is accompanied by the formation of some oil, the heavier fraction of which gives a positive response in the Ames assay for mutagenicity and contains numerous phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including some carcinogens. The implications of these observations are discussed.

  18. Bioenergy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Sources » Renewable Energy » Bioenergy Bioenergy Biomass is an organic renewable energy source that includes materials such as agriculture and forest residues, energy crops, and algae. Scientists and engineers at the Energy Department and National Laboratories are finding new, more efficient ways to convert biomass into biofuels that can take the place of conventional fuels like gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. Learn how the Energy Department is working to sustainably transform the nation's

  19. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Appendix A. Feasibility study of methane production via catalytic gasification of 2000 tons of wood per day

    SciTech Connect

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been made of the economic feasibility of producing substitute natural gas (SNG) from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The plant design in this study was developed from information on gasifier operation supplied by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The plant is designed to process 2000 tons per day of dry wood to SNG. Plant production is 21.6 MM scfd of SNG with a HHV of 956 Btu per scf. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to SNG are included. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $95,115,000 - September, 1980 basis. Gas production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. For utility financing, the gas production costs are respectively $5.09, $5.56, $6.50, and $8.34 per MM Btu for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton delivered to the plant at a moisture content of 49.50 wt %. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $6.62, $7.11, $8.10, and $10.06 per MM Btu. The cost calculated by the utility financing method includes a return on equity of 15% and an interest rate of 10% on the debt. The private investor financing method, which is 100% equity financing, incorporates a discounted cash flow (DCF) return on equity of 12%. The thermal efficiency without taking an energy credit for by-product char is 58.3%.

  20. System Modeling of ORNL s 20 MW(t) Wood-fired Gasifying Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C Stuart; FINNEY, Charles E A; Wiggins, Gavin; Hao, Ye

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the new 20 MW(t) wood-fired steam plant currently under construction by Johnson Controls, Inc. at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. The new plant will utilize a low-temperature air-blown gasifier system developed by the Nexterra Systems Corporation to generate low-heating value syngas (producer gas), which will then be burned in a staged combustion chamber to produce heat for the boiler. This is considered a showcase project for demonstrating the benefits of clean, bio-based energy, and thus there is considerable interest in monitoring and modeling the energy efficiency and environmental footprint of this technology relative to conventional steam generation with petroleum-based fuels. In preparation for system startup in 2012, we are developing steady-state and dynamic models of the major process components, including the gasifiers and combustor. These tools are intended to assist in tracking and optimizing system performance and for carrying out future conceptual studies of process changes that might improve the overall energy efficiency and sustainability. In this paper we describe the status of our steady-state gasifier and combustor models and illustrate preliminary results from limited parametric studies.

  1. How Much Do You Spend? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Much Do You Spend? How Much Do You Spend? July 2, 2014 - 11:52am Addthis U.S.A. Energy Expenditure per person Click on a state Energy Expenditure $3724 per person in 2012 Transportation ▀▀▀▀▀ Residential ▀▀▀▀▀ Data: EIA State Energy Data System Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Looking for more energy data? Check out our library of energy maps. This past weekend, the Energy Information Administration (EIA)

  2. Energy

    Annual Energy Outlook

    M onthly Energy Re< view Ila A a m 0 II 8 IIIW *g U In this issue: New data on nuclear electricity in Eastern Europe (Table 10.4) 9'Ij a - Ordering Information This publication...

  3. Buildings Energy Data Book: 1.6 Embodied Energy of Building Assemblies

    Buildings Energy Data Book

    1 Embodied Energy of Commercial Windows in the U.S. Embodied Energy CO2 Equivalent Window Type (MMBtu/SF) (1) Emissions (lbs/SF) Aluminium 0.973 190.1 PVC-clad Wood 0.447 88.3 Wood 0.435 90.9 Vinyl (PVC) 0.557 111.7 Curtainwall Viewable Glazing 0.233 66.1 Note(s): Source(s): 1) Embodied Energy: Energy use includes extraction, processing, transportation, construction, and disposal of each material. Assumptions: Low rise building. Values are general estimations for the U.S. 60 year building

  4. EIS-0481: Engineered High Energy Crop Programs Programmatic Environmen...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    DOE's proposed action under this PEIS will be limited to the states of Alabama, Florida (excluding the EvergladesSouthern Florida coastal plain ecoregion), Georgia, Kentucky, ...

  5. Bical Biomass Industrial Crops Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Devon, United Kingdom Zip: EX15 1BJ Product: Developer and supplier of Miscanthus for electricity generation in Europe. Coordinates: 40.04563, -75.423824 Show Map Loading...

  6. Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    United States Department of Agriculture, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Sector: Land Focus Area: Agriculture Topics: GHG inventory, Resource...

  7. Hygrothermal Performance of West Coast Wood Deck Roofing System

    SciTech Connect

    Pallin, Simon B; Kehrer, Manfred; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2014-02-01

    Simulations of roofing assemblies are necessary in order to understand and adequately predict actual the hygrothermal performance. At the request of GAF, simulations have been setup to verify the difference in performance between white and black roofing membrane colors in relation to critical moisture accumulation for traditional low slope wood deck roofing systems typically deployed in various western U.S. Climate Zones. The performance of these roof assemblies has been simulated in the hygrothermal calculation tool of WUFI, from which the result was evaluated based on a defined criterion for moisture safety. The criterion was defined as the maximum accepted water content for wood materials and the highest acceptable moisture accumulation rate in relation to the risk of rot. Based on the criterion, the roof assemblies were certified as being either safe, risky or assumed to fail. The roof assemblies were simulated in different western climates, with varying insulation thicknesses, two different types of wooden decking, applied with varying interior moisture load and with either a high or low solar absorptivity at the roof surface (black or white surface color). The results show that the performance of the studied roof assemblies differs with regard to all of the varying parameters, especially the climate and the indoor moisture load.

  8. Global crop yield losses from recent warming

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D; Field, C

    2006-06-02

    Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach

  9. Department of Energy to Invest Nearly $18 Million for Advanced...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... non-food biomass such as forestry and agricultural residues, mill wastes, energy crops, and sorted municipal solid waste. For more information visit DOE's Biomass Program website. ...

  10. THE ROLE OF DEAD WOOD IN MAINTAINING ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY ON THE FOREST FLOOR.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Wade, Dale D.

    2006-08-01

    AbstractDead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. The results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  11. Demonstration of wood/coal co-firing in a spreader stoker

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Elder, W.W.; Geiger, G.E.; Campus, N.J.; Miller, W.F.; Freeman, M.C.; McCreery, L.R.

    1999-07-01

    The Forest Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is sponsoring a series of demonstrations of wood/coal co-firing in stoker boilers. The first demonstration was conducted in 1997 in an industrial traveling-grate stoker boiler and the second in May 1999 in a spreader stoker boiler operated by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) at the Bruceton Research Laboratory. The principal wood used in both demonstrations was tub-ground broken pallets. In the first phase of the NIOSH demonstration, four five-ton loads of wood/coal mixtures, varying from 3% to 12% wood (by Btu content), were combusted. The second phase of this demonstration was a 50-hour test using a 10% wood/coal blend delivered in two 20-ton loads. It has been concluded from both demonstrations that (1) a 10% wood/coal blend burns acceptably in the boiler, but (2) tub-ground urban wood is unacceptably difficult to feed through the grill above the delivery pit and through the spreader stokers. A method is being sought to acquire urban waste wood, having a more chip-like nature, to use in further testing and for commercialization.

  12. Relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the Southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael, Darragh

    2009-05-01

    The importance of dead wood to maintaining forest diversity is now widely recognized. However, the habitat associations and sensitivities of many species associated with dead wood remain unknown, making it difficult to develop conservation plans for managed forests. The purpose of this research, conducted on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina, was to better understand the relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the southeastern United States. In a comparison of forest types, more beetle species emerged from logs collected in upland pine-dominated stands than in bottomland hardwood forests. This difference was most pronounced for Quercus nigra L., a species of tree uncommon in upland forests. In a comparison of wood postures, more beetle species emerged from logs than from snags, but a number of species appear to be dependent on snags including several canopy specialists. In a study of saproxylic beetle succession, species richness peaked within the first year of death and declined steadily thereafter. However, a number of species appear to be dependent on highly decayed logs, underscoring the importance of protecting wood at all stages of decay. In a study comparing litter-dwelling arthropod abundance at different distances from dead wood, arthropods were more abundant near dead wood than away from it. In another study, grounddwelling arthropods and saproxylic beetles were little affected by large-scale manipulations of dead wood in upland pine-dominated forests, possibly due to the suitability of the forests surrounding the plots.

  13. Christina Stowers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Christina Stowers About Us Christina Stowers - Communications Specialist in the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs Office Christina Stowers is Communications Specialist in the Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program. Most Recent Washington School District Makes the Grade in Energy Efficiency September 2 Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets August 20 Sustainability at Home: Raising the Bar August 11

  14. History of the Energy Department's Role in Nuclear Security | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy History of the Energy Department's Role in Nuclear Security History of the Energy Department's Role in Nuclear Security April 6, 2015 - 2:58pm Addthis Allison Lantero Allison Lantero Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Learn More Check out the cutting-edge nuclear research going on at the National Labs. Learn more about the history of the National Nuclear Security

  15. EIA's Energy in Brief: How much U.S. electricity is generated from

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    renewable energy? much U.S. electricity is generated from renewable energy? Last Updated: May 5, 2016 U.S. power plants used renewable energy sources, including water, wind, biomass wood and waste, geothermal, and solar, to generate about 13% of the electricity produced in the United States during 2015. Sources of Renewable Electricity Generation, 2013; chart shaped like an outlet. Renewables are 13% of generation. Renewable breakout: hydropower, 52%; wind, 32%; biomass wood, 8%; biomass

  16. Energy plantations in the Republic of the Philippines. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Durst, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    Development and management of plantations to support wood-energy programs have been aggressively promoted in the Philippines since 1979. Over 60,000 hectares of energy plantations have been planted under government-supported programs. The paper documents the problems and accomplishments of these programs and describes plantation establishment, maintenance, protection, growth and yield, harvesting, and wood transport. Research priorities for improving energy-farm operations are also suggested.

  17. Window Types | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Window Types Window Types A wood-frame window with insulated window glazing. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/chandlerphoto A wood-frame window with insulated window glazing. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/chandlerphoto Windows come in a number of different frame and glazing types. By combining an energy-efficient frame choice with a glazing type tailored to your climate and application, you can customize each of your home's windows. Types of Window Frames Improving the thermal resistance

  18. Renewable energy 1998: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This report presents the following five papers: Renewable electricity purchases: History and recent developments; Transmission pricing issues for electricity generation from renewable resources; Analysis of geothermal heat pump manufacturers survey data; A view of the forest products industry from a wood energy perspective; and Wind energy developments: Incentives in selected countries. A glossary is included. 19 figs., 27 tabs.

  19. Potential role of lignin in tomorrow's wood utilization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, W.G.

    1981-03-01

    Low-grade timber supplies and wood processing residues are presently converted into paper products, used for fuel, or remain totally unused. Competition for this resource will continue to mount, particularly when manufacturers of chemicals and liquid fuels enter the market with new technologies now under development. The type of technology that concentrates on depolymerization of carbohydrates will generate large quantities of lignin-rich residues. The potential of these lignins to contribute to the economic feasibility of new chemical wood process technologies may involve degradative depolymerization to phenols and benzene, or polymer conversion into a wide variety of dispersants, binders, reinforcing and antioxidizing agents, etc. Where lignin's fuel value lies around 3 to 4 cents/lb. (fall of 1979), its raw material value for phenol is reported to be almost 5 cents/lb., and the value of the polymeric materials is estimated to be between 6 and 20 cents/lb. At the lower end of this range of raw material values are ligninsulfonates, which contribute nearly 98 percent to the approximately 1.5 billion lb./yr. U.S. market for lignin products. Kraft lignins are located at the opposite end of this range. Novel bioconversion-type lignins are expected to be more similar in structure and properties to kraft than to sulfite lignins. Whereas application of the dispersant properties of ligninsulfonates in tertiary oil recovery operations is expected to constitute the most significant use of lignin in terms of volume, adhesive and resin applications hold the greatest promise in terms of value. Both utilization schemes seem to require pretreatments in the form of either polymeric fractionation or chemical modification. Potential savings from the use of polymeric lignins in material systems are great.

  20. The Pennsylvanian and Permian Oquirrh-Wood River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Geslin, J.K. . Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Strata of the Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Oquirrh-Wood River Basin (OWRB) lie unconformably above the Antler orogenic belt and flysch trough/starved basin in NW Utah, NE Nevada, and SC Idaho. Strata of the basin, now separated geographically by the Neogene Snake River Plain, show similar subsidence histories, identical mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentary fill, and identical chert pebble conglomerate beds supplied by one or more DesMoinesian uplifts containing Lower Paleozoic strata. This conglomerate, of the lower Sun Valley Group, Snaky Canyon Formation, and parts of the Oquirrh Formation, was reworked progressively southward, to at least the Idaho-Utah border. It is present in strata as young as Virgilian. Virgilian to Leonardian rocks are ubiquitously fine-grained mixed carbonate-siliciclastic turbidites. These rocks contain cratonal, well-sorbed subarkosic and quartzose sand and silt in part derived from the Canadian Shield. This siliciclastic fraction is intimately mixed with arenaceous micritized skeletal material and peloids derived from an eastern carbonate platform represented by the Snaky Canyon Formation in east-central Idaho, an eastern facies of the Eagle Creek Member, Wood River Formation in the Boulder Mountains, and the Oquirrh Formation in the Deep Creek Mountains. Subsidence of the OWRB may have been caused by two phases (DesMoinesian and Wolfcampian to Leonardian) of crustal loading by continental margin tectonism to the west. An elevated rim separated the OWRB from coeval volcanogenic basins to the west. Earlier, Antler-age structures may have been reactivated. A new pulse of tectonism occurred in Leonardian to Guadalupian time as in most places carbonatic and phosphatic strata of the Leonardian to Guadalupian Park City and Phosphoria Formation overlie OWRB strata, with different geographic arrangement of basinal, slope, and shelf depocenters.

  1. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Wood Feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for treatment of wood-derived syngas for use in the synthesis of liquid fuels. Two different 2,000 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, a low-pressure, indirect system using the gasifier, and a high-pressure, direct system using gasification technology were evaluated. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  2. Performance of a small underfed wood chip-fired stoker in a hot air-heated home

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of the study was to provide space heat for a home using forest biomass presently not in demand by industry, and by using a convenient, automatic, low-emission heating system. A stoker firing wood chips was installed in a home, and chips were prepared for it from the residues of a softwood clearcut. Residues from 1 and a quarter acre provided enough fuel to heat the house for the heating season. The chip-fired heating system was convenient, maintained the house at whatever temperature was set on the room thermostat, and generated little creosote or wood smoke. It was better at converting fuel to heat than the previous combustion heating systems in the house, with steady-state combustion efficiency of approximately 75% and longer-term appliance efficiency of 69%. Electric energy required for heating hot water was reduced approximately 27% as a result of a preheating coil located in the chip-fired furnace. The major cause of heat interruptions was jamming of the stoker which occurred on the average of every 18 and a half days. Clearing such jams was simple. The system operated safely throughout the test period.

  3. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA region 4): Coleman Evans Wood Preserving Co. , Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida, September 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-25

    The Coleman Evans Wood Preserving Company site is an active 11-acre wood-preserving facility located in the town of Whitehouse, Duval County, Florida. The site consists of two distinct areas: the western portion, which comprises the wood treating facility; and the eastern portion, which consists of a landfill area which has been used for the disposal of wood-chip and other wastes. Coleman Evans has produced wood products impregnated with PCP. Site investigations confirm soil and ground-water contamination, with PCP the primary contaminant of concern.

  4. Weather-based forecasts of California crop yields

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D B; Cahill, K N; Field, C B

    2005-09-26

    Crop yield forecasts provide useful information to a range of users. Yields for several crops in California are currently forecast based on field surveys and farmer interviews, while for many crops official forecasts do not exist. As broad-scale crop yields are largely dependent on weather, measurements from existing meteorological stations have the potential to provide a reliable, timely, and cost-effective means to anticipate crop yields. We developed weather-based models of state-wide yields for 12 major California crops (wine grapes, lettuce, almonds, strawberries, table grapes, hay, oranges, cotton, tomatoes, walnuts, avocados, and pistachios), and tested their accuracy using cross-validation over the 1980-2003 period. Many crops were forecast with high accuracy, as judged by the percent of yield variation explained by the forecast, the number of yields with correctly predicted direction of yield change, or the number of yields with correctly predicted extreme yields. The most successfully modeled crop was almonds, with 81% of yield variance captured by the forecast. Predictions for most crops relied on weather measurements well before harvest time, allowing for lead times that were longer than existing procedures in many cases.

  5. Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Irrigating with Treated Oil and Gas Product Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Prepared By Terry Brown, Jeffrey Morris, Patrick Richards and Joel...

  6. EA-1861: Draft Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Draft Environmental Assessment EA-1861: Draft Environmental Assessment Frito-Lay Biomass Boiler Project, Beloit, Wisconsin The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to authorize the expenditure of Federal grant funding to design, permit, and construct a biomass boiler house at the Frito-Lay North America (Frito-Lay) plant in Beloit, Wisconsin. Frito-Lay would construct and operate a new boilerhouse for a wood chip boiler and purchase wood fuel from regional suppliers (proposed project).

  7. Economics of ethanol fuel for crop production

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, C.; Rotz, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    A computer model was developed to simulate conventional and ethanol fuel consumption for crop production. The model was validated by obtaining a close comparison between simulated and actual diesel requirements for farms in Michigan. Parameters for ethanol consumption were obtained from laboratory tests using total fueling of spark-ignition engines and dual-fueling of diesel engines with ethanol. Ethanol fuel will always be more economically used in spark-ignition engines than in dual-fueled diesel engines. The price of gasoline must inflate at least 14 percent/year greater than that of ethanol and diesel must inflate at least 23 percent/year more than ethanol to allow economic use of ethanol as tractor fuel within the next 5 years. (Refs. 13).

  8. Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenbies, Mark; Volk, Timothy; Abrahamson, Lawrence; Shuren, Richard; Stanton, Brian; Posselius, John; McArdle, Matt; Karapetyan, Samvel; Patel, Aayushi; Shi, Shun; Zerpa, Jose

    2014-10-03

    Biomass for biofuels, bioproducts and bioenergy can be sourced from forests, agricultural crops, various residue streams, and dedicated woody or herbaceous crops. Short rotation woody crops (SRWC), like willow and hybrid poplar, are perennial cropping systems that produce a number of environmental and economic development benefits in addition to being a renewable source of biomass that can be produced on marginal land. Both hybrid poplar and willow have several characteristics that make them an ideal feedstock for biofuels, bioproducts, and bioenergy; these include high yields that can be obtained in three to four years, ease of cultivar propagation from dormant cuttings, a broad underutilized genetic base, ease of breeding, ability to resprout after multiple harvests, and feedstock composition similar to other sources of woody biomass. Despite the range of benefits associated with SRWC systems, their deployment has been restricted by high costs, low market acceptance associated with inconsistent chip quality (see below for further explanation), and misperceptions about other feedstock characteristics (see below for further explanation). Harvesting of SRWC is the largest single cost factor (~1/3 of the final delivered cost) in the feedstock supply system. Harvesting is also the second largest input of primary fossil energy in the system after commercial N fertilizer, accounting for about one third of the input. Therefore, improving the efficiency of the harvesting system has the potential to reduce both cost and environmental impact. At the start of this project, we projected that improving the overall efficiency of the harvesting system by 25% would reduce the delivered cost of SRWC by approximately $0.50/MMBtu (or about $7.50/dry ton). This goal was exceeded over the duration of this project, as noted below.

  9. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  10. Crop Yield Gets Big Boost by Modifying Genes in Photosynthesis

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Crop Yield Gets Big Boost by Modifying Genes in Photosynthesis Berkeley and Illinois researchers have bumped up crop productivity by as much as 20 percent by increasing the expression of genes that result in more efficient use of light in photosynthesis. Their work could potentially be used to help address the world's future food needs. ← Previous Next →

  11. Illinois biomass resources: annual crops and residues; canning and food-processing wastes. Preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A A

    1980-06-01

    Illinois, a major agricultural and food-processing state, produces vast amounts of renewable plant material having potential for energy production. This biomass, in the form of annual crops, crop residues, and food-processing wastes, can be converted to alternative fuels (such as ethanol) and industrial chemicals (such as furfural, ethylene, and xylene). The present study provides a preliminary assessment of these Illinois biomass resources, including (a) an appraisal of the effects of their use on both agriculture and industry; (b) an analysis of biomass conversion systems; and (c) an environmental and economic evaluation of products that could be generated from biomass. It is estimated that, of the 39 x 10/sup 6/ tons of residues generated in 1978 in Illinois from seven main crops, about 85% was collectible. The thermal energy equivalent of this material is 658 x 10/sup 6/ Btu, or 0.66 quad. And by fermenting 10% of the corn grain grown in Illinois, some 323 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in 1978. Another 3 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in the same year from wastes generated by the state's food-processing establishments. Clearly, Illinois can strengthen its economy substantially by the development of industries that produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. In addition, a thorough evaluation should be made of the potential for using the state's less-exploitable land for the growing of additional biomass.

  12. Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) offers rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The maximum...

  13. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Ohm, Robin A.; Riley, Robert...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Ohm, Robin A.; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Min, Byoungnam; Choi, In-Geol; Grigoriev, Igor V. Not Available Elsevier None USDOE United States...

  14. "Table A42. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ,,,,,"Noncombustible Energy Sources",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Combustible Energy Sources" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Solids",,,,,,,,,,"Gases",,,,,,,,,"Liquids" " "," ",," "," ",,,,," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",,,"Wood","Wood Residues",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," " "

  15. Renewable energy annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  16. SEP Success Story: How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The North Country School has dedicated itself to finding renewable sources of fuel to heat the approximately 85,000 square feet of classroom and office space on campus. After investigating many options, installing a wood chip boiler emerged as the most environmental and economical choice, due in large part to the availability of wood chips that are a by-product of the campus’ forest woodlot. Learn more.

  17. Evolution of novel wood decay mechanisms in Agaricales revealed by the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    genome sequences of Fistulina hepatica and Cylindrobasidium torrendii (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: Evolution of novel wood decay mechanisms in Agaricales revealed by the genome sequences of Fistulina hepatica and Cylindrobasidium torrendii Title: Evolution of novel wood decay mechanisms in Agaricales revealed by the genome sequences of Fistulina hepatica and Cylindrobasidium torrendii Authors: Floudas, Dimitrios ; Held, Benjamin W. ; Riley, Robert ; Nagy,

  18. Genome sequence of a white rot fungus Schizopora paradoxa KUC8140 for wood

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    decay and mycoremediation (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Genome sequence of a white rot fungus Schizopora paradoxa KUC8140 for wood decay and mycoremediation Title: Genome sequence of a white rot fungus Schizopora paradoxa KUC8140 for wood decay and mycoremediation Authors: Min, Byoungnam ; Park, Hongjae ; Jang, Yeongseon ; Kim, Jae-Jin ; Kim, Kyoung Heon ; Pangilinan, Jasmyn ; Lipzen, Anna ; Riley, Robert ; Grigoriev, Igor V. ; Spatafora, Joseph W. ; Choi, In-Geol Publication Date:

  19. Continuous-flow wood chip reactor for biodegradation of 2,4-DCP

    SciTech Connect

    Yum, K.J.; Peirce, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    Chlorinated phenols are by-products of chlorine bleaching in numerous industries including pulp and paper mills and can be emitted from a variety of incineration processes. This research investigates the ability and efficiency of continuous-flow wood chip reactors seeded with a white-rot fungus to degrade 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) using wood chips as a carbon source. When 2,4-DCP was the only substrate (nonglucose treatment conditions), the wood chip reactor system had a high degradation efficiency and operated continuously without excessive fungal biomass buildup on the wood chips. In the presence of added glucose, a clogging problem and an effluent contamination problem of fungal cells are found during the reactor operating period. In addition, 2,4-DCP is degraded effectively both under low-nitrogen as well as high-nitrogen treatment conditions. The 2,4-DCP is degraded to a greater extent with small-size wood chips and hardwood chips as a carbon source. The results of this research demonstrate a potential application of wood chip reactor systems for the treatment of contaminated water while expanding the use of wasted forest products.

  20. Permeability of wood pellets in the presence of fines

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdanpanah, F.; Lau, A.K.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Lim, C. Jim; Melin, Staffan; Bi, X.T.; Afzal, M

    2010-03-01

    Broken pellets and fines are produced during mechanical handlings of wood pellets. The resistance to air flow was measured for clean pellets and for pellets mixed with 1 to 20% broken pellets (fines). A pellet diameter was 6 mm. The lengths ranged from from 6 to 12 mm. Clean pellets were defined as particles that remained on a 4 mm screen. A typical sieve analysis showed 30% of the mass of particles passed through the 4 mm screen were smaller than 1 mm. The airflow rates used in the experiment ranged from 0.004 to 0.357 ms-1. The corresponding pressure drop ranged from 1.9 Pa m-1 to 271 Pa m-1 for clean pellets and from 4.8 to 1100 Pa m 1 for pellets mixed with 10% fines. The pressure drop increased for pellets mixed with increasing fines content. Coefficients of Hukill and Ives equation were estimated for clean pellets and a multiplier was defined to calculate pressure drop for pellets mixed with fines.

  1. Co-combustion of sludge with coal or wood

    SciTech Connect

    Leckner, B.; Aamand, L.-E.

    2004-07-01

    There are several options for co-combustion of biomass or waste with coal. In all cases the fuel properties are decisive for the success of the arrangement: contents of volatile matter and of potential emission precursors, such as sulphur, nitrogen, chlorine, and heavy metals. The content of alkali in the mineral substance of the fuel is important because of the danger of fouling and corrosion. Research activities at Chalmers University of Technology include several aspects of the related problems areas. An example is given concerning emissions from co-combustion in circulating fluidized beds with coal or wood as base fuels, and with sewage sludge as additional fuel. Two aspects of the properties of sludge are studied: emissions of nitrogen and sulphur oxides as well as of chlorine, because the contents of the precursors to these emissions are high. The possibility of utilizing the phosphorus in sludge as a fertilizer is also discussed. The results show that emissions can be kept below existing emission limits if the fraction of sludge is sufficiently small but the concentration of trace elements in the sludge ash prevents the sludge from being used as a fertilizer. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Hybrid wood-geothermal power plant, Wendel-Amedee KGRA, Lassen County, California. Identification of environmental issues, second phase

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-14

    GeoProducts Corporation and the California Department of Water Resources have jointly proposed to develop a 55 MWe power plant in Lassen County, California. The proposed power plant is unique in that it will utilize geothermal heat and wood fuel to generate electrical power, the first attempt to utilize these resources together on a commercial scale. This report identifies requirements for new environmental information that must be generated for permit applications and for preparation of environmental documents required by CEOA and NEPA; presents a schedule for generating new environmental data, for preparing and submitting permit applications, and for obtaining permits; presents a budget for permitting, licensing and environmental assessments as required by applicable laws, regulations and procedures; and investigates the step needed to qualify for a Small Power Plant Exemption by the State Energy Commission.

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Solar Photovoltaics Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction This incentive allows Arizona taxpayers to deduct the cost of converting an existing wood fireplace to a qualifying wood...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Rebates & Savings Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction This incentive allows Arizona taxpayers to deduct the cost of converting an existing wood fireplace to a qualifying wood...

  5. Uptake of cesium-137 by crops from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Demirel, H.; Oezer, I.; Celenk, I.; Halitligil, M.B.; Oezmen, A.

    1994-11-01

    The Turkish tea crop was contaminated following the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Finding ways to dispose of the contaminated tea (Camellia sinensis L.) without damaging the environment was the goal of this research conducted at the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA). In this study, an investigation was made of {sup 137}Cs activities of the plants and the ratios of transfer of {sup 137}Cs activity to plants when the contaminated tea was applied to the soil. Experiments were conducted in the field and in pots under greenhouse conditions. The activities of the tea applied in the field ranged from 12 500 to 72 800 Bq/m{sup 2}, whereas this activity was constant at 8000 Bq/pot in the greenhouse experiment. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from soil to the plants was between 0.037 and 1.057% for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays indentata Sturt), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and grass (Lolium perenne L.). The ratio of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs activity to plants increased as the activity {sup 137}Cs in tea applied to soil was increased. The activity in the plants increased due to increased uptake of {sup 137}Cs by plants. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Case studies on developing local industry by using hot spring water and geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Akira; Umetsu, Yoshio; Narita, Eiichi

    1997-12-31

    We have investigated the new ways to develop local industries by using hot spring water, geothermal water and geothermal energy from the Matsukawa Geothermal Power Plant in Iwate Prefecture, which is the first geothermal power plant established in Japan. The new dyeing technique, called {open_quotes}Geothermal Dyeing{close_quotes} was invented in which hydrogen sulfide in the water exhibited decoloration effect. By this technique we succeeded to make beautiful color patterns on fabrics. We also invented the new way to make the light wight wood, called {open_quotes}Geo-thermal Wood{close_quotes} by using hot spring water or geothermal water. Since polysaccharides in the wood material were hydrolyzed and taken out during the treatment in the hot spring water, the wood that became lighter is weight and more porous state. On the bases of these results, we have produced {open_quotes}Wooded Soap{close_quotes} on a commercial scale which is the soap, synthesized in the pore of the treated wood in round slice. {open_quotes}Collapsible Wood Cabin{close_quotes} was also produced for enjoyable outdoor life by using the modified properties of Geothermal Wood.

  7. Functional Genomics of Drought Tolerance in Bioenergy Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Hengfu; Chen, Rick; Yang, Jun; Weston, David; Chen, Jay; Muchero, Wellington; Ye, Ning; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wullschleger, Stan D; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan

    2014-01-01

    With the predicted trends in climate change, drought will increasingly impose a grand challenge to biomass production. Most of the bioenergy crops have some degree of drought susceptibility with low water-use efficiency (WUE). It is imperative to improve drought tolerance and WUE in bioenergy crops for sustainable biomass production in arid and semi-arid regions with minimal water input. Genetics and functional genomics can play a critical role in generating knowledge to inform and aid genetic improvement of drought tolerance in bioenergy crops. The molecular aspect of drought response has been extensively investigated in model plants like Arabidopsis, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in bioenergy crops are limited. Crops exhibit various responses to drought stress depending on species and genotype. A rational strategy for studying drought tolerance in bioenergy crops is to translate the knowledge from model plants and pinpoint the unique features associated with individual species and genotypes. In this review, we summarize the general knowledge about drought responsive pathways in plants, with a focus on the identification of commonality and specialty in drought responsive mechanisms among different species and/or genotypes. We describe the genomic resources developed for bioenergy crops and discuss genetic and epigenetic regulation of drought responses. We also examine comparative and evolutionary genomics to leverage the ever-increasing genomics resources and provide new insights beyond what has been known from studies on individual species. Finally, we outline future exploration of drought tolerance using the emerging new technologies.

  8. U.S. Department of Energy to Invest up to $33.8 Million to Further...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    ... wastes such as corn stover and cereal straws, industrial plant waste like saw dust and paper pulp, and energy crops such as switchgrass, specifically for fuel production. ...

  9. Using corngrass1 to engineer poplar as a bioenergy crop

    DOEpatents

    Meilan, Richard; Rubinelli, Peter Marius; Chuck, George

    2016-05-10

    Embodiments of the present invention relate generally to new bioenergy crops and methods of creating new bioenergy crops. For example, genes encoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are used to create transgenic crops. In some embodiments, over-expression of miRNA is used to produce transgenic perennials, such as trees, with altered lignin content or composition. In some embodiments, the transgenic perennials are Populus spp. In some embodiments, the miRNA is a member of the miR156 family. In some embodiments, the gene is Zea mays Cg1.

  10. Buildings Energy Data Book: 1.6 Embodied Energy of Building Assemblies

    Buildings Energy Data Book

    6 Embodied Energy of Commercial Interior Wall Assemblies in the U.S. Embodied Energy CO2 Equivalent Interior Wall Type (2) (MMBtu/SF) (1) Emissions (lbs/SF) 2x4 wood stud (16" OC) + gypsum board (3) 0.03 2.84 2x4 wood stud (24" OC) + gypsum board (3) 0.03 2.78 2x4 wood stud (24" OC) + 2 gypsum boards (4) 0.04 4.45 Steel stud (16" OC) + gypsum board (4) 0.04 3.99 Steel stud (24" OC) + gypsum board (4) 0.04 3.64 Steel stud (24" OC) + 2 gypsum boards 0.05 5.31 6"

  11. BD Agro Renewables | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    and technical support for systems using fermented crops and manure to produce heat and electrical energy. References: BD Agro Renewables1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  12. Flash methanolysis of wood for the production of fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Biomass in the form of less than 1000 micron oven dried fir wood particles was flash pyrolyzed in the presence of methane (methanolysis) in a downflow 1 in. I.D. tubular reactor at pressures of 20 to 200 psi and temperatures between 800/sup 0/ and 1050/sup 0/C. The major products were benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX), a heavy oily liquid (greater than or equal to C/sub 9/), ethylene and carbon monoxide. As much as 12% of the available carbon in the wood was converted to BTX, 21% to ethylene and 48% to carbon monoxide at 50 psi and 1000/sup 0/C. The maximum heavier oil yield of 11% was observed at 50 psi and 800/sup 0/C. Wood particle residence times for all experiments were calculated to be less than 1 second at 20 and 50 psi and up to 2.8 sec at 200 psi. The yelds were found to be greatly influenced by the methane to wood feed ratio. Experiments were conducted to insure the results to be that produced from the wood and methane and not a catalytic effect of the reactor wall of foreign matter. Material balance, including char analyses, indicate approximately 75 to 80% of the available carbon in the feed wood reacted. Methane balances were within the margin of error of the measuring equipment showing that there is no significant net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary economic evaluation of a 2000 ton/day wood processing plant producing ethylene, benzene and methanol showed a reasonably cmpetitive plant investment of $29,000/barrel fuel oil equivalent/day assuming 15% return on investment and present market values for the products.

  13. Quantifying And Predicting Wood Quality Of Loblolly And Slash Pine Under Intensive Forest Management Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark III

    2006-05-04

    The forest industry will increasingly rely on fast-growing intensively managed southern pine plantations to furnish wood and fiber. Intensive silvicultural practices, including competition control, stand density control, fertilization, and genetic improvement are yielding tremendous gains in the quantity of wood production from commercial forest land. How these technologies affect wood properties was heretofore unknown, although there is concern about the suitability of fast-grown wood for traditional forest products. A four year study was undertaken to examine the effects of these intensive practices on the properties of loblolly and slash pine wood by applying a common sampling method over 10 existing field experiments. Early weed control gets young pines off to a rapid start, often with dramatically increased growth rates. This response is all in juvenile wood however, which is low in density and strength. Similar results are found with early Nitrogen fertilization at the time of planting. These treatments increase the proportion of juvenile wood in the tree. Later, mid-rotation fertilization with Nitrogen and Phosphorus can have long term (4-8 year) growth gains. Slight reductions in wood density are short-lived (1-2 years) and occur while the tree is producing dense, stiff mature wood. Impacts of mid-rotation fertilization on wood properties for manufacturing are estimated to be minimal. Genetic differences are evident in wood density and other properties. Single family plantings showed somewhat more uniform properties than bulk improved or unimproved seedlots. Selection of genetic sources with optimal wood properties may counter some of the negative impacts of intensive weed control and fertilization. This work will allow forest managers to better predict the effects of their practices on the quality of their final product.

  14. Nebraska shows potential to produce biofuel crops | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    those crops, and the land on which they're grown, isn't being used for food. Researchers such as Gayathri Gopalakrishnan are searching for ways to change how American farmers ...

  15. Scientists study ways to integrate biofuels and food crops on...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    courtesy Patty Campbell; click to view larger. Scientists study ways to integrate biofuels and food crops on farms By Payal Marathe * July 7, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint We ask a lot...

  16. Rich Genomics Resources Facilitate Progress in Understanding Wood Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, Gerald

    2014-03-20

    Gerald Tuskan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, at the 9th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 20, 2014 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  17. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K.; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Biochar made from waste wood was added with wood polypropylene composites. • 24% biochar gave the best mechanical properties. • 6% biochar had no effect on physico-mechanical properties of composites. • Coupling agent remained unreacted in composites having higher amount of biochar. - Abstract: In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite’s tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications.

  18. Mass transport parameters of aspen wood chip beds via stimulus-response tracer techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hradil, G.; Calo, J.M.; Wunderlich, T.K. Jr. )

    1993-02-05

    A stimulus-response tracer technique has been used to characterize packed beds of untreated, as well as acid prehydrolyzed, and enzymatically hydrolyzed aspen wood chips. Glucose was used as the trace. Bulk liquid phase dispersion, interphase mass transfer, and intraparticle diffusion coefficients were determined for these materials as well as effective porosities and tortuosities. The untreated and prehydrolyzed aspen wood chips were found to have effective void fractions of ca. 0.8, while the enzymatically hydrolyzed wood chips exhibited a void fraction of 0.37. Intraparticle diffusion was approximately twice as rapid in the prehydrolyzed and enzymatically hydrolyzed wood chips as in the untreated wood chips. Also, under the current experimental conditions, intraparticle diffusional transport resistance accounted for roughly half of the total tracer pulse dispersion. It is demonstrated that stimulus-response tracer techniques can be useful and convenient probes for beds of lignocellulosic, or other porous materials, which vary in character with extent of conversion and/or treatment.

  19. Simple and Inexpensive Method of Wood Pellets Macro-porosity Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    C. Igathinathane; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; X. Bi; C. J. Lim; S. Melin; E. Mohammad

    2010-08-01

    A novel simplified stereometric measurement method for determining the macro-porosity of wood pellets through geometrical approach was successfully developed and tested. The irregular ends of pellets of circular cross-section were sanded flat so that their geometry becomes cylinder and their volumes evaluated using mensuration formula. Such formed cylindrical pellets were loose or tap filled to selected volumes to evaluate the macro-porosity and the constant specific weight. The method was extended to evaluate actual wood pellets properties. Overall macro-porosity of actual wood pellets was determined as 41.0±2.5% and 35.5±2.7%, mean bulk density as and , and classified as “Class-3:Medium” and “Class-3&4:Medium to Low” for loose and tapped fills, respectively. Hausner ratio and Carr’s compressibility index classify wood pellets as “freely flowing.” The developed stereometric method can be used as a handy inexpensive laboratory procedure to estimate the macro-porosity of different types and makes of wood pellets and other similar packaged materials.

  20. Simple and inexpensive method of wood pellets macro-porosity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Igathinathane, C.; Tumuluru, J.S.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Lim, C. Jim; Melin, Staffan; Mohammad, E.

    2010-01-01

    A novel simplified stereometric measurement method for determining the macro-porosity of wood pellets through geometrical approach was successfully developed and tested. The irregular ends of pellets of circular cross-section were sanded flat so that their geometry becomes cylinder and their volumes evaluated using mensuration formula. Such formed cylindrical pellets were loose or tap filled to selected volumes to evaluate the macro-porosity and the constant specific weight. The method was extended to evaluate actual wood pellets properties. Overall macro-porosity of actual wood pellets was determined as 41.0 2.5% and 35.5 2.7%, mean bulk density as and, and classified as Class-3:Medium and Class-3&4:Medium to Low for loose and tapped fills, respectively. Hausner ratio and Carr s compressibility index classify wood pellets as freely flowing. The developed stereometric method can be used as a handy inexpensive laboratory procedure to estimate the macro-porosity of different types and makes of wood pellets and other similar packaged materials.

  1. An Integrative Modeling Framework to Evaluate the Productivity and Sustainability of Biofuel Crop Production Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; West, T. O.; Post, W. M.; Thomson, Allison M.; Bandaru, V. P.; Nichols, J.; Williams, J.R.

    2010-09-08

    The potential expansion of biofuel production raises food, energy, and environmental challenges that require careful assessment of the impact of biofuel production on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil erosion, nutrient loading, and water quality. In this study, we describe a spatially-explicit integrative modeling framework (SEIMF) to understand and quantify the environmental impacts of different biomass cropping systems. This SEIMF consists of three major components: 1) a geographic information system (GIS)-based data analysis system to define spatial modeling units with resolution of 56 m to address spatial variability, 2) the biophysical and biogeochemical model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) applied in a spatially-explicit way to predict biomass yield, GHG emissions, and other environmental impacts of different biofuel crops production systems, and 3) an evolutionary multi-objective optimization algorithm for exploring the trade-offs between biofuel energy production and unintended ecosystem-service responses. Simple examples illustrate the major functions of the SEIMF when applied to a 9-county Regional Intensive Modeling Area (RIMA) in SW Michigan to 1) simulate biofuel crop production, 2) compare impacts of management practices and local ecosystem settings, and 3) optimize the spatial configuration of different biofuel production systems by balancing energy production and other ecosystem-service variables. Potential applications of the SEIMF to support life cycle analysis and provide information on biodiversity evaluation and marginal-land identification are also discussed. The SEIMF developed in this study is expected to provide a useful tool for scientists and decision makers to understand sustainability issues associated with the production of biofuels at local, regional, and national scales.

  2. Energy 101: Geothermal Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Geothermal Energy Energy 101: Geothermal Energy

  3. Renewable energy annual 1997. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This report presents information on renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as data on US solar thermal and photovoltaic collector manufacturing activities. The renewable energy resources included in the report are: biomass (wood, ethanol, and biodiesel); municipal solid waste; geothermal; wind; and solar (solar thermal and photovoltaic). The first chapter of the report provides an overview of renewable energy use and capability from 1992 through 1996. It contains renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as descriptive text. Chapter 2 presents current (through 1996) information on the US solar energy industry. A glossary of renewable energy terms is also included. 15 figs., 42 tabs.

  4. Precision wood particle feedstocks with retained moisture contents of greater than 30% dry basis

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2014-10-28

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  5. Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

  6. The flash pyrolysis and methanolysis of biomass (wood) for production of ethylene, benzene and methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

    1990-02-01

    The process chemistry of the flash pyrolysis of biomass (wood) with the reactive gases, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and with the non-reactive gases He and N{sub 2} is being determined in a 1 in. downflow tubular reactor at pressures from 20 to 1000 psi and temperatures from 600 to 1000{degrees}C. With hydrogen, flash hydropyrolysis leads to high yields of methane and CO which can be used for SNG and methanol fuel production. With methane, flash methanolysis leads to high yields of ethylene, benzene and CO which can be used for the production of valuable chemical feedstocks and methanol transportation fuel. At reactor conditions of 50 psi and 1000{degrees}C and approximately 1 sec residence time, the yields based on pine wood carbon conversion are up to 25% for ethylene, 25% for benzene, and 45% for CO, indicating that over 90% of the carbon in pine is converted to valuable products. Pine wood produces higher yields of hydrocarbon products than Douglas fir wood; the yield of ethylene is 2.3 times higher with methane than with helium or nitrogen, and for pine, the ratio is 7.5 times higher. The mechanism appears to be a free radical reaction between CH{sub 4} and the pyrolyzed wood. There appears to be no net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary process design and analysis indicates a potentially economical competitive system for the production of ethylene, benzene and methanol based on the methanolysis of wood. 10 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Investigation of possible health effects of community exposure to fermenting wood chips

    SciTech Connect

    Birkhead, G.; Vogt, R.L.; Hudson, P.J.

    1988-03-01

    We conducted a case-control study of emergency room (ER) patients to evaluate whether asthma is caused by living near a wood-chip fueled power plant that released wood-chip fermentation products. Only eight (29 per cent) of 28 asthma patients seen in the ER during an 11-week period lived within 1.5 miles of the plant compared with 18 (34 per cent) of 54 control patients matched for severity of diagnosis and seen during the same period (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio controlling for age = 0.96).

  8. Abstract: Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This abstract highlights a project that will develop a single pass cut and chip harvesting system for short rotation woody crops that will improve the harvesting and logistic costs of processing woody crops.

  9. Forest Products Sector (NAICS 321 and 322) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis 2.3 FOREST PRODUCTS SECTOR (NAICS 321 AND 322) 2.3.1. Overview of the Forest Products Manufacturing Sector The forest products sector produces thousands of products from renewable raw materials (wood) that are essential for communication, packaging, consumer goods, and construction. The sector is divided into two major categories: Wood Product Manufacturing (NAICS 321) and Paper Manufacturing (NAICS 322). These industries are

  10. Using EMI for Electrical Energy Disaggregation in the Home

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    United States Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of U.S. Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 1,039,137 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 132,711 12.8 Geothermal 2,405 0.2 Hydro Conventional 78,825 7.6 Solar 941 0.1 Wind 39,135 3.8 Wood/Wood Waste 7,037 0.7 MSW/Landfill Gas 3,690 0.4 Other Biomass 678 0.1 Generation (thousand megawatthours) Total Electricity

  11. Demonstration Results From Greenhouse Heating with Liquified Wood

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Philip; Parish, Don; Cooper, Jerome

    2011-07-01

    A boiler fuel known as Lignocellulosic Boiler Fuel (LBF) was developed at the Department of Forest Products, Mississippi State University for potential application for heating agricultural buildings. LBF was field tested to heat green houses in cooperation with Natchez Trace Greenhouses (NTG) located in Kosciusko, Mississippi. MSU modified an idled natural gas boiler located at NTG to combust the LBF. Thirty gallons of bio-oil were produced at the MSU Bio-oil Research Laboratory. The bio-oil was produced from the fast-pyrolysis of southern pine (15 gal) and white oak (15 gal) feedstocks and subsequently upgraded by a proprietary process. Preliminary field testing was conducted at (NTG). The LBF was produced from each wood species was tested separately and co-fed with diesel fuel to yield three fuel formulations: (1) 100% diesel; (2) 87.5% LBF from southern pine bio-oil co-fed with 12.5% diesel and (3) 87.5% LBF from white oak co-fed with 12.5% diesel fuel formulations. Each fuel formulation was combusted in a retrofit NTG boiler. Fuel consumption and water temperature were measured periodically. Flue gas from the boiler was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The 100% diesel fuel increased water temperature at a rate of 4 °F per min. for 35 min. to achieve the target 140 °F water temperature increase. The 87.5% pine LBF fuel cofed with 12.5%) diesel attained the 140 °F water temperature increase in 62 min. at a rate of 2.3 °F per min. The 87.5% white oak LBF fuel co-fed with 12.5% diesel reached the 140 °F water temperature increase in 85 min. at a rate of 1.6 °F per min. Fuel that contained 87.5% pine LBF co-fed with 12.5% diesel yielded nitrogen and oxygen at a ratio of 5.3 and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at a ratio of 22.2. Fuel formulations that contained 87.5% white oak LBF co-fed with 12.5% diesel yielded nitrogen and oxygen at a ratio of 4.9 and carbon dioxide and

  12. CX-003980: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    80: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-003980: Categorical Exclusion Determination Integration of Advanced Logistical Systems and Focused Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues and Energy Crops in a Densified Large Square Bale Format CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 09/20/2010 Location(s): Kansas Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office AGCO Corporation proposes to use federal funds to demonstrate a comprehensive biomass supply chain system through

  13. Assessing the Energy Impact of Connected and Automated Vehicle (CAV) Technologies (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Assessing the Energy Impact of Connected and Automated Vehicle (CAV) Technologies SAE 2016 Government/Industry Meeting January 21, 2016 Jeff Gonder, Yuche Chen, Mike Lammert, Eric Wood Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center (THSC) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) NREL/PR-5400-65743 2 Outline * Overall energy impact assessment * Example feature-level impacts * Real-world/off-cycle benefit calculation * On-going work by DOE and its national labs 3 "Bookending" CAV Energy

  14. Thurston Energy Outreach Center

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, P.; Young, M.

    1984-09-01

    In Olympia, the Washington Energy Extension Service program is provided by the Olympic Renewable Resources Association's Energy Outreach Center. The Center has provided Thurston County residents with consistent and reliable information on energy conservation and renewable resources since 1980. During those four years, a seasonal pattern of activities has developed which reflects strong shifts in class attendance and inquiries by EOC users over the course of the year. Classes include: design of superinsulated passive solar and earth sheltered homes; sunspace design, coldframe construction and tax credits for solar energy systems; caulking, weatherstripping, storm windows and chimney cleaning; and solar and wood hot water systems. All are scheduled according to dictates of seasonal needs and interests.

  15. Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1994-11-01

    In November 1994, the forest products industry published Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry, which articulated the industry's vision. This document set the foundation for collaborative efforts between the industry and the federal government.

  16. X-ray computed tomography of wood-adhesive bondlines: Attenuation and phase-contrast effects

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Paris, Jesse L.; Kamke, Frederick A.; Xiao, Xianghui

    2015-07-29

    Microscale X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is discussed as a technique for identifying 3D adhesive distribution in wood-adhesive bondlines. Visualization and material segmentation of the adhesives from the surrounding cellular structures require sufficient gray-scale contrast in the reconstructed XCT data. Commercial wood-adhesive polymers have similar chemical characteristics and density to wood cell wall polymers and therefore do not provide good XCT attenuation contrast in their native form. Here, three different adhesive types, namely phenol formaldehyde, polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate, and a hybrid polyvinyl acetate, are tagged with iodine such that they yield sufficient X-ray attenuation contrast. However, phase-contrast effects at material edgesmore » complicate image quality and segmentation in XCT data reconstructed with conventional filtered backprojection absorption contrast algorithms. A quantitative phase retrieval algorithm, which isolates and removes the phase-contrast effect, was demonstrated. The paper discusses and illustrates the balance between material X-ray attenuation and phase-contrast effects in all quantitative XCT analyses of wood-adhesive bondlines.« less

  17. X-ray computed tomography of wood-adhesive bondlines: Attenuation and phase-contrast effects

    SciTech Connect

    Paris, Jesse L.; Kamke, Frederick A.; Xiao, Xianghui

    2015-07-29

    Microscale X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is discussed as a technique for identifying 3D adhesive distribution in wood-adhesive bondlines. Visualization and material segmentation of the adhesives from the surrounding cellular structures require sufficient gray-scale contrast in the reconstructed XCT data. Commercial wood-adhesive polymers have similar chemical characteristics and density to wood cell wall polymers and therefore do not provide good XCT attenuation contrast in their native form. Here, three different adhesive types, namely phenol formaldehyde, polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate, and a hybrid polyvinyl acetate, are tagged with iodine such that they yield sufficient X-ray attenuation contrast. However, phase-contrast effects at material edges complicate image quality and segmentation in XCT data reconstructed with conventional filtered backprojection absorption contrast algorithms. A quantitative phase retrieval algorithm, which isolates and removes the phase-contrast effect, was demonstrated. The paper discusses and illustrates the balance between material X-ray attenuation and phase-contrast effects in all quantitative XCT analyses of wood-adhesive bondlines.

  18. Review and analysis of emissions data for residential wood-fired central furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    McCrillis, R.C.

    1998-12-31

    The paper reviews data published over the past 10--15 years on domestic wood-fired central heaters. Emphasis is on stick-fired units, the most common type used in the US, but also presented are data on chip- and pellet-fired units, showing that they are capable of achieving lower emissions.

  19. Renewed interest in prop supports as a replacement for wood cribs

    SciTech Connect

    Barczak, T.M.; Gearhart, D.F.

    1995-11-01

    Wood cribs have been the dominant form of supplemental support in coal mining for many years. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in prop supports as a replacement for wood cribbing due to the increasing cost of mine timber and engineering advancements in prop design to improve their stability and yield capability. Prop supports generally consume less material, can be installed in less time with less labor, and provide less restriction to mine ventilation than wood crib supports. Several prop supports are now available or under development. These include: (1) Strata Products Propsetter{trademark} Support System, (2) Heintzmann ACS and Super Prop; (3) MBK-Hydraulik MEGA prop; (4) Advanced Mining Technology Inc. (AMTI) BTS Mortar prop; (5) Dywidag Coal Post; (6) Western Support Systems YIPPI support; and (7) ``The Can`` support by Burrell Mining Products. A comparison of the performance and cost of these support systems to wood cribs is made to provide mine operators with information needed to underground installations are discussed. Included in this assessment are full scale tests of these supports conducted in the US Bureau of Mines` Mine Roof Stimulator.

  20. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2WoodChips | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    PerAreaKwhM2WoodChips" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...