National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for western europe coal

  1. Radionuclides in Western coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, D.T.; Styron, C.E.; Casella, V.R.

    1983-09-23

    The increase in domestic energy production coupled with the switch from oil and natural gas to coal as a boiler-fuel source have prompted various federal agencies to assess the potential environmental and health risks associated with coal-fired power plants. Because it has been suggested that Western coals contain more uranium than Eastern coals, particular concern has been expressed about radioactive emissions from the increasing number of power plants that burn low-sulfur Western coal. As a result, the radionuclides in coal program was established to analyze low-sulfur coal reserves in Western coal fields for radioactivity. Samples from seams of obvious commercial value were taken from 19 operating mines that represented 65% of Western coal production. Although the present study did not delve deeply into underlying causative factors, the following general conclusions were reached. Commercially exploited Western coals do not show any alarming pattern of radionuclide content and probably have lower radioactivity levels than Eastern coals. The materials that were present appeared to be in secular equilibrium in coal, and a detailed dose assessment failed to show a significant hazard associated with the combustion of Western coal. Flue gas desulfurization technology apparently has no significant impact on radionuclide availability, nor does it pose any significant radiologic health risks. This study has also shown that Western coals are not more radioactive than most soils and that most solid combustion products have emanation powers <1%, which greatly reduce dose estimates from this pathway. In summary, the current use of mined, Western coals in fossil-fueled power plants does not present any significant radiological hazard.

  2. Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

  3. Secular equilibrium of radium in Western coal

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V.R.; Fleissner, J.G.; Styron, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Concentrations of radium-226, radium-228, and thorium-228 in coal from six Western states have been measured by gamma spectroscopy. The existence of secular equilibrium was verified for radium-226 and previously measured uranium-238 and also for radium-228 and thorium-228. The measured radionuclide concentrations for Western coal averaged about 0.3 pCi/g for radium-226 and 0.2 pCi/g for radium-228 and thorium-228. These average values are not greatly different from those in coal from other provinces of the United States.

  4. Annual bulletin of coal statistics for Europe-1983. [Europe, Canada, USA, USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This is a series of statistical tables documenting the production, trade, and consumption of coal in Europe, Canada, the United States, and the Soviet Union. Balance sheets of solid forms of energy are provided for hard coal, patent fuel, and coke; and for brown coal, brown coal briquettes, and brown coal coke. Data are provided on hard coal mines and on brown coal mines for production, employment and productivity of labor. Other tables list imports of solid fuels by country, exports of solid fuels by country, and world production of solid fuels.

  5. Western Canadian coking coals -- Thermal rheology and coking quality

    SciTech Connect

    Leeder, W.R.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.

    1997-12-31

    Methods of predicting coke strength developed from the thermal rheological properties of Carboniferous coals frequently indicate that Cretaceous coals would not make high quality coke -- yet both types of coals produce coke suitable for the iron blast furnace. This paper will discuss the reasons why Western Canadian coals exhibit lower rheological values and how to predict the strength of coke produced from them.

  6. Coal waste materials applications in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Niel, E.M.M.G.

    1997-12-31

    European countries have built up a tradition of coal burning activities. It is a well known fact that in the past twenty five years economic and technological growth was accompanied by more awareness for the protection of the environment. Therefore, increasing attention was paid to emission of hazardous gases, dust disposal and the proper reuse of coal residues. Both government and industry were searching for reasonable solutions to fight the rising environmental threats. It is noticed that the utilization situation in the different European countries varies considerably due to different historical, geographic and economic conditions. Nevertheless about 45% of the nearly 60 million tonnes of coal combustion by-products produced in European power plants are utilized, mainly in construction, civil engineering and the mining industry. In all European countries where electric energy is provided by coal fired power plants three parties are involved: (1) the power plants, as producers and owners of the coal fly ashes; (2) the consumers, which use the ashes in building products and construction; and (3) the government, mainly in watching over environmental and health aspects. This paper describes the use of fly ash in cements and concretes in European countries and the regulations on the use of fly ash.

  7. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Eskinazi, D.; Tavoulareas, E.S.

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  8. Assessment of the radiological impact of coal utilization. II. Radionuclides in western coal ash

    SciTech Connect

    Styron, C.E.; Bishop, C.T.; Casella, V.R.; Jenkins, P.H.; Yanko, W.H.

    1981-04-03

    A project has been initiated at Mound Facility specifically to evaluate the potential radiological impact of coal utilization. Phase I of the project included a survey of western US coal mines and an assessment of emissions from a power plant burning Western coal. Concentrations of uranium in coal from operating Western mines were slightly below the national average and roughly comparable to Eastern coal. Environmental deposition of radionuclides from stack emissions over a 20-year accumulation at a power plant burning Western coal was estimated to be 0.1 to 1.0% of measured background. Phase II of the project, the subject of the present report, has involved an interlaboratory comparison of results of radioanalytical procedures, determining partitioning coefficients for radionuclides in bottom ash and fly ash, and an assessment of the potential for migration of radionuclides from ash disposal sites. Results from the various laboratories for uranium-238, uranium-234, thorium-230, radium-226, polonium-210, thorium-232, thorium-228, and uranium-235 were generally in very good agreement. However, values for lead-210 in coal varied widely. Essentially all the nonvolatile radionuclides (uranium, radium, and thorium) from feed coal were accounted for in fly ash and bottom ash. However, 20 to 50% of the volatile radionuclides (lead and polonium) from subbituminous and lignitic coals could not be accounted for in ash, and it is assumed that this fraction exits via the stack. At the power plant burning bituminous coal, essentially all the lead and most of the polonium remained with the ash.

  9. R and D in France and in Western Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Bastin, A.J.F. )

    1991-06-01

    This paper deals with worldwide electric utility R and D, but focuses on France first, and not on Western Europe as a whole. Apart from the fact that the R and D of European utilities hardly show a homogeneous set, there are four basic reasons. To begin with, France represents roughly 20 percent of Western Europe by itself. Germany, now extended to the late DDR, is the only country to have a larger share. Second, Electricite de France (EDF) is the largest electric utility worldwide, with annual sales of about 410 TWh. Third, EDF has consistently shown one of the lowest electricity prices: as an average .44 FF par kWh (about $.08 per kWh) which comes up on comparing the 410 TWh sales with a 165 GFF turnover. Beyond these three points, which are more or less permanent, it appears that both EDF and its R and D division have been stable over the last three years. So the French power system is the largest subsystem in Western Europe where a single well-defined R and D policy can be described and assessed; this is what the authors are going to do now.

  10. The relativity ability to tax coal in the western states

    SciTech Connect

    Fain, J.R.; Gade, M.N.

    1995-07-01

    Over the past decade, state governments have begun to acknowledge an implicit relationship between states in the tax-setting process. The recent taxation literature suggests that differences in tax burdens do affect economic decisions and that states do compete with each other when designing tax policy. Moreover, there has been a growing interest in the theoretical models of strategic interactions between regions as they compete for tax revenues. Natural source-laden states enjoy an advantage in the collection of own-source revenues. Reserves of coal, oil, copper, or other natural resources with a national market provide states with an opportunity to exploit their advantage through the imposition of severance taxes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the western states in their relative power to tax the extraction of coal. In section II of this paper we examine earlier work on the taxation of western coal. Section III contains the details of the coal model we use. In section IV we determine the composition of the western coal market and the strategic tax-setting behavior of the state governments involved. In section V we discuss our empirical results. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Fact #752: November 5, 2012 Western Europe Plug-in Car Sales, 2012 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 2: November 5, 2012 Western Europe Plug-in Car Sales, 2012 Fact #752: November 5, 2012 Western Europe Plug-in Car Sales, 2012 Using data for the first seven months of 2012, Norway has the highest plug-in car market share at 2.55%. The Netherlands has the second highest plug-in market share (0.59%) and despite its small size, accounts for 16.1% of all plug-ins sold in Western Europe (see pie chart). France accounted for 22.3% of Western European plug-in car sales,

  12. IEA Energy conservation in the iron and steel industry. [US and Western Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Tunnah, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    The NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society research program, under the auspices of the IEA, had the objectives of collecting data on material requirements and energy-consumption patterns in selected energy-intensive industries in the US and Western Europe, of identifying technologies and operating practices with the potential for energy conservation in those industries, and of recommending research projects that could lead to improved energy efficiency. The steel industry was selected for analysis and ideas for an international cooperative program were developed. Representatives from various countries conducted meetings and the form of an implementing agreement for a research and development program was finalized in December, 1980. The program includes three technical areas: hot-surface inspection, heat recovery, and coal gasification. Hot-surface inspection methods to be demonstrated are: optical, induction, electromagnetic ultrasonic, electromagnetic ultrasonic surface testing methods, and eddy current method for hot surface inspection and an infrared system (possibly). Three heat-recovery projects are: ceramic heat wheel development; demonstration of granular bed/heat pipe system for heat recovery; and demonstration of tubular ceramic recuperators. Processes in coal gasification are: converter process, gas treatment, and iron treatment. Each project is described in detail. (MCW)

  13. Effects of liberalizing the natural gas market in western Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Golombek, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper uses a numerical model to examine the long-run impact of a radical liberalization of the West-European natural gas markets. We study profit maximizing Cournot producers facing an ideal third party access regime for gas transport. producers sell gas weather to large users in the manufacturing industry and to gas-fired thermal power plants, or to loval distribution companies. We first examine the case where no traders exploit arbitrage possibilities and some producers have limited access to the markets. In this equilibrium net prices differ across markets. These differences disappear in the second case where traders are introduced. The third case focuses on a complete European market for natural gas in which traders exploit all arbitrage possibilities and all producers can sell gas in all markets. We also study the impact on the complete European market of changes in costs for production, transport, and distribution. Finally, welfare implications from a liberalization of the West-European natural gas markets are discussed. We argue that a radical liberalization could increase economic welfare in Western Europe by 15% to 20% in the long run. 35 refs., 9 tabs.

  14. Fact #644: October 11, 2010 Share of Diesel Vehicle Sales Decline in Western Europe

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The share of new diesel vehicles sold in Western Europe rose steadily from 1999 to 2007. However, from 2007 to 2009, the share of diesel vehicle sales has begun to decline. Germany and Italy have...

  15. Fact #716: February 27, 2012 Diesels are more than Half of New Cars Sold in Western Europe

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2011, nearly 52% of all new cars sold in Western Europe were diesel. In Belgium, Norway, France and Spain more than 70% of the new car market in 2011 were diesels. The market penetration of...

  16. Water effects of the use of western coal for electrical production

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, E.A.

    1980-02-01

    Water may be a constraint on the expanded development of coal resources in the semi-arid western United States. Water allocation in the West has been determined by the appropriative rights doctrine which allows perpetual use of water sources by those who first claim it for beneficial purposes. This has had the effect of placing a dominative interest in water allocation in one economic sector: agriculture. New water sources are available to coal producers but political and economic problems must be overcome. Water is required by every phase of coal development. Mines use water for dust control and land reclamation. Coal slurry pipelines would use water as a transport medium. Steam electric power plants use water for cooling, cleaning, and in the boiler. Coal gasification plants would use water for cooling, cleaning, and as a material input. In addition to these direct uses of water by coal development, the people who build and operate the development demand water for domestic and recreational purposes. The quantity of water required for a given element of a coal development is site specific and dependent on many factors. The available literature cites a range of estimates of the amount of water required for each type of development. The width of this range seems related to the stage of development of the particular technology. Estimates of water requirements for various schemes to provide an average electrical load of 9 GWe to a load center 1000 miles from western mines are shown in Table 5.

  17. Rail transport of western coal: the history of rail deregulation and its influence on western coal resource development; prospects for legislative change

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.N.; Rose, R.R.

    1985-04-01

    The one major cloud on the horizon for the future of western coal outside the region is the high cost of transportation. With rail transportation costs running as much as 75% of the delivered price to some of the Gulf States, the ability to keep rail costs in check becomes critical to the future of western coal. Four years of experience with deregulation of the railroads and the performance of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) under the new regulatory environment have led many shippers and buyers of rail transported commodities to the belief that national legislation is needed to give better protection to shippers in monopoly service areas. A tentative legislative effort began in the last Congress. Proposals for rail rate relief for captive shippers are taking more formidable shape in the 99th Congress with the organization of a well-financed and staffed coalition of coal and utility companies. They are seeking amendments to the Staggers Act which more explicitly define the protections and procedures available to captive shippers in advancing complaints through the ICC. Industrial shippers have formed a coalition of their own for fair rail service practices. Finally, another group has emerged in recent months seeking a bolder strategy for rail rate relief. This group asserts that unfair rail practices violate the antitrust laws. At the same time, the railroads are building their defenses and developing alliances with interests in the shipping community that would resist a return to greater rail regulation. While the outcome of this controversy is uncertain, the issue of rail rate equity and reregulation promises to become one of the more active and hotly debated issues in the 99th Congress. However it comes out, the results will have a lasting impact on many western states, their present economy and future development.

  18. The ecological relevance of transport in waste disposal systems in Western Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Salhofer, Stefan Schneider, Felicitas; Obersteiner, Gudrun

    2007-07-01

    With the development of modern waste management systems in Western Europe, a remarkable increase in the distances for waste transportation has been observed. The question thus arises whether recycling with longer transport distances is ecologically advantageous or whether disposal without recycling is to be preferred. This situation was analysed using selected product and waste streams. This included refrigerators, paper, polyethylene films and expanded polystyrene. For each of these streams, a life cycle analysis was conducted with an emphasis on waste transport. The system boundaries were set in terms of the generation of waste to recycling or landfilling. The comparison included several scenarios with recycling and different transport distances. Landfilling was used as the reference scenario. The results obtained demonstrated how transport distances influence the ecological benefit of recycling. In the case of expanded polystyrene, the ecological boundaries are reached in practical situations, while with other materials these boundaries are far from being attained. In these cases, more complex and elaborate collection schemes, such as kerbside collection, which is economically convenient and shows the highest collection rates, can also be recommended.

  19. Comparison of high-pressure CO2 sorption isotherms on Eastern and Western US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, V; Hur, T -B; Fazio, J; Howard, B

    2013-10-01

    Accurate estimation of carbon dioxide (CO2) sorption capacity of coal is important for planning the CO2 sequestration efforts. In this work, we investigated sorption and swelling behavior of several Eastern and Western US coal samples from the Central Appalachian Basin and from San Juan Basin. The CO2 sorption isotherms have been completed at 55°C for as received and dried samples. The role of mineral components in coal, the coal swelling, the effects of temperature and moisture, and the error propagation have been analyzed. Changes in void volume due to dewatering and other factors such as temporary caging of carbon dioxide molecules in coal matrix were identified among the main factors affecting accuracy of the carbon dioxide sorption isotherms. The (helium) void volume in the sample cells was measured before and after the sorption isotherm experiments and was used to build the volume-corrected data plots.

  20. Chemical and physical characterization of western low-rank-coal waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Carol May

    1981-03-01

    Evaluations of disposal requirements for solid wastes from power stations burning low-rank western coals is the primary objective of this program. Solid wastes to be characterized include: fly ashes, sludges from wet scrubbers, solids from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) processes and solids from dry scrubbing systems. Fly ashes and sludges to be studied will be obtained primarily from systems using alkaline fly ashes as significant sources of alkalinity for sulfur dioxide removal. Fluidized bed combustion wastes will include those produced by burning North Dakota lignite and Texas lignite. Dry scrubbing wastes will include those from spray drying systems and dry injection systems. Spray dryer wastes will be from a system using sodium carbonate as the scrubbing reagent. Dry injection wastes will come from systems using nahcolite and trona as sorbents. Spray dryer wastes, dry injection wastes, and FBC wastes will be supplied by the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. Sludges and other samples will be collected at power stations using fly ash to supply alkalinity to wet scrubbers for sulfur dioxide removal. Sludges will be subjected to commercial fixation processes. Coal, fly ashes, treated and untreated sludges, scrubber liquor, FBC wastes, and dry scrubbing wastes will be subjected to a variety of chemical and physical tests. Results of these tests will be used to evaluate disposal requirements for wastes frm the systems studied.

  1. Western surface mine permitting and reclamation. Volume 2. Contractor documents. Part B. Hydrologic evaluation and reclamation technologies for western surface coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The report presents an analysis of the hydrologic evaluation and reclamation technologies of western surface coal mining as they have evolved and advanced since passage of the Federal Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA). The primary emphasis of the report is threefold, addressing: Hydrologic data used in the preparation and review of mining and reclamation plans. Analytical techniques used to predict and evaluate the hydrologic impacts of mining. Evaluation criteria used to determine the success of hydrologic restoration. The report also discusses special reclamation practices used to preserve and restore the essential hydrologic functions of alluvial valley floors.

  2. Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrate from western coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1995-02-16

    During the past several years, significant research efforts have been made to develop process technology for the selective flotation of fossil resin from western coals. As a result of these efforts, several new flotation technologies have been developed. Operation of a proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit showed the selective flotation process to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry. However, little attention has been given to the refining of the fossil resin flotation concentrate although solvent refining is a critical step for the fossil resin to become a marketable product. In view of this situation, DOE funded this two-year project to evaluate the following aspects of the fossil resin refining technology: 1) Characterization of the fossil resin flotation concentrate and its refined products; 2) Kinetics of fossil resin extraction; 3) Effects of operating variables on solvent extraction; 4) Extraction solvents; 5) Proof-of-concept continuous refining tests; and 6) Technical and economic analysis. The results from this research effort have led to the following conclusions: Hexane- or heptane-refined fossil resin has a light-yellow color, a melting point of 140 - 142{degrees}C, a density of 1.034 gram/cm, and good solubility in nonpolar solvents. Among the four solvents evaluated (hexane, heptane, toluene and ethyl acetate), hexane is the most appropriate solvent based on overall technical and economic considerations. Batch extraction tests and kinetic studies suggest that the main interaction between the resin and the solvent is expected to be the forces associated with solvation phenomena. Temperature has the most significant effect on extraction rate. With hexane as the solvent, a recovery of 90% cam be achieved at 50{degrees}C and 10% solids concentration with moderate agitation for 1 hour.

  3. Mergers in western coal markets: Conforming antitrust analysis to the new reality

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, M.A.; Mangum, D.G.; Etcheverry, R.J.

    1997-11-01

    Dramatic changes in the coal industry itself, the transportation industries that service it, and the electrical generation industry which it supplies, draw into serious question certain fundamental premises on which the antitrust enforcement agencies have based their review of proposed coal mergers. Recognition of these changes, and the new reality that has resulted, suggests that future mergers in the coal industry are unlikely to raise significant anti-competitive concerns, and that a more relaxed scrutiny of such mergers is warranted.

  4. Effects of Measurement Materials and Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Viscosity of synthetic Eastern and Western United States Coal Slags

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jingxi; Tetsuya, Kenneth; Mu, Haoyuan; Bennett, James P.; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-07-01

    The viscosity of the molten ash (slag) resulting from the mineral constituents in carbon feedstock used in slagging gasifiers is critical for controlling the gasification process. The viscosity of two synthetic slags with compositions resembling the mineral impurities in average eastern and western coal feedstock was examined at temperatures from 1300–1500 °C using a rotating bob viscometer. A few combinations of atmospheres and experimental materials were investigated with respect to one another to determine slag viscosity. A CO/CO{sub 2} atmosphere (CO/CO{sub 2} = 1.8, corresponding to a P{sub O{sub 2}} = 10–8 atm) is required to sustain ferrous ions in FeO-containing slags, an environment that is oxidizing to most metals. Iron oxide in the slag prevents usage of Fe parts. In unpurified Ar, the Fe metal surface oxidizes. Using purified argon prevents iron measurement components from oxidation; however, the metallic surfaces act as nucleation sites for the reduction of the Fe oxide in the slag into metallic Fe. Dissolution of ceramic materials into the slag, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2}, occurs in both atmospheres. Therefore, evaluating slag properties in the laboratory is challenging. The measured viscosities of two synthetic slags in this study diverged depending upon material selection. This difference is likely attributable to container/spindle-slag interactions. Viscosity measurements of the eastern coal slag using all ceramic parts agreed best with FactSage prediction above 1350 °C, with an average activation energy of 271.2 kJ. For western coal slag, the dissolution of container/spindle materials was substantial during the measurement, with precipitation of crystalline phase noted. The experimental viscosity data of the western coal slag agreed best with Kalmanovitch prediction above 1350 °C. The activation energy changed dramatically for both data sets of western coal slag, likely indicating the Newtonian-to-non-Newtonian transition.

  5. Variscan fold belt and its foreland in western Europe from late Carboniferous to Permian time

    SciTech Connect

    Mascle, A.; Benard, F.; Cazes, M.; Le Gall, B.

    1988-08-01

    The Variscan front was emplaced in the Later Carboniferous with a south-to-north or southeast-to-northwest-trending vergence of thrusting. At the same time, folds were formed in the foreland. In England and southern Scotland, such structures were induced by an east-west direction of shortening, followed by a more subdued north-south compressive event. In Stephanian time, isolated basins developed on the Hercynian belt. In the Massif Central Marues Massif, they are closely related to transcurrent faults which developed in response to north-south-trending compressive stresses. The distribution of stresses completely changed in Early Permian time when extension dominated almost everywhere. Three kinds of basins developed at that time: those related to the relaxation of stresses on the Hercynian range, a north-south-trending rift system in the western United Kingdom and the North Sea, and a broad flexural evaporitic basin from eastern England to Poland.

  6. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  7. PIXE microanalysis of Fe-sulfides: Comparison of eastern and western coals

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, D.D.

    1993-07-01

    Several of the toxic-heavy metals listed for consideration in the Clean Air Acts Amendments of 1990 are strongly concentrated in Fe-sulfides, particularly Ni, As, Se, Hg, and Pb. This finding suggests that significant mitigation of utility emissions of these metals will result from pre-combustion beneficiation that removes Fe-sulfides from feed coals. The heterogeneities of individual metals in single channel samples suggests that in some seams only certain stratigraphic layers in a seam are likely to cause an environmental problem. Although initial results from the lower Kittanning coals suggest that sedimentological information might provides clues to As contents of coals, follow-up results from several coal seams with fresh-water affinities suggest that the result observed in the lower Kittanning is probably a special case.

  8. Fly ash from Texas lignite and western subbituminous coal: a comparative characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, D. R.; Benson, S. A.; McCollor, D. P.; Miller, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    As examples, we use two Jackson group lignites from Atascosa and Fayette Counties, Texas, and a Green River Region subbituminous coal from Routt County, Colorado. The composition of individual fly ash particles was determined using scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe, with support from x-ray diffraction of bulk ash. Using particle sample populations large enough to permit statistical treatment, we describe the relationship of composition to particle size and the correlation between elemental concentrations, as well as particle size and composition distributions. Correlations are displayed as data maps which show the complete range of observed variation among these parameters, emphasizing the importance of coal variability. We next use this data to produce a population distribution of ash particle resistivities calculated with Bickelhaupt's model. The relationship between calculated resistivity and particle size is also displayed, and the results are compared with measured values. 7 figures.

  9. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, p

  10. Quality characterization of western Cretaceous coal from the Colorado Plateau as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Coal Resource Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Affolter, R.H.; Brownfield, M.E.

    1999-07-01

    The goal of the Colorado Plateau Coal Assessment program is to provide an overview of the geologic setting, distribution, resources, and quality of Cretaceous coal in the Colorado Plateau. This assessment, which is part of the US Geological Survey's National Coal Resource Assessment Program, is different from previous coal assessments in that the major emphasis is placed on coals that are most likely to provide energy over the next few decades. The data is also being collected and stored in digital format that can be updated as new information becomes available. Environmental factors may eventually control how coal will be mined, and determine to what extent measures will be implemented to reduce trace element emissions. In the future, increased emphasis will also be placed on coal combustion products and the challenges of waste product disposal or utilization. Therefore, coal quality characterization is an important aspect of the coal assessment program in that it provides important data that will influence future utilization of this resource. The Colorado Plateau study is being completed in cooperation with the US Bureau of Land Management, US Forest Service, Arizona Geological Survey, Colorado Geological Survey, New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, and the Utah Geological Survey. Restrictions on coal thickness and overburden will be applied to the resource calculations and the resources will be categorized by land ownership. In some areas these studies will also delineate areas where coal mining may be restricted because of land use, industrial, social, or environmental factors. Emphasis is being placed on areas where the coal is controlled by the Federal Government.

  11. Characterization of western coals and coal macerals by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Progress report, August 1, 1981-January 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Pugmire, R.J.; Grant, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    Two bituminous coals were selected on the basis of petrographic analysis as having high concentrations of vitrinite, inertinite and liptinite. These coal samples were ground up to about 10-3 ..mu..m, treated with HCl and HF to remove the mineral matter, and the macerals were separated by density gradient centrifugation. Structural features of the three different macerals were obtained by NMR analysis based on conventional CP/MAS and multiple pulse multi-dimensional /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy. Results are presented in tabular form. (ATT)

  12. Fact #575: June 15, 2009 Diesel Car Sales in Europe Still Over...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Western Europe Diesel Car Market Share, 1999-2008 Graph showing the Western Europe (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Spain, Switzerland, and United Kingdom) Diesel Car ...

  13. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from Wyoming State's Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid ...

  14. Stable lead isotope compositions in selected coals from around the world and implications for present day aerosol source tracing

    SciTech Connect

    M. Diaz-Somoano; M.E. Kylander; M.A. Lopez-Anton; I. Suarez-Ruiz; M.R. Martinez-Tarazona; M. Ferrat; B. Kober; D.J. Weiss

    2009-02-15

    The phasing out of leaded gasoline in many countries around the world at the end of the last millennium has resulted in a complex mixture of lead sources in the atmosphere. Recent studies suggest that coal combustion has become an important source of Pb in aerosols in urban and remote areas. Lead concentration and isotopic composition is reported for 59 coal samples representing major coal deposits worldwide in an attempt to characterize this potential source. The average concentration in these coals is 35 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1}, with the highest values in coals from Spain and Peru and the lowest in coals from Australia and North America. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb isotope ratios range between 1.15 and 1.24, with less radiogenic Pb in coals from Europe and Asia compared to South and North America. Comparing the Pb isotopic signatures of coals from this and previous studies with those published for Northern and Southern Hemisphere aerosols, we hypothesize that coal combustion might now be an important Pb source in China, the eastern U.S., and to some extent, in Europe but not as yet in other regions including South Africa, South America, and western U.S. This supports the notion that 'old Pb pollution' from leaded gasoline reemitted into the atmosphere or long-range transport (i.e., from China to the western U.S.) is important. Comparing the isotope ratios of the coals, the age of the deposits, and Pb isotope evolution models for the major geochemical reservoirs suggests that the lead isotope ratios (PbIC) in coals is strongly influenced by the depositional coal forming environment. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Energy Outlook in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Central Asia, "Western & Eastern Europe" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean,...

  16. Energy Department's Fossil Energy Chief to Tour Western Michigan...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    University's Clean Coal Research Facilities, Host Business Roundtable Energy Department's Fossil Energy Chief to Tour Western Michigan University's Clean Coal Research ...

  17. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals-Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond Hobbs

    2007-05-31

    The Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP)--conversion of coal to methane--is being developed through NETL with a DOE Grant and has successfully completed its first phase of development. The results so far are encouraging and have led to commitment by DOE/NETL to begin a second phase--bench scale reactor vessel testing, expanded engineering analysis and economic perspective review. During the next decade new means of generating electricity, and other forms of energy, will be introduced. The members of the AHP Team envision a need for expanded sources of natural gas or substitutes for natural gas, to fuel power generating plants. The initial work the team has completed on a process to use hydrogen to convert coal to methane (pipeline ready gas) shows promising potential. The Team has intentionally slanted its efforts toward the needs of US electric utilities, particularly on fuels that can be used near urban centers where the greatest need for new electric generation is found. The process, as it has evolved, would produce methane from coal by adding hydrogen. The process appears to be efficient using western coals for conversion to a highly sought after fuel with significantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Utilities have a natural interest in the preservation of their industry, which will require a dramatic reduction in stack emissions and an increase in sustainable technologies. Utilities tend to rank long-term stable supplies of fuel higher than most industries and are willing to trade some ratio of cost for stability. The need for sustainability, stability and environmentally compatible production are key drivers in the formation and progression of the AHP development. In Phase II, the team will add a focus on water conservation to determine how the basic gasification process can be best integrated with all the plant components to minimize water consumption during SNG production. The process allows for several CO{sub 2} reduction options including consumption of

  18. WRF-Chem model predictions of the regional impacts of N2O5 heterogeneous processes on night-time chemistry over north-western Europe

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Lowe, Douglas; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Morgan, Will; Allan, James D.; Utembe, Steve; Ouyang, Bin; Aruffo, Eleonora; Le Breton, Michael; Zaveri, Rahul A.; di Carlo, Piero; et al

    2015-02-09

    Chemical modelling studies have been conducted over north-western Europe in summer conditions, showing that night-time dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) heterogeneous reactive uptake is important regionally in modulating particulate nitrate and has a~modest influence on oxidative chemistry. Results from Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model simulations, run with a detailed volatile organic compound (VOC) gas-phase chemistry scheme and the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC) sectional aerosol scheme, were compared with a series of airborne gas and particulate measurements made over the UK in July 2010. Modelled mixing ratios of key gas-phase species were reasonably accurate (correlationsmore » with measurements of 0.7–0.9 for NO2 and O3). However modelled loadings of particulate species were less accurate (correlation with measurements for particulate sulfate and ammonium were between 0.0 and 0.6). Sulfate mass loadings were particularly low (modelled means of 0.5–0.7 μg kg−1air, compared with measurements of 1.0–1.5 μg kg−1air). Two flights from the campaign were used as test cases – one with low relative humidity (RH) (60–70%), the other with high RH (80–90%). N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry was found to not be important in the low-RH test case; but in the high-RH test case it had a strong effect and significantly improved the agreement between modelled and measured NO3 and N2O5. When the model failed to capture atmospheric RH correctly, the modelled NO3 and N2O5 mixing ratios for these flights differed significantly from the measurements. This demonstrates that, for regional modelling which involves heterogeneous processes, it is essential to capture the ambient temperature and water vapour profiles. The night-time NO3 oxidation of VOCs across the whole region was found to be 100–300 times slower than the daytime OH oxidation of these compounds. The difference in contribution was less for

  19. Ukraine: Europe`s next crisis?

    SciTech Connect

    Larrabee, F.S.

    1994-07-01

    The emergence of an independent Ukraine was one of the most important geopolitical results of the collapse of the former Soviet Union. It dramatically changed the geostrategic map of Europe, creating a critical strategic buffer between Russia and Europe, especially Eastern Europe. But two years after independence, Ukraine is in the midst of a severe political and economic crisis, and engaged in a series of elections that could have major and immediate consequences not only for Ukraine`s political future and security orientation, but for Western policy. Parliamentary elections were held in March, but runoff elections are needed for about one-quarter of the seats, and presidential elections will be held June 26.

  20. The future competitive position of coal from the Illinois Basin. Illinois mineral notes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagwat, S.; Collias, T.J.

    1981-07-01

    Eight factors have been analyzed for their impact of the future of competitive competition from Eastern and Western coals: environmental factors, coal beneficiation, flue-gas desulfurization, transportation of coal, taxation, and cost of coal production.

  1. Western Kentucky thrives

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2005-10-01

    Independents and big boys struggle to keep up with increasing demand and a lack of experienced workers in the Illinois Basin. This is the second of a two part series reviewing the coal mining industry in the Illinois Basin which also includes Indiana and Western Kentucky. It includes a classification/correction to Part 1 of the article published in the September 2005 issue (see Coal Abstracts Entry data/number Dec 2005 00204). 4 photos.

  2. Energy Department’s Fossil Energy Chief to Tour Western Michigan University’s Clean Coal Research Facilities, Host Business Roundtable

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON  – Tomorrow, Wednesday, June 27, 2012, Assistant Energy Secretary for Fossil Energy Charles McConnell will join Western Michigan University President John M. Dunn and Core Energy CEO Bob...

  3. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Part 7. Petrographic variation due to depositional setting of the lower Kittanning seam, western Pennsylvania. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Allshouse, S.D.; Davis, A.

    1984-01-01

    Detailed megascopic and microscopic petrographic analyses were conducted on samples of the Lower Kittanning seam from western Pennsylvania. Relationships were sought between the paleoenvironmental setting of the coal swamp and the vertical and lateral variability of lithotypes, maceral composition and vitrinite types. Megascopically, the four samples collected from the freshwater facies of the seam are similar in appearance and relative lithotype composition, and display no distinct vertical zonations. The sample from the marine-influenced central portion of the basin (PSOC-1340) possesses a marked vertical zonation into a bright lower zone and a dull upper zone. The lower zone is similar in appearance to the freswater samples. Detailed microscopic analyses revealed that the vertical zonation of PSOC-1340 is apparent in both the maceral and vitrinite type composition. No similar zonation is apparent in the microscopic analysis of the four freshwater facies samples. Similarities between the lower zone of PSOC-1340 and the whole seam of the freshwater samples are most apparent in the vitrinite-type analysis. The lower zone of PSOC-1340 and the whole seam from the freshwater facies are considered to be laterally equivalent coal types. The dull upper zone of PSOC-1340 is considered to have formed in response to a major change in the paleoenvironment of the swamp, probably a marine transgression. 49 references, 25 figures, 15 tables.

  4. Coal reserves are plentiful but unevenly distributed

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremic, M.L.

    1981-07-01

    There is plenty of coal in Canada. The estimated coal resources are more than 360,000,000,000 tons with most of this coal located in the western provinces. The estimated minable coal reserves are more than 16,000,000,000 tons and the recoverable coal is more than 6,000,000,000 tons. The latter figure reflects the lack of current development in many coalfields. Very recent and current exploration for coal as well as for oil and gas has indicated coal resources in addition to those already estimated. Incremental additions to coal resources can be expected in northern and eastern Canada. In the latter region, more than 85 percent of the total coal resources are beneath the ocean. The main coal deposits in western Canada are very far from the large industrial markets of Ontario and Quebec. They are closer, yet still quite distant, from export ports on the Pacific Ocean. Current efforts to improve coal transportation are expected to decrease the disadvantages of the unfavorable location of the western coalfields. This will increase the coal reserves in the region as further exploration will surely follow.

  5. Coal Markets

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Coal Glossary FAQS Overview Data Coal Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting and mapping) Summary Prices Reserves Consumption Production Stocks Imports, exports ...

  6. NETL: Coal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasification Systems | Advanced Combustion | Coal & Coal-Biomass to Liquids | Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Turbines | sCO2 Technology CO2 Capture CO2 Capture NETL's CO2 Capture Program ...

  7. Coal pump

    DOEpatents

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  8. EIA - Coal Distribution

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal ...

  9. EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution

    Annual Energy Outlook

    - Coal Distribution Home > Coal> Quarterly Coal Distribution Back Issues Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: March 9, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2016 The Quarterly ...

  10. Coal Markets

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Coal Markets | Archive Coal Markets Weekly production Dollars per short ton Dollars per mmbtu Average weekly coal commodity spot prices dollars per short ton Week ending Week ago change Central Appalachia 12,500 Btu, 1.2 SO2 Northern Appalachia 13,000 Btu, < 3.0 SO2 Illinois Basin 11,800 Btu, 5.0 SO2 Powder River Basin 8,800 Btu, 0.8 SO2 Uinta Basin 11,700 Btu, 0.8 SO2 Source: With permission, SNL Energy Note: Coal prices shown reflect those of relatively high-Btu coal selected in each region

  11. Coal production, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons).

  12. WRF-Chem model predictions of the regional impacts of N2O5 heterogeneous processes on night-time chemistry over north-western Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, Douglas; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Morgan, Will; Allan, James D.; Utembe, Steve; Ouyang, Bin; Aruffo, Eleonora; Le Breton, Michael; Zaveri, Rahul A.; di Carlo, Piero; Percival, Carl; Coe, H.; Jones, Roderic L.; McFiggans, Gordon

    2015-02-09

    Chemical modelling studies have been conducted over north-western Europe in summer conditions, showing that night-time dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) heterogeneous reactive uptake is important regionally in modulating particulate nitrate and has a~modest influence on oxidative chemistry. Results from Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model simulations, run with a detailed volatile organic compound (VOC) gas-phase chemistry scheme and the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC) sectional aerosol scheme, were compared with a series of airborne gas and particulate measurements made over the UK in July 2010. Modelled mixing ratios of key gas-phase species were reasonably accurate (correlations with measurements of 0.7–0.9 for NO2 and O3). However modelled loadings of particulate species were less accurate (correlation with measurements for particulate sulfate and ammonium were between 0.0 and 0.6). Sulfate mass loadings were particularly low (modelled means of 0.5–0.7 μg kg−1air, compared with measurements of 1.0–1.5 μg kg−1air). Two flights from the campaign were used as test cases – one with low relative humidity (RH) (60–70%), the other with high RH (80–90%). N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry was found to not be important in the low-RH test case; but in the high-RH test case it had a strong effect and significantly improved the agreement between modelled and measured NO3 and N2O5. When the model failed to capture atmospheric RH correctly, the modelled NO3 and N2O5 mixing ratios for these flights differed significantly from the measurements. This demonstrates that, for regional modelling which involves heterogeneous processes, it is essential to capture the ambient temperature and water vapour profiles.

    The night-time NO

  13. Gas-and water-saturated conditions in the Piceance Basin, Western Colorado: Implications for fractured reservoir detection in a gas-centered coal basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hoak, T.E.; Decker, A.D.

    1995-10-01

    Mesaverde Group reservoirs in the Piceance Basin, Western Colorado contain a large reservoir base. Attempts to exploit this resource base are stymied by low permeability reservoir conditions. The presence of abundant natural fracture systems throughout this basin, however, does permit economic production. Substantial production is associated with fractured reservoirs in Divide Creek, Piceance Creek, Wolf Creek, White River Dome, Plateau, Shire Gulch, Grand Valley, Parachute and Rulison fields. Successful Piceance Basin gas production requires detailed information about fracture networks and subsurface gas and water distribution in an overall gas-centered basin geometry. Assessment of these three parameters requires an integrated basin analysis incorporating conventional subsurface geology, seismic data, remote sensing imagery analysis, and an analysis of regional tectonics. To delineate the gas-centered basin geometry in the Piceance Basin, a regional cross-section spanning the basin was constructed using hydrocarbon and gamma radiation logs. The resultant hybrid logs were used for stratigraphic correlations in addition to outlining the trans-basin gas-saturated conditions. The magnitude of both pressure gradients (paludal and marine intervals) is greater than can be generated by a hydrodynamic model. To investigate the relationships between structure and production, detailed mapping of the basin (top of the Iles Formation) was used to define subtle subsurface structures that control fractured reservoir development. The most productive fields in the basin possess fractured reservoirs. Detailed studies in the Grand Valley-Parachute-Rulison and Shire Gulch-Plateau fields indicate that zones of maximum structural flexure on kilometer-scale structural features are directly related to areas of enhanced production.

  14. Utilization options for fly ash, bottom ash, and slag in Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Manz, O.E.

    1995-12-01

    Since 1967, at least six ash utilization symposiums have been held in the United States, with papers presented by several European authors on the utilization of coal by-products in Eastern Europe. There is currently over 80,000 megawatts of installed coal-fired capacity available in that region. Unfortunately, of the 117,778,000 tonnes of fly ash, bottom ash, and slag produced in Eastern Europe in 1989, only 13% was utilized. This paper outlines the research and levels and kinds of coal by-product utilization taking place in Eastern Europe since the late 1960s.

  15. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This project will demonstrate an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal will be processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors that will remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal will be put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to effect separation of the pyrite rich ash. The process will enhance low-rank western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25--55%, sulfur content of 0.5--1.5%, and heating value of 5,500--9,000 Btu/lb by producing a stable, upgraded coal product with a moisture content as low as 1%, sulfur content as low as 0.3%, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb.

  16. Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to coal-derived syngas produced in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU). Western Research Institute (WRI), with funding from the State of Wyoming Clean...

  17. Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  18. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Processing Coal Plants and Commercial and Institutional Coal Users" and Form EIA-7A, "Coal Production and Preparation Report." Appendix A Assigning Missing Data to EIA-923...

  19. Coal Fleet Aging Meeting

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis FROM: Coal and ... capital cost adder based on the age and type of unit (coal, oilgas steam, and nuclear). ...

  20. Coal industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, distribution, coal stocks, quality, prices, coal production information, and emissions for a wide audience.

  1. Environmental data energy technology characterizations: coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    This document describes the activities leading to the conversion of coal to electricity. Specifically, the activities consist of coal mining and beneficiation, coal transport, electric power generation, and power transmission. To enhance the usefulness of the material presented, resource requirements, energy products, and residuals for each activity area are normalized in terms of 10/sup 12/ Btus of energy produced. Thus, the total effect of producing electricity from coal can be determined by combining the residuals associated with the appropriate activity areas. Emissions from the coal cycle are highly dependent upon the type of coal consumed as well as the control technology assigned to the activity area. Each area is assumed to be equipped with currently available control technologies that meet environmental regulations. The conventional boiler, for example, has an electrostatic precipitator and a flue gas desulfurization scrubber. While this results in the removal of most of the particulate matter and sulfur dioxide in the flue gas stream, it creates other new environmental residuals -- solid waste, sludge, and ash. There are many different types of mined coal. For informational purposes, two types from two major producing regions, the East and the West, are characterized here. The eastern coal is typical of the Northern Appalachian coal district with a high sulfur and heat content. The western coal, from the Powder River Basin, has much less sulfur, but also has a substantially lower heating value.

  2. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State's Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly

  3. Regional trends in the take-up of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wootten, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    Using surveys of the electricity industry taken in major OECD coal producing/coal consuming regions of North America, Europe, Southern Africa, and Asia/Pacific, this paper reports on the attitudes of power plant operators and developers toward clean coal technologies, the barriers to their use and the policies and measures that might be implemented, if a country or region desired to encourage greater use of clean coal technologies.

  4. Exploration potential of Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, W.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Because of governmental changes an entire region of Central Europe has received exploration scrutiny not possible during the past 40-50 years. This entire area - Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Albania, Poland, and East Germany - is tectonically related. Yugoslavia, although not under the same restrictions, is also considered in the same tectonic setting. Therefore, these countries can be expected to reflect some of the same stratigraphy, source rock, reservoir, trap and field types, and production history. Much of the region can be considered frontier while other parts mature. Production from all is about 55,000 T/D, 380,000 BO/D and 63.1 Bm{sup 3}/yr, 2,203 Bft{sup 3}/yr. Major source rocks have been identified as Tertiary-Oligocene, Miocene-Mesozoic, Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous. Carboniferous coal sequences are considered source for the Permian. The East European platform and Tethyian plates are the foundation of the Central Europe states. Plate collisions during the late Mesozoic and into the Tertiary affected the Carpathian, Balkans, Dinarides, and Helenide Mountain chains. Mesozoic and Tertiary foredeep deposits have been proven productive from normal-, thrust-, and wrench-faulted anticlinal structures. Paleozoic, Mesozoic erosional remnants, and Tertiary lacustrine and deltaic stratigraphic deposits are the major productive reservoirs in the Pannonian basin. Permian shelf and reefal deposits are found in such areas as the Permian Shelf in Eastern Germany and Poland. Reefal plays may be found in Bulgaria and Romania offshore.

  5. Keystone coal industry manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The 1994 Keystone Coal Industry Manual is presented. Keystone has served as the one industry reference authority for the many diverse organizations concerned with the supply and utilization of coal in the USA and Canada. Through the continuing efforts of coal producers, buyers, users, sellers, and equipment designers and manufacturers, the coal industry supplies an abundant and economical fuel that is indispensable in meeting the expanding energy needs of North America. The manual is divided into the following sections: coal sales companies, coal export, transportation of coal, consumer directories, coal associations and groups, consulting and financial firms, buyers guide, industry statistics and ownership, coal preparation, coal mine directory, and coal seams.

  6. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama ...

  7. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  8. Europe | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Europe Jump to: navigation, search Select a country above to navigate to that country's page. Additional Categories Countries (45) Programs (69) Tools (28) Companies (791) Back to...

  9. (Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This project will demonstrate an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal will be processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors that will remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal will be put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to effect separation of the pyrite rich ash. The process will enhance low-rank western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25--55%, sulfur content of 0.5--1.5%, and heating value of 5500--9000 Btu/lb by producing a stable, upgraded coal product with a moisture content as low as 1%, sulfur content as low as 0.3%, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45 ton/hr unit will be located adjacent to a unit train loadout facility at Western Energy Company's Rosebud coal mine near the town of Colstrip in southeastern Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. The demonstration drying and cooling equipment is currently commercial size.

  10. Management and Development of the Western Resources Project

    SciTech Connect

    Terry Brown

    2009-03-09

    The purpose of this project was to manage the Western Resources Project, which included a comprehensive, basin-wide set of experiments investigating the impacts of coal bed methane (CBM; a.k.a. coal bed natural gas, CBNG) production on surface and groundwater in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming. This project included a number of participants including Apache Corporation, Conoco Phillips, Marathon, the Ucross Foundation, Stanford University, the University of Wyoming, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, and Western Research Institute.

  11. Energy Information Administration quarterly coal report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-21

    The United States produced just over 1 billion short tons of coal in 1992, 0.4 percent more than in 1991. Most of the 4-million-short-ton increase in coal production occurred west of the Mississippi River, where a record level of 408 million short tons of coal was produced. The amount of coal received by domestic consumers in 1992 totaled 887 million short tons. This was 7 million short tons more than in 1991, primarily due to increased coal demand from electric utilities. The average price of delivered coal to each sector declined by about 2 percent. Coal consumption in 1992 was 893 million short tons, only 1 percent higher than in 1991, due primarily to a 1-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Consumer coal stocks at the end of 1992 were 163 million short tons, a decrease of 3 percent from the level at the end of 1991, and the lowest year-end level since 1989. US coal exports fell 6 percent from the 1991 level to 103 million short tons in 1992. Less coal was exported to markets in Europe, Asia, and South America, but coal exports to Canada increased 4 million short tons.

  12. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  13. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  14. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  15. Low-sulfur coal usage alters transportation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, H.

    1995-07-01

    As electricity production has grown, so has the amount of coal burned by US utilities. In order to comply with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), many utilities have changed from high-sulfur coal to lower-sulfur coal to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions. The primary mode of transporting coal to utilities remains the railroad, and coal represents the largest freight tonnage shipped - two out of every five tons. Since coal is so important to the railroads, it is logical that as utilities have changed their coal-buying strategies, the railroads` strategies have also changed. The increased demand for Western coal has caused rail lines some capacity problems which they are attempting to meet head-on by buying new railcars and locomotives and expanding track capacities. The new railcars typically have aluminum bodies to reduce empty weight, enabling them to carry larger loads of coal. Train locomotives are also undergoing upgrade changes. Most new locomotives have as motors to drive the wheels which deliver more motive power (traction) to the wheel trucks. In fact the motors are up to 30% more efficient at getting the traction to the trucks. Trackage is also being expanded to alleviate serious congestion on the tracks when moving Western coal.

  16. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  17. Linkpoint Europe | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Linkpoint Europe Jump to: navigation, search Name: Linkpoint Europe Place: Spain Sector: Wind energy Product: Spanish firm which consults on wind projects. References: Linkpoint...

  18. Sinatis Europe | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Sinatis Europe Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sinatis Europe Place: France Product: French project developer and distributor with customers across France and North Africa....

  19. Geysir Europe | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Geysir Europe Jump to: navigation, search Name: Geysir Europe Place: Germany Sector: Geothermal energy Product: Germany-based European subsidiary of Geysir Green Energy focusing on...

  20. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  1. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Schindler, Harvey D.; Chen, James M.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  2. By Coal Destination State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Destination State ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal

  3. By Coal Origin State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Origin State ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal

  4. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  5. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    and Coal-Biomass to Liquids Turning coal into liquid fuels like gasoline, diesel and jet fuel, with biomass to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, is the main goal of the Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids program. The program also aims to reduce the cost of these low-emission fuels, and will take advantage of carbon capture and sequestration technologies to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Other Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids (C&CBTL) Program Activities: The C&CBTL Program

  6. By Coal Origin State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  7. By Coal Origin State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  8. By Coal Destination State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  9. By Coal Origin State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  10. By Coal Destination State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  11. By Coal Destination State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  12. By Coal Origin State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  13. By Coal Origin State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  14. By Coal Origin State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  15. By Coal Destination State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  16. By Coal Origin State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  17. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables...

  18. By Coal Destination State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  19. By Coal Origin State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  20. By Coal Destination State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  1. By Coal Destination State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  2. By Coal Destination State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  3. Annual Coal Distribution Report

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: April 16, 2015 | Next Release Date: March 2016 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report ...

  4. Figure F7. Coal supply regions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    8 Appendix F Figure F7. Coal supply regions WA ID OR CA NV UT TX OK AR MO LA MS AL GA FL TN SC NC KY VA WV WY CO SD ND MI MN WI IL IN OH MD PA NJ DE CT MA NH VT NY ME RI MT NE IA KS MI AZ NM 500 0 SCALE IN MILES APPALACHIA Northern Appalachia Central Appalachia Southern Appalachia INTERIOR NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS Eastern Interior Western Interior Gulf Lignite Dakota Lignite Western Montana Wyoming, Northern Powder River Basin Wyoming, Southern Powder River Basin Western Wyoming OTHER WEST Rocky

  5. Coal liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  6. Annual Coal Distribution

    Reports and Publications

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  7. Coal Data Browser

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... Petroleum Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Natural Gas Coal Nuclear Electricity Hydropower Biofuels: Ethanol & Biodiesel Wind Geothermal Solar ...

  8. Coal production 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-22

    Coal Production 1988 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1989. 5 figs., 45 tabs.

  9. Coal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Coal Coal Coal Coal is the largest domestically produced source of energy in America and is used to generate a significant chunk of our nation's electricity. The Energy Department is working to develop technologies that make coal cleaner, so we can ensure it plays a part in our clean energy future. The Department is also investing in development of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies, also referred to as carbon capture, utilization and sequestration. Featured FE-Supported

  10. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  11. Eastern coal spray dryer evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyers, L.E.; Smith, P.V.; Caravano, C.; Jankura, B.J.

    1984-11-01

    Development efforts for dry scrubbing technology for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been geared toward utility boilers burning low-sulfur western coals rather than eastern high-sulfur coals. This has been due to the low quantity of reagent and lower SO/sub 2/ removal required with the use of western coals and has contributed to the economic attractiveness of the dry scrubber system. To evaluate the use of the dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization of eastern high-sulfur coals, the US Department of Energy contracted with the Babcock and Wilcox Company to perform a study to determine the technical and economical feasibility of such systems. The program was organized into the following tasks: (1) configuration specification and system preparation; (2) performance evaluation; (3) load-following and reliability evaluation; (4) commercial unit economic evaluation; and (5) report. The general conclusions of the program are: Effective dry scrubber operation for an eastern high-sulfur coal would include a higher stoichiometric ratio, low spray dryer approach temperature, and the optimized use of recycle material. A dry scrubber system designed for an eastern high-sulfur coal using a high-calcium lime reagent would not be economically competitive with a limestone wet scrubber system due to reagent costs. Use of an optimized furnace limestone injection system and recycle material would substantially reduce reagent costs and increase economic attractiveness of dry scrubber systems for eastern high-sulfur coals. This is in comparison to dry scrubber systems with nonlimestone injection. 10 references, 87 figures, 26 tables.

  12. Sustainable Europe Research Institute | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Europe Research Institute Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Sustainable Europe Research Institute Name: Sustainable Europe Research Institute Address: Garnisongasse 721 A -1090...

  13. Stand by Europe | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    by Europe Jump to: navigation, search Name: Stand-by Europe Place: Czech Republic Product: Czech project development and distribution company References: Stand-by Europe1 This...

  14. Free Energy Europe | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Free Energy Europe Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Free Energy Europe Name: Free Energy Europe Place: Lens, France Sector: Solar Product: Solar electric systems Year Founded:...

  15. Coal production 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-07

    Coal Production 1985 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. All data presented in this report, except the total production table presented in the Highlights section, and the demonstrated reserve base data presented in Appendix A, were obtained from form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1985. The data cover 4105 of the 5477 US coal mining operations active in 1985. These mining operations accounted for 99.4% of total US coal production and represented 74.9% of all US coal mining operations in 1985. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve vase of coal in the US on January 1, 1985.

  16. Structural change in the coal industry: Coal industry concentration trends, 1970--1994. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, S.; Glover, W.

    1995-05-01

    This report evaluates the historical and current concentration of the US coal industry, with special consideration given to its potential impact on competitiveness and coal Prices. Four time periods are studied: 1970, 1980, 1990, and 1994. The report Presents data at various levels: nationwide, eastern US, western US, and subregions -- Powder River Basin, Rockies, Northern Appalachia, Central Appalachia, Southern Appalachia, Illinois Basin, and several smaller areas. The report presents data on mine size, number of mines, coal Prices, Production, and ownership. Herfindahl Hirschman indices (the surn of squares Of companies` market shares) were calculated on the coal Production and ownership data to represent concentration. Through these periods, the coal industry has been relatively unconcentrated aid highly competitive. However, in most parts of the country, concentration has increased dramatically since 1990, surpassing historical levels. Concentration is also expected to continue increasing. The effects of such concentration are felt unevenly, depending of factors unique to each coal buyer and each coal company merger, acquisition, or divestment. Generally, the population of potential suppliers for each buyer is limited quality constraints. Those buyers who are greatly limited by such factors can experience dramatic changes in the concentration of their supplier populations by mergers that may have little impact on other buyers.

  17. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  18. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  19. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  20. Pelletization of fine coals

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1991-09-01

    The present research project attempts to provide a basis to determine the pelletizability of fine coals, to ascertain the role of additives and binders and to establish a basis for binder selection. Currently, there are no established techniques for determining the quality of coal pellets. Our research is intended to develop a series of tests on coal pellets to measure their storage characteristics, transportability, ease of gasification and rate of combustion. Information developed from this research should be valuable for making knowledgeable decisions for on-time plant design, occasional binder selection and frequent process control during the pelletization of coal fines. During the last quarter, we continued the batch pelletization studies on Upper Freeport coal. The results as presented in that last quarterly report (April 1991) indicated that the surface conditions on the coal particle influenced the pelletizing growth rates. For example, a fresh (run of mine) sample of coal will display different pelletizing growth kinetics than a weathered sample of the same coal. Since coal is a heterogeneous material, the oxidized product of coal is equally variable. We found it to be logistically difficult to consistently produce large quantities of artificially oxidized coal for experimental purposes and as such we have used a naturally weathered coal. We have plans to oxidize coals under controlled oxidizing conditions and be able to establish their pelletizing behavior. The next phase of experiments were directed to study the effect of surface modification, introduced during the coal cleaning steps, on pelletizing kinetics. Accordingly, we initiated studies with two additives commonly used during the flotation of coal: dextrin (coal depressant) and dodecane (coal collector).

  1. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  2. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic

  3. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  4. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  5. "Annual Coal Report

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Annual Coal Report Data Released: January 20, 2015 Data for: 2013 Re-Release Date: April 23, 2015 (CORRECTION) Annual Coal Report 2013 CorrectionUpdate April 23, 2015 The Annual ...

  6. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  7. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Strandberg, Gerald W.; Lewis, Susan N.

    1990-01-01

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  8. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-15

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Chemicals from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  10. New coal technology to flourish at Kentucky plant

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2007-08-15

    Within four years a 76 MW (net) advanced supercritical coal unit, TC2, will go into service at the Trimble County power plant on the Ohio River near Louiseville, KY, USA. The unit is designed to burn a blend of eastern bituminous and western sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coals. TC2 is one of four US power plants to receive a $125 m tax credit under the 2005 EPACT Qualifying Advanced Coal Program for high efficiency and low emission generating units. Trimble County is owned and operated by E.ON US subsidiaries Kentucky Utilities and Louiseville Gas & Electric. It was originally designed to accommodate four 500 MW coal-fired units fired by bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin. 1 photo.

  11. Testing for market integration crude oil, coal, and natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmeier, L.J.; Griffin, J.M.

    2006-07-01

    Prompted by the contemporaneous spike in coal, oil, and natural gas prices, this paper evaluates the degree of market integration both within and between crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets. Our approach yields parameters that can be readily tested against a priori conjectures. Using daily price data for five very different crude oils, we conclude that the world oil market is a single, highly integrated economic market. On the other hand, coal prices at five trading locations across the United States are cointegrated, but the degree of market integration is much weaker, particularly between Western and Eastern coals. Finally, we show that crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets are only very weakly integrated. Our results indicate that there is not a primary energy market. Despite current price peaks, it is not useful to think of a primary energy market, except in a very long run context.

  12. Coal gasification apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Charles K.

    1982-01-01

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

  13. Method for fluorinating coal

    DOEpatents

    Huston, John L.; Scott, Robert G.; Studier, Martin H.

    1978-01-01

    Coal is fluorinated by contact with fluorine gas at low pressure. After pial fluorination, when the reaction rate has slowed, the pressure is slowly increased until fluorination is complete, forming a solid fluorinated coal of approximate composition CF.sub.1.55 H.sub.0.15. The fluorinated coal and a solid distillate resulting from vacuum pyrolysis of the fluorinated coal are useful as an internal standard for mass spectrometric unit mass assignments from about 100 to over 1500.

  14. Coal Fleet Aging Meeting

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7, 2016 MEMORANDUM TO: Dr. Ian Mead Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Jim Diefenderfer Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis FROM: Coal and Uranium Analysis Team SUBJECT: Notes from the Coal Fleet Aging Meeting held on June 14, 2016 Attendees (36) *Indicates attendance via WebEx. 2 Framing the question This adjunct meeting of the AEO Coal Working Group (CWG) was held as a follow up to the previous Future Operating and Maintenance Considerations for the

  15. NETL: Coal Gasification Systems

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasification Systems Coal Gasification is a process that can turn coal into clean power, chemicals, hydrogen and transportation fuels, and can be used to capture the carbon from the coal for storage or for enhanced oil recovery. To better understand the basic concepts behind Gasification, watch this short video: What is Gasification? The Gasification Systems Program is developing advanced technologies to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of producing coal syngas. Click on the Graphic

  16. Extending gear life in a coal pulverizer gearbox

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    2007-08-15

    A coal-fired power plant in the Western United States experienced short gearbox life in the 13 coal pulverizers operating at the plant. Wear on the bronze bull gear faces was suspected to have been caused by high particulate loading of coal dust and dirt in the gear oil, catalytic reaction between gear oil additives and some of the particulates generated, and high levels of copper in the gear oil. By addressing particulate ingress, adding filtration and switching to a synthetic gear oil, significant benefits were made to the power plant and gear oil life was extended. 2 photos., 1 tab.

  17. Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Colt

    2008-12-31

    ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

  18. Flash hydrogenation of coal

    DOEpatents

    Manowitz, Bernard; Steinberg, Meyer; Sheehan, Thomas V.; Winsche, Warren E.; Raseman, Chad J.

    1976-01-01

    A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.

  19. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  20. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III; Lytle, J.M.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.A.; Kohlenberger, L.B.; Brewer, K.K. |||

    1992-12-31

    The main purpose of this project was to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an Illinois (IL) coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high-sulfur content and high-Btu value of IL coals are Particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary-calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high-sulfur coal is more than offset b the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high-Btu IL coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is--higher not only because of the hither Btu value of the coal but also because IL coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for IL coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals. During the contract extension, additional coal testing was completed confirming the fact that coal concentrates can be made from plant waste under a variety of flotation conditions 33 tests were conducted, yielding an average of 13326 Btu with 9.6% ash while recovering 86.0%-Of the energy value.

  1. Coal recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Good, Robert J.; Badgujar, Mohan

    1992-01-01

    A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

  2. Coal Data: A reference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-26

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  3. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles; Larson, Doug; Carr, Tom; Rath, Larry; Balash, Peter; Yih-Huei, Wan

    2008-11-28

    Growing concern over climate change is prompting new thinking about the technologies used to generate electricity. In the future, it is possible that new government policies on greenhouse gas emissions may favor electric generation technology options that release zero or low levels of carbon emissions. The Western U.S. has abundant wind and coal resources. In a world with carbon constraints, the future of coal for new electrical generation is likely to depend on the development and successful application of new clean coal technologies with near zero carbon emissions. This scoping study explores the economic and technical feasibility of combining wind farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operating them as a single generation complex in the Western US. The key questions examined are whether an advanced coal-wind hybrid (ACWH) facility provides sufficient advantages through improvements to the utilization of transmission lines and the capability to firm up variable wind generation for delivery to load centers to compete effectively with other supply-side alternatives in terms of project economics and emissions footprint. The study was conducted by an Analysis Team that consists of staff from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB). We conducted a screening level analysis of the economic competitiveness and technical feasibility of ACWH generation options located in Wyoming that would supply electricity to load centers in California, Arizona or Nevada. Figure ES-1 is a simple stylized representation of the configuration of the ACWH options. The ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycle power plant equipped with carbon capture and sequestration (G+CC+CCS plant), a fuel production or syngas storage facility, and a 1,500 MW wind plant. The ACWH project is connected to load centers by a 3,000 MW

  4. PFBC presents its clean coal credentials

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.

    2005-12-01

    Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) combined cycle deserves as much consideration as integrated gasification combined cycle as a foundation technology for advanced, clean coal-fired power generation. Although corporate issues and low natural gas prices stalled PFBC development for a time, technology at full scale has proved quite worthy in several respects in Europe and Japan over the past 10 years. The article describes how the PFBC system power cycle works, describes its competitive features and reports progress on development. 4 figs.

  5. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    DOEpatents

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  6. Microbial solubilization of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.; McCulloch, M.; Wilson, B.W.; Bean, R.M.

    1988-11-01

    Microbial solubilization of coal may serve as a first step in a process to convert low-rank coals or coal-derived products to other fuels or products. For solubilization of coal to be an economically viable technology, a mechanistic understanding of the process is essential. Leonardite, a highly oxidized, low-rank coal, has been solubilized by the intact microorganism, cell-free filtrate, and cell-free enzyme of /ital Coriolus versicolor/. A spectrophotometric conversion assay was developed to quantify the amount of biosolubilized coal. In addition, a bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6, was solubilized by a species of /ital Penicillium/, but only after the coal had been preoxidized in air. Model compounds containing coal-related functionalities have been incubated with the leonardite-degrading fungus, its cell-free filtrate, and purified enzyme. The amount of degradation was determined by gas chromatography and the degradation products were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We have also separated the cell-free filtrate of /ital C. versicolor/ into a <10,000 MW and >10,000 MW fraction by ultrafiltration techniques. Most of the coal biosolubilization activity is contained in the <10,000 MW fraction while the model compound degradation occurs in the >10,000 MW fraction. The >10,000 MW fraction appears to contain an enzyme with laccase-like activity. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  8. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 2. Gasification of Jetson bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report describes the gasification testing of Jetson bituminous coal. This Western Kentucky coal was gasified during an initial 8-day and subsequent 5-day period. Material flows and compositions are reported along with material and energy balances. Operational experience is also described. 4 refs., 24 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Coal combustion products (CCPs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an

  10. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Rini, Michael J.; Towle, David P.

    1992-01-01

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  11. Integrated coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Effron, Edward

    1978-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of coal in which coal liquids containing phenols and other oxygenated compounds are produced during the liquefaction step and later hydrogenated, oxygenated compounds are removed from at least part of the coal liquids in the naphtha and gas oil boiling range prior to the hydrogenation step and employed as a feed stream for the manufacture of a synthesis gas or for other purposes.

  12. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids FAQs

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... For further information, see: Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids. For additional information: Gasifipedia is a gasification resource that includes history, state-of-the art ...

  13. US coal market softens

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-01-15

    The operators table some near term expansion plans, meanwhile long-term fundamentals look strong. This is one of the findings of the Coal Age Forecast 2007 survey of readers predictions on production and consumption of coal and attitudes in the coal industry. 50% of respondents expected product levels in 2007 to be higher than in 2006 and 50% described the attitude in the coal industry to be more optimistic in 2007 than in 2006. Most expenditure is anticipated on going on new equipment but levels of expenditure will be less than in 2006. 7 figs.

  14. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Recurring Reserves Stocks All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud Data For: 2001 Next Release Date: October 2003 U. S. Coal-Producing Districts...

  15. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2001 (Thousand Short Tons) DESTINATION: Alabama State of Origin by...

  16. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is...

  17. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.; Yeh, Chung-Liang; Donath, Ernest E.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  18. Coal | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Assuming no additional constraints on CO2 emissions, coal remains the largest source of electricity generation in the AEO2011 Reference case because of continued reliance on...

  19. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    TF RailroadVesselShip Fuel It is also noted that Destination State code of "X Export" indicates movements to foreign destinations. 1 68 Domestic Coal Distribution...

  20. WCI Case for Coal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    and storage, and the production of hydrogen from coal, ... countries, global energy consumption will continue to ... Other fuels will have to provide the great bulk of the ...

  1. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook

    California (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total...

  2. British coal privatization procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The form in which British Coal is to be privatized has finally been announced. Offers are to be invited for the operating underground and opencast mines which will be grouped into five regionally based companies. Additionally, offers will be invited for a number of collieries which are currently under care and maintenance. The five Regional Coal Companies to be formed are Central North, which will comprise the assets in the Yorkshire and Durham coalfields, including the five collieries in the Selby Complex; Central South, which will contain the assets located in the Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Derbyshire, and Warwickshire coalfields; North East, which has four opencast sites, Scotland, which has nine operating open-cast sites and a single underground mine, Longannet; and South Wales with its nine operating opencast sites. Tower colliery, the last underground mine in South Wales, was finally put on care and maintenance on April 20, 1994. Details of the five Regional Coal Companies are given. A new public sector body, the Coal Authority will be set up to which all British Coal's title to unworked coal and coal mines will be transferred. All the relevant property rights and liabilities of British Coal will be transferred into the Regional Coal Companies prior to their sun.

  3. Balancing coal pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Earley, D.; Kirkenir, B.

    2009-11-15

    Balancing coal flow to the burners to optimise combustion by using real-time measurement systems (such as microwave mass measurement) is discussed. 3 figs.

  4. Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    The use of coals with sub- optimal characteristics carries with it penalties in operating efficiency, maintenance cost, and system reliability. Such penalties range from the...

  5. Coal Gasification Report

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... (Btu) coal "that is combined with wind and other renewable sources, ... The Kentucky Pioneer EIS notes that "noise levels inside the turbine buildings would be very high, ...

  6. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  7. Fuel Cell Europe | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Name: Fuel Cell Europe Place: FrankfurtM, Germany Zip: D-60313 Product: Fuel Cell Europe was set up to promote the commercial application of fuel cell across Europe. Coordinates:...

  8. Report to the United States Congress clean coal technology export markets and financing mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This report responds to a Congressional Conference Report that requests that $625,000 in funding provided will be used by the Department to identify potential markets for clean coal technologies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition from nonmarket economies and to identify existing, or new, financial mechanisms or financial support to be provided by the Federal government that will enhance the ability of US industry to participate in these markets. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects world coal consumption to increase by 30 percent between 1990 and 2010, from 5.1 to 6.5 billion short tons. Five regions stand out as major foreign markets for the export of US clean coal technologies: China; The Pacific Rim (other than China); South Asia (primarily India); Transitional Economies (Central Europe and the Newly Independent States); and Other Markets (the Americas and Southern Africa). Nearly two-thirds of the expected worldwide growth in coal utilization will occur in China, one quarter in the United States. EIA forecasts nearly a billion tons per year of additional coal consumption in China between 1990 and 2010, a virtual doubling of that country`s coal consumption. A 30-percent increase in coal consumption is projected in other developing countries over that same period. This increase in coal consumption will be accompanied by an increase in demand for technologies for burning coal cost-effectively, efficiently and cleanly. In the Pacific Rim and South Asia, rapid economic growth coupled with substantial indigenous coal supplies combine to create a large potential market for CCTS. In Central Europe and the Newly Independent States, the challenge will be to correct the damage of decades of environmental neglect without adding to already-considerable economic disruption. Though the situation varies, all these countries share the basic need to use indigenous low-quality coal cleanly and efficiently.

  9. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect

    Drazga, B.

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  10. NEMS Modeling of Coal Plants

    Annual Energy Outlook

    NEMS Modeling of Coal Plants Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewable Analysis ... oil and gas steam plants, and 23 for nuclear plants regardless of age - Beyond 30 ...

  11. Coal resources of Kyrgyzstan

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, E.R.; Bostick, N.H.; Gluskoter, H.J.; Johnson, E.A.; Harrison, C.D.; Huber, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The rugged, mountainous country of Kyrgyzstan contains about one-half of the known coal resources of central Asia (a geographic and economic region that also includes Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan and Turkmenistan). Coal of Jurassic age is present in eight regions in Kyrgyzstan in at least 64 different named localities. Significant coal occurrences of about the same age are present in the central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, China, and Russia. Separation of the coal-bearing rocks into individual deposits results more than earth movements before and during formation of the present-day mountains and basins of the country than from deposition in separate basins.Separation was further abetted by deep erosion and removal of the coal-bearing rocks from many areas, followed by covering of the remaining coal-bearing rocks by sands and gravels of Cenozoic age. The total resources of coal in Kyrgyzstan have been reported as about 30 billion tons. In some of the reported localities, the coal resources are known and adequately explored. In other parts of the republic, the coal resources are inadequately understood or largely unexplored. The resource and reserve inventory of Kyrgyzstan is at best incomplete; for some purposes, such as short-term local and long-range national planning, it may be inadequate. Less than 8% of the total estimated resources are categorized as recoverable reserves, and the amount that is economically recoverable is unknown. The coal is largely of subbituminous and high-volatile C bituminous rank, most has low and medium ash and sulfur contents, and coals of higher rank (some with coking qualities) are present in one region. It is recommended that appropriate analyses and tests be made during planning for utilization.

  12. Coal production, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-05

    Coal Production 1987 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data presented in this report were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-275) as amended. The 1987 coal production and related data presented in this report were obtained from Form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1987. This survey originated at the Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior. In 1977, the responsibility for taking the survey was transferred to the EIA under the Department of Energy Organization Act (P.L. 95-91). The data cover 3667 of the 4770 US coal mining operations active in 1987. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 77 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1987. This issue is the 12th annual report published by EIA and continues the series formerly included as a chapter in the Minerals Yearbook published by the Bureau of Mines. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1988. This is the eighth annual summary on minable coal, pursuant to Section 801 of Public Law 95-620. 18 figs., 105 tabs.

  13. Coal-based clean fuel for international residential markets

    SciTech Connect

    Jozewicz, W.

    1996-12-31

    Acurex Environmental Corporation is conducting a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to establish a company that will ultimately supply energy to residences throughout Eastern Europe. Initially it will manufacture a new load priced, but environmentally friendly fuel (Clean Fuel) in Krakow, Poland. As acceptance and profitability is proven, manufacturing will be extended to other regions of Poland, the Czech Republic, Germany, and the Ukraine. Currently, apartments and individual homes are heated with expensive and polluting raw coal. Acurex Environmental Corporation has developed and patented a Clean Fuel that is manufactured from inexpensively raw material--coal fines, a waste byproduct of the coal mining industry. This material is readily available, inexpensive, and substantially polluting if used in its raw state. When mixed with the proprietary binder and pressed into fuel pellets, or briquettes, it has been proven to have substantially less pollutants than high grade coal (70% reduction). Acurex Environmental Corporation will be able to offer a home heating fuel that is similar in form and function to raw coal, but is environmentally friendly and lower in cost. The market for Clean Fuel is essentially limitless. The initial intent of this new company is to focus on the city of Krakow, Poland and its neighboring province of Katowice. This area consumes about 686,000 tons/yr in the fourth year of commercial operation. Price competitiveness will be met by pricing Clean Fuel below the price of chunk coal.

  14. Solco Europe Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solco Europe Ltd Place: Sao Joao da Madeira, Portugal Zip: Sao Joao da Madeira Product: Joint venture to distribute Solco products within Portugal. References: Solco Europe...

  15. Unit Energy Europe AG | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Wind energy Product: Unit Energy develops and operates wind parks and hydroelectric power plants all across Europe. References: Unit Energy Europe AG1 This article is a stub....

  16. Clipper Windpower Europe Limited | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Clipper Windpower Europe Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clipper Windpower Europe Limited Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: SE1 7TJ Sector: Wind energy...

  17. Vestas Central Europe | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Central Europe Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vestas Central Europe Place: Husum, Germany Zip: 25813 Sector: Wind energy Product: Husum-based subsidiary of Vestas Wind...

  18. Natsource Europe Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Natsource Europe Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Natsource Europe Ltd Place: Richmond, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: TW9 1EP Product: The European office of Natsource...

  19. Gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Maas, D.J.; Smith, F.J.

    1986-06-01

    Five low-rank coals from the western United States were cleaned in a bench-scale heavy media separation procedures followed by acid leaching and hydrothermal processing. The objective of these cleaning steps was to determine the amenability of preparing gas turbine quality fuel from low-rank coal. The best candidate for scale-up was determined to be a Wyoming subbituminous coal from the eagle Butte mine. Two hundred thirty kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water fuel were prepared in pilot-scale equipment to determine process parameters and fuel characteristics. After establishing operating conditions, two thousand kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water and powdered coal fuel were produced for testing in a pilot-scale gas turbine combustor. An economic analysis was completed for a commercial-scale plant designed to produce clean gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal using the most promising process steps identified form the bench- and pilot-scale studies. 21 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs.

  20. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Wiser, Wendell H.; Oblad, Alex G.; Shabtai, Joseph S.

    1994-01-01

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

  1. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Ralph T.; Smol, Robert; Farber, Gerald; Naphtali, Leonard M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  2. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Norman L.; Moon, William G.; Prudich, Michael E.

    1983-01-01

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  3. Coal. [Great Plains Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The status of various research projects related to coal is considered: gasification (approximately 30 processes) and in-situ gasification. Methanol production, retrofitting internal combustion engines to stratified charge engines, methanation (Conoco), direct reduction of iron ores, water resources, etc. Approximately 200 specific projects related to coal are considered with respect to present status. (LTN)

  4. Dry piston coal feeder

    DOEpatents

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  5. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  6. Coal in China

    SciTech Connect

    Minchener, A.J.

    2005-07-01

    The article gives an overview of the production and use of coal in China, for power generation and in other sectors. Coal use for power generation was 850 million tonnes in 2003 and 800 million tonnes in the non-power sector. The majority of power will continue to be produced from coal, with a trend towards new larger pulverised coal fired units and introduction of circulating fluidised bed combustors. Stricter regulations are forcing introduction of improved pollution control technologies. It seems likely that China will need international finance to supplement private and state investment to carry out a programme to develop and apply clean coal technologies. The author concludes that there is evidence of a market economy being established but there is a need to resolve inconsistencies with the planned aspects of the economy and that additional policies are needed in certain sectors to achieve sustainable development. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  8. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  9. Apparatus and method for feeding coal into a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Bissett, Larry A.; Friggens, Gary R.; McGee, James P.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is directed to a system for feeding coal into a gasifier operating at high pressures. A coal-water slurry is pumped to the desired pressure and then the coal is "dried" prior to feeding the coal into the gasifier by contacting the slurry with superheated steam in an entrained bed dryer for vaporizing the water in the slurry.

  10. Thermilate Europe | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    distributes an insulating paint additive which can be added to virtually any coating. References: Thermilate Europe1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  11. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This project will demonstrate an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal will be processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors that will remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal will be put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to effect separation of the pyrite rich ash. The process will enhance low-rank western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25--55%, sulfur content of 0.5--1.5%, and heating value of 5,500--9,000 Btu/lb by producing a stable, upgraded coal product with a moisture content as low as 1%, sulfur content as low as 0.3%, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb.

  12. Gas Cleanup Strategies in Europe

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    HYGEAR GAS CLEANING EUROPE ELLART DE WIT ABOUT HYGEAR * Established in 2002 - 65 people - Acquired Plug Power Europe in 2009 * Products - Hydrogen Generation Systems - Biogas Cleaning systems - Fuel Cell Systems * Facilities - Catalysis and Adsorbents laboratory - 2000 m 2 System test facilities - Rapid prototyping shop - Flexible system assembly line Confidential & Proprietary NATURAL GAS CLEANING - SULFUR * Most sulfur is removed at well!! * What is in pipeline depends on source: -

  13. The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    Progress continued at MHD coal-fired flow facility. UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming portion of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. No Proof-of-Concept (POC) testing was conducted during the quarter but data analyses are reported from the test conducted during the prior quarter. Major results include corrosion data from the first 500 hours of testing on candidate tube materials in the superheater test module (SHTM). Solids mass balance data, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and baghouse (BH) performance data, diagnostic systems and environmental data results from previous POC tests are included. The major activities this quarter were in facility modifications required to complete the scheduled POC test program. Activities reported include the installation of an automatic ash/seed removal system on the SHTM, the BH, and ESP hoppers. Also, a higher pressure compressor (350 psi) is being installed to provide additional blowing pressure to remove solids deposits on the convective heat transfer tubes in the high temperature zone where the deposits are molten. These activities are scheduled to be completed and ready for the next test, which is scheduled for late May 1990. Also, experiments on drying western coal are reported. The recommended system for modifying the CFFF coal system to permit processing of western coal is described. Finally, a new effort to test portions of the TRW combustor during tests in the CFFF is described. The status of system analyses being conducted under subcontract by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation is also described. 2 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  15. Coal in a changing climate

    SciTech Connect

    Lashof, D.A.; Delano, D.; Devine, J.

    2007-02-15

    The NRDC analysis examines the changing climate for coal production and use in the United States and China, the world's two largest producers and consumers of coal. The authors say that the current coal fuel cycle is among the most destructive activities on earth, placing an unacceptable burden on public health and the environment. There is no such thing as 'clean coal.' Our highest priorities must be to avoid increased reliance on coal and to accelerate the transition to an energy future based on efficient use of renewable resources. Energy efficiency and renewable energy resources are technically capable of meeting the demands for energy services in countries that rely on coal. However, more than 500 conventional coal-fired power plants are expected in China in the next eight years alone, and more than 100 are under development in the United States. Because it is very likely that significant coal use will continue during the transition to renewables, it is important that we also take the necessary steps to minimize the destructive effects of coal use. That requires the U.S. and China to take steps now to end destructive mining practices and to apply state of the art pollution controls, including CO{sub 2} control systems, to sources that use coal. Contents of the report are: Introduction; Background (Coal Production; Coal Use); The Toll from Coal (Environmental Effects of Coal Production; Environmental Effects of Coal Transportation); Environmental Effects of Coal Use (Air Pollutants; Other Pollutants; Environmental Effects of Coal Use in China); What Is the Future for Coal? (Reducing Fossil Fuel Dependence; Reducing the Impacts of Coal Production; Reducing Damage From Coal Use; Global Warming and Coal); and Conclusion. 2 tabs.

  16. Coal market momentum converts skeptics

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-01-15

    Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

  17. Coal gasification power generation, and product market study. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Sheesley, D.; King, S.B.

    1998-12-31

    This Western Research Institute (WRI) project was part of a WRI Energy Resource Utilization Program to stimulate pilot-scale improved technologies projects to add value to coal resources in the Rocky Mountain region. The intent of this program is to assess the application potential of emerging technologies to western resources. The focus of this project is on a coal resource near the Wyoming/Colorado border, in Colorado. Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company operates a coal mine in Jackson County, Colorado. The coal produces 10,500 Btu/lb and has very low sulfur and ash contents. Kerr Coal Company is seeking advanced technology for alternate uses for this coal. This project was to have included a significant cost-share from the Kerr Coal Company ownership for a market survey of potential products and technical alternatives to be studied in the Rocky Mountain Region. The Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company and WRI originally proposed this work on a cost reimbursable basis. The total cost of the project was priced at $117,035. The Kerr Coal Company had scheduled at least $60,000.00 to be spent on market research for the project that never developed because of product market changes for the company. WRI and Kerr explored potential markets and new technologies for this resource. The first phase of this project as a preliminary study had studied fuel and nonfuel technical alternatives. Through related projects conducted at WRI, resource utilization was studied to find high-value materials that can be targeted for fuel and nonfuel use and eventually include other low-sulfur coals in the Rocky Mountain region. The six-month project work was spread over about a three-year period to observe, measure, and confirm over time-any trends in technology development that would lead to economic benefits in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming from coal gasification and power generation.

  18. Environmentally conscious coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

  19. Coal leasing and taxation. Coal policy paper

    SciTech Connect

    Brody, S.E.; DeVries, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    The paper presents background information on current and proposed approaches to coal leasing and taxation, at both the State and federal levels. In addition, it discusses both the governmental objectives and probable economic effects of various combinations of leasing and taxation policies.

  20. Western Interconnection Synchrophasor Project

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Demonstration Project Western Interconnection Synchrophasor Project Resources & Links Demand Response Energy Efficiency Emerging Technologies Synchrophasor measurements are a...

  1. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  2. Aqueous coal slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Berggren, M.H.; Smit, F.J.; Swanson, W.W.

    1989-10-30

    A principal object of the invention is the provision of an aqueous coal slurry containing a dispersant, which is of low-cost and which contains very low or no levels of sodium, potassium, sulfur and other contaminants. In connection with the foregoing object, it is an object of the invention to provide an aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant and to provide a method of preparing an aqueous coal slurry which includes the step of adding an effective amount of dextrin as a dispersant. The invention consists of certain novel features and a combination of parts hereinafter fully described, and particularly pointed out in the appended claims. 6 tabs.

  3. Underground gasification of coal

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.; Komar, Charles A.

    1976-01-20

    There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

  4. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Charles H.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  5. Chapter 4 - Coal

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Chapter 4 Coal Overview In the International Energy Outlook 2016 (IEO2016) Reference case, coal remains the second-largest energy source worldwide- behind petroleum and other liquids-until 2030. From 2030 through 2040, it is the third-largest energy source, behind both liquid fuels and natural gas. World coal consumption increases from 2012 to 2040 at an average rate of 0.6%/year, from 153 quadrillion Btu in 2012 to 169

  6. DOE - Fossil Energy: Coal Mining and Transportation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Mining Fossil Energy Study Guides Coal Mining and Transportation Coal Miners - One type of mining, called "longwall mining", uses a rotating blade to shear coal away from the ...

  7. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 3 (April 2016) Archived Editions: Coal ...

  8. Table 13. Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million short tons)" ... (Washington, DC, September 25, 2014), Table 6.1, Coal Production and Waste Coal Supplied

  9. Puda Coal Inc | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Puda Coal Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Puda Coal, Inc Place: Taiyuan, Shaanxi Province, China Product: Specializes in coal preparation by applying a water jig washing...

  10. Preliminary evaluation of resinite recovery from Illinois coal. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Resinite is a naturally occurring substance found in coal and derived from original plant resins. It has been commercially exploited in the western USA for use in adhesives, varnishes and thermal setting inks. The overall objective of this project is to compare the properties of the resinite contained in Illinois Basin coals to resinite being commercially exploited in the western US, and to recover the resinite from Illinois coals by microbubble column floatation techniques. The significance of this study is that it has the potential to show the way to recover a valuable chemical, resinite, from coal using only physical processing techniques. The value of the resinite at $1.00/kg or $0.50/lb makes it about fifty times more valuable than steam coal. The removal of resinite from coal does not decrease the value of the remaining coal in any way. During this quarter pure concentrates of resinite from Herrin No. 6 Seam were produced by the density gradient centrifugation technique. This material is also now being characterized by petrographic and chemical methods. Another accomplishment this quarter was the completion of a series of microbubble column flotation tests under eight different conditions. The tests were successful in producing concentrates that are now being evaluated. The significance of the work done during this quarter is the confirmation that the resinite in an Illinois coal can be successfully separated in quantities useful for testing and analysis.

  11. North Sea development action brisk; plays expand elsewhere off Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.J.

    1996-08-19

    The North Sea may be a mature play, but operators are continually searching for new ways to develop small finds near existing infrastructure and to develop discoveries in new areas at low cost. As they fill in gaps in the North Sea oil and gas infrastructure, companies are also exploring and planning developments in new plays such as the U.K.`s West of Shetlands area, the Irish Sea, and the Atlantic Margin from off western Ireland to northern Norway. Floating production systems and subsea technology are vital parts of many of Northwest Europe`s recently sanctioned field developments, for both large and small reservoirs. The paper discusses the dominant role of floating production units, the niche for subsea developments, new production, the Harding field, the Schieballion and Clair fields (UK), Norway`s plans, the Elgin/Franklin field, small fields, frontier work, in-field projects, flexible floating platforms, deepwater technology, a gas monotower, and subsea control.

  12. Coal markets squeeze producers

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.

    2005-12-01

    Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

  13. COAL & POWER SYSTEMS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The low- Btu combustion work supports ex- panding the fuel flexibility of gas turbines by developing the capabil- ity to operate on gases derived from gasification of coal, biomass...

  14. Delineating coal market regions

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, B.D.; Pyrdol, J.J.

    1986-04-01

    This study addresses the delineation of US coal market regions and their evolution since the 1973 Arab oil embargo. Dichotomizing into compliance (low sulfur) and high sulfur coal deliveries, market regions are generated for 1973, 1977, and 1983. Focus is restricted to steam coal shipments to electric utilities, which currently account for over 80% of the total domestic market. A two-stage method is used. First, cluster analyses are performed on the origin-destination shipments data to generate baseline regions. This is followed by multiple regression analyses on CIF delivered price data for 1983. Sensitivity analysis on the configuration of the regions is also conducted, and some thoughts on the behavior of coal markets conclude the paper. 37 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Proximate analysis of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A.

    2009-02-15

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

  16. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOEpatents

    Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  17. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOEpatents

    Berggren, Mark H.; Smit, Francis J.; Swanson, Wilbur W.

    1993-04-06

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  18. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  19. Clean Coal Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE's clean coal R&D is focused on developing and demonstrating advanced power generation and carbon capture, utilization and storage technologies for existing facilities and new fossil-fueled...

  20. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Interim final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III; Lytle, J.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L.; Brewer, K.

    1992-12-31

    The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an Illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is higher not only because of the higher Btu value of the coal but also because Illinois coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for Illinois coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals. Destec Energy, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Dow Chemical Company, will provide guidelines and test compatibility of the slurries developed for gasification feedstock. Williams Technologies, Inc., will provide their expertise in long distance slurry pumping, and test selected products for viscosity, pumpability, and handleability. The Illinois State Geological Survey will study methods for producing clean coal/water slurries from preparation plant wastes including the concentration of pyritic sulfur into the coal slurry to increase the revenue from elemental sulfur produced during gasification operations, and decrease the pyritic sulfur content of the waste streams. ISGS will also test the gasification reactivity of the coals.

  1. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Skinner, Ronald W.; Tao, John C.; Znaimer, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  2. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.; Shabtai, J.S.

    1994-05-03

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400 C at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1. 1 figures.

  3. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Karr, Jr., Clarence

    1977-04-19

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided which enables conversion of a coal-oil slurry to a synthetic crude refinable to produce larger yields of gasoline and diesel oil. The process is characterized by a two-step operation applied to the slurry prior to catalytic desulfurization and hydrogenation in which the slurry undergoes partial hydrogenation to crack and hydrogenate asphaltenes and the partially hydrogenated slurry is filtered to remove minerals prior to subsequent catalytic hydrogenation.

  4. American coal imports 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Kolojeski

    2007-09-15

    As 2007 ends, the US coal industry passes two major milestones - the ending of the Synfuel tax break, affecting over 100M st annually, and the imposition of tighter and much more expensive safety measures, particularly in deep mines. Both of these issues, arriving at a time of wretched steam coal price levels, promise to result in a major shake up in the Central Appalachian mining sector. The report utilizes a microeconomic regional approach to determine whether either of these two schools of thought have any validity. Transport, infrastructure, competing fuels and regional issues are examined in detail and this forecasts estimates coal demand and imports on a region by region basis for the years 2010 and 2015. Some of the major highlights of the forecast are: Import growth will be driven by steam coal demand in the eastern and southern US; Transport will continue to be the key driver - we believe that inland rail rates will deter imports from being railed far inland and that the great majority of imports will be delivered directly by vessel, barge or truck to end users; Colombian coal will be the overwhelmingly dominant supply source and possesses a costs structure to enable it to compete with US-produced coal in any market conditions; Most of the growth will come from existing power plants - increasing capacity utilization at existing import facilities and other plants making investments to add imports to the supply portfolio - the growth is not dependent upon a lot of new coal fired capacity being built. Contents of the report are: Key US market dynamics; International supply dynamics; Structure of the US coal import market; and Geographic analysis.

  5. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  6. Coal repository. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    The Coal Repository Project was initiated in 1980 by the Department of Energy/Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center to provide a centralized system for the collection of well characterized coal samples, and distribution to organizations involved in the chemical beneficiation of coal and related research. TRW Energy Development Group, together with its subcontractor Commercial Testing and Engineering Company, established the Coal Repository at the TRW Capistrano Chemical Facility, which is the location of the DOE-owned Multi-Use Fuel and Energy Processes Test Plant (MEP). Twenty tons each of three coals (Illinois No. 6, Kentucky No. 11 (West), and Pittsburgh No. 8 (from an Ohio mine)) were collected, characterized, and stored under a nitrogen atmosphere. Ten tons of each coal are 3/8-inch x 0, five tons of each are 14-mesh x 0, and five tons of each are 100-mesh x 0. Although TRW was within budget and on schedule, Department of Energy funding priorities in this area were altered such that the project was terminated prior to completion of the original scope of work. 9 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Saga of coal bed methane, Ignacio Blanco gas field, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, B.C.; Harr, C.L.; Burch, L.C. )

    1989-09-01

    Prior to the 1977 discovery of the Cedar Hill Basal Fruitland pool (the first officially designated coal-bed methane field in the western US) 28.5 bcf of gas had been produced from Fruitland Formation coal seams in the Ignacio Blanco Fruitland-Pictured Cliffs field, Northern San Juan basin, Colorado. The discovery well for the field, Southern Ute D-1, was drilled and completed in 1951 on the Ignacio anticline, La Plata County, Colorado. Initial completion was attempted in the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The well was plugged back after making water from the Pictured Cliffs and was completed in the lower coal-bearing section of the Fruitland Formation. The well produced 487,333 mcf of gas in nine years and was abandoned in 1959 due to water encroachment. Additionally, 52 similarly completed Ignacio anticline Fruitland wells were abandoned by the early 1970s due to the nemesis of If it's starting to kick water, you're through. Under today's coal-bed methane technology and economics, Amoco has twinned 12 of the abandoned wells, drilled five additional wells, and is successfully dewatering and producing adsorbed methane from previously depleted coal sections of the Ignacio structure. Field-wide drilling activity in 1988 exceeded all previous annual levels, with coal-seam degasification projects leading the resurgence. Drilling and completion forecasts for 1989 surpass 1988 levels by 50%.

  8. Economics of coal fines utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Hathi, V.; McHale, E.; Ramezan, M.; Winslow, J.

    1995-12-31

    In the twentieth century, coal has become the major fuel for electric power generation in the U.S. and most of the nonpetroleum-producing countries of the world. In 1998, the world coal-fired capacity for electric power generation was about 815 GW, consuming large quantities of coals of all ranks. Today, coal provides a third of the world`s energy requirements. In fact, coal use for power generation has grown steadily since the oil embargo in 1973 and has seen an even faster rate of growth in recent years. It has been reported that the global demand for new coal will increase by more than 1500 million tons by the year 2000. However, this increased production of coal has its drawbacks, including the concomitant production of coal waste. Reported estimates indicate that billions of tons of coal waste have already been disposed of in waste impoundments throughout the U.S. Further, in the U.S. today, about 20-25 % of each ton of mined coal is discarded by preparation plants as gob and plant tailings. It appears that the most economical near-term approach to coal waste recovery is to utilize the waste coal fines currently discarded with the refuse stream, rather than attempt to recover coal from waste impoundments that require careful prior evaluation and site preparation. A hypothetical circuit was designed to examine the economics of recovery and utilization of waste coal fines. The circuit recovers products from 100 tons per hour (tph) of coal waste feed recovering 70 tph of fine coal that can be used in coal-fired boilers. The present analysis indicates that the coal waste recovery is feasible and economical. In addition, significant environmental benefits can be expected.

  9. [Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project]. Technical progress report: April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from April 1, 1992, through June 30, 1992. This project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals into a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,500 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/Ib), by producing a stable, upgraded coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45-ton-per-hour unit is located adjacent to a unit train loadout facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near Colstrip, Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. The demonstration drying and cooling equipment is currently near commercial size.

  10. MFCF in Europe and Elsewhere

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    MFCF in Europe MFCF in Europe (and elsewhere (and elsewhere ... ... ) ) J. Robert Selman Illinois Institute of Technology Chicago, IL Work MCFC-PAFC R&D Palm Springs, CA Nov, 2009 Outline 1. Status of technology, players 2. Life time, performance decay, failure 3. R&D priorities 4. Fundamental research 5. Concluding remarks 1. Status of technology, players Developer Operating pressure (atm) Reforming Manifolding Module Plant size/target (kW) FCE (USA) 1.0 Internal External Single or

  11. DOE - Fossil Energy: Introduction to Coal Technology

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Introduction An Energy Lesson Cleaning Up Coal COAL is our most abundant fossil fuel. The United States has more coal than the rest of the world has oil. There is still enough coal ...

  12. DOE - Fossil Energy: Clean Coal Technology

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    2-Clean Coal Technology An Energy Lesson Cleaning Up Coal The Clean Coal Technology Program The Clean Coal Technology Program began in 1985 when the United States and Canada ...

  13. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-10-23

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion.

  14. STEO November 2012 - coal supplies

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach record high in 2012. While U.S. coal production is down 7 percent this year due in part to utilities switching to low-priced natural gas to generate electricity, American coal is still finding plenty of buyers in overseas markets. U.S. coal exports are expected to hit a record 125 million tons in 2012, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says in its new monthly short-term energy outlook. Coal exports are expected to

  15. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOEpatents

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  16. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large,more » almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.« less

  17. CEMI Western Regional Summit

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Please Join Assistant Secretary of Energy Dr. David Danielson for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative's Western Regional Summit. Register now for this free event.

  18. Western Area Power Administration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Western Area Power Administration Follow-up to Nov. 25, 2008 Transition ... Southwestern Power Administration CONSTRUCTION BUDGET ITEM DESCRIPTION FY 2009* MICROWAVE ...

  19. Coal combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.; Tramm, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  20. Rosebud syncoal partnership SynCoal{sup {reg_sign}} demonstration technology development update

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, R.W.; Heintz, S.J.

    1995-12-01

    Rosebud SynCoal{reg_sign} Partnership`s Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) is an advanced thermal coal upgrading process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal is processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors where oxygen functional groups are destroyed removing chemically bound water, carboxyl and carbonyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the SynCoal{reg_sign} is cleaned using a deep-bed stratifier process to effectively separate the pyrite rich ash. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank western coals with moisture contents ranging from 2555%, sulfur contents between 0.5 and 1.5 %, and heating values between 5,500 and 9,000 Btu/lb. The upgraded stable coal product has moisture contents as low as 1 %, sulfur contents as low as 0.3%, and heating values up to 12,000 Btu/lb.

  1. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.

  2. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  3. 2008 Coal Age buyers guide

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-15

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  4. 2009 Coal Age Buyers Guide

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-15

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  5. Solar Wind Europe SL | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Europe SL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Wind Europe SL Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28028 Product: Spain-based distributor of Russia-made PV modules. References: Solar Wind...

  6. Eurus Energy Europe BV | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Eurus Energy Europe BV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Eurus Energy Europe BV Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: SW1Y 4QT Sector: Wind energy Product: European arm of Japanese...

  7. T O Green Europe | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    O Green Europe Jump to: navigation, search Name: T-O Green Europe Place: Czech Republic Sector: Biomass, Solar, Wind energy Product: Czech-based JV company established by Theolia...

  8. Itochu Europe Plc | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Europe Plc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Itochu Europe Plc Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: EC4A 3PJ Sector: Efficiency, Solar Product: European HQ of Itochu...

  9. Sustainable development with clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  10. NEMS Modeling of Coal Plants

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    NEMS Modeling of Coal Plants Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewable Analysis Laura Martin June 14, 2016 Washington, DC 2 EMM Structure EFD ECP EFP ELD Laura Martin Washington, DC, June 14, 2016 Electricity Load and Demand Submodule Liquid Fuels Market Module Model inputs for coal plants 3 * Existing coal plants - plant specific inputs - Fixed and variable operating and maintenance costs, annual capital additions - Retrofit costs (capital and O&M) - FGD, DSI, SCR, SNCR, CCS, FF -

  11. U.S. Coal Reserves

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Coal Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Coal Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting and mapping) Summary Prices Reserves Consumption Production Stocks Imports, exports & distribution Coal-fired electric power plants Transportation costs to electric power sector International All coal data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Consumption Environment Imports & exports Industry characteristics Prices Production Projections Recurring Reserves Stocks All

  12. COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.; Merriam, N.W.

    1994-10-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a process to produce a stable, clean-burning, premium fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and other low-rank coals. This process is designed to overcome the problems of spontaneous combustion, dust formation, and readsorption of moisture that are experienced with PRB coal and with processed PRB coal. This process, called COMPCOAL{trademark}, results in high-Btu product that is intended for burning in boilers designed for midwestern coals or for blending with other coals. In the COMPCOAL process, sized coal is dried to zero moisture content and additional oxygen is removed from the coal by partial decarboxylation as the coal is contacted by a stream of hot fluidizing gas in the dryer. The hot, dried coal particles flow into the pyrolyzer where they are contacted by a very small flow of air. The oxygen in the air reacts with active sites on the surface of the coal particles causing the temperature of the coal to be raised to about 700{degrees}F (371{degrees}C) and oxidizing the most reactive sites on the particles. This ``instant aging`` contributes to the stability of the product while only reducing the heating value of the product by about 50 Btu/lb. Less than 1 scf of air per pound of dried coal is used to avoid removing any of the condensible liquid or vapors from the coal particles. The pyrolyzed coal particles are mixed with fines from the dryer cyclone and dust filter and the resulting mixture at about 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) is fed into a briquettor. Briquettes are cooled to about 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C) by contact with a mist of water in a gas-tight mixing conveyor. The cooled briquettes are transferred to a storage bin where they are accumulated for shipment.

  13. Pyrolysis of coal

    DOEpatents

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  14. Hydroliquefaction of coal

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Morgan C.; Schindler, Harvey D.

    1982-01-01

    Coal is catalytically hydroliquefied by passing coal dispersed in a liquefaction solvent and hydrogen upwardly through a plurality of parallel expanded catalyst beds, in a single reactor, in separate streams, each having a cross-sectional flow area of no greater than 255 inches square, with each of the streams through each of the catalyst beds having a length and a liquid and gas superficial velocity to maintain an expanded catalyst bed and provide a Peclet Number of at least 3. If recycle is employed, the ratio of recycle to total feed (coal and liquefaction solvent) is no greater than 2:1, based on volume. Such conditions provide for improved selectivity to liquid product to thereby reduce hydrogen consumption. The plurality of beds are formed by partitions in the reactor.

  15. Healy Clean Coal Project

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

  16. Controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.

    2009-07-15

    Increasingly stringent US federal and state limits on mercury emissions form coal-fired power plants demand optimal mercury control technologies. This article summarises the successful removal of mercury emissions achieved with activated carbon injection and boiler bromide addition, technologies nearing commercial readiness, as well as several novel control concepts currently under development. It also discusses some of the issues standing in the way of confident performance and cost predictions. In testing conducted on western coal-fired units with fabric filters or TOXECON to date, ACI has generally achieved mercury removal rates > 90%. At units with ESPs, similar performance requires brominated ACI. Alternatively, units firing western coals can use boiler bromide addition to increase flue gas mercury oxidation and downstream capture in a wet scrubber, or to enhance mercury removal by ACI. At eastern bituminous fired units with ESPs, ACI is not as effective, largely due to SO{sub 3} resulting from the high sulfur content of the coal or the use of SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning to improve ESP performance. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Coal Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System's (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM's two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  18. [Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project]. Technical progress report, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This project will demonstrate an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal will be processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors that will remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal will be put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to effect separation of the pyrite rich ash. The process will enhance low-rank western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25--55%, sulfur content of 0.5--1.5%, and heating value of 5500--9000 Btu/lb by producing a stable, upgraded coal product with a moisture content as low as 1%, sulfur content as low as 0.3%, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45 ton/hr unit will be located adjacent to a unit train loadout facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near the town of Colstrip in southeastern Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. The demonstration drying and cooling equipment is currently commercial size.

  19. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-10-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2005.

  20. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-04-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  1. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2005.

  2. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April to June 30, 2004.

  3. Underground coal gasification. Presentations

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The 8 presentations are: underground coal gasification (UCG) and the possibilities for carbon management (J. Friedmann); comparing the economics of UCG with surface gasification technologies (E. Redman); Eskom develops UCG technology project (C. Gross); development and future of UCG in the Asian region (L. Walker); economically developing vast deep Powder River Basin coals with UCG (S. Morzenti); effectively managing UCG environmental issues (E. Burton); demonstrating modelling complexity of environmental risk management; and UCG research at the University of Queensland, Australia (A.Y. Klimenko).

  4. Clean Coal Power Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

    2006-03-31

    This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

  5. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of resinite recovery from Illinois coal. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Resinite is a naturally occurring substance found in coal and derived from original plant resins. It is ubiquitous in North American coals. It makes up one to four percent by volume of most Illinois coals. It has been commercially exploited in the western USA for use in adhesives, varnishes and thermal setting inks. The overall objective of this project is to compare the properties of the resinite contained in Illinois Basin coals to resinite being commercially exploited in the western United States, and to recover the resinite from Illinois coals by microbubble column floatation techniques. The significance of this study is that it has the potential to show the way to recover a valuable chemical, resinite, from coal using only physical processing techniques. The value of the resinite at $1.00/kg or $0.50/lb makes it about fifty times more valuable than steam coal. The removal of resinite from coal does not decrease the value of the remaining coal in any way. The unique aspects are that: (1) it is the first examination of the resinite recovery potential of Illinois coal, (2) it integrates the latest characterization techniques such as density Gradient centrifugation, microspectrofluorometry, and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry, and (3) it uses microbubble column flotation to determine the resinite recovery potential. During this quarter samples were obtained, information from both the databases of both the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) and the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was obtained and evaluated, and EBCSP samples from the Herrin No. 6, the Springfield No. 5 and the Colchester No. 2 seams were analyzed petrographically and the resinites in these samples were characterized by fluorescence spectral analysis.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of resinite recovery from Illinois coal. Technical report, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Resinite is a naturally occurring substance found in coal and derived from original plant resins. It is ubiquitous in North American coals. It makes up one to four percent by volume of most Illinois coals. It has been commercially exploited in the western USA for use in adhesives, varnishes and thermal setting inks. The overall objective of this project is to compare the properties of the resinite contained in Illinois Basin coals to resinite being commercially exploited in the western United States, and to recover the resinite from Illinois coals by microbubble column floatation techniques. This project is relevant to priority 1.4A identified in ICCI/RFP93-1. The significance of this study is that it has the potential to show the way to recover a valuable chemical, resinite, from coal using only physical processing techniques. The value of the resinite at $1.00/kg or $0.50/lb makes it about fifty times more valuable than steam coal. The removal of resinite from coal does not decrease the value of the remaining coal in any way. The unique aspects are that: (1) it is the first examination of the resinite recovery potential of Illinois coal, (2) it integrates the latest characterization techniques such as density gradient centrifugation, microspectrofluorometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and (3) it uses microbubble column flotation to determine the resinite recovery potential. During this quarter samples were obtained, information from both the databases of both the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) and the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was obtained and evaluated, and IBCSP samples from the Herrin No. 6, the Springfield No. 5 and the Colchester No. 2 seams were analyzed petrographically and the resinites in these samples were characterized by fluorescence spectral analysis.

  8. Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, David S.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

  9. Pretreatment of coal during transport

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Glenn E.; Neilson, Harry B.; Forney, Albert J.; Haynes, William P.

    1977-04-19

    Many available coals are "caking coals" which possess the undesirable characteristic of fusing into a solid mass when heated through their plastic temperature range (about 400.degree. C.) which temperature range is involved in many common treatment processes such as gasification, hydrogenation, carbonization and the like. Unless the caking properties are first destroyed, the coal cannot be satisfactorily used in such processes. A process is disclosed herein for decaking finely divided coal during its transport to the treating zone by propelling the coal entrained in an oyxgen-containing gas through a heated transport pipe whereby the separate transport and decaking steps of the prior art are combined into a single step.

  10. Europe's last chance to restructure

    SciTech Connect

    Tattum, L.

    1992-12-23

    Looking back over the year, there has been remarkably little sign of restructuring in the chemical industry in view of the current financial crisis in most companies. But the apparent paralysis in terms of plant closures or ownership changes may be disguising much behind-the-scenes activity. But the pain threshold of companies is proving surprisingly high. Looking at ethylene plants, Shell's Peter Kwant notes that almost half the steam crackers operating in Europe are 20 years old or more. They amount to one-third of capacity, or twice current underutilization. No steps have been taken to close any unit. Meanwhile, five producers collectively will have introduced 2 million m.t./year of extra ethylene capacity between 1991 and 1994. One factor hampering closure is that 40% of ethylene capacity in Europe is at isolated sites not connected to either the Benelux/Germany ARG pipeline or a local network such as those in the UK or France. BP Chemicals chief Bryan Sanderson raised that point at a recent Wertheim Schroder/Chemical Week/Chem Systems conference in New York, arguing that steep price falls occur in times of demand slump because of the inelastic supply curve for monster chemical plants. The industry could manage cycles better, he suggests, if rather than closing its incremental capacity, small, flexible plants were available to open and close as demand warrants, thus flattening the supply curve. In addition, following the US example - where 90% of ethylene capacity is connected to pipeline system should be available in Europe, giving companies greater flexibility to take plants on- and offline. The latter solution, of course, would not work for Europe's 18 loss-making polyethylene (PE) producers, and here straight closures or merging of businesses are the only solution.

  11. Appalachian recapitalization: United Coal comes full circle

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-05-15

    The article recounts the recent history of the United Coal Co. which exited from the coal business between 1992 and 1997 and has recently returned. More coal reserves have been added by its four companies Sapphire Coal, Carter Roag Coal, Pocahontas Coal and Wellmore, bringing the grand total to 222.6 Mtons. United Coal's developments and investment strategy are discussed. The company headquarters are in Bristol, Va., USA. 1 tab., 7 photos.

  12. Annual Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    current Coal Distribution Report Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: April 8, 2016 | Next Release Date: December 2016 | full report Archive Domestic coal distribution by origin State, destination State, consumer category, method of transportation; foreign coal distribution by major coal-exporting state and method of transportation; and domestic and foreign coal distribution by origin state. Year Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by State of origin Foreign distribution of

  13. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  14. Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Lalvani, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Previous research has shown that addition of lignin-derived liquids to coal stirred in tetralin under mild reaction conditions (375{degree}C and 300--500 psig) results in a marked enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization. A mathematical model was developed to study the kinetics of coal depolymerization in the presence of liquid-derived liquids. In the present study, a reaction pathway was formulated to explain the enhancement in coal depolymerization due to lignin (solid) addition. The model postulated assumes that the products of lignin obtained during thermolysis interact with the reactive moieties present in coal while simultaneous depolymerization of coal occurs. A good fit between the experimental data and the kinetic model was found. The results show that in addition to the enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization, lignin also reacts (and enhances the extent of depolymerization of coal) with those reaction sites in coal that are not susceptible to depolymerization when coal alone is reacted in tetralin under identical reaction conditions. Additional work is being carried out to determine a thorough materials balance on the lignin-assisted coal depolymerization process. A number of liquid samples have been obtained which are being studied for their stability in various environments. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Coal combustion research

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    This section describes research and development related to coal combustion being performed for the Fossil Energy Program under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The key activity involves the application of chaos theory for the diagnosis and control of fossil energy processes.

  16. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  17. Coal Preparation Plant Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1992-02-25

    COALPREP assesses the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and mode of operation. It allows the user to simulate coal preparation plants to determine an optimum plant configuration for a given degree of cleaning. The user can compare the performance of alternative plant configurations as well as determine the impact of various modes of operation for a proposed configuration. The devices that can be modelled include froth flotationmore » devices, washers, dewatering equipment, thermal dryers, rotary breakers, roll crushers, classifiers, screens, blenders and splitters, and gravity thickeners. The user must specify the plant configuration and operating conditions and a description of the coal feed. COALPREP then determines the flowrates within the plant and a description of each flow stream (i.e. the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, BTU content, recoveries, and specific gravity of separation). COALPREP also includes a capability for calculating the cleaning cost per ton of coal. The IBM PC version contains two auxiliary programs, DATAPREP and FORLIST. DATAPREP is an interactive preprocessor for creating and editing COALPREP input data. FORLIST converts carriage-control characters in FORTRAN output data to ASCII line-feed (X''0A'') characters.« less

  18. Coal Preparation Plant Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1992-02-25

    COALPREP assesses the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and mode of operation. It allows the user to simulate coal preparation plants to determine an optimum plant configuration for a given degree of cleaning. The user can compare the performance of alternative plant configurations as well as determine the impact of various modes of operation for a proposed configuration. The devices that can be modelled include froth flotationmore » devices, washers, dewatering equipment, thermal dryers, rotary breakers, roll crushers, classifiers, screens, blenders and splitters, and gravity thickeners. The user must specify the plant configuration and operating conditions and a description of the coal feed. COALPREP then determines the flowrates within the plant and a description of each flow stream (i.e. the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, BTU content, recoveries, and specific gravity of separation). COALPREP also includes a capability for calculating the cleaning cost per ton of coal.« less

  19. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Maa, Peter S.

    1978-01-01

    A process for liquefying a particulate coal feed to produce useful petroleum-like liquid products which comprises contacting; in a series of two or more coal liquefaction zones, or stages, graded with respect to temperature, an admixture of a polar compound; or compounds, a hydrogen donor solvent and particulate coal, the total effluent being passed in each instance from a low temperature zone, or stage to the next succeeding higher temperature zone, or stage, of the series. The temperature within the initial zone, or stage, of the series is maintained about 70.degree. F and 750.degree. F and the temperature within the final zone, or stage, is maintained between about 750.degree. F and 950.degree. F. The residence time within the first zone, or stage, ranges, generally, from about 20 to about 150 minutes and residence time within each of the remaining zones, or stages, of the series ranges, generally, from about 10 minutes to about 70 minutes. Further steps of the process include: separating the product from the liquefaction zone into fractions inclusive of a liquid solvent fraction; hydrotreating said liquid solvent fraction in a hydrogenation zone; and recycling the hydrogenated liquid solvent mixture to said coal liquefaction zones.

  20. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2001 State Region Domestic Foreign Total Alabama 14,828 4,508 19,336 Alaska 825 698 1,524 Arizona 13,143 - 13,143...

  1. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. ); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. ); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. ); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. )

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  2. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  3. Catalytic coal hydroliquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal in a hydrogen donor solvent in the presence of hydrogen and a co-catalyst combination of iron and a Group VI or Group VIII non-ferrous metal or compounds of the catalysts.

  4. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Sunder, Swaminathan (Allentown, PA)

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids.

  5. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

    1986-12-02

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

  6. Coal mine methane global review

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

  7. The shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O.

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  8. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOEpatents

    Tao, John C.

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  9. A case study of PFBC for low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    Pressurized Fluidized Combined-Cycle (PFBC) technology allows the efficient and environmentally friendly utilization of solid fuels for power and combined heat and power generation. With current PFBC technology, thermal efficiencies near 46%, on an LHV basis and with low condenser pressures, can be reached in condensing power plants. Further efficiency improvements to 50% or more are possible. PFBC plants are characterized by high thermal efficiency, compactness, and extremely good environmental performance. The PFBC plants which are now in operation in Sweden, the U.S. and Japan burn medium-ash, bituminous coal with sulfur contents ranging from 0.7 to 4%. A sub- bituminous {open_quotes}black lignite{close_quotes} with high levels of sulfur, ash and humidity, is used as fuel in a demonstration PFBC plant in Spain. Project discussions are underway, among others in Central and Eastern Europe, for the construction of PFBC plants which will burn lignite, oil-shale and also mixtures of coal and biomass with high efficiency and extremely low emissions. This paper will provide information about the performance data for PFBC plants when operating on a range of low grade coals and other solid fuels, and will summarize other advantages of this leading new clean coal technology.

  10. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  11. Secretary Moniz to Discuss Western Energy Landscape at Western...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    -586-4940 Secretary Moniz to Discuss Western Energy Landscape at Western Governors' Association Annual Meeting WASHINGTON - On Saturday, December 6, U.S. Secretary of Energy Ernest...

  12. Eight Advanced Coal Projects Chosen for Further Development by DOE's University Coal Research Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has selected eight new projects to further advanced coal research under the University Coal Research Program. The selected projects will improve coal conversion and use and will help propel technologies for future advanced coal power systems.

  13. Europe

    Annual Energy Outlook

    7,900 Mongolia 3 - 3,400 Thailand 152 453 0 South Asia 396 5,802 12,900 8,211 26,913 India 361 5,476 3,800 Pakistan 23 248 9,100 Middle East and North Africa 10,986 867,463...

  14. Europe

    Annual Energy Outlook

    124 1,115 Indonesia 3 108 46 Mongolia - - 4 Thailand 1 10 5 South Asia 4 86 201 183 470 India 2 44 96 Pakistan 1 24 105 Middle East and North Africa 26 3,117 1,003 1,651 5,772...

  15. Moist caustic leaching of coal

    DOEpatents

    Nowak, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

  16. Summary of coal export project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Through the international coal project and related activities, SSEB has called attention to the problems and potential of the US coal industry. The program has provided an excellent format for frank discussions on the problems facing US coal exports. Every effort must be made to promote coal and its role in the southern economy. Coal is enjoying its best years in the domestic market. While the export market is holding its own, there is increased competition in the world market from Australia, Columbia, China and, to a lesser extent, Russia. This is coming at a time when the US has enacted legislation and plans are underway to deepen ports. In addition there is concern that increased US coal and electricity imports are having a negative impact on coal production. These limiting factors suggest the US will remain the swing supplier of coal on the world market in the near future. This presents a challenge to the US coal and related industry to maintain the present market and seek new markets as well as devote research to new ways to use coal more cleanly and efficiently.

  17. High pressure rotary piston coal feeder for coal gasification applications

    DOEpatents

    Gencsoy, Hasan T.

    1977-05-24

    The subject development is directed to an apparatus for feeding pulverized coal into a coal gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. This apparatus is a rotary piston feeder which comprises a circular casing having a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable discoid rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocateable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam arrangement whereby the pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder cavity and then discharged therefrom into the high-pressure gasifier without the loss of high pressure gases from within the latter.

  18. Process for changing caking coals to noncaking coals

    DOEpatents

    Beeson, Justin L. (Woodridge, IL)

    1980-01-01

    Caking coals are treated in a slurry including alkaline earth metal hydroxides at moderate pressures and temperatures in air to form noncaking carbonaceous material. Hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide or barium hydroxide are contemplated for slurrying with the coal to interact with the agglomerating constituents. The slurry is subsequently dewatered and dried in air at atmospheric pressure to produce a nonagglomerating carbonaceous material that can be conveniently handled in various coal conversion and combustion processes.

  19. Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.

  20. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: catalog of bituminous coals and site selection. Appendix A. National coal resource data system: Ecoal, Wcoal, and Bmalyt. Final report, Phase I. [Bituminous coal; by state; coal seam depth and thickness; identification

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-31

    Appendix A is a catalog of the bituminous coal in 29 states of the contiguous United States which contain identified bituminous coal resources.

  1. Coal-Producing Region

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    . Coal Production by State (thousand short tons) Year to Date Coal-Producing Region and State April - June 2016 January - March 2016 April - June 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change Alabama 2,223 2,446 3,504 4,669 7,561 -38.2 Alaska 228 310 345 538 610 -11.9 Arizona 1,235 1,335 1,912 2,569 3,667 -29.9 Arkansas 15 11 27 27 48 -44.9 Colorado 3,081 2,482 5,078 5,564 10,341 -46.2 Illinois 11,125 11,312 13,391 22,437 30,221 -25.8 Indiana 6,963 7,224 8,577 14,187 18,040 -21.4 Kansas - 27 49 27 102 -73.9

  2. Coal mine subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Rahall, N.J.

    1991-05-01

    This paper examines the efficacy of the Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement's (OSMRE) efforts to implement the federally assisted coal mine subsidence insurance program. Coal mine subsidence, a gradual settling of the earth's surface above an underground mine, can damage nearby land and property. To help protect property owners from subsidence-related damage, the Congress passed legislation in 1984 authorizing OSMRE to make grants of up to $3 million to each state to help the states establish self-sustaining, state-administered insurance programs. Of the 21 eligible states, six Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wyoming applied for grants. This paper reviews the efforts of these six states to develop self-sustaining insurance programs and assessed OSMRE's oversight of those efforts.

  3. Exploration for deep coal

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-15

    The most important factor in safe mining is the quality of the roof. The article explains how the Rosebud Mining Co. conducts drilling and exploration in 11 deep coal mine throughout Pennsylvania and Ohio. Rosebud uses two Atlas Copco CS10 core drilling rigs mounted on 4-wheel drive trucks. The article first appeared in Atlas Copco's in-house magazine, Deep Hole Driller. 3 photos.

  4. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    The coal liquefaction process disclosed uses three stages. The first stage is a liquefaction. The second and third stages are hydrogenation stages at different temperatures and in parallel or in series. One stage is within 650.degree.-795.degree. F. and optimizes solvent production. The other stage is within 800.degree.-840.degree. F. and optimizes the C.sub.5 -850.degree. F. product.

  5. COAL & POWER SYSTEMS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    COAL & POWER SYSTEMS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM PLANS U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY * OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY GREENER, SOONER... THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION .......... i-1 STRATEGIC PLAN ........ 1-1 PROGRAM PLANS Vision 21 .......................... 2-1 Central Power Systems ...... 3-1 Distributed Generation ..... 4-1 Fuels ................................ 5-1 Carbon Sequestration ....... 6-1 Advanced Research ........... 7-1 TABLE OF CONTENTS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM

  6. Environmental development plan: coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This Environmental Development plan (EDP) examines environmental concerns that are being evaluated for the technologies in DOE's Coal Liquefaction Program. It identifies the actions that are planned or underway to resolve these concerns while the technologies are being developed. Research is scheduled on the evaluation and mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This EDP updates the FY 1977 Coal Liquefaction Program EDP. Chapter II describes the DOE Coal Liquefaction Program and focuses on the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC), H-Coal, and Exxon donor solvent (EDS) processes because of their relatively advanced R and D stages. The major unresolved environmental concerns associated with the coal liquefaction subactivities and projects are summarized. The concerns were identified in the 1977 EDP's and research was scheduled to lead to the resolution of the concerns. Much of this research is currently underway. The status of ongoing and planned research is shown in Table 4-1.

  7. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  8. COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION

    SciTech Connect

    MEIYU SHEN; ROYCE ABBOTT; T.D. WHEELOCK

    1998-09-30

    The agglomeration of ultrafine-size coal particles in an aqueous suspension by means of microscopic gas bubbles was demonstrated in numerous experiments with a scale model mixing system. Coal samples from both the Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam and the Upper Freeport Seam were used for these experiments. A small amount of i-octane was added to facilitate the process. Microscopic gas bubbles were generated by saturating the water used for suspending coal particles with gas under pressure and then reducing the pressure. Microagglomerates were produced which appeared to consist of gas bubbles encapsulated in coal particles. Since dilute particle suspensions were employed, it was possible to monitor the progress of agglomeration by observing changes in turbidity. By such means it became apparent that the rate of agglomeration depends on the concentration of microscopic gas bubbles and to a lesser extent on the concentration of i-octane. Similar results were obtained with both Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and Upper Freeport coal.

  9. Pulmonary retention of coal dusts

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, P.E.; Gibb, F.R.; Beiter, H.; Amato, F.; Yuile, C.; Kilpper, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The principal objectives of this study were: to determine, quantitatively, coal dust retention times in the dog lung; to test the appropriateness of a pulmonary retention model which incorporates first order rate coefficients obtained from in vitro and in vivo experiments on neutron-activated coal; to acquire a temporal description of the pulmonary disposition of the retained coal dust, and to compare the behavior of two different Pennsylvania coals in the foregoing regards. The principal findings include: retention half-times for both coals of approximately 2 years following single, hour-long exposures; a vivid association of the retained coal dust with the pulmonic lymphatics; and a general validation of the retention model.

  10. Solvent tailoring in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, July-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Tarrer, A.R.; Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Williams, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    A series of twenty-three aromatic compounds were ranked for their donor solvent efficacy for the dissolution of Western Kentucky No. 9/14 coal. The transfer of hydrogen from the solvent to the coal fragments, as measured by coal conversion, was examined at three levels of available hydrogen. The hydrogen donors are ranked according to their ability to convert coal to THF solubles. Aromatic analogs of the donors showed little ability to convert coal to THF solubles. Factors which influence hydrogen donation include the presence of heteroatoms or substituents both internal and external to the aromatic or hydroaromatic rings, the degree of hydrogenation, the aromaticity or nonaromaticity of the hydroaromatics, and the presence of five-membered rings. A relationship between heats of formation and hydrogen donor ability is shown for hydroaromatics within two ring or three ring homologous series. A model hydrogen acceptor, benzophenone, is also used to rank donors. No correlation exists in the ranking of hydrogen donors by the model acceptor used in this work and in other experimental studies and that obtained by conversion of Western Kentucky coal at typical liquefaction conditions. 24 references.

  11. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  12. Volatile coal prices reflect supply, demand uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.

    2004-12-15

    Coal mine owners and investors say that supply and demand are now finally in balance. But coal consumers find that both spot tonnage and new contract coal come at a much higher price.

  13. Clean Coal Technologies | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    of harmful pollutants from coal, including mercury, sulfur and coal tars. References: Clean Coal Technologies1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it....

  14. U.S. Coal Supply and Demand

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    U.S. Coal Supply and Demand > U.S. Coal Supply and Demand U.S. Coal Supply and Demand 2010 Review (entire report also available in printer-friendly format ) Previous Editions 2009 ...

  15. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  16. Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, S.E.; Stohl, F.V.; Diegert, K.V.

    1995-12-31

    To develop a database relating hydrotreating parameters to feed and product quality by experimentally evaluating options for hydrotreating whole coal liquids, distillate cuts of coal liquids, petroleum, and blends of coal liquids with petroleum.

  17. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  18. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOEpatents

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  19. On-Site Coal Research

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Research Advanced Energy Systems Advanced Energy Systems research conceives, analyzes, and develops energy technologies that can minimize the environmental impact of fossil ...

  20. Coal Production 1990. [CONTAINS GLOSSARY

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-12

    This report provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, and reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1991. This is the 11th annual summary on minable coal, pursuant to Section 801 of Public Law 95-620, the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978. 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  1. Coal production 1984. [USA; 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Coal Production 1984 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (PL 93-275) as amended. All data presented in this report, except the total production table presented in the Highlights section, the demonstrated reserve base data presented in Appendix A, and the 1983 coal preparation and shipments data presented in Appendix C, were obtained from Form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1984. These mining operations accounted for 99.4% of total US coal production and represented 76.3% of all US coal mining operations in 1984. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1984.

  2. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  3. Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe Guidelines on Endovascular Treatment in Aortoiliac Arterial Disease Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  4. Jetion Europe Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Europe Ltd Place: Liechtenstein Zip: FL-9490 Product: Joint venture between Chinese PV cell and module manufacturer Jetion (AIM: JHL), Andreas Gruenberg of Switzerland and Sunlynx...

  5. Europe's Energy Portal | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    for their energy-related news, key statistics and energy prices. Europe's Energy Portal business model is to provide customized energy data, statistics and surveys related to the...

  6. Intelligent Energy Europe (IEE) | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Topics Finance, Market analysis, Background analysis Website http:ec.europa.euenergyint UN Region Northern Europe References IEE1 Overview "Set up by the EU...

  7. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.-H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Venkatadri, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Perez, L.

    1990-01-01

    The progress achieved in leading to effective surface control for selective agglomeration processes was summarized. Several analytical techniques developed in Task 3 were utilized during this quarter to characterize coal samples obtained from agglomeration tests. Surface and near surface (1 {mu}m depth) functional groups were analyzed using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform spectroscopy. Surface composition analyses were conducted using Laser Microprobe Mass Analyzer. The results of these analysis are being used to relate the agglomeration results with surface modifications to the properties of coal samples. The development of a method a for direct determination of pyrite using X-ray diffraction was continued. The sample preparation technique was improved in order to increase the reproducibility of the analysis. The contact angle of n-heptane droplets on coal pellets immersed in water were measured. The results of these measurements suggest that high shear mixing is necessary for wetting coal surfaces with n-heptane. Agglomeration tests using n-heptane as agglomerant were carried out this quarter. For Pittsburgh {number sign}8 coal, better performance was obtained using n-heptane than using n-pentane. For Upper Freeport coal, however, lower pyritic sulfur rejection was obtained with n-heptane. A n-heptane to coal ratio between 1.25 and 1.5 was found to produce the best performance results for Illinois {number sign}6 coal. A study of the effect of agglomeration time on the agglomeration process performance for Illinois {number sign}6 coal using n-pentane and n-heptane as agglomerants indicates that no significant gains in performance are possible using agglomeration times longer than 60 seconds. The addition of tall oil as a binding agent after the high shear agglomeration step resulted in a large increase in overall coal yield and energy recovery for Illinois {number sign}6 coal. 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Quarterly Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Quarterly Coal Distribution Report Release Date: August 17, 2016 | Next Release Date: December 22, 2016 | full report The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed U.S. domestic coal distribution data by coal origin state, coal destination state, mode of transportation, and consuming sector. All quarterly data are preliminary and will be superseded by the release of the corresponding "Annual Coal Distribution Report." Highlights for the fourth quarter 2015: Total

  9. Hydrogen Production: Coal Gasification | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Coal Gasification Hydrogen Production: Coal Gasification The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy supports activities to advance coal-to-hydrogen technologies, specifically through the process of coal gasification with carbon capture, utilization, and storage. DOE anticipates that coal gasification for hydrogen production with carbon capture, utilization, and storage could be deployed in the mid-term time frame. How Does It Work? Chemically, coal is a complex and highly

  10. Coal Combustion Products | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Coal Combustion Products Coal Combustion Products Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. Fossil Energy Research Benefits - Coal Combustion Products (508.89 KB) More Documents & Publications EIS-0146: Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Guide

  11. FMI NewCoal | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    developer focused on upgrading low rank coals to improve combustion efficiency and reduce production of greenhouse emissions for coal fired utility and industrial power generation...

  12. American Clean Coal Fuels | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    American Clean Coal Fuels Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAmericanCleanCoalFuels&oldid768408" Categories: Organizations Energy Generation Organizations...

  13. DOE's Advanced Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration...

    Energy Saver

    ... hold promise for integration with coal-based or combined coal and biomass energy plants. ... such as advanced integrated gasification combined cycle, advanced hydrogen ...

  14. FE Clean Coal News | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Electricity from Innovative DOE-Supported Clean Coal Project An innovative clean coal technology project in Texas will supply electricity to the largest municipally owned...

  15. SciTech Connect: "clean coal"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    clean coal" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "clean coal" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator ...

  16. EIA - Weekly U.S. Coal Production

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    rounding. Bituminous and Lignite Total includes bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite, and Anthracite Total includes Pennsylvania anthracite. The States in...

  17. Jamestown Oxy Coal Alliance | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Oxy Coal Alliance Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jamestown Oxy-Coal Alliance Place: New York Product: The Jamestown Alliance has been formed to develop a CCS demonstration...

  18. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. ... organic base catalysts for arene hydrogenation and the hydrotreating of the coal liquids. ...

  19. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. ... organic base catalysts for arene hydrogenation and the hydrotreating of the coal liquids. ...

  20. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. ... Task 2, organic base-catalyzed arene hydrogenation and hydrotreating of the coal liquids. ...

  1. Tropical Western Pacific

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govSitesTropical Western Pacific TWP Related Links Facilities and Instruments Manus Island Nauru Island Darwin, AUS ES&H Guidance Statement Operations Science Field Campaigns Year of Tropical Convection Visiting the Site TWP Fact Sheet Images Information for Guest Scientists Tropical Western Pacific-Inactive Manus, Papua New Guinea: 2° 3' 39.64" S, 147° 25' 31.43" E Nauru Island: 0° 31' 15.6" S, 166° 54' 57.60" E Darwin, Australia: 12° 25' 28.56" S, 130° 53'

  2. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S-H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Venkatadri, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.

    1990-01-01

    Research continued on surface control of coal. This report describes Task 7 of the program. The following topics are discussed: quantitative distribution of iron species; surface functional groups; comparison of wet and dry ground samples; study of Illinois No. 6 coal wet ground using additives; study of wet grinding using tall oil; elemental distribution of coal samples wet ground without additives; elemental distribution of coal samples wet ground with tall oil; direct determination of pyrite by x-ray diffraction; electron microprobe measurements; morphology; zeta potential measurements; pyrite size distribution; statistical analysis of grinding study data; grinding using N-pentane; cyclohexane, and N-heptane; study of the effects of the grinding method and time; study of the effects of the agglomeration time; and the pentane to coal ratio. 13 refs.

  3. Analysis of some potential social effects of four coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.A.; Gould, L.C.

    1980-09-01

    This is an analysis of the potential social impacts of four coal technologies: conventional combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, liquifaction, and gasification. Because of their flexibility, and the abundance and relatively low costs of coal, the potential benefits of these technologies would seem to outweigh their potential social costs, both in the intermediate and long term. Nevertheless, the social costs of a coal industry are far more obscure and hard to quantify than the benefits. In general, however, it maybe expected that those technologies that can be deployed most quickly, that provide fuels that can substitute most easily for oil and natural gas, that are the cheapest, and that are the most thermally efficient will minimize social costs most in the intermediate term, while technologies that can guide energy infrastructure changes to become the most compatable with the fuels that will be most easily derived from inexhaustible sources (electricity and hydrogen) will minimize social costs most in the long run. An industry structured to favor eastern over western coal and plant sites in moderate sized communities, which could easily adapt to inexhaustible energy technologies (nuclear or solar) in the future, would be favored in either time period.

  4. The South Canon Number 1 Coal Mine fire: Glenwood Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn B. Stracher; Steven Renner; Gary Colaizzi; Tammy P. Taylor

    2004-07-01

    The South Canon Number 1 Coal Mine fire, in South Canyon west of Glenwood Springs, Colorado, is a subsurface fire of unknown origin, burning since 1910. Subsidence features, gas vents, ash, condensates, and red oxidized shales are surface manifestations of the fire. The likely success of conventional fire-containment methodologies in South Canyon is questionable, although drilling data may eventually suggest a useful control procedure. Drill casings in voids in the D coal seam on the western slope trail are useful for collecting gas samples, monitoring the temperature of subsurface burning, and measuring the concentration of gases such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the field. Coal fire gas and mineral condensates may contribute to the destruction of floral and faunal habitats and be responsible for a variety of human diseases; hence, the study of coal gas and its condensation products may prove useful in understanding environmental pollution created by coal mine fires. The 2002 Coal Seam Fire, which burned over 12,000 acres and destroyed numerous buildings in and around Glenwood Springs, exemplifies the potential danger an underground coal fire poses for igniting a surface fire.

  5. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov

    2009-07-15

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  6. Coal: Energy for the future

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  7. Great Plains Coal Gasification Project:

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-29

    This progress report on the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project discusses Lignite coal, natural gas, and by-products production as well as gas quality. A tabulation of raw material, product and energy consumption is provided for plant operations. Capital improvement projects and plant maintenance activities are detailed and summaries are provided for environmental, safety, medical, quality assurance, and qualtiy control activities.

  8. Commercialization of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bharucha, N.

    1994-12-31

    The steps to commercialization are reviewed in respect of their relative costs, the roles of the government and business sectors, and the need for scientific, technological, and economic viability. The status of commercialization of selected clean coal technologies is discussed. Case studies related to a clean coal technology are reviewed and conclusions are drawn on the factors that determine commercialization.

  9. Coal Age buyers guide 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-15

    The buyers guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  10. Coal Age buyers guide 2005

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    The Buyers Guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  11. Coal Age buyers guide 2006

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-15

    The Buyers Guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  12. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Coblentz, B.

    2009-07-15

    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  13. 2009 coal preparation buyer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-15

    The guide contains brief descriptions and contact details of 926 US companies supplying coal preparation equipment who exhibited at the 26th annual Coal Prep exhibition and conference, 28-30 April - May 2009, in Lexington, KY, USA. An index of categories of equipment available from the manufacturers is included.

  14. Coal Reserves Data Base report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

    1991-12-05

    The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA's effort to update the Nation's coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

  15. A way of work and a way of life: Coal mining and coal miners in Thurber, Texas, 1888-1926

    SciTech Connect

    Rhinehart, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    Founded in the late 1800s on the western edge of North Central Texas, Thurber Village thrived for almost 35 years as a coal-mining company town dependent on the railroads' need for fuel. By the turn of the century a largely immigrant population dominated by Italians and Poles lived and toiled in the camp, but despite ethnic and racial differences, a sense of community based on occupational ties shaped life there. Shared traditions, grievances, fears, and expectations of autonomy at the work place facilitated protest and influenced social activities in the miners' after-work lives. A way of work thus expanded into a way of life. Poor employer/employee relations plagued Hunter from the first days of Thurber's existence. Workers resented perennial company interference in their lives and used traditional forms of protest to resist it. By the end of the 1910s Thurber's fortunes waned as the railroad turned to petroleum for fuel and labor demands taxed the coal operators' patience. The Texas Pacific Coal Company added oil to its name and focused attention on its petroleum prospects. After a series of labor difficulties in the 1920s, coal production halted in 1926.

  16. Development and applications of clean coal fluidized bed technology

    SciTech Connect

    Eskin, N.; Hepbasli, A.

    2006-09-15

    Power generation in Europe and elsewhere relies heavily on coal and coal-based fuels as the source of energy. The reliance will increase in the future due to the decreasing stability of price and security of oil supply. In other words, the studies on fluidized bed combustion systems, which is one of the clean coal technologies, will maintain its importance. The main objective of the present study is to introduce the development and the applications of the fluidized bed technology (FBT) and to review the fluidized bed combustion studies conducted in Turkey. The industrial applications of the fluidized bed technology in the country date back to the 1980s. Since then, the number of the fluidized bed boilers has increased. The majority of the installations are in the textile sector. In Turkey, there is also a circulating fluidized bed thermal power plant with a capacity of 2 x 160 MW under construction at Can in Canakkale. It is expected that the FBT has had, or will have, a significant and increasing role in dictating the energy strategies for Turkey.

  17. Coals and coal requirements for the COREX process

    SciTech Connect

    Heckmann, H.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of non met coals for production of liquid hot metal was the motivation for the development of the COREX Process by VAI/DVAI during the 70`s. Like the conventional ironmaking route (coke oven/blast furnace) it is based on coal as source of energy and reduction medium. However, in difference to blast furnace, coal can be used directly without the necessary prestep of cokemaking. Coking ability of coals therefore is no prerequisite of suitability. Meanwhile the COREX Process is on its way to become established in ironmaking industry. COREX Plants at ISCOR, Pretoria/South Africa and POSCO Pohang/Korea, being in operation and those which will be started up during the next years comprise already an annual coal consumption capacity of approx. 5 Mio. tonnes mtr., which is a magnitude attracting the interest of industrial coal suppliers. The increasing importance of COREX as a comparable new technology forms also a demand for information regarding process requirements for raw material, especially coal, which is intended to be met here.

  18. Coal Technology '80. Volume 5. Synthetic fuels from coal. Volume 6. Industrial/utility applications for coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The 3rd international coal utilization exhibition and conference Coal Technology '80 was held at the Astrohall, Houston, Texas, November 18-20, 1980. Volume 5 deals with coal gasification and coal liquefaction. Volume 6 deals with fluidized-bed combustion of coal, cogeneration and combined-cycle power plants, coal-fuel oil mixtures (COM), chemical feedstocks via coal gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Thirty-six papers have been entered individually into EDB and seven also into ERA; three had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  19. Dynetek Europe GmbH | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Dynetek Europe GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dynetek Europe GmbH Place: Ratingen, Germany Zip: 40885 Product: Dynetek Industries Ltd and Dynetek Europe GmbH manufacture...

  20. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. [Coal pyrite electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville [number sign]2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

  1. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 90% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 90% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning, method for analysis of samples, development of standard beneficiation test, grinding studies, modification of particle surface, and exploratory R D and support. 5 refs., 22 figs., 34 tabs.

  2. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. )

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  3. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  4. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Slegeir, William A.; Healy, Francis E.; Sapienza, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  5. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  6. Coal Study Guide for Elementary School | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    for Elementary School Coal Study Guide for Elementary School Focuses on the basics of coal, history of coal use, conversion of coal into electricity, and climate change concerns. Fossil Energy Study Guide: Coal (for Elementary School) (777.35 KB) More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide - Middle School Coal Study Guide - High School Secondary Energy Infobook and Secondary Infobook Activities (19 Activities)

  7. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base.

  8. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  9. Coal production, 1986. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-28

    Coal Production 1986 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data presented in this report were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Aministration Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-275) as amended. The 1986 coal production and related data presented in this report were obtained from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1986. This survey originated at the Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior. This report also includes updated data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on both January 1, 1986 and January 1, 1987. This is the seventh annual summry on minable coal, pursuant to Sec. 801 of Public Law 95-620. 18 figs., 105 tabs.

  10. Mechanism of instantaneous coal outbursts

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, P.; Wang, H.Y.; Zhang, Y.X.

    2009-10-15

    Thousands of mine workers die every year from mining accidents, and instantaneous coal outbursts in underground coal mines are one of the major killers. Various models for these outbursts have been proposed, but the precise mechanism is still unknown. We hypothesize that the mechanism of coal outbursts is similar to magma fragmentation during explosive volcanic eruptions; i.e., it is caused by high gas pressure inside coal but low ambient pressure on it, breaking coal into pieces and releasing the high-pressure gas in a shock wave. Hence, coal outbursts may be regarded as another type of gas-driven eruption, in addition to explosive volcanic, lake, and possible ocean eruptions. We verify the hypothesis by experiments using a shock-tube apparatus. Knowing the mechanism of coal outbursts is the first step in developing prediction and mitigation measures. The new concept of gas-driven solid eruption is also important to a better understanding of salt-gas outbursts, rock-gas outbursts, and mud volcano eruptions.

  11. Ceramic Fuel Cells Europe Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Ceramic Fuel Cells Europe Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ceramic Fuel Cells (Europe) Ltd Place: United Kingdom Product: A wholly owned subsidiary of Ceramic Fuel Cells Ltd,...

  12. ECF-Europe-Roadmap 2050 | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    ECF-Europe-Roadmap 2050 Jump to: navigation, search Name Europe - Roadmap 2050 AgencyCompany Organization European Climate Foundation Partner ClimateWorks Sector Energy Topics...

  13. Free Energy International Free Energy Europe | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Free Energy Europe Jump to: navigation, search Name: Free Energy International Free Energy Europe Place: Eindhoven, Netherlands Zip: 5627 BZ Product: Manufactures amorphous...

  14. Clean Urban Transport for Europe CUTE | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Transport for Europe CUTE Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) Place: Ulm, Germany Zip: 89077 Product: Germany-based, European Union project...

  15. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes work completed during the fourth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a new coal liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing scheme consisting of three main process steps: (1) mile pretreatment of the feed coal to enhance dissolution reactivity and dry the coal, (2) low severity thermal dissolution of the pretreated coal to obtain a very reactive coal-derived residual material amenable to upgrading, and (3) catalytic upgrading of the residual products to distillate liquids.

  16. Early Campanian coastal progradational systems and their coal-forming environments, Wyoming to New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, W.E.; Flores, R.M.; Ethridge, F.G.; Cavaroc, V.V.

    1985-05-01

    Ammonite zones (Baculites obtusus-Scaphites hippocrepis) in the marine facies associated with the Mesaverde Formation in the Bighorn basin, Wyoming, Star Point Sandstone and Blackhawk Formation in the Wasatch Plateau, Utah, and the Point Lookout Sandstone, Menefee Formation, and Crevasse Canyon Formation in the Gallup coalfield, New Mexico, indicate that these formations were deposited during early Campanian time (80-84 Ma). The coal-forming environments of these early Campanian formations were located landward of wave-reworked coastal sand complexes of progradational systems along the western margin of the Cretaceous seaway from Wyoming to New Mexico. The Mesaverde coals accumulated in swamps of the lower delta plain and coeval interdeltaic strandplain environments. The Star Point-Blackhawk coals accumulated in swamps of the lower delta plains of laterally shifting, prograding deltas and associated barrier ridge plains. The Point Lookout, Menefee, and Crevasse canyon coals formed in swamps of the lower delta plain and infilled lagoons behind barrier islands. Although the common coal-forming environments of these progradational systems are back barrier and delta plain, the former setting was the more conducive for accumulation of thick, laterally extensive coals. Economic coal deposits formed in swamps built on abandoned back-barrier platforms that were free of detrital influx and marine influence. Delta-plain coals tend to be lenticular and laterally discontinuous and thus uneconomic. The early Campanian coal-forming coastal-plain environments are analogous to modern peat-forming environments along the coast of Belize, Central America. Deltaic sediments deposited along the Belize coast by short-headed streams are reworked by waves into coastal barrier systems.

  17. Annual Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Distribution Report Release Date: November 14, 2016 | Next Release Date: November 2017 | full report The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on U.S. domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for 2015 are final and this report supersedes the 2015 quarterly coal distribution reports. Highlights for 2015:

  18. Coal competition: prospects for the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    This report consists of 10 chapters which present an historical overview of coal and the part it has played as an energy source in the economic growth of the United States from prior to World War II through 1978. Chapter titles are: definition of coals, coal mining; types of coal mines; mining methods; mining work force; development of coal; mine ownership; production; consumption; prices; exports; and imports. (DMC)

  19. Sustainable Coal Use | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Sustainable Coal Use Sustainable Coal Use Coal is a vital energy resource, not only for the United States, but also for many developed and developing economies around the world. Finding ways to use coal cleanly and more efficiently at lower costs is a major R&D challenge, and an ongoing focus of activities by the DOE's Office of Fossil Energy. Fossil Energy Research Benefits - Sustainable Coal Use (591.9 KB) More Documents & Publications Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning

  20. STEO December 2012 - coal demand

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    coal demand seen below 1 billion tons in 2012 for fourth year in a row Coal consumption by U.S. power plants to generate electricity is expected to fall below 1 billion tons in 2012 for the fourth year in a row. Domestic coal consumption is on track to total 829 million tons this year. That's the lowest level since 1992, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new monthly energy forecast. Utilities and power plant operators are choosing to burn more lower-priced natural gas

  1. Interest in coal chemistry intensifies

    SciTech Connect

    Haggin, J.

    1982-08-09

    Research on coal structure has increased greatly in recent years as the future role of coal as a source of gaseous and liquid fuels, as well as chemicals, becomes more apparent. This paper reviews in some detail work being carried out in the US, particularly in the laboratories of Mobil and Exxon, and in the universities. New ideas on the chemical and physical structure of coal are put forward, and a proposal for a new classification system based on the fundamental properties of the vitrinite macerals is introduced.

  2. Assessing Coal Unit Retirement Risk

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Ventures Analysis 1901 N. Moore St. Arlington, VA 22209 (703) 276 8900 A S S E S S I N G C O A L U N I T R E T I R E M E N T R I S K Tom Hewson Principal June 14, 2016 Presentation for the US Energy Information Administration Workshop Coal Fleet Aging 1 COAL CAPACITY CHALLENGES E N E R G Y V E N T U R E S A N A L Y S I S , I N C .  Environmental Regulatory Risk-- Compliance often requires coal units to make large capital investment in additional retrofit control measures and/or increase their

  3. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  4. DOE/EIA-M060(2007) Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  5. Coal Market Module of the Energy Modeling System Model Documentation...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  6. Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System Model...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  7. Table 13. Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual Projected

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million short tons) 1993 1994 1995 1996 ... (Washington, DC, September 25, 2014), Table 6.1, Coal Production and Waste Coal Supplied

  8. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine | netl.doe...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 3 (April 2016) Archived Editions: Coal ...

  9. Southern Coal finds value in the met market

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-11-15

    The Justice family launches a new coal company (Southern Coal Corp.) to serve metallurgical and steam coal markets. 1 tab., 3 photos.

  10. Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State,

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-exporting State. This Final 2008 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the Preliminary...

  11. Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State,

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-exporting State. This Final 2008 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the Preliminary...

  12. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    and Institutional: Form EIA-3, "Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report, Manufacturing and TransformationProcessing Coal Plants and Commercial and Institutional Coal...

  13. Coal gasification vessel

    DOEpatents

    Loo, Billy W.

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  14. U.S. coal outlook in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-02-01

    Coal exports from the US to Asia are declining over time as a result of (1) increased competition from coal suppliers within the Asia-Pacific region, (2) changing steel making technologies, (3) decreased emphasis on security of coal supplies, and (4) deregulation of the energy industry--particularly electric utilities. There are no major changes on the horizon that are likely to alter the role of the US as a modest coal supplier to the Asia-Pacific region. The downward trend in US coal exports to Asia is expected to continue over the 1997--2010 period. But economic and policy changes underway in Asia are likely to result in periodic coal shortages, lasting a few months to a year, and short term increased export opportunities for US coal. US coal exports to Asia are projected to fluctuate within the following ranges over the 2000--2010 period: 10--17 million tons in total exports, 6--12 million tons in thermal coal exports, and 4--9 million tons in coking coal exports. The most important role for US coal, from the perspective of Asian coal importing countries, is to ensure a major alternative source of coal supplies that can be turned to in the event of unforeseen disruptions in coal supplies from the Asia-Pacific region or South Africa. However, the willingness of consumers to pay a premium to ensure US export capacity is declining, with increased emphasis on obtaining the lowest cost coal supplies.

  15. Western Power Corporation | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Western Power Corporation Place: Perth, Western Australia, Australia Zip: 6000 Product: Western Australian electricity provider. Coordinates: -31.95302, 115.857239 Show Map...

  16. Effectiveness factors for hydroprocessing of coal and coal liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Massoth, F.E.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-03-29

    The aim of this project is to develop a methodology to predict, from a knowledge of feed and catalyst properties, effectiveness factors for catalytic hydroprocessing of coal and coal liquids. To achieve this aim, it is necessary to account for restrictive diffusion, which has not hitherto been done from a fundamental approach under reaction conditions. The research entails a study of hydrodenitrogenation of model compounds and coal-derived liquids using three NiMo/alumina catalysts of different pore size to develop, for restrictive diffusion, a relationship that can be used for estimating reliable effectiveness factors. The research program includes: Task A - measurement of pertinent properties of the catalysts and of several coal liquids; Task B - determination of effective diffusivities and turtuosities of the catalysts; Task C - development of restrictive diffusion correlations from data on model N-compound reactions; Task D - testing of correlations with coal-liquid cuts and whole coal-liquid feed. Results are presented and discussed from Tasks B and D. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Effectiveness factors for hydroprocessing of coal and coal liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Massoth, F.E.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this research project is to develop a methodology to predict, from a knowledge of feed and catalyst properties, effectiveness factors for catalytic hydroprocessing of coal and coal liquids. To achieve this aim, it is necessary to account for restrictive diffusion, which has not hitherto been done from a fundamental approach under reaction conditions. The research proposed here entails a study of hydrodenitrogenation of model compounds and coal-derived liquids using three NiMo/alumina catalysts of different pore size to develop, for restrictive diffusion, a relationship that can be used for estimating reliable effectiveness factors. The program is divided into four parts: measurements of pertinent properties of the catalysts and of a coal liquid and its derived boiling-point cuts; determination of effective diffusivities and tortuosities of the catalysts; development of restrictive diffusion correlations from data on model N-compounds at reaction conditions; and testing of correlations with coal-liquid cuts and whole coal-liquid feed, modifying correlations as necessary.

  18. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    During the ninth quarter, electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were done to characterize the morphology and composition of the surface of as-received coal, oxidized coal and coal pyrite. In addition, electrokinetic tests were done on Upper Freeport coal pyrite.

  19. Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium. Annual report and selected publications, 1 July 1992--30 June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Dockter, B.A.; Eylands, K.E.; Hassett, D.J.; O`Leary, E.M.

    1994-04-01

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced cars), formerly the Western Fly Ash Research, Development, and Data Center (WFARDDC), has continued fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research focused on promoting environmentally safe, economical use of coal combustion fly ash. The research tasks selected for the year included: (1) Coal Ash Properties Database Maintenance and Expansion, (2) Investigation of the High-Volume Use of Fly Ash for Flowable Backfill Applications, (3) Investigation of Hydrated Mineralogical Phases in Coal Combustion By-Products, (4) Comparison of Department of Transportation Specifications for Coal Ash Utilization, (5) Comparative Leaching Study of Coal Combustion By-Products and Competing Construction Materials, (6) Application of CCSEM for Coal Ash Characterization, (7) Determination of Types and Causes of Efflorescence in Regional Concrete Products, and (8) Sulfate Resistance of Fly Ash Concrete: A Literature Review and Evaluation of Research Priorities. The assembly of a database of information on coal fly ash has been a focus area for CARRC since its beginning in 1985. This year, CARRC members received an updated run time version of the Coal Ash Properties Database (CAPD) on computer disk for their use. The new, user-friendly database management format was developed over the year to facilitate the use of CAPD by members as well as CARRC researchers. It is anticipated that this direct access to CAPD by members as well as CARRC researchers. It is anticipated that this direct access to CAPD by members will be beneficial to each company`s utilization efforts, to CARRC, and to the coal ash industry in general. Many additions and improvements were made to CAPD during the year, and a three-year plan for computer database and modeling related to coal ash utilization was developed to guide both the database effort and the research effort.

  20. Process for low mercury coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

    1995-04-04

    A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

  1. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    Reports and Publications

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  2. Which route to coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Nene, R.G.

    1981-11-01

    Two main methods for producing liquid fuels from coal are currently undergoing intensive evaluation. One, direct liquefaction (e.g., SRC-II, Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), and H-Coal) produces liquid fuels directly from coal; the other, indirect liquefaction (e.g., Lurgi gasifier followed by Fischer-Tropsch, and Shell-Koppers gasifier followed by methanol synthesis and Mobil's MTG process) first gasifies coal and then converts the gaseous material into liquid products. This paper compares both routes basing its assessment on yields, thermal efficiencies, elemental balances, investment, complexity, and state of development. It is shown that direct liquefaction is more efficient and produces more product per investment dollar. Higher efficiency for direct liquefaction is verified bY stoichiometric and thermodynamic analysis. All approaches require about the same capital investment per unit of feed. Indirect liquefaction can be either more or less complex than direct liquefaction, depending upon the process. Direct liquefaction is least developed. 8 refs.

  3. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  4. Coal Beneficiation by Gas Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D. Wheelock; Meiyu Shen

    2000-03-15

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  5. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  6. Two stage liquefaction of coal

    DOEpatents

    Neuworth, Martin B.

    1981-01-01

    A two stage coal liquefaction process and apparatus comprising hydrogen donor solvent extracting, solvent deashing, and catalytic hydrocracking. Preferrably, the catalytic hydrocracking is performed in an ebullating bed hydrocracker.

  7. Coal Data Publication Revision Policy

    Annual Energy Outlook

    impact: WHAT happens next to the database and in our coal reports: Respondent provides data that are clearly incorrect or revised data for any period in the current reporting year. ...

  8. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  9. Process for low mercury coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  10. Upgrading coal plant damper drives

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, N.R.; Simmons, K.

    2009-11-15

    The replacement of damper drives on two coal-fired units at the James H. Miller Jr. electric generating plant by Intelligent Contrac electric rotary actuators is discussed. 2 figs.

  11. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.; Eddings, E.; Lighty, J.; Ring, T.; Smith, P.; Thornock, J.; Y Jia, W. Morris; Pedel, J.; Rezeai, D.; Wang, L.; Zhang, J.; Kelly, K.

    2012-01-06

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol.

  12. Coal desulfurization by chlorinolysis: production and combustion-test evaluation of product coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kalvinskas, J.; Daly, D.

    1982-04-30

    Laboratory-scale screening tests were carried out on PSOC 276, Pittsburgh Coal from Harrison County, Ohio to establish chlorination and hydrodesulfurization conditions for the batch reactor production of chlorinolysis and chlorinolysis-hydrodesulfurized coals. In addition, three bituminous coals, Pittsburgh No. 8 from Greene County, PA, Illinois No. 6 from Jackson County, Illinois and Eagle No. 5 from Moffat County, Colorado were treated on the lab scale by the chlorinolysis process to provide 39 to 62% desulfurization. Two bituminous coals (PSOC 276, Pittsburgh Coal from Harrison County, Ohio and 282, Illinois No. 6 Coal from Jefferson County, Illinois) and one subbituminous coal (PSOC 230, Rosebud Coal fom Rosebud County, Montana) were then produced in 11 to 15 pound lots as chlorinolysis and hydrodesulfurized coals. The chlorinolysis coals had a desulfurization of 29 to 69%, reductions in volatiles (12 to 37%) and hydrogen (6 to 31%). Hydrodesulfurization provided a much greater desulfurization (56 to 86%), reductions in volatiles (77 to 84%) and hydrogen (56 to 64%). The three coals were combustion tested in the Penn State plane flame furance to determine ignition and burning characteristics. All three coals burned well to completion as: raw coals, chlorinolysis processed coals and hydrodesulfurized coals. The hydrodesulfurized coals experienced greater ignition delays and reduced burning rates than the other coals because of the reduced volatile content. It is thought that the increased open pore volume in the desulfurized-devolatilized coals compensates in part for the decreased volatiles effect on ignition and burning. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  13. 2015 Gasification Systems and Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... University Carbondale Poison Resistant Water-Gas-Shift Catalyst for Coal and Biomass Co-Gasification Gokhan Alptekin, TDA Research, Inc. Unconventional, Novel Coal-to-Liquids ...

  14. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOEpatents

    Platt, R.J.; Shadbolt, E.A.

    1983-11-08

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces. 5 figs.

  15. Coal liquefaction and gasification technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Mangold, E.C.; Muradaz, M.A.; Ouellette, R.P.; Farah, O.G.; Cheremisinoff, P.N.

    1982-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of selected coal liquefaction and gasification processes developed with support from the United States are reviewed. The Exxon Donor Solvent, H-Coal, SRC-I, SRC-II, Mobile Gasoline Synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, and Zinc Halide Hydrocracking liquefaction processes and the Slagging Lurgi, Texaco, Combustion Engineering, COGAS, and Shell-Koppers gasification processes are covered. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 chapters.

  16. Apparatus for entrained coal pyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Durai-Swamy, Kandaswamy

    1982-11-16

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  17. Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The authors have examined the pyrolysis of Argonne samples of Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coal in argon, undecane, Tetralin, and water. The effects of the pyrolysis on individual particles of coal were monitored visually in a cell with diamond windows capable of operation to temperature and pressures in excess of 500{degrees}C and 3000 psi. The changes in the particles from ambient to 460{degrees}C were recorded in real time on video tape, and images were then taken from the tape record and analyzed. The study showed that in argon both coals developed tars at 350{degrees}-370{degrees}C. The tars then quickly evaporated, leaving core particles remarkably similar in size and shape to the initial particles. These observations suggest that coal does not melt nor become fully liquid when heated. Nor does the softened coal undergo crosslinking to generate coke. Rather the simple loss of volatiles leaves behind the core residue as coke. Contrary to the common view, there appears to be no link between the bond-breaking processes yielding tar and the interaction of the coal with H-donors leading to liquefaction. Water as a medium was surprising in its effect. Both coals began to shrink at 300{degrees}-350{degrees}C, with the effect appearing to be more of an erosion rather than a uniform loss of substance as seen in Tetralin. The Wyodak continued to shrink to 460{degrees}C to about half its initial size. With the Illinois No. 6 coal, however, the process reversed at around 420{degrees}C, and the particles appeared to grow with the evolution of a tar, continuing to 460{degrees}C. The authors submit that this final observation is evidence for hydrothermal synthesis of hydrocarbons at these conditions.

  18. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOEpatents

    Platt, Robert J.; Shadbolt, Edward A.

    1983-01-01

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces.

  19. Viscosity Determination of Molten Ash from Low-Grade US Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jingxi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth; Mu, Haoyuan; Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Rozelle, Peter; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-10-01

    In entrained slagging gasifiers, the fluidity of the molten ash is a critical factor for process control since it affects slag formation, the capture of inorganic constituents, refractory wear, and slag drainage along the gasification chamber walls. The use of western coal, or mixtures of eastern and western coals as gasifier feedstock, is likely to occur as western coals become available and technological issues that hinder their use are being resolved. In the present work, the viscosity of synthetic slags with ash chemistries simulating the western U.S. coals, was experimentally measured at a Po2 = 10- 8 atm in the temperature range of 1773–1573 K (1500–1300 °C) using a rotating-bob viscometer. Alumina spindles and containment crucibles of both alumina and zirconia were used. Crystallization studies of this slag using a confocal scanning laser microscope found that a (Mg,Fe)Al2O4-based spinel precipitated at temperatures below 1723 K (1450 °C), and this agreed with FactSage equilibrium phase prediction. The same spinels were observed in the post-viscometry experiment slags when ZrO2 crucibles were used and assumed to be in equilibrium with the slag at the higher temperatures. Zirconia dissolution resulted in a slight increase in the solid fraction present in slags at lower temperatures, compared to spinel fraction. Crystal precipitation changed the apparent activation energy and required a longer stabilization times for viscosity measurements. The viscosity results were used in predictive equations based on Veytsman and Einstein's models, with critical nucleation temperatures and the solid fraction calculated with FactSage. In the simulated eastern/western coal feedstock blends based on ash compositions, the fractions of the solid precipitates were also calculated using the thermodynamic program FactSage for each blend composition, and the plastic viscosity of each eastern/western coal slag blend was

  20. Viscosity Determination of Molten Ash from Low-Grade US Coals

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jingxi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth; Mu, Haoyuan; Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Rozelle, Peter; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-10-01

    In entrained slagging gasifiers, the fluidity of the molten ash is a critical factor for process control since it affects slag formation, the capture of inorganic constituents, refractory wear, and slag drainage along the gasification chamber walls. The use of western coal, or mixtures of eastern and western coals as gasifier feedstock, is likely to occur as western coals become available and technological issues that hinder their use are being resolved. In the present work, the viscosity of synthetic slags with ash chemistries simulating the western U.S. coals, was experimentally measured at a Po2 = 10- 8 atm in themore » temperature range of 1773–1573 K (1500–1300 °C) using a rotating-bob viscometer. Alumina spindles and containment crucibles of both alumina and zirconia were used. Crystallization studies of this slag using a confocal scanning laser microscope found that a (Mg,Fe)Al2O4-based spinel precipitated at temperatures below 1723 K (1450 °C), and this agreed with FactSage equilibrium phase prediction. The same spinels were observed in the post-viscometry experiment slags when ZrO2 crucibles were used and assumed to be in equilibrium with the slag at the higher temperatures. Zirconia dissolution resulted in a slight increase in the solid fraction present in slags at lower temperatures, compared to spinel fraction. Crystal precipitation changed the apparent activation energy and required a longer stabilization times for viscosity measurements. The viscosity results were used in predictive equations based on Veytsman and Einstein's models, with critical nucleation temperatures and the solid fraction calculated with FactSage. In the simulated eastern/western coal feedstock blends based on ash compositions, the fractions of the solid precipitates were also calculated using the thermodynamic program FactSage for each blend composition, and the plastic viscosity of each eastern/western coal slag blend was predicted using Veytsman's model and compared to

  1. COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION

    SciTech Connect

    T.D. Wheelock

    1999-03-01

    The technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultra-fine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was prepared by first saturating water with air or carbon dioxide under pressure then reducing the pressure to release the dissolved gas. The formation of microbubbles was facilitated by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this process in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt.% ash, it was shown that the ash content would be reduced to 6--7 wt.% while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis. This was accomplished by employing a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w%, an air saturation pressure of 136 to 205 kPa (5 to 15 psig), and an i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w% based on the weight of coal.

  2. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  3. DOE - Fossil Energy: The Cleanest Coal Technology - A Real Gas

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    5-Cleanest Coal Technology An Energy Lesson Cleaning Up Coal The Cleanest Coal Technology - a Real Gas Don't think of coal as a solid black rock. Think of it as a mass of atoms. ...

  4. Coal Study Guide - High School | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    High School Coal Study Guide - High School Coal Study Guide - High School (658.82 KB) More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide - Middle School Coal Study Guide for Elementary School Fossil Energy Today - First Quarter, 2011

  5. Records Dispostion-Coal Distribution Data | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Records Dispostion-Coal Distribution Data Records Dispostion-Coal Distribution Data This file contains data on the distribution of U.S. coal by coal-producing district of origin, ...

  6. Coal Transportation Issues (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications

    2007-01-01

    Most of the coal delivered to U.S. consumers is transported by railroads, which accounted for 64% of total domestic coal shipments in 2004. Trucks transported approximately 12% of the coal consumed in the United States in 2004, mainly in short hauls from mines in the East to nearby coal-fired electricity and industrial plants. A number of minemouth power plants in the West also use trucks to haul coal from adjacent mining operations. Other significant modes of coal transportation in 2004 included conveyor belt and slurry pipeline (12%) and water transport on inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and tidewater areas (9%).

  7. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  8. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  9. Burning coal's waste

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, J.M.; Duffy, T.J.

    1988-07-01

    In an old Pennsylvania coal valley, growing fresh produce and eliminating ancient waste piles both depend on a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant. The builders of a complex now nearing completion at Archbald, however, will soon begin to turn two of the waste piles, called culm banks, into economic assets. Culm will burn although it has a low, variable heat content. The project combines several recently developed technologies to use culm as fuel for a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant that will heat a hydroponic greenhouse. What makes the venture economically viable are the products that will be sold: 23 mw of electricity to the local utility and fresh produce to meet burgeoning demands in East Coast supermarkets. For instance, if the ''salad plant'' were completely devoted to growing lettuce, 3 million heads could be harvested in 11 hydroponic seasons a year. The owners, Archbald Power Corp., chose a 271 acre stie that had been mined for anthracite by both open pit and deep shaft methods.

  10. Coal gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A coal slagging gasifier and method of operating such gasifier are improved by providing an improved slag removal orifice. The orifice is located centrally within the hearth of a gasifier of the type in which hot burner gases are directed up through the orifice to retain the slag in molten condition on the hearth and in which the slag is periodically discharged through the slag removal orifice. The slag removal orifice is formed as a substantially vertical passageway through the removable slag tap member which comprises a solid cast mass of high thermal conductivity metal having an integrally formed metal tube for circulating liquid coolant through the cast mass. The upper tundish surface of the slag tap member slopes downwardly and inwardly and merges with the slag removal orifice. The coolant tube is capable of retaining its shape without any appreciable distortion during the casting of the surrounding metal mass, extends through the cast mass, and forms a coolant conduit adjacent to the tundish surface and to the surface of the orifice passageway and spaced from these surfaces a distance of 0.25 to 5 inches. The ends of the tube project out from the mass provide a coolant inlet and outlet. In operation, coolant is circulated through the tube such that the surfaces of the cast mass in direct contact with slag and burner gases are maintained at a temperature of from 50/sup 0/C to 400/sup 0/C.

  11. Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    9. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin April - June 2016 January - March 2016 April - June 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 73.59 71.92 122.71 72.76 117.29 -38.0 Canada 73.61 71.93 122.71 72.77 117.29 -38.0 Mexico 59.08 66.79 - 65.02 113.43 -42.7 South America Total 66.00 64.73 66.89 65.33 68.96 -5.3 Colombia 66.00 64.73 66.89 65.34 68.81 -5.0 Peru - 63.31 92.99 63.31 86.24 -26.6 Venezuela - - - - 81.04 - Europe

  12. Proceedings, twenty-fourth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    Topics covered include: gasification technologies; coal production and preparation; combustion technologies; environmental control technologies; synthesis of liquid fuels, chemicals, materials and other non-fuel uses of coal; hydrogen from coal; advanced synthesis gas cleanup; coal chemistry, geosciences and resources; Fischer-Tropsch technology; coal and sustainability; global climate change; gasification (including underground gasification); materials, instrumentation and controls; and coal utilisation byproducts.

  13. The greening of party politics in western Europe: Environmentalism, economics, and partisan orientations in four nations

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrschneider, R.

    1989-01-01

    This research is guided by two overarching questions. First, why do publics in West European nations support environmental organizations And second, what is the effect of environmental group support on economically based partisan orientations In order to address these questions, we analyze public opinion surveys (1982-1986) in Germany, France, Great Britain and the Netherlands. The findings suggest that European publics give considerable support to environmental organizations in these four nations. The two factors which are particularly strongly related to environmental group support are post material value priorities and the perception of national pollutions problems. Moreover, environmentalism is integrated into a well structured schema which guides the evaluation of environmentally related information. Considerable variations across national emerge in regard to the link between citizens' partisanship and environmental group support. In Germany and the Netherlands, environmentalism provides the basis for new partisan cleavage- Individuals who evaluate environmental groups favorably are much more likely to support New left or Old left parties. In contrast to these two nations, citizens' partisanship in France and Great Britain is dominated by economic policy positions; environmental group support is only weakly linked to individuals' partisan choice. These findings suggest that environmentalism will be an important influence on European public opinion and party systems in the foreseeable future.

  14. Cogeneration trends in Europe history -- State of the art - Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Hunschofsky, H.

    1998-07-01

    Cogeneration, the utilization of heat created while producing electricity from fossil fuels, is by no means a new technology. In 1926, 71 years ago, a brochure from MAN in Germany showed a heat recovery system for diesel engines. Despite the fact that cogeneration has existed for a long time, it took half a century and the first so called ``oil crisis'' in the 1970's for societies to become aware of limited energy resources. Environmental groups gave cogeneration an additional boost in the 1980's. Additionally, governments in the Western European Nations attracted cogeneration investors by not only providing subsidies and tax breaks but also regulating electricity prices. Although there has been much growth in the cogeneration market in the past years, the industry has still not reached its peak in Europe. A variety of studies have shown that there is still significant growth potential in the future: WWF (World Wildlife Fund) published a study in 1996 suggesting a target of 330 Twh of generation will be produced through cogeneration by the year 2005, a tripling of current generation. Due to the EU's belief that cogeneration is an optimal form of generation, it has developed a cogeneration strategy. As part of this strategy, the EC is promoting cogeneration so that it accounts for 20% of all European generation by the year 2010. These factors would give a variety of companies such as equipment suppliers, investment companies, utilities, consultants and energy brokers a wide range of opportunities in Europe. Detailed information and some hints will be given as to how to participate in this fast growing industry. Ways to overcome obstacles in those markets will be shown as well as the pros and cons of different entry strategies.

  15. Interim report of the interagency coal export task force: draft for public comment. [Trade by country 1960-1979; general forecasting to 1985, 1990 and 2000

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The Interagency Coal Export Task Force was formed in the Spring of 1980 at the direction of the President, in support of the international efforts of the United States, encouraging the use of coal. Its purpose was to report on possible courses of action to increase United States steam coal exports in a manner consistent with other national policies, including our commitment to environmental protection. The Task Force assembled existing data, developed significant new information regarding the international coal market and undertook analyses of apparent problems underlying coal exports. The Task Force contributed to a public awareness of the fact that increased coal exports will serve both the domestic and international interests of the United States. Based upon extensive, independent field studies in Europe and the Far East, the Task Force concludes that there will be significant growth in world demand for steam coal. Such growth has already begun, has contributed to the almost seven-fold increase in United States overseas steam coal exports for 1990 over 1979, and is expected to continue beyond the end of this century. The growth in world steam coal trade projected in the report does not guarantee United States coal exporters a large or expanding share of the market. The United States' role depends on the buying strategies of the consuming countries, the policies and prices of competing exporters, and the actions taken by the United States to maintain reasonable prices, prompt delivery and dependable quality. Projections of United States steam coal exports, therefore, rest upon a number of highly uncertain factors which are discussed in some detail.

  16. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  17. Pulverized coal injection at Hoogovens

    SciTech Connect

    Paramanathan, B.K.; Toxopeus, H.L

    1994-12-31

    The Armco/Babcock and Wilcox-type Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) System, installed at Hoogovens Ijmuiden in 1982/83, consists of two pulverizing lines, each of 30 t/h capacity. Due to the increased demand for pulverized fuel to the Blast Furnaces (Nos. 6 and 7), the PCI system has been revised extensively such that the grinding capacity has been increased, thereby achieving a higher average injection rate to both Blast Furnaces of some 140 kg/THM. The use of soft and dry coals, coupled to modifications to the System, has resulted in an annual consumption of pulverized coal of more than 750,000 tons, some 80% more than that envisaged initially. The installation operates very successfully, downtime having been minimal over the years. Several trials, at high rates of coal injection, have been carried out in the past. The most recent trials, performed over a period of nine months in 1992, showed that smooth and stable Blast Furnace operation was possible even with very high rates of pulverized coal injection (more than 200 kg/THM).

  18. Repowering with clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Freier, M.D.; Buchanan, T.L.; DeLallo, M.L.; Goldstein, H.N.

    1996-02-01

    Repowering with clean coal technology can offer significant advantages, including lower heat rates and production costs, environmental compliance, incremental capacity increases, and life extension of existing facilities. Significant savings of capital costs can result by refurbishing and reusing existing sites and infrastructure relative to a greenfield siting approach. This paper summarizes some key results of a study performed by Parsons Power Group, Inc., under a contract with DOE/METC, which investigates many of the promising advanced power generation technologies in a repowering application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical and economic results of applying each of a menu of Clean Coal Technologies in a repowering of a hypothetical representative fossil fueled power station. Pittsburgh No. 8 coal is used as the fuel for most of the cases evaluated herein, as well as serving as the fuel for the original unrepowered station. The steam turbine-generator, condenser, and circulating water system are refurbished and reused in this study, as is most of the existing site infrastructure such as transmission lines, railroad, coal yard and coal handling equipment, etc. The technologies evaluated in this study consisted of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor, several varieties of pressurized fluid bed combustors, several types of gasifiers, a refueling with a process derived fuel, and, for reference, a natural gas fired combustion turbine-combined cycle.

  19. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

  20. Western Gulf Coast Analysis | NISAC

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of disruptions in the western Gulf Coast petroleum infrastructure operations on the rest of the country, developed a data model of the petrochemical industry in the region to ...

  1. Western Turbine | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name: Western Turbine Place: Aurora, Colorado Zip: 80011 Sector: Wind energy Product: Wind Turbine Installation and Maintainance. Coordinates:...

  2. Western Solargenics | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solargenics Place: Coquitlam, British Columbia, Canada Zip: V3J 2L7 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Subsidiary firm of Western Wind, to develop solar projects in...

  3. Western Power Customer Services Manager

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Western Power Services organization (PSW) of Northwest Requirements Marketing, Power Services, and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Northwest (NW) Requirements...

  4. Solar at the cost of coal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    at the cost of coal 1 Domestic shale gas 2 US shale gas enables solar g SunShot: towards 1 Watt SunShot: towards 1 Watt Silicon PV can reach coal parity p y *LCOE calculated ...

  5. National Coal Council Meeting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    But let me return specifically to the issue of coal, where I think it is important to discuss the term, "clean coal." It is a term that is used often in the lexicon of the industry ...

  6. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is

  7. coal to sng | netl.doe.gov

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    The economic viability of producing SNG through coal gasification is heavily dependent on the market prices of natural gas and the coal feedstock to be used, the value of ...

  8. Natural gas beats coal in power generation

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Natural gas beats coal in power generation The amount of U.S. electricity generated by natural gas is expected to exceed the output from coal-fired power plants this year and in ...

  9. Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Chervenak, Michael C.

    1980-01-01

    Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

  10. Clean Coal Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Clean Coal Ltd Place: London, England, United Kingdom Zip: W1F 8QE Product: London-based company which specialises in underground coal gasification project management and project...

  11. FE Clean Coal News | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    December 2, 2015 DOE Selects Projects To Enhance Its Research into Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal Byproducts The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National ...

  12. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's penumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  13. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's pneumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  14. Coal Ash Contaminants in Wetlands | SREL Research

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal-fired facilities have been in operation on the SRS since the early 1950s. After ... The D-Area coal plant operated until early 2012, when it was replaced by a biofuels ...

  15. Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

    2008-10-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

  16. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Large wind turbine development in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Zervos, A.

    1996-12-31

    During the last few years we have witnessed in Europe the development of a new generation of wind turbines ranging from 1000-1500 kW size. They are presently being tested and they are scheduled to reach the market in late 1996 early 1997. The European Commission has played a key role by funding the research leading to the development of these turbines. The most visible initiative at present is the WEGA program - the development, together with Europe`s leading wind industry players of a new generation of turbines in the MW range. By the year 1997 different European manufacturers will have introduced almost a dozen new MW machine types to the international market, half of them rated at 1.5 MW. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    SciTech Connect

    Bo-qiang Lin; Jiang-hua Liu

    2010-01-15

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and Gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security. 16 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. U.S. monthly coal production increases

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    monthly coal production increases U.S. coal production in July totaled 88.9 million short tons, the highest level since August 2012, according to preliminary data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Total production during July 2013 was up 3 percent from the previous July's output. The turnaround comes as power plants are using more coal to generate electricity, reflecting higher electricity demand....and the fact that coal prices this year are more competitive with higher-priced

  20. Cokemaking from coals of Kuzbas and Donbas

    SciTech Connect

    Umansky, R.Z.; Kovalev, E.T.; Drozdnik, I.D.

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses features of Donetsk and Kuznetsk coals, the export capability of Ukraine coking industry, the selection of coal blends involving coals from different basins, and practical recommendations and techno-economic considerations. It is concluded that by raising the share of low-sulfur Kuznetsk coal in the blend to 50%, coke produced will meet all the requirements of European and American consumers.

  1. Coal Working Group - AEO2017 Summary Notes

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    AEO2017 MODELING ASSUMPTIONS AND NOTE INPUTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE. 1 September 7, 2016 MEMORANDUM TO: Dr. Ian Mead Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Jim Diefenderfer Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis FROM: Coal and Uranium Analysis Team SUBJECT: Notes from the AEO2017 1 st Coal Working Group held on August 31, 2016 Attendees (62) *Indicates participation via WebEx. In an effort to solicit feedback each year, the Coal and Uranium Analysis Team

  2. National Coal celebrates its fifth anniversary

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-06-15

    The growth and activities of the National Coal Corp since its formation in 2003 are described. 5 photos.

  3. ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,..."Natural Gas ... " " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,..."Natu...

  4. Quarterly Coal Report - Energy Information Administration

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Coal Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Coal Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting and mapping) Summary Prices Reserves Consumption Production Stocks Imports, exports & distribution Coal-fired electric power plants Transportation costs to electric power sector International All coal data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Consumption Environment Imports & exports Industry characteristics Prices Production Projections Recurring Reserves Stocks All

  5. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is inextricably entwined with

  6. Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology Step 1 (Estimate total amount of weekly U.S. coal production) U.S. coal production for the current week is estimated using a ratio estimation from the given equation below; ̂ () = () × × { + ( - )} (1) ℎ ̂ () =

  7. Levies on US coal production

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes and critically analyzes the programs undertaken to effect rent transfer in the coal industry in the US. The author's close involvement in US coal-leasing policy debates convinces him that the long-standing belief in rent taxation is invalid. The traditional case for rent collection employs unrealistic assumptions about the costs of identifying and taxing economic rents. Under actual conditions, rent taxes cannot be administered in a fashion that produces the benefits claimed in standard arguments for rent taxation. After an overview of the case against rent taxation, the author examines the two main US transfer systems: federal coal-leasing sales and state taxes. Other charges are also noted. Little attention is given to fiscal regimes in other countries because they appear less interesting. 10 references.

  8. Selective flotation of inorganic sulfides from coal

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Kenneth J.; Wen, Wu-Wey

    1989-01-01

    Pyritic sulfur is removed from coal or other carbonaceous material through the use of humic acid as a coal flotation depressant. Following the removal of coarse pyrite, the carbonaceous material is blended with humic acid, a pyrite flotation collector and a frothing agent within a flotation cell to selectively float pyritic sulfur leaving clean coal as an underflow.

  9. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Derbidge, T. Craig; Mulholland, James A.; Foster, Edward P.

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  10. Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Balsavich, John

    1991-01-01

    A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

  11. Coal mine directory: United States and Canada

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    The directory gives a state-by-state listing of all US and Canadian coal producers. It contains contact information as well as the type of mine, production statistics, coal composition, transportation methods etc. A statistical section provides general information about the US coal industry, preparation plants, and longwall mining operations.

  12. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  13. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  14. Selective flotation of inorganic sulfides from coal

    DOEpatents

    Miller, K.J.; Wen, Wu-Wey

    1988-05-31

    Pyritic sulfur is removed from coal or other carbonaceous material through the use of humic acid as a coal flotation depressant. Following the removal of coarse pyrite, the carbonaceous material is blended with humic acid, a pyrite flotation collector and a frothing agent within a flotation cell to selectively float pyritic sulfur leaving clean coal as an underflow. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  16. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite, Task 3.6, Part 2. The 2nd international conference on energy and environment: Transitions in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    On November 1-5, 1994, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Power Research Institute of Prague cosponsored their second conference since 1991 in the Czech Republic, entitled ``Energy and Environment: Transitions in East Central Europe.`` This conference was a continuation of the EERC`s joint commitment, initiated in 1190, to facilitate solutions to short- and long-term energy and environmental problems in East Central Europe. Production of energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner is a critical issue facing East Central Europe, because the region continues to rely on coal as its primary energy source. The goal of the conference was to develop partnerships between industry, government, and the research community in East Central Europe and the United States to solve energy and environmental issues in a manner that fosters economic development. Among the topics addressed at the conference were: conventional and advanced energy generation systems; economic operation of energy systems; air pollution controls; power system retrofitting and repowering, financing options; regulatory issues; energy resource options; waste utilization and disposal; and long-range environmental issues. Selected papers in the proceedings have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  17. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    DOEpatents

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  18. Economic implication of coal taxation

    SciTech Connect

    Weyand, C.

    1982-09-01

    This paper discusses taxation of coal itself (as opposed to actual mine operation) as applied to property acquisition (depletion, purchase, lease), exploration (expenditures capitalized or deducted), development (expenditures to delineate deducted currently or amortized), production (gain to owner-lessor, severance tax), and reclamation (accrual of imposed expenditures ), and explores certain tax saving decisions vis-a-vis mining engineers. Tax incentives created by the US government encourage energy companies to transfer technology and resources from natural gas and petroleum to coal. Decisions throughout a mine life cycle can at times depend on tax stipulations.

  19. Process for selective grinding of coal

    DOEpatents

    Venkatachari, Mukund K.; Benz, August D.; Huettenhain, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

  20. Coal storage hopper with vibrating screen agitator

    DOEpatents

    Daw, Charles S.; Lackey, Mack E.; Sy, Ronald L.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a vibrating screen agitator in a coal storage hopper for assuring the uniform feed of coal having sufficient moisture content to effect agglomeration and bridging thereof in the coal hopper from the latter onto a conveyor mechanism. The vibrating screen agitator is provided by a plurality of transversely oriented and vertically spaced apart screens in the storage hopper with a plurality of vertically oriented rods attached to the screens. The rods are vibrated to effect the vibration of the screens and the breaking up of agglomerates in the coal which might impede the uniform flow of the coal from the hopper onto a conveyer.

  1. Coal Data: A reference. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-26

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  2. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1998-08-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. 58 tabs.

  3. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  4. Westinghouse sees potential in East Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, E.

    1993-07-09

    Westinghouse Electric Corp. is laying the groundwork for future nuclear fuel sales and construction and repair contracts in Eastern Europe and Ukraine by helping to finish the Russian-designed 1,000 megawatt VVER Temelin nuclear power plant in the former Czechoslovakia. Using the skills learned there, the company hopes to tap into the potentially lucrative market in Ukraine.

  5. Role of coal in the world and Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.; Li, B.

    1994-10-01

    This paper examines the changing role of coal in the world and in Asia. Particular attention is given to the rapidly growing demand for coal in electricity generation, the importance of China as a producer and consumer of coal, and the growing environmental challenge to coal. Attention is given to the increasing importance of low sulfur coal and Clean Coal Technologies in reducing the environmental impacts of coal burning.

  6. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2015

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6. Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Underground Coal Mines by State and Mining Method, 2015 (million short tons) Continuous 1 Conventional and Other 2 Longwall 3 Total Coal-Producing State Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines Average Recovery Percentage Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines Average Recovery Percentage Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines Average Recovery Percentage Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines Average

  7. Mechanical properties of reconstituted Australian black coal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasinge, D.; Ranjith, P.G.; Choi, S.K.; Kodikara, J.; Arthur, M.; Li, H.

    2009-07-15

    Coal is usually highly heterogeneous. Great variation in properties can exist among samples obtained even at close proximity within the same seam or within the same core sample. This makes it difficult to establish a correlation between uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and point load index for coal. To overcome this problem, a method for making reconstituted samples for laboratory tests was developed. Samples were made by compacting particles of crushed coal mixed with cement and water. These samples were allowed to cure for four days. UCS and point load tests were performed to measure the geomechanical properties of the reconstituted coal. After four days curing, the average UCS was found to be approximately 4 MPa. This technical note outlines some experimental results and correlations that were developed to predict the mechanical properties of the reconstituted black coal samples. By reconstituting the samples from crushed coal, it is hoped that the samples will retain the important mechanical and physicochemical properties of coal, including the swelling, fluid transport, and gas sorption properties of coal. The aim is to be able to produce samples that are homogeneous with properties that are highly reproducible, and the reconstituted coal samples can be used for a number of research areas related to coal, including the long-term safe storage of CO{sub 2} in coal seams.

  8. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

  9. Coal: America's energy future. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    2006-03-15

    Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman requested the National Coal Council in April 2005 a report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring the USA's domestic coal resources to meet the nations' future energy needs. This resultant report addresses the Secretary's request in the context of the President's focus, with eight findings and recommendations that would use technology to leverage the USA's extensive coal assets and reduce dependence on imported energy. Volume I outlines these findings and recommendations. Volume II provides technical data and case histories to support the findings and recommendations. Chapter headings of Volume I are: Coal-to-Liquids to Produce 2.6 MMbbl/d; Coal-to-Natural Gas to Produce 4.0 Tcf Per Year; Coal-to-Clean Electricity; Coal to Produce Ethanol; Coal-to-Hydrogen; Enhanced Oil and Gas (Coalbed Methane); Recovery as Carbon Management Strategies; Delineate U.S. Coal Reserves and Transportation Constraints as Part of an Effort to Maximize U.S. Coal Production; and Penn State Study, 'Economic Benefits of Coal Conversion Investments'.

  10. Coal-fired diesel generator

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

  11. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOEpatents

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E.; Lopez, Jaime; Zaborowsky, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  12. Two-stage coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Farcasiu, M.; Mitchell, T.O.; Whitehurst, D.D.

    1982-08-31

    Two-stage coal liquefaction is improved by separating a light fraction from the first (dissolving) stage effluent, hydrogenating that fraction and reblending the hydrogenated light fraction with the material passed from the first stage to the second stage reactor operating at higher temperature than the first stage.

  13. Catalysts for coal liquefaction processes

    DOEpatents

    Garg, D.

    1986-10-14

    Improved catalysts for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprise a combination of zinc or copper, or a compound thereof, and a Group VI or non-ferrous Group VIII metal, or a compound thereof.

  14. Coal conversion. 1979 technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    Individual reports are made on research programs which are being conducted by various organizations and institutions for the commercial development of processes for converting coal into products that substitute for these derived from oil and natural gas. Gasification, liquefaction, and demonstration processes and plants are covered. (DLC)

  15. Catalysts for coal liquefaction processes

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Improved catalysts for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprise a combination of zinc or copper, or a compound thereof, and a Group VI or non-ferrous Group VIII metal, or a compound thereof.

  16. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A. (eds.)

    1991-05-28

    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  17. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy’s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (1986-1993) laid the foundation for effective technologies now in use that have helped significantly lower emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and airborne particulates (PM10).

  18. Coal Gasification for Power Generation, 3. edition

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered include: an overview of Coal Generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; a description of gasification technology including processes and systems; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; a discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; an evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; a discussion of IGCC project development options; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and, a detailed description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  19. Materials challenges in advanced coal conversion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Powem, C.A.; Morreale, B.D.

    2008-04-15

    Coal is a critical component in the international energy portfolio, used extensively for electricity generation. Coal is also readily converted to liquid fuels and/or hydrogen for the transportation industry. However, energy extracted from coal comes at a large environmental price: coal combustion can produce large quantities of ash and CO{sub 2}, as well as other pollutants. Advanced technologies can increase the efficiencies and decrease the emissions associated with burning coal and provide an opportunity for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. However, these advanced technologies increase the severity of plant operating conditions and thus require improved materials that can stand up to the harsh operating environments. The materials challenges offered by advanced coal conversion technologies must be solved in order to make burning coal an economically and environmentally sound choice for producing energy.

  20. Method of operating a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Blaskowski, Henry J.

    1979-01-01

    A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier which comprises the steps of firing coal at two levels in a combustion zone with near stoichiometric air, removing molten ash from the combustion zone, conveying combustion products upwardly from the combustion zone through a reduction zone, injecting additional coal into the combustion products in the reduction zone and gasifying at least a portion of the coal to form low BTU gas, conveying the gas to a point of use, including also reducing gasifier output by modifying the ratio of air to coal supplied to the upper level of the combustion zone so that the ratio becomes increasingly substoichiometric thereby extending the gasification of coal from the reduction zone into the upper level of the combustion zone, and maintaining the lower level of coal in the combustion zone at near stoichiometric conditions so as to provide sufficient heat to maintain effective slagging conditions.