National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for voc volatile organic

  1. ACTION CONCENTRATION FOR MIXTURES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC) & METHANE & HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2006-07-10

    Waste containers may contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, hydrogen and possibly propane. These constituents may occur individually or in mixtures. Determining if a waste container contains a flammable concentration of flammable gases and vapors (from VOCs) is important to the safety of the handling, repackaging and shipping activities. This report provides the basis for determining the flammability of mixtures of flammable gases and vapors. The concentration of a mixture that is at the lowest flammability limit for that mixture is called the action concentration. The action concentration can be determined using total VOC concentrations or actual concentration of each individual VOC. The concentrations of hydrogen and methane are included with the total VOC or individual VOC concentration to determine the action concentration. Concentrations below this point are not flammable. Waste containers with gas/vapor concentrations at or above the action concentration are considered flammable.

  2. NMED COMMENTS ITEM 3 REVISE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) TARGET ANALYTE LIST

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    3 NMED COMMENTS ITEM 3 REVISE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) TARGET ANALYTE LIST OTHER CHANGES TO VOC MONITORING PROGRAM Page 1 of 21 VOC 3*1: PMR Section 3, Topic 1, Table 1 Recalculated Waste Matrix Code Group Weighting Factors based on the 2004 Compliance Recertification Contact Handled (CH) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Inventory (m 3 ) The new weighting factors appear to be based on CH TRU waste only and do not include remote handled (RH) TRU waste. There was no discussion in the PMR addressing

  3. Characterization of low-VOC latex paints: Volatile organic compound content, VOC and aldehyde emissions, and paint performance. Final report, January 1997--January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Fortmann, R.; Lao, H.C.; Ng, A.; Roache, N.

    1999-04-01

    The report gives results of laboratory tests to evaluate commercially available latex paints advertised as `low-odor,` `low-VOC (volatile organic compound),` or `no-VOC.` Measurements were performed to quantify the total content of VOCs in the paints and to identify the predominant VOCs and aldehydes in the emissions following application to test substrates. The performance of the paints was evaluated and compared to that of commonly used conventional latex paints by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard methods that measured parameters such as scrubbability, cleanability, and hiding power. The report describes the paints that were tested, the test methods, and the experimental data. Results are presented that can be used to evaluate the low-odor/low-VOC paints as alternatives to conventional latex wall paints that contain and emit higher concentrations of VOCs.

  4. Technology projects for characterization--monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    SciTech Connect

    Junk, G.A.; Haas, W.J. Jr.

    1992-07-01

    One hundred thirty technology project titles related to the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at an arid site are listed alphabetically by first contact person in a master compilation that includes phone numbers, addresses, keywords, and short descriptions. Separate tables are presented for 62 field-demonstrated, 36 laboratory-demonstrated, and 35 developing technology projects. The technology projects in each of these three categories are also prioritized in separate summary tables. Additional tables are presented for a number of other categorizations of the technology projects: In Situ; Fiberoptic; Mass Spectrometer; Optical Spectroscopy; Raman or SERS; Ion Mobility or Acoustic; Associated; and Commercial. Four lists of contact person names are provided so details concerning the projects that deal with sampling, and VOCs in gases, waters, and soils (sediments) can be obtained. Finally, seven wide-ranging conclusions based on observations and experiences during this work are presented.

  5. TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2006-07-06

    This document presents the technical justification for choosing and using propane as a calibration standard for estimating total flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an air matrix. A propane-in-nitrogen standard was selected based on a number of criteria: (1) has an analytical response similar to the VOCs of interest, (2) can be made with known accuracy and traceability, (3) is available with good purity, (4) has a matrix similar to the sample matrix, (5) is stable during storage and use, (6) is relatively non-hazardous, and (7) is a recognized standard for similar analytical applications. The Waste Retrieval Project (WRP) desires a fast, reliable, and inexpensive method for screening the flammable VOC content in the vapor-phase headspace of waste containers. Table 1 lists the flammable VOCs of interest to the WRP. The current method used to determine the VOC content of a container is to sample the container's headspace and submit the sample for gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The driver for the VOC measurement requirement is safety: potentially flammable atmospheres in the waste containers must be allowed to diffuse prior to processing the container. The proposed flammable VOC screening method is to inject an aliquot of the headspace sample into an argon-doped pulsed-discharge helium ionization detector (Ar-PDHID) contained within a gas chromatograph. No actual chromatography is performed; the sample is transferred directly from a sample loop to the detector through a short, inert transfer line. The peak area resulting from the injected sample is proportional to the flammable VOC content of the sample. However, because the Ar-PDHID has different response factors for different flammable VOCs, a fundamental assumption must be made that the agent used to calibrate the detector is representative of the flammable VOCs of interest that may be in the headspace samples. At worst, we desire that calibration with the selected calibrating

  6. Occupational hygiene in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols at two solid waste management plants in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Lehtinen, Jenni; Tolvanen, Outi; Nivukoski, Ulla; Veijanen, Anja; Hnninen, Kari

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Odorous VOCs: acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene. ? VOC concentrations did not exceed occupational exposure limit concentrations. ? 2,3-Butanedione as the health effecting compound is discussed. ? Endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems in waste treatment. - Abstract: Factors affecting occupational hygiene were measured at the solid waste transferring plant at Hyvink and at the optic separation plant in Hmeenlinna. Measurements consisted of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols including microbes, dust and endotoxins. The most abundant compounds in both of the plants were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, esters of carboxylic acids, ketones and terpenes. In terms of odour generation, the most important emissions were acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene due to their low threshold odour concentrations. At the optic waste separation plant, limonene occurred at the highest concentration of all single compounds of identified VOCs. The concentration of any single volatile organic compound did not exceed the occupational exposure limit (OEL) concentration. However, 2,3-butanedione as a health risk compound is discussed based on recent scientific findings linking it to lung disease. Microbe and dust concentrations were low at the waste transferring plant. Only endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems; the average concentration inside the plant was 425 EU/m{sup 3} which clearly exceeded the threshold value of 90 EU/m{sup 3}. In the wheel loader cabin the endotoxin concentrations were below 1 EU/m{sup 3}. High microbial and endotoxin concentrations were measured in the processing hall at the optic waste separation plant. The average concentration of endotoxins was found to be 10,980 EU/m{sup 3}, a concentration which may cause health risks. Concentrations of viable fungi were quite high in few measurements in the control room. The most problematic

  7. Aging of secondary organic aerosol from small aromatic VOCs. Changes in chemical composition, mass yield, volatility and hygroscopicity

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.; Paciga, A. L.; Cerully, K.; Nenes, A.; Donahue, N. M.; Pandis, S. N.

    2014-12-12

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is transformed after its initial formation, but this chemical aging of SOA is poorly understood. Experiments were conducted in the Carnegie Mellon environmental chamber to form and transform SOA from the photo-oxidation of toluene and other small aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of NOx. The effects of chemical aging on organic aerosol (OA) composition, mass yield, volatility and hygroscopicity were explored. Higher exposure to the hydroxyl radical resulted in different OA composition, average carbon oxidation state OSC) and mass yield. The OA oxidation state generally increased during photo-oxidation, and the final OA OSmore » C ranged from -0.29 to 0.45 in the performed experiments. The volatility of OA formed in these different experiments varied by as much as a factor of 30, demonstrating that the OA formed under different oxidizing conditions can have significantly different saturation concentration. There was no clear correlation between hygroscopicity and oxidation state for this relatively hygroscopic SOA.« less

  8. Investigation of key parameters influencing the efficient photocatalytic oxidation of indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    SciTech Connect

    Quici, Natalia; Kibanova, Daria; Vera, Maria Laura; Choi, Hyeok; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.; Litter, Marta I.; Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Destaillats, Hugo; Destaillats, Hugo

    2008-06-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation of indoor VOCs has the potential to eliminate pollutants from indoor environments, thus effectively improving and/or maintaining indoor air quality while reducing ventilation energy costs. Design and operation of UV photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaners requires optimization of various parameters to achieve highest pollutant removal efficiencies while avoiding the formation of harmful secondary byproducts and maximizing catalyst lifetime.

  9. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs): Remediation for wastewater. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater contamination by volatile organic materials and the technology for reclamation. Remediation techniques discussed include use of activated carbon, activated sludge, oxidation, scrubbing, vapor stripping, biodegradation, and other degradative treatments. Articles include remediation of soils contaminated by volatile wastes. The citations examine a variety of compounds, including aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum wastes, chlorinated organics, and other volatile materials. (Contains a minimum of 215 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Volatile organic compound sensing devices

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, G.D.; Moore, G.A.; Stone, M.L.; Reagen, W.K.

    1995-08-29

    Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs. 15 figs.

  11. Volatile organic compound sensing devices

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, Gregory D.; Moore, Glenn A.; Stone, Mark L.; Reagen, William K.

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs.

  12. Energy Efficient Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants (o-HAPs) from Industrial Waste Streams by Direct Electron Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Testoni, A. L.

    2011-10-19

    This research program investigated and quantified the capability of direct electron beam destruction of volatile organic compounds and organic hazardous air pollutants in model industrial waste streams and calculated the energy savings that would be realized by the widespread adoption of the technology over traditional pollution control methods. Specifically, this research determined the quantity of electron beam dose required to remove 19 of the most important non-halogenated air pollutants from waste streams and constructed a technical and economic model for the implementation of the technology in key industries including petroleum refining, organic & solvent chemical production, food & beverage production, and forest & paper products manufacturing. Energy savings of 75 - 90% and green house gas reductions of 66 - 95% were calculated for the target market segments.

  13. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M.; Sorini-Wong, Susan S.

    2009-02-10

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  14. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M.; Sorini-Wong, Susan S.; Wong, Gregory K.

    2011-03-01

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  15. ARM - Measurement - Volatile organic compounds

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsVolatile organic compounds ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Volatile organic compounds The quantity or concentration measure of volatile organic compounds including both man-made and naturally occurring chemical compounds (this is inclusive of hydrocarbons). Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following

  16. Apparatus for sensing volatile organic chemicals in fluids

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Robert C.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Kottenstette, Richard; Patel, Sanjay V.

    2005-06-07

    A chemical-sensing apparatus is formed from the combination of a chemical preconcentrator which sorbs and concentrates particular volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and one or more chemiresistors that sense the VOCs after the preconcentrator has been triggered to release them in concentrated form. Use of the preconcentrator and chemiresistor(s) in combination allows the VOCs to be detected at lower concentration than would be possible using the chemiresistor(s) alone and further allows measurements to be made in a variety of fluids, including liquids (e.g. groundwater). Additionally, the apparatus provides a new mode of operation for sensing VOCs based on the measurement of decay time constants, and a method for background correction to improve measurement precision.

  17. FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

    2003-07-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing work toward the development of new screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of halogens. In prior work, the devices were tested for response to carbon tetrachloride, heptane, toluene, and water vapors. In the current work, sensor response was evaluated with sixteen halogenated VOCs relative to carbon tetrachloride. The results show that the response of the various chlorinated VOCs is within an order of magnitude of the response to carbon tetrachloride for each of the sensors. Thus, for field screening a single response factor can be used. Both types of leak detectors are being further modified to provide an on-board LCD signal readout, which is related to VOC concentration. The units will be fully portable and will operate with 115-V line or battery power. Signal background, noise level, and response data on the Bacharach heated diode detector and the TIF corona discharge detector show that when the response curves are plotted against the log of concentration, the plot is linear to the upper limit for the particular unit, with some curvature at lower levels. When response is plotted directly against concentration, the response is linear at the low end and is curved at the high end. The dynamic ranges for carbon tetrachloride of the two devices from the lower detection limit (S/N=2) to signal saturation are 4-850 vapor parts per million (vppm) for the corona discharge unit and 0.01-70 vppm for the heated diode unit. Additional circuit modifications are being made to lower the detection limit and increase the dynamic response range of the corona discharge unit. The results indicate that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work toward

  18. Investigations of release phenomenon of volatile organic compounds and particulates from residual storage chip piles

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, S.; Nagarkatti, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper outlines the method for estimating Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emissions from wood handling and storage operations at a pulp mill. Fugitive particulate matter emissions from wood handling and storage operations are due to material load/dropout operations, wind erosion from storage piles and vehicular traffic on paved roads. The particulate matter emissions are a function of a number of variables like windspeed, surface moisture content, material silt content, and number of days of precipitation. Literature review attributes VOC emissions to biological, microbiological, chemical, and physical processes occurring in wood material storage pile. The VOC emissions are from the surface of these piles and the VOC released during retrieval of chips from the pile. VOC emissions are based on the chip throughput, number of turnovers, moisture content and surface area of the pile. The emission factors with the requisite calculation methodology to be utilized for quantifying VOC emissions from chip piles has been discussed in this paper.

  19. Real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds using chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Mowry, Curtis Dale; Thornberg, Steven Michael

    1999-01-01

    A system for on-line quantitative monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) includes pressure reduction means for carrying a gaseous sample from a first location to a measuring input location maintained at a low pressure, the system utilizing active feedback to keep both the vapor flow and pressure to a chemical ionization mode mass spectrometer constant. A multiple input manifold for VOC and gas distribution permits a combination of calibration gases or samples to be applied to the spectrometer.

  20. Volatile organic compound emissions from usaf wastewater treatment plants in ozone nonattainment areas. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ouellette, B.A.

    1994-09-01

    In accordance with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), this research conducts an evaluation of the potential emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from selected Air Force wastewater treatment plants. Using a conservative mass balance analysis and process specific simulation models, volatile organic emission estimates are calculated for four individual facilities--Edwards AFB, Luke AFB, McGuire AFB, and McClellan AFB--which represent a cross section of the current inventory of USAF wastewater plants in ozone nonattainment areas. From these calculations, maximum facility emissions are determined which represent the upper limit for the potential VOC emissions from these wastewater plants. Based on the calculated emission estimates, each selected wastewater facility is evaluated as a potential major stationary source of volatile organic emissions under both Title I of the 1990 CAAA and the plant's governing Clean Air Act state implementation plan. Next, the potential impact of the specific volatile organics being emitted is discussed in terms of their relative reactivity and individual contribution to tropospheric ozone formation. Finally, a relative comparison is made between the estimated VOC emissions for the selected wastewater facilities and the total VOC emissions for their respective host installations.

  1. Biotic and Abiotic Transformation of a Volatile Organics Plume in a Semi-Arid Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Studer, J.E.; Singletary, M.A.; Miller, D.R.

    1999-04-08

    An evaluation of biotic and abiotic attenuation processes potentially important to chlorinated and non-chlorinated volatile organic compound (VOC) fate and transport in the 148 meter thick vadose zone beneath the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) was conducted. A unique feature of this evaluation is the comparison of two estimates of VOC mass present in the soil gas, pore-water, and solid phases (but not including mass as non-aqueous phase liquid [NAPL]) of the vadose zone in 1993. One estimate, 1,800 kg, was obtained from vadose zone transport modeling that incorporated molecular diffusion and volatilization to the atmosphere, but not biotic or chemical processes. The other estimate, 2,120 kg, was obtained from the sum of VOC mass physically removed during soil vapor extraction and an estimate of VOC mass remaining in the vadose zone in 1998, both adjusted to exclude NAPL mass. This comparison indicates that biogeochemical processes were at best slightly important to historical VOC plume development. Some evidence of aerobic degradation of non-chlorinated VOCs and abiotic transformation of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane was identified. Despite potentially amenable site conditions, no evidence was found of cometabolic and anaerobic transformation pathways. Relying principally on soil-gas analytical results, an upper-bound estimate of 21% mass reduction due to natural biogeochemical processes was developed. Although available information for the CWL indicates that natural attenuation processes other than volatilization to the atmosphere did not effective y enhance groundwater protection, these processes could be important in significantly reducing groundwater contamination and exposure risks at other sites. More laboratory and field research is required to improve our collective ability to characterize and exploit natural VOC attenuation processes, especially with respect to the combination of relatively thick and dry vadose zones and chlorinated VOCs.

  2. Energy Saving System to Remove Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    at Berkeley Lab have developed a catalyst and deployment devices to improve indoor air quality and reduce ventilation energy needs.Description The catalyst, a manganese...

  3. NMED COMMENTS ITEM 3 REVISE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) TARGET...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... relative to anoxic corrosion and microbial gas ... 10-WC3011, Work Control Process WP 12-IS.01-7, ... Methane Sampling Operations) Sample Line ...

  4. Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractioins of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractioins of ...

  5. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in groundwater samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhardt, J.

    1995-08-23

    The Savannah River Site contains approximately 1500 monitoring wells from which groundwater samples are collected. Many of these samples are sent off-site for various analyses, including the determination of trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report describes accomplishments that have been made during the past year which will ultimately allow VOC analysis to be performed on-site using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Through the use of the on-site approach, it is expected that there will be a substantial cost savings. This approach will also provide split-sample analysis capability which can serve as a quality control measure for off-site analysis.

  6. Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation of how sampling details affect the measurement of volatile organic compounds in diesel exhaust

  7. FDATMOS16 non-linear partitioning and organic volatility distributions in urban aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Madronich, Sasha; Kleinman, Larry; Conley, Andrew; Lee-Taylor, Julie; Hodzic, A.; Aumont, Bernard

    2015-12-17

    Gas-to-particle partitioning of organic aerosols (OA) is represented in most models by Raoult’s law, and depends on the existing mass of particles into which organic gases can dissolve. This raises the possibility of non-linear response of particle-phase OA to the emissions of precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contribute to this partitioning mass. Implications for air quality management are evident: A strong non-linear dependence would suggest that reductions in VOC emission would have a more-than-proportionate benefit in lowering ambient OA concentrations. Chamber measurements on simple VOC mixtures generally confirm the non-linear scaling between OA and VOCs, usually stated as a mass-dependence of the measured OA yields. However, for realistic ambient conditions including urban settings, no single component dominates the composition of the organic particles, and deviations from linearity are presumed to be small. Here we re-examine the linearity question using volatility spectra from several sources: (1) chamber studies of selected aerosols, (2) volatility inferred for aerosols sampled in two megacities, Mexico City and Paris, and (3) an explicit chemistry model (GECKO-A). These few available volatility distributions suggest that urban OA may be only slightly super-linear, with most values of the sensitivity exponent in the range 1.1-1.3, also substantially lower than seen in chambers for some specific aerosols. Furthermore, the rather low values suggest that OA concentrations in megacities are not an inevitable convergence of non-linear effects, but can be addressed (much like in smaller urban areas) by proportionate reductions in emissions.

  8. FDATMOS16 non-linear partitioning and organic volatility distributions in urban aerosols

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Madronich, Sasha; Kleinman, Larry; Conley, Andrew; Lee-Taylor, Julie; Hodzic, A.; Aumont, Bernard

    2015-12-17

    Gas-to-particle partitioning of organic aerosols (OA) is represented in most models by Raoult’s law, and depends on the existing mass of particles into which organic gases can dissolve. This raises the possibility of non-linear response of particle-phase OA to the emissions of precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contribute to this partitioning mass. Implications for air quality management are evident: A strong non-linear dependence would suggest that reductions in VOC emission would have a more-than-proportionate benefit in lowering ambient OA concentrations. Chamber measurements on simple VOC mixtures generally confirm the non-linear scaling between OA and VOCs, usually stated as amore » mass-dependence of the measured OA yields. However, for realistic ambient conditions including urban settings, no single component dominates the composition of the organic particles, and deviations from linearity are presumed to be small. Here we re-examine the linearity question using volatility spectra from several sources: (1) chamber studies of selected aerosols, (2) volatility inferred for aerosols sampled in two megacities, Mexico City and Paris, and (3) an explicit chemistry model (GECKO-A). These few available volatility distributions suggest that urban OA may be only slightly super-linear, with most values of the sensitivity exponent in the range 1.1-1.3, also substantially lower than seen in chambers for some specific aerosols. Furthermore, the rather low values suggest that OA concentrations in megacities are not an inevitable convergence of non-linear effects, but can be addressed (much like in smaller urban areas) by proportionate reductions in emissions.« less

  9. Implementation of a solvent management program to control paint shop volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Floer, M.M.; Hicks, B.H.

    1997-12-31

    The majority of automobile assembly plant volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are generated from painting operations. Typical paint operations generate more than 90 percent of the total plant emissions and, up to, 50 percent can be released by cleaning sources. Plant practices which contribute to the release of VOC emissions include the cleaning of paint lines and equipment, tanks, spray booths, floors and vehicles. Solvents continue to be the largest contributing source of VOC emissions in an automotive paint shop. To reduce overall VOC emissions, environmental regulations and guidelines were introduced under the Clean Air Act; Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization programs, Control Techniques, and special air permit conditions. The introduction of these regulations and guidelines has driven industry toward continual refinement of their present cleaning methods while pursuing new techniques and technologies. Industry has also shown a proactive approach by introducing new waterborne and powder coating paint technologies to reduce overall emissions. As new paint technologies are developed and introduced, special attention must be given to the types of materials utilized for cleaning. The development and implementation of a solvent management program allows a facility to standardize a program to properly implement materials, equipment, technologies and work practices to reduce volatile organic compound emissions, meet strict cleaning requirements posed by new paint technologies and produce a vehicle which meets the high quality standards of the customer. This paper will assess the effectiveness of a solvent management program by examining pollution prevention initiatives and data from four different painting operations.

  10. Pulsed Laser Imager for Detecting Hydrocarbon and VOC Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ALPIS is operated at a safe distance of 50 to 150 meters above the inspection site. Once a volatile organic compound (VOC) is detected, the GPS coordinates are recorded and an ...

  11. Volatile organic chemical emissions from carpet cushions: Screening measurements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, A.T.; Phan, T.A.

    1994-05-01

    The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has received complaints from consumers regarding the occurrence of adverse health effects following the installation of new carpeting (Schachter, 1990). Carpet systems are suspected of emitting chemicals which may be the cause of these complaints, as well as objectionable odors. Carpets themselves have been shown to emit a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The objective of this study was to screen the representative samples of carpet cushions for emissions of individual VOCS, total VOCs (TVOC), formaldehyde, and, for the two types of polyurethane cushions, isomers of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). The measurements of VOCS, TVOC and formaldehyde were made over six-hour periods using small-volume (4-L) dynamic chambers. Sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were used to identify many of the VOCs emitted by the cushion samples and to obtain quantitative estimates of the emission rates of selected compounds. Separate screening measurements were conducted for TDI. The data from the screening measurements were used by the CPSC`s Health Sciences Laboratory to help design and conduct week-long measurements of emission rates of selected compounds.

  12. Power consumption and byproducts in electron beam and electrical discharge processing of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Bardsley, J.N.

    1996-02-20

    Among the new methods being investigated for the post-process reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in atmospheric-pressure air streams are based on non-thermal plasmas. Electron beam, pulsed corona and dielectric-barrier discharge methods are among the more extensively investigated techniques for producing non-thermal plasmas. In order to apply non-thermal plasmas in an industrial scale, it is important to establish the electrical power requirements and byproducts of the process. In this paper the authors present experimental results using a compact electron beam reactor, a pulsed corona and a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. They have used these reactors to study the removal of a wide variety of VOCs. The effects of background gas composition and gas temperature on the decomposition chemistry have been studied. They present a description of the reactions that control the efficiency of the plasma process. They have found that pulsed corona and other types of electrical discharge reactors are most suitable only for processes requiring O radicals. For VOCs requiring copious amounts of electrons, ions, N atoms or OH radicals, the use of electron beam reactors is generally the best way of minimizing the electrical power consumption. Electron beam processing is remarkably more effective for all of the VOCs tested. For control of VOC emissions from dilute, large volume sources such as paint spray booths, cost analysis shows that the electron beam method is cost-competitive to thermal and catalytic methods that employ heat recovery or hybrid techniques.

  13. Mass transport of volatile organic compounds between the saturated and vadose zones. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Harner, M.S.

    1996-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) dissolved in the saturated zone are transported into the vadose zone primarily by gaseous phase diffusion. If the saturated zone is remediated, VOCs present in the vadose zone may become a secondary source of contamination for the groundwater. The amount of VOCs that remain in the vadose zone is dependent on site hydrology, soil properties, and the chemical properties of the contaminants. The purpose of this study was to determine what conditions caused VOC concentrations in the vadose zone to significantly recontaminate the saturated zone. A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to investigate the transport of a VOC, trichioroethylene, between the saturated and vadose zones under a variety of conditions. The model featured steady-state unsaturated water flow and transient contaminant transport. Transport mechanisms included aqueous phase advection-dispersion and gaseous phase diffusion. Partitioning between the water, gas, and soil compartments were modeled as equilibrium processes. Sensitivity analyses were performed on several variables including soil type (homogeneous and heterogeneous profiles), water infiltration rate and vadose zone depth. Results indicated that recontamination was most significant rate, and vadose zone depth. Results indicated that recontamination was most significant in the presence of heterogeneous soils, low infiltration rates and deep vadose zones.

  14. Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 98 NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT, SAFEGUARDS, AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; DETECTION; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; TESTING; VOLATILE MATTER deception, ...

  15. Volatile Organic Compound Investigation Results, 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Robert E.; Williams, Bruce A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2008-07-07

    Unexpectedly high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were discovered while drilling in the unconfined aquifer beneath the Hanford Site’s 300 Area during 2006. The discovery involved an interval of relatively finer-grained sediment within the unconfined aquifer, an interval that is not sampled by routine groundwater monitoring. Although VOC contamination in the unconfined aquifer has been identified and monitored, the concentrations of newly discovered contamination are much higher than encountered previously, with some new results significantly higher than the drinking water standards. The primary contaminant is trichloroethene, with lesser amounts of tetrachloroethene. Both chemicals were used extensively as degreasing agents during the fuels fabrication process. A biological degradation product of these chemicals, 1,2-dichloroethene, was also detected. To further define the nature and extent of this contamination, additional characterization drilling was undertaken during 2007. Four locations were drilled to supplement the information obtained at four locations drilled during the earlier investigation in 2006. The results of the combined drilling indicate that the newly discovered contamination is limited to a relatively finer-grained interval of Ringold Formation sediment within the unconfined aquifer. The extent of this contamination appears to be the area immediately east and south of the former South Process Pond. Samples collected from the finer-grained sediment at locations along the shoreline confirm the presence of the contamination near the groundwater/river interface. Contamination was not detected in river water that flows over the area where the river channel potentially incises the finer-grained interval of aquifer sediment. The source for this contamination is not readily apparent. A search of historical documents and the Hanford Waste Information Data System did not provide definitive clues as to waste disposal operations and

  16. Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Evaluation of how sampling details affect the measurement of volatile organic compounds in ... Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Particulate Matter on DPF ...

  17. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH

  18. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, E.; Springston, S.; Karl, T.; Emmons, L.; Flocke, F.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, D., Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, T.; Sive, B.; Kleinman, L.; Springston, S., Zaveri, R.; deGouw, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Rudolph, J.; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D. D.

    2009-11-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18 March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19 March plume and to help interpret the OH

  19. T2VOC user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Falta, R.W.; Pruess, K.; Finsterle, S.; Battistelli, A.

    1995-03-01

    T2VOC is a numerical simulator for three-phase, three-component, non-isothermal flow of water, air, and a volatile organic compound (VOC) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. Developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, T2VOC is an extension of the TOUGH2 general-purpose simulation program. This report is a self-contained guide to application of T2VOC to subsurface contamination problems involving nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). It gives a technical description of the T2VOC code, including a discussion of the physical processes modeled, and the mathematical and numerical methods used. Detailed instructions for preparing input data are presented along with several illustrative sample problems.

  20. Revisiting benzene cluster cations for the chemical ionization of dimethyl sulfide and select volatile organic compounds

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Kim, M. J.; Zoerb, M. C.; Campbell, N. R.; Zimmermann, K. J.; Blomquist, B. W.; Huebert, B. J.; Bertram, T. H.

    2015-10-01

    Benzene cluster cations were revisited as a sensitive and selective reagent ion for the chemical ionization of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and a select group of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Laboratory characterization was performed using both a new set of compounds (i.e. DMS, ?-caryophyllene) as well as previously studied VOCs (i.e., isoprene, ?-pinene). Using a field deployable chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-ToFMS), benzene cluster cations demonstrated high sensitivity (> 1 ncps ppt?1) to DMS, isoprene, and ?-pinene standards. Parallel measurements conducted using a chemical-ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer, with a weaker electric field, demonstrated that ion-molecule reactions likely proceed through amorecombination of ligand-switching and direct charge transfer mechanisms. Laboratory tests suggest that benzene cluster cations may be suitable for the selective ionization of sesquiterpenes, where minimal fragmentation (R2=0.80) over a wide range of sampling conditions.less

  1. EPA proposes to control automotive VOC emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    US Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a vehicle control system for reducing gasoline vapors that can escape into the environment during refueling of motor vehicles. It has also has been proposed that gasoline refiners lower the volatility of commercial fuels in summer to reduce vehicle evaporative emissions. EPA said nationwide emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), a major contributor to the formation of urban ozone, could be reduced as much as 10% under the proposed pollution-control measures.

  2. Plant test of a semi-catalytic thermal oxidizer for destruction of VOC`s

    SciTech Connect

    Dieterman, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    A summary of a plant trial of a thermal oxidizer for air emission control of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is provided. A 200 cfm, single-bed VOC unit, patented by Adwest Technologies as the RETOX Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer System, was installed and operated for 23 days in an alkyd resin facility. It was estimated that VOCs were reduced from 2300 ppm to around 35 ppm during initial startup of the unit. Acrolein and formaldehyde reductions are tabulated, and compared to cyclone scrubber performance. The unit went off-line twice for high stack temperatures, which may be attributable to a vapor rich slug at the inlet.

  3. Arid site characterization and technology assessment: Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.G.

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) program was initiated in March 1991 to evaluate technologies for all phases of remediation of VOCs in soils and groundwater at DOE arid/semiarid sites. The primary site for field demonstrations under the VOC-Arid ID program is the Hanford Site. The purpose of this report is to describe (1) the bases for technologies currently under evaluation in the VOC-Arid ID program; (2) the types of subsurface contamination at DOE arid/semiarid sites; and (3) the areas of potential common technology interests based on perceived technology needs at other DOE sites. This report was compiled by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in response to DOE`s Office of Technology Development`s mission to carry out an aggressive program to accelerate the development and implementation of new and existing technologies to meet a 30-year goal set by DOE in June 1989 to clean up all of its sites and to bring all sites into compliance with current and future environmental regulations. A key component of this program is the development of technologies that are better, faster, safer, and cheaper than those technologies currently available. Included in this report are an evaluation of technologies currently (fiscal year 1993) being pursued at the Hanford Site under the auspices of the VOC-Arid ID program, an assessment of subsurface contaminants at arid/semiarid sites, a summarization of technologies under consideration at other DOE sites, a discussion of areas of potential common technology interests, and the conclusions. Also included are a summary of the extent of contamination at the DOE arid/semiarid sites under consideration and a bibliography of source documents from which this report was prepared.

  4. Volatile organic compound and particulate emission studies of AF (Air Force) paint-booth facilities. Phase 1. Final report, February-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, J.; Wolbach, D.

    1988-07-01

    This study presents the results of volatile organic compound (VOC) and particulate emission surveys performed at three Air Force painting facilities. The three facilities -- one in McClellan AFB buildings 655 and two at Travis AFB in buildings 550 and 1014 -- did not meet local VOC emission standards. The possibility of reducing these emissions with recirculation modifications and various VOC reduction and control strategies is discussed. Although VOC emissions from paint spray booths can be controlled by add-on control systems, control is expensive for present air flow rates. The use of air recirculation within the spray booth can reduce the cost of VOC emission controls by reducing the quantity of air that requires processing. Recirculation systems were designed for two of the painting facilities included in this study. In designing the systems, various criteria such as paint booth VOC concentrations and health and safety standards were considered. Add-on VOC emission-control systems that can be used in conjunction with the recirculation system are evaluated. The devices of interest are a solvent incineration system and an activated-carbon adsorption bed. The VOC removal efficiency, initial capital investment and operating costs for both of these technologies are discussed.

  5. In Vitro Genotoxicity of Particulate and Semi-Volatile Organic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Organic Compound Exhaust Materails from a Set of Gasoline and a Set of Diesel Engine Vehicles Operated at 30F In Vitro Genotoxicity of Particulate and Semi-Volatile Organic ...

  6. Formation and aging of secondary organic aerosol from toluene: changes in chemical composition, volatility, and hygroscopicity

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.; Paciga, A. L.; Cerully, K. M.; Nenes, A.; Donahue, N. M.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-07-24

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is transformed after its initial formation, but this chemical aging of SOA is poorly understood. Experiments were conducted in the Carnegie Mellon environmental chamber to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the photo-oxidation of toluene and other small aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of NOx under different oxidizing conditions. The effects of the oxidizing condition on organic aerosol (OA) composition, mass yield, volatility, and hygroscopicity were explored. Higher exposure to the hydroxyl radical resulted in different OA composition, average carbon oxidation state (OSc), and mass yield. The OA oxidation state generally increased duringmore » photo-oxidation, and the final OA OSc ranged from -0.29 to 0.16 in the performed experiments. The volatility of OA formed in these different experiments varied by as much as a factor of 30, demonstrating that the OA formed under different oxidizing conditions can have a significantly different saturation concentration. There was no clear correlation between hygroscopicity and oxidation state for this relatively hygroscopic SOA.« less

  7. Best available control technology (BACT) equivalent for the control of volatile organic emissions from paint dipping operations

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, W.R.; Pugh, C.W. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    This paper provides details of a study conducted to demonstrate an equivalent method of Best Available Control Technology (BACT) compliance for volatile organic emissions from dip coating of certain miscellaneous metal parts. The study was proposed to show that the total volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from 3.8 lb of VOC/gallon coating formulations were no greater than the total VOC emissions from 3.5 lb/gallon formulations used under the same conditions for coating steel joists. The presumptive BACT standard enforced by the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) for dip coating of steel joists is 3.5 lb/gallon. The requirement of 3.5 lb/gallon was derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency Guideline Series Control of Volatile Organic Emissions from Existing Stationary Sources--Volume 6: Surface Coating of Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products. On June 5, 1998 the source completed a 12 month, full scale comparison study under a consent order with the Virginia DEQ. During the study period, the source made daily measurements of product produced, paint used, and emissions from the control and test paint tanks, and reported data to EPA and the DEQ every two months. The study concluded that a 26 percent reduction in paint usage and a 20 percent reduction in emissions was achieved in the test tanks using a 3.8 lb/gal coating compared to the control tanks using a 3.5 lb/gal coating. This study enables the source to achieve greater emission reductions than the presumptive BACT level and at the same time reduce painting costs by 34%. This study provides positive results for the environment, the steel joist industry, and the construction industry. This study could impact EPA's current Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule development for Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products and national VOC rules for this source category under Section 183(e) of the Clean Air Act.

  8. Evaluation of low-VOC latex paints

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.C.S.; Fortmann, R.C.; Roache, N.F.; Lao, H.C.

    1999-11-01

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that the VOC contents of all four paints are considerably lower than those of conventional latex paints. Low-VOC emissions were confirmed by small chamber emission tests. However, sigificant emissions of several aldehydes, especially formaldehyde, were detected from two of the paints. ASTM methods were used to evaluate the hiding power, scrubbability, washability, dry to touch, and yellowing index. The results indicated that one of the low-VOC paints tested showed performance equivalent or superior to that of a widely used conventional latex paint used as a control. It was concluded that low-VOC latex paint can be a viable option to replace conventional latex paints for prevention of indoor air pollution. However, paints marketed as low-VOC may still have significant emissions of some individual VOCs, and some may not have performance characteristics matching those of conventional latex paints.

  9. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: Measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    SciTech Connect

    Bon, D.M.; Springston, S.; M.Ulbrich, I.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D.; Fall, R.; Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Knighton, W. B.; Ortega, J.; Vargas, O.

    2011-03-16

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of {approx}2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

  10. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R.

    1995-08-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  11. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R.

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  12. Production of extremely low volatile organic compounds from biogenic emissions: Measured yields and atmospheric implications

    SciTech Connect

    Jokinen, Tuija; Berndt, Torsten; Makkonen, Risto; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Junninen, Heikki; Paasonen, Pauli; Stratmann, Frank; Herrmann, Hartmut; Guenther, Alex B.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kulmala, M.; Ehn, Mikael K.; Sipila, Mikko

    2015-06-09

    Extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOC) are suggested to promote aerosol particle formation and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production in the atmosphere. We show that the capability of biogenic VOC (BVOC) to produce ELVOC depends strongly on their chemical structure and relative oxidant levels. BVOC with an endocyclic double bond, representative emissions from, e.g., boreal forests, efficiently produce ELVOC from ozonolysis. Compounds with exocyclic double bonds or acyclic compounds including isoprene, emission representative of the tropics, produce minor quantities of ELVOC, and the role of OH radical oxidation is relatively larger. Implementing these findings into a global modeling framework shows that detailed assessment of ELVOC production pathways is crucial for understanding biogenic secondary organic aerosol and atmospheric CCN formation.

  13. Predicted concentrations in new relocatable classrooms of volatile organic compounds emitted from standard and alternate interior finish materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Fisk, William J.; Shendell, Derek G.; Apte, Michael G.

    2001-07-01

    Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are widely employed by California school districts to satisfy rapidly expanding space requirements due to population growth and class size reduction policies. There is public concern regarding indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in schools, particularly in RCs, but very little data to support or dispel these concerns. Several studies are investigating various aspects of IEQ in California schools. This laboratory-based study focused on evaluating the emissions of toxic and/or odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, from materials used to finish the interiors of new RCs. Furthermore, the study implemented a procedure for VOC source reduction by testing and selecting lower-emitting materials as substitutes for standard materials. In total, 17 standard and alternate floor coverings, wall panels and ceiling panels were quantitatively tested for emissions of VOCs using smallscale environmental chambers. Working with the largest northern California manufacturer of conventional RCs and two school districts, specifications were developed for four new RCs to be produced in early summer 2001. Two of these will be predominantly finished with standard materials. Alternate carpet systems, an alternate wall panel covering and an alternate ceiling panel were selected for the two other RCs based on the results of the laboratory study and considerations of cost and anticipated performance and maintenance. Particular emphasis was placed on reducing the concentrations of VOCs on California agency lists of toxic compounds. Indoor concentrations of toxic and odorous VOCs were estimated for the four classrooms by mass balance using the measured VOC emission factors, exposed surface areas of the materials in the RCs, and three ventilation rate scenarios. Results indicate that reductions in the concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde phenol, di(ethylene glycol) butyl ether, vinyl acetate, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene

  14. Exploratory Research - Using Volatile Organic Compounds to Separate Heterotrophic and Autotrophic Forest Soil Respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Scott D; Hatten, Jeffrey A

    2015-02-09

    The initial focus of this project was to develop a method to partition soil respiration into its components (autotrophic, heterotrophic etc.) using the fingerprint of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soils. We were able to identify 63 different VOCs in our study; however, due to technical difficulties we were unable to take reliable measurements in order to test our hypotheses and develop this method. In the end, we changed the objectives of the project. Our new objectives were to characterize the effects of species and soil moisture regime on the composition of soil organic matter. We utilized the soils from the greenhouse experiment we had established for the soil VOC study and determined the lignin biomarker profiles of each of the treatments. We found that moisture had a significant effect on the carbon content of the soils with the low moisture treatments having higher carbon content than the high moisture treatments. We found that the relative yield of syringyl phenols (SP), ligin (Lig), and substituted fatty acids (SFA) were elevated in deciduous planted pots and reduced in conifer planted pots relative to plant-free treatments. Our results suggest nuttall oak preserved lignin and SFA, while loblolly pine lost lignin and SFA similarly to the plant free treatments. Since we did not find that the carbon concentrations of the soils were different between the species, nuttall oak probably replaced more native soil carbon than loblolly pine. This suggests that relative to loblolly pine, nuttall oak is a priming species. Since priming may impact soil carbon pools more than temperature or moisture, determining which species are priming species may facilitate an understanding of the interaction that land use and climate change may have on soil carbon pools.

  15. Studies of the Atmospheric Chemsitry of Energy-Related Volatile Organic Compounds and of their Atmospheric Reaction Products

    SciTech Connect

    Roger Atkinson; Janet Arey

    2007-04-14

    The focus of this contract was to investigate selected aspects of the atmospheric chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted into the atmosphere from energy-related sources as well as from biogenic sources. The classes of VOCs studied were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs, the biogenic VOCs isoprene, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and cis-3-hexen-1-ol, alkenes (including alkenes emitted from vegetation) and their oxygenated atmospheric reaction products, and a series of oxygenated carbonyl and hydroxycarbonyl compounds formed as atmospheric reaction products of aromatic hydrocarbons and other VOCs. Large volume reaction chambers were used to investigate the kinetics and/or products of photolysis and of the gas-phase reactions of these organic compounds with hydroxyl (OH) radicals, nitrate (NO3) radicals, and ozone (O3), using an array of analytical instrumentation to analyze the reactants and products (including gas chromatography, in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and direct air sampling atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry). The following studies were carried out. The photolysis rates of 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene and of eleven isomeric methylnitronaphthalenes were measured indoors using blacklamp irradiation and outdoors using natural sunlight. Rate constants were measured for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals, Cl atoms and NO3 radicals with naphthalene, 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene, 1- and 2-ethylnaphthalene and the ten dimethylnaphthalene isomers. Rate constants were measured for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with four unsaturated carbonyls and with a series of hydroxyaldehydes formed as atmospheric reaction products of other VOCs, and for the gas-phase reactions of O3 with a series of cycloalkenes. Products of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and O3 with a series of biogenically emitted VOCs were identified and quantified. Ambient atmospheric measurements of the concentrations of a

  16. Comparison of non-thermal plasma techniques for abatement of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Bardsley, J.N.

    1996-01-11

    Non-thermal plasma processing is an emerging technology for the abatement of dilute concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and other hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in atmospheric-pressure gas streams. Either electrical discharge or electron beam methods can produce these plasmas. Recent laboratory-scale experiments show that the electron beam method is remarkably more energy efficient than competing non-thermal plasma techniques based on pulsed corona and other types of electrical discharge plasma. Preliminary cost analysis based on these data also show that the electron beam method may be cost-competitive to thermal and catalytic methods that employ heat recovery or hybrid techniques.

  17. Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, Anna C.; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee; Apte, Michael; Maddalena, Randy

    2010-09-20

    The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biolfiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed

  18. Ventilation Control of Volatile Organic Compounds in New U.S. Homes: Results of a Controlled Field Study in Nine Residential Units

    SciTech Connect

    Willem, Henry; Hult, Erin L.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Russell, Marion L.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Singer, Brett C.

    2013-01-01

    In order to optimize strategies to remove airborne contaminants in residences, it is necessary to determine how contaminant concentrations respond to changes in the air exchange rate. The impact of air exchange rate on the indoor concentrations of 39 target volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was assessed by measuring air exchange rates and VOC concentrations at three ventilation settings in nine residences. Active sampling methods were used for VOC concentration measurements, and passive perfluorocarbon tracer gas emitters with active sampling were used to determine the overall air exchange rate corresponding to the VOC measurements at each ventilation setting. The concentration levels and emission rates of the target VOCs varied by as much as two orders of magnitude across sites. Aldehyde and terpene compounds were typically the chemical classes with highest concentrations, followed by alkanes, aromatics, and siloxanes. For each home, VOC concentrations tended to decrease as the air exchange rate was increased, however, measurement uncertainty was significant. The indoor concentration was inversely proportional to air exchange rate for most compounds. For a subset of compounds including formaldehyde, however, the indoor concentration exhibited a non-linear dependence on the timescale for air exchange

  19. Revisiting benzene cluster cations for the chemical ionization of dimethyl sulfide and select volatile organic compounds

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Kim, Michelle J.; Zoerb, Matthew C.; Campbell, Nicole R.; Zimmermann, Kathryn J.; Blomquist, Byron W.; Huebert, Barry J.; Bertram, Timothy H.

    2016-04-05

    Here, benzene cluster cations were revisited as a sensitive and selective reagent ion for the chemical ionization of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and a select group of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Laboratory characterization was performed using both a new set of compounds (i.e., DMS, β-caryophyllene) as well as previously studied VOCs (i.e., isoprene, α-pinene). Using a field deployable chemical-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-ToFMS), benzene cluster cations demonstrated high sensitivity (> 1 ncps ppt−1) to DMS, isoprene, and α-pinene standards. Parallel measurements conducted using a chemical-ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer, with a much weaker electric field, demonstrated that ion–molecule reactions likely proceed through a combinationmore » of ligand-switching and direct charge transfer mechanisms. Laboratory tests suggest that benzene cluster cations may be suitable for the selective ionization of sesquiterpenes, where minimal fragmentation (< 25 %) was observed for the detection of β-caryophyllene, a bicyclic sesquiterpene. The in-field stability of benzene cluster cations using CI-ToFMS was examined in the marine boundary layer during the High Wind Gas Exchange Study (HiWinGS). The use of benzene cluster cation chemistry for the selective detection of DMS was validated against an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer, where measurements from the two instruments were highly correlated (R2 > 0.95, 10 s averages) over a wide range of sampling conditions.« less

  20. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A. Spangler, L.R.

    1995-12-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. The EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is unnecessary. A test program was conducted to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative.

  1. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

    2001-12-31

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

  2. Implementation of passive samplers for monitoring volatile organic compounds in ground water at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, F.G.; Korte, N.E.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J.; Baker, J.L.; Ramm, S.G.

    1998-06-01

    Passive sampling for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been suggested as a possible replacement to the traditional bailer method used at the Department of Energy Kansas City Plant (KCP) for routine groundwater monitoring. To compare methods, groundwater samples were collected from 19 KCP wells with VOC concentrations ranging from non-detectable to > 100,000 {micro}g/L. Analysis of the data was conducted using means and medians of multiple measurements of TCE, 1,2-DCE, 1,1-DCE and VC. All 95% confidence intervals of these VOCs overlap, providing evidence that the two methods are similar. The study also suggests that elimination of purging and decontamination of sampling equipment reduces the labor required to sample by approximately 32%. Also, because the passive method generates no waste water, there are no associated disposal costs. The results suggest evidence to continue studies and efforts to replace traditional bailer methods with passive sampling at KCP based on cost and the similarity of the methods.

  3. ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-05-04

    Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THU VOC and aldehyde emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 378 mu g m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 mu g m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 mu g m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 mu g m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and material specific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds

  4. VOC-Arid Integrated Demonstration guide to preparation of demonstration documents

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, E.J.; Brouns, T.M.; Koegler, K.J.; McCabe, G.H.; Morris, F.A.

    1994-06-01

    This guide has been prepared by Demonstration Operations of the Volatile Organic Compound-Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID). Its purpose is to describe demonstration documents, designate responsibilities for these documents, and guide the Principal Investigator (PI) and others in their preparation. The main emphasis of this guide is to describe the documentation required of the PI. However, it does cover some of the responsibilities of other members of the VOC-Arid ID team. The VOC-Arid ID is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) integrated demonstrations designed to support the demonstration of emerging environmental management and restoration technologies. The principal objective of the VOC-Arid ID is to identify, develop, and demonstrate new and innovative technologies for environmental restoration at arid or semiarid sites containing volatile organic compounds with or without associated contamination (e.g., radionuclides and metals).

  5. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, Nick; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Mike; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from an aerosol sample. One method is a Dekati Thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented for this project in an engine test cell built around a direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. Direct injection is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency but this comes with the production of a significant amount of (PM) and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition. The first interesting observation is that PM number distributions, acquired using a TSI SMPS, have a large accumulation mode (30-294 nm) but a very small nuclei mode (8-30 nm). This is understood to represent a lack of condensation particles meaning that neither the exhaust conditions nor the sample handling conditions are conducive to condensation. This lack of nuclei mode does not, however, represent a lack of VOCs in the sample. It has been observed, using mass spectral analysis (limited to PM>50 nm), that PM from the DISI engine has approximately 40% organic content through varying operating conditions. This begs the question of how effective different sample handling methods are at removing these VOCs. For one specific operating condition, called Cold Start, the un-treated PM was 40% organic. The TD

  6. Revisiting benzene cluster cations for the chemical ionization of dimethyl sulfide and select volatile organic compounds

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Kim, Michelle J.; Zoerb, Matthew C.; Campbell, Nicole R.; Zimmermann, Kathryn J.; Blomquist, Byron W.; Huebert, Barry J.; Bertram, Timothy H.

    2016-01-01

    Benzene cluster cations were revisited as a sensitive and selective reagent ion for the chemical ionization of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and a select group of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Laboratory characterization was performed using both a new set of compounds (i.e., DMS, β-caryophyllene) as well as previously studied VOCs (i.e., isoprene, α-pinene). Using a field deployable chemical-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-ToFMS), benzene cluster cations demonstrated high sensitivity (> 1 ncps ppt−1) to DMS, isoprene, and α-pinene standards. Parallel measurements conducted using a chemical-ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer, with a much weaker electric field, demonstrated that ion–molecule reactions likely proceed through a combination of ligand-switching and directmore » charge transfer mechanisms. Laboratory tests suggest that benzene cluster cations may be suitable for the selective ionization of sesquiterpenes, where minimal fragmentation (< 25 %) was observed for the detection of β-caryophyllene, a bicyclic sesquiterpene. The in-field stability of benzene cluster cations using CI-ToFMS was examined in the marine boundary layer during the High Wind Gas Exchange Study (HiWinGS). The use of benzene cluster cation chemistry for the selective detection of DMS was validated against an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer, where measurements from the two instruments were highly correlated (R2 > 0.95, 10 s averages) over a wide range of sampling conditions.« less

  7. VOC compliance on the ball: Aluminum can manufacturer rolls to California VOC compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, R.

    1997-07-01

    Since entering the North American beverage can market in 1969, Ball Corp., has increased its market share at a pace more than double the growth of the market itself. In addition to holding numerous patented advancements in can-making technology, Ball prides itself as an environmentally responsible company. When Ball decided to increase production capacity in its Fairfield, California, plant, the challenge was to produce more cans, while still complying with the state`s stringent air emissions regulations. As with other aluminum can manufacturing facilities, Ball`s coating and curing operations generate volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Ball`s permit from the state of California allows only limited amounts of VOC discharges into the atmosphere. With proposed increases in production capacities, however, the Bay Area`s Air Quality Management District--a local US EPA authority--required Ball to incinerate far more VOCs than the existing recuperative abatement system could handle. According to California regulations, facilities that wish to increase VOC emissions must install some type of VOC-control system or provide technological offsets. This regulatory pressure led Ball to seek a solution that would not only comply with emissions regulations, but would not compromise the company`s production process. Ball engineers selected a regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO) for the Fairfield, Calif., plant. Considering the success Ball has encountered in previous experiences with this type of oxidation unit, the company immediately selected an RTO instead of catalytic oxidizers or other types of pollution control equipment.

  8. Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, Randy; Li, Na; Hodgson, Alfred; Offermann, Francis; Singer, Brett

    2013-02-01

    Continually changing materials used in home construction and finishing can introduce new chemicals or changes in the VOC profile in residential air and the trend towards tighter homes can lead to higher exposure concentrations for many indoor sources. However, the complex mixture of VOCs in residential air makes it difficult to discover emerging contaminants and/or trends in pollutant profiles. The purpose of this study is to prepare a comprehensive library of chemicals found in homes, along with a semi-quantitative approach to maximize the information gained from VOC measurements. We carefully reviewed data from 108 new California homes and identified 238 individual compounds. The majority of the identified VOCs originated indoors. Only 31% were found to have relevant health based exposure guidelines and less than 10% had a chronic reference exposure level (CREL). The finding highlights the importance of extending IAQ studies to include a wider range of VOCs

  9. Development of new VOC exposure metrics and their relationship to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Ten Brinke, JoAnn

    1995-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are suspected to contribute significantly to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' (SBS), a complex of subchronic symptoms that occurs during and in general decreases away from occupancy of the building in question. A new approach takes into account individual VOC potencies, as well as the highly correlated nature of the complex VOC mixtures found indoors. The new VOC metrics are statistically significant predictors of symptom outcomes from the California Healthy Buildings Study data. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis that a summary measure of the VOC mixture, other risk factors, and covariates for each worker will lead to better prediction of symptom outcome. VOC metrics based on animal irritancy measures and principal component analysis had the most influence in the prediction of eye, dermal, and nasal symptoms. After adjustment, a water-based paints and solvents source was found to be associated with dermal and eye irritation. The more typical VOC exposure metrics used in prior analyses were not useful in symptom prediction in the adjusted model (total VOC (TVOC), or sum of individually identified VOCs ({Sigma}VOC{sub i})). Also not useful were three other VOC metrics that took into account potency, but did not adjust for the highly correlated nature of the data set, or the presence of VOCs that were not measured. High TVOC values (2--7 mg m{sup {minus}3}) due to the presence of liquid-process photocopiers observed in several study spaces significantly influenced symptoms. Analyses without the high TVOC values reduced, but did not eliminate the ability of the VOC exposure metric based on irritancy and principal component analysis to explain symptom outcome.

  10. Field demonstration and transition of SCAPS direct push VOC in-situ sensing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    William M. Davis

    1999-11-03

    This project demonstrated two in-situ volatile organic compound (VOC) samplers in combination with the direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometer (DSITMS). The technologies chosen were the Vadose Sparge and the Membrane Interface Probe (MIP) sensing systems. Tests at two demonstration sites showed the newer VOC technologies capable of providing in situ contaminant measurements at two to four times the rate of the previously demonstrated Hydrosparge sensor. The results of this project provide initial results supporting the utility of these new technologies to provide rapid site characterization of VOC contaminants in the subsurface.

  11. Impacts of simulated herbivory on volatile organic compound emission profiles from coniferous plants

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Faiola, C. L.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2015-01-28

    The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), blue spruce (Picea pungens), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), grand fir (Abies grandis), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species were measured continuously with a gasmore » chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC–MS–FID). Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. The compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.« less

  12. Emerging site characterization technologies for volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.; Last, G.V.

    1992-05-01

    A Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) expedited response action (ERA) has been initiated at Hanford Site`s 200 West Area for the removal of carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated soils. In coordination with the ERA, innovative technology demonstrations are being conducted as part of DOE`s Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration in an effort to improve upon baseline technologies. Improved methods for accessing, sampling, and analyzing soil and soil-vapor contaminants is a high priority. Sonic drilling is being evaluated as an alternative to cable-tool drilling, while still providing the advantages of reliability, containment, and waste minimization. Applied Research Associates, Inc. used their cone penetrometer in the 200 West Area to install a permanent soil-gas monitoring probe and to collect soil-gas profile data. However, successful application of this technology will require the development of an improved ability to penetrate coarse gravel units. A Science and Engineering Associates Membrane Instrumentation and Sampling Technique (SEAMIST) system designed for collecting in situ soil samples and air permeability data in between drilling runs at variable depths is being tested in 200 West Area boreholes. Analytical technologies scheduled for testing include supercritical fluid extraction and analysis for non- and semi-volatile organic co-contaminants and an unsaturated flow apparatus developed by Washington State University for the measurement of transport parameters.

  13. Emerging site characterization technologies for volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.; Last, G.V.

    1992-05-01

    A Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) expedited response action (ERA) has been initiated at Hanford Site's 200 West Area for the removal of carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated soils. In coordination with the ERA, innovative technology demonstrations are being conducted as part of DOE's Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration in an effort to improve upon baseline technologies. Improved methods for accessing, sampling, and analyzing soil and soil-vapor contaminants is a high priority. Sonic drilling is being evaluated as an alternative to cable-tool drilling, while still providing the advantages of reliability, containment, and waste minimization. Applied Research Associates, Inc. used their cone penetrometer in the 200 West Area to install a permanent soil-gas monitoring probe and to collect soil-gas profile data. However, successful application of this technology will require the development of an improved ability to penetrate coarse gravel units. A Science and Engineering Associates Membrane Instrumentation and Sampling Technique (SEAMIST) system designed for collecting in situ soil samples and air permeability data in between drilling runs at variable depths is being tested in 200 West Area boreholes. Analytical technologies scheduled for testing include supercritical fluid extraction and analysis for non- and semi-volatile organic co-contaminants and an unsaturated flow apparatus developed by Washington State University for the measurement of transport parameters.

  14. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

  15. Control of VOC emissions from ink and paint manufacturing processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMinn, B.W.; Marsosudiro, P.J.

    1992-04-01

    The document presents the results of a study to collect and report information on processes used to manufacture paint and ink, volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions generated during these operations, emission control techniques and their effectiveness, and costs associated with process changes and emission control options.

  16. Detection of volatile organic compounds using surface enhanced Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, A S; Maiti, A; Ileri, N; Bora, M; Larson, C C; Britten, J A; Bond, T C

    2012-03-22

    The authors present the detection of volatile organic compounds directly in their vapor phase by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on lithographically-defined two-dimensional rectangular array of nanopillars. The type of nanopillars is known as the tapered pillars. For the tapered pillars, SERS enhancement arises from the nanofocusing effect due to the sharp tip on top. SERS experiments were carried out on these substrates using various concentrations of toluene vapor. The results show that SERS signal from a toluene vapor concentration of ppm level can be achieved, and the toluene vapor can be detected within minutes of exposing the SERS substrate to the vapor. A simple adsorption model is developed which gives results matching the experimental data. The results also show promising potential for the use of these substrates in environmental monitoring of gases and vapors.

  17. Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-10-01

    Sixteen previously occupied temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess emissions of volatile organic compounds. The whole trailer emission factors wereevaluated for 36 VOCs including formaldehyde. Indoor sampling was carried out in the THUs located in Purvis staging yard in Mississippi, USA. Indoor temperature andrelative humidity (RH) were also measured in all the trailers during sampling. Indoor temperatures were varied (increased or decreased) in a selection of THUs using theheating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Indoor temperatures during sampling ranged from 14o C to 33o C, and relative humidity (RH) varied between 35percentand 74percent. Ventilation rates were increased in some trailers using bathroom fans and vents during some of the sampling events. Ventilation rates measured during some aselection of sampling events varied from 0.14 to 4.3 h-1. Steady state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 10 mu g-m-3 to 1000 mu g-m-3. The formaldehyde concentrations in the trailers were of toxicological significance. The effects of temperature, humidity and ventilation rates were also studied. A linearregression model was built using log of percentage relative humidity, inverse of temperature (in K-1), and inverse log ACH as continuous independent variables, trailermanufacturer as a categorical independent variable, and log of the chemical emission factors as the dependent variable. The coefficients of inverse temperature, log relativehumidity, log inverse ACH with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. The regression model wasfound to explain about 84percent of the variation in the dependent variable. Most VOC concentrations measured indoors in the Purvis THUs were mostly found to be belowvalues reported in earlier studies by Maddalena et al.,1,2 Hodgson et al.,3 and Hippelein4. Emissions of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl products) were found

  18. Method of characterizing VOC concentration in vented waste drums with multiple layers of confinement using limited sampling data

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Vaughn, M.E.; Jensen, B.A.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-11-01

    Characterization of transuranic waste destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant currently requires detailed characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the void volume headspaces (drum headspace, the large polymer bag headspace, and the innermost layers of confinement headspace) of the waste drums. A test program is underway at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to determine if the drum headspace VOC concentration is representative of the concentration in the entire drum void space and demonstrate that the VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. A comparison of model predictions of VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement with actual measurement from transuranic waste drums demonstrate that this method may be useful in characterizing VOC concentration in a vented waste drum.

  19. Case history: Effectively operating an RTO with batch VOC spikes

    SciTech Connect

    Hohl, H.M.

    1999-07-01

    The problem at a foam packaging plant in Texas was periodic spikes of expanded foam blowing agent to atmosphere. The amount of butane blowing agent released is a function of the thickness of the packaging foam desired. As the facility changed products on the multiple extrusion lines, volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions varied widely. The Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) requires abatement of the blowing agent. If the abatement device was not designed for the wide variation in VOCs, the abatement device could shut down under high temperature conditions. With the abatement device shutdown, the manufacturing operation must also be shut down. Two methods were used in the past to address the widely varied operating conditions. One was to operate an abatement device with a less thermally efficient recuperative style oxidizer. These units had thermal efficiencies in the range of 50 to 70%. The second method of dealing with the different operating conditions was to oversize the abatement device for the maximum VOC concentration. In this case a very large regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO) was used to minimize operating costs. This paper will provide case history information on an innovative way to deal with effective operation in dealing with VOC spikes in an expanded foam packaging application. A hot gas bypass system was designed and installed to address the VOC spikes. As a result the system operates with lower overall operating costs than previous systems. The design, operation, and environmental performance for this unit will be reviewed during this presentation.

  20. Evaluation of innovative volatile organic compound and hazardous air-pollutant-control technologies for U. S. Air Force paint spray booths. Final report, Aug 88-Aug 89

    SciTech Connect

    Ritts, D.H.; Garretson, C.; Hyde, C.; Lorelli, J.; Wolbach, C.D.

    1990-10-01

    Significant quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants are released into the atmosphere during USAF maintenance operations. Painting operations conducted in paint spray booths are major sources of these pollutants. Solvent based epoxy primers and solvent-based polyurethane coatings are typically used by the Air Force for painting aircraft and associated equipment. Solvents used in these paints include methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), toluene, lacquer thinner, and other solvents involved in painting and component cleaning. In this report, carbon paper adsorption/catalytic incineration (CPACI) and fluidized-bed catalytic incineration (FBCI) were evaluated as control technologies to destroy VOC emissions from paint spray booths. Simultaneous testing of pilot-scale units was performed to evaluate the technical performance of both technologies. Results showed that each technology maintained greater than 99 percent Destruction and Removal Efficiencies (DREs). Particulate emissions from both pilot-scale units were less than 0.08 grains/dry standard cubic foot. Emissions of the criteria pollutants--sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide--were also below general regulatory standards for incinerators. Economic evaluations were based on a compilation of manufacturer-supplied data and energy consuption data gathered during the pilot scale testing. CPACM and FBCI technologies are less expensive than standard VOC control technologies when net present costs for a 15-year equipment life are compared.

  1. Treatment of VOCs in high strength wastes using an anaerobic expanded-bed GAC reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanian, B.; Suidan, M.T.; Gelderloos, A.B.; Brenner, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The potential of the expanded-bed granular activated carbon (GAC) anaerobic reactor in treating a high strength waste containing RCRA volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was studied. A total of six VOCs, methylene chloride, chlorobenzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, toluene and tetrachloroethylene, were fed to the reactor in a high strength matrix of background solvents. Performance was evaluated. The reactor was found to effect excellent removal of all VOCs (97%). Chloroform, while itself removed at levels in excess of 97%, was found to inhibit the degradation of acetate and acetone, two of the background solvents. Without any source of chloroform in the feed, excellent COD removals were obtained in addition to near-complete removal of all the VOCs.

  2. Capture process heat during VOC destruction

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    To avoid problems with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during the manufacture or use of coatings, sealants or adhesives, many operators would rather switch to water-based products and systems than install costly emission-control equipment. However, for some, this option is not always available. The Hoell Co. (Langenfeld, Germany), a manufacturer of aluminum and laminated tubes, recently adopted an innovative process to fold and seal its tubes. The new technique uses a thin coat of hot varnish instead of the standard latex sealant. To cope with organic vapors created by the sealing technique, the company installed an air purification system from LTG Lufttechnische GmbH (Stuttgart, Germany). The thermal regenerative oxidizer, which consists of a combustion chamber and three ceramic heat storage chambers, not only destroys vapor-phase organic pollutants, but captures the heat of oxidation to generate process heat and produce hot water for tube washing. This helps to offset operating costs at the facility.

  3. Response of fine particulate matter to emission changes of oxides of nitrogen and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandra P. Tsimpidi; Vlassis A. Karydis; Spyros N. Pandis

    2008-11-15

    A three-dimensional chemical transport model (Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions) is used to investigate changes in fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in response to 50% emissions changes of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during July 2001 and January 2002 in the eastern United States. The reduction of NOx emissions by 50% during the summer results in lower average oxidant levels and lowers PM2.5 (8% on average), mainly because of reductions of sulfate (9-11%), nitrate (45-58%), and ammonium (7-11%). The organic particulate matter (PM) slightly decreases in rural areas, whereas it increases in cities by a few percent when NOx is reduced. Reduction of NOx during winter causes an increase of the oxidant levels and a rather complicated response of the PM components, leading to small net changes. Sulfate increases (8-17%), nitrate decreases (18-42%), organic PM slightly increases, and ammonium either increases or decreases a little. The reduction of VOC emissions during the summer causes on average a small increase of the oxidant levels and a marginal increase in PM2.5. This small net change is due to increases in the inorganic components and decreases of the organic ones. Reduction of VOC emissions during winter results in a decrease of the oxidant levels and a 5-10% reduction of PM2.5 because of reductions in nitrate (4-19%), ammonium (4-10%), organic PM (12-14%), and small reductions in sulfate. Although sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) reduction is the single most effective approach for sulfate control, the coupled decrease of SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions in both seasons is more effective in reducing total PM2.5 mass than the SO{sub 2} reduction alone. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. CAN SORBENT-BASED GAS PHASE AIR CLEANING FOR VOCS SUBSTITUTE FOR VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS?

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William; Fisk, William J.

    2007-08-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings, as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this application are summarized, and related priority research needs are identified. Major conclusions include: sorbent systems can remove a broad range of VOCs with moderate to high efficiency, sorbent technologies perform effectively when challenged with VOCs at the low concentrations present indoors, and there is a large uncertainty about the lifetime and associated costs of sorbent air cleaning systems when used in commercial buildings for indoor VOC control. Suggested priority research includes: experiments to determine sorbent system VOC removal efficiencies and lifetimes considering the broad range and low concentration of VOCs indoors; evaluations of in-situ regeneration of sorbents; and an updated analysis of the cost of sorbent air cleaning relative to the cost of ventilation.

  5. Sorbent-Based Gas Phase Air Cleaning for VOCs in CommercialBuildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides a review of current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The fundamental principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this application are summarized, novel sorbent technologies are described, and related priority research needs are identified. Major conclusions include: sorbent systems can remove a broad range of VOCs with moderate to high efficiency, sorbent technologies perform effectively when challenged with VOCs at the low concentrations present indoors, and there is a large uncertainty about the lifetime and associated costs of sorbent air cleaning systems when used in commercial buildings for indoor VOC control. Suggested priority research includes: experiments to determine sorbent system VOC removal efficiencies and lifetimes considering the broad range and low concentration of VOCs indoors; evaluations of in-situ regeneration of sorbents; and an updated analysis of the cost of sorbent air cleaning relative to the cost of ventilation.

  6. Environmental chamber studies of atmospheric reactivities of volatile organic compounds: Effects of varying chamber and light source

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W.; Luo, D.; Malkina, I.; Pierce, J.

    1995-05-01

    Photochemical oxidant models are essential tools for assessing effects of emissions changes on ground-level ozone formation. Such models are needed for predicting the ozone impacts of increased alternative fuel use. The gas-phase photochemical mechanism is an important component of these models because ozone is not emitted directly, but is formed from the gas-phase photochemical reactions of the emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in air. The chemistry of ground level ozone formation is complex; hundreds of types of VOCs being emitted into the atmosphere, and most of their atmospheric reactions are not completely understood. Because of this, no chemical model can be relied upon to give even approximately accurate predictions unless it has been evaluated by comparing its predictions with experimental data. Therefore an experimental and modeling study was conducted to assess how chemical mechanism evaluations using environmental chamber data are affected by the light source and other chamber characteristics. Xenon arc lights appear to give the best artificial representation of sunlight currently available, and experiments were conducted in a new Teflon chamber constructed using such a light source. Experiments were also conducted in an outdoor Teflon Chamber using new procedures to improve the light characterization, and in Teflon chambers using blacklights. These results, and results of previous runs other chambers, were compared with model predictions using an updated detailed chemical mechanism. The magnitude of the chamber radical source assumed when modeling the previous runs were found to be too high; this has implications in previous mechanism evaluations. Temperature dependencies of chamber effects can explain temperature dependencies in chamber experiments when Ta-300{degree}K, but not at temperatures below that.

  7. Assessment of Industrial VOC Gas-Scrubber Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, H

    2004-02-13

    Gas scrubbers for air-pollution control of volatile organic compounds (VOC) cover a wide range of technologies. In this review, we have attempted to evaluate the single-pass scrubber destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) for a range of gas-scrubber technologies. We have focused primarily on typical industrial DREs for the various technologies, typical problems, and any DRE-related experiential information available. The very limited literature citations found suggest significant differences between actual versus design performance in some technologies. The potentially significant role of maintenance in maintaining DREs was also investigated for those technologies. An in-depth portrayal of the entire gas scrubbing industry is elusive. Available literature sources suggest significant differences between actual versus design performance in some technologies. Lack of scrubber system maintenance can contribute to even larger variances. ''Typical'' industrial single-pass performance of commonly used VOC gas scrubbers generally ranged from {approx}80 to 99%. Imperfect solid and/or liquid particulates capture (possibly as low as 95% despite design for 99+% capture efficiency) can also lead to VOC releases. Changing the VOC composition in the gas stream without modifying scrubber equipment or operating conditions could also lead to significant deterioration in attainable destruction and removal efficiencies.

  8. Mass transfer of volatile organic compounds from drinking water to indoor air: The role of residential dishwashers

    SciTech Connect

    Howard-Reed, C.; Corsi, R.L.; Moya, J.

    1999-07-01

    Contaminated tap water may be a source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in residential indoor air. To better understand the extent and impact of chemical emissions from this source, a two-phase mass balance model was developed based on mass transfer kinetics between each phase. Twenty-nine experiments were completed using a residential dishwasher to determine model parameters. During each experiment, inflow water was spiked with a cocktail of chemical tracers with a wide range of physicochemical properties. In each case, the effects of water temperature, detergent, and dish-loading pattern on chemical stripping efficiencies and mass transfer coefficients were determined. Dishwasher headspace ventilation rates were also measured using an isobutylene tracer gas. Chemical stripping efficiencies for a single cycle ranged from 18% to 55% for acetone, from 96% to 98% for toluene, and from 97% to 98% for ethylbenzene and were consistently 100% for cyclohexane. Experimental results indicate that dishwashers have a relatively low but continuous ventilation rate that results in significant chemical storage within the headspace of the dishwasher. In conjunction with relatively high mass transfer coefficients, low ventilation rates generally lead to emissions that are limited by equilibrium conditions after approximately 1--2 min of dishwasher operation.

  9. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul M.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun S.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition.

  10. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun S.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition

  11. LOW TEMPERATURE VOC COMBUSTION OVER MANGANESE, COBALT AND ZINC ALPO4 MOLECULAR SIEVES

    SciTech Connect

    Rosemarie Szostak

    2003-03-06

    The objective of this project was to prepare microporous aluminophosphates containing magnesium, manganese, cobalt and zinc (MeAPOs) and to evaluate their performance as oxidation catalysts for the removal of low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from gas streams. The tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) To develop reliable synthesis methods for metal aluminophosphates containing manganese, cobalt and zinc in their framework; (2) To characterize these materials for crystallinity, phase purity, the location and nature of the incorporated metal in the framework; and (3) To evaluate the materials for their catalytic activities in the oxidation of volatile organic environmental pollutants.

  12. NICS report links VOCs to respiratory problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, E.

    1992-04-22

    Children who live near the chemical plants of Kanawha Valley, WV, suffer more acute and chronic respiratory aliments than those farther away, says a Harvard University School of Public Health report. In the $1-million, five-year study commissioned by the National Institute for Chemical Studies (NICS:Charleston, WV) and funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, proximity to chemical plants that emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was linked to higher incidence of asthma, acute eye irritation, shortness of breath, and chronic cough. The researchers say they adjusted for most other factors, such as parental smoking and petroleum. {open_quotes}The research hypothesis was whether children in the valley had more symptoms,{close_quotes} says NICS president Paul Hill. {open_quotes}Yes, there is a difference.{close_quotes} The study showed that some ailments were up to 28% more prevalent in children in the valley than in other Kanawha County children.

  13. Environmental Aspects of Two Volatile Organic Compound Groundwater Treatment Designs at the Rocky Flats Site - 13135

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, Casey C.; DiSalvo, Rick; Boylan, John

    2013-07-01

    DOE's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado is a former nuclear weapons production facility that began operations in the early 1950's. Because of releases of hazardous substances to the environment, the federally owned property and adjacent offsite areas were placed on the CERCLA National Priorities List in 1989. The final remedy was selected in 2006. Engineered components of the remedy include four groundwater treatment systems that were installed before closure as CERCLA-accelerated actions. Two of the systems, the Mound Site Plume Treatment System and the East Trenches Plume Treatment System, remove low levels of volatile organic compounds using zero-valent iron media, thereby reducing the loading of volatile organic compounds in surface water resulting from the groundwater pathway. However, the zero-valent iron treatment does not reliably reduce all volatile organic compounds to consistently meet water quality goals. While adding additional zero-valent iron media capacity could improve volatile organic compound removal capability, installation of a solar powered air-stripper has proven an effective treatment optimization in further reducing volatile organic compound concentrations. A comparison of the air stripper to the alternative of adding additional zero-valent iron capacity to improve Mound Site Plume Treatment System and East Trenches Plume Treatment System treatment based on several key sustainable remediation aspects indicates the air stripper is also more 'environmentally friendly'. These key aspects include air pollutant emissions, water quality, waste management, transportation, and costs. (authors)

  14. Modeling the VOC emissions from interior latex paint applied to gypsum board

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Z.; Fortmann, R.; Marfiak, S.; Tichenor, B.; Sparks, L.

    1997-09-01

    The paper discusses modeling volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from indoor latex paint applied to gypsum board. An empirical source model for a porous substrate was developed that takes both the wet- and dry-stage emission into consideration. Tests in the U.S. EPA`s Source Characterization Laboratory showed that common interior surfaces such as gypsum board and carpet could absorb significant amounts of latex paint VOCS from the air, and that they were re-emitted very slowly. An indoor air quality model incorporating the source model, an irreversible sink model, and the air movement data obtained from tracer gas tests made satisfactory predictions for the VOC levels in a test house.

  15. Method and apparatus for regenerating activated carbon containing an adsorbed volatile organic absorbate

    SciTech Connect

    Tiggelbeck, D.D.; Goyak, G.M.

    1993-07-27

    A method is described for regenerating spent activated carbon containing adsorbed volatile organic adsorbate comprising: establishing a confined downwardly moving bed of activated carbon; adding spent carbon to the top of said bed; introducing superheated steam into the bottom of said bed in contact with said carbon; recovering exit gas including predominantly superheated steam and volatilized adsorbate from the top of said bed; circulating a portion of said exit gas through a superheater and compressor to the bottom of said bed; withdrawing a portion of said exit gas through a cooler to condense steam and volatile adsorbate; continuously circulating superheated steam in a closed loop through said downwardly moving bed, said compressor and said superheater; recovering partially regenerated activated carbon containing residual volatile adsorbate from the bottom of said bed.

  16. VOCs in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (ID) was initiated in 1989. Objectives for the ID were to test the integrated demonstration concept, demonstrate and evaluate innovative technologies/systems for the remediation of VOC contamination in soils and groundwater, and to transfer technologies and systems to internal and external customers for use in fullscale remediation programs. The demonstration brought together technologies from DOE laboratories, other government agencies, and industry for demonstration at a single test bed. The Savannah River Site was chosen as the location for this ID as the result of having soil and groundwater contaminated with VOCS. The primary contaminants, trichlorethylene and tetrachloroethylene, originated from an underground process sewer line servicing a metal fabrication facility at the M-Area. Some of the major technical accomplishments for the ID include the successful demonstration of the following: In situ air stripping coupled with horizontal wells to remediate sites through air injection and vacuum extraction; Crosshole geophysical tomography for mapping moisture content and lithologic properties of the contaminated media; In situ radio frequency and ohmic heating to increase mobility, of the contaminants, thereby speeding recovery and the remedial process; High-energy corona destruction of VOCs in the off-gas of vapor recovery wells; Application of a Brayton cycle heat pump to regenerate carbon adsorption media used to trap VOCs from the offgas of recovery wells; In situ permeable flow sensors and the colloidal borescope to determine groundwater flow; Chemical sensors to rapidly quantify chlorinated solvent contamination in the subsurface; In situ bioremediation through methane/nutrient injection to enhance degradation of contaminants by methanotrophic bateria.

  17. Thermal engine driven heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for separating volatile organic compounds from a stream of process gas. An internal combustion engine drives a plurality of refrigeration systems, an electrical generator and an air compressor. The exhaust of the internal combustion engine drives an inert gas subsystem and a heater for the gas. A water jacket captures waste heat from the internal combustion engine and drives a second heater for the gas and possibly an additional refrigeration system for the supply of chilled water. The refrigeration systems mechanically driven by the internal combustion engine effect the precipitation of volatile organic compounds from the stream of gas.

  18. Assessment and development of an advanced heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This report documents Phase 1 of a project conducted by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for the assessment and development of an advanced heat pump for recovery of VOC solvents from process gas streams. In Phase 1, MTI has evaluated solvent recovery applications within New York State (NYS), identified host sites willing to implement their application, and conducted a preliminary design of the equipment required. The design and applications were evaluated for technical and economic feasibility. The solvent recovery heat pump system concept resulting from the Phase 1 work is one of a mobile unit that would service multiple stationary adsorbers. A large percentage of solvent recovery applications within the state can be serviced by on-site carbon bed adsorbers that are desorbed at frequencies ranging from once per to once per month. In this way, many users can effectively share'' the substantial capital investment associated with the system's reverse Brayton hardware, providing it can be packaged as a mobile unit. In a typical operating scenario, a carbon adsorption module will be located permanently at the industrial site. The SLA will be ducted through the adsorber and the solvents removed, thus eliminating an air emission problem. Prior to VOC breakthrough, by schedule or by request, the mobile unit would arrive at the site to recover the concentrated solvent. An engine driven, natural gas fueled system, the mobile unit utilizes conditioned engine exhaust gases as the inert gas for desorption. Hot inert gas is directed through the carbon bed, heating it and volatilizing the adsorbed solvent. Using a revere Brayton-cycle refrigeration system to create low temperatures, the solvent vapors are condensed and collected from the inert gas stream. The solvent can then be recycled to the production process or sold for other uses and the adsorber returned to service.

  19. Assessment and development of an advanced heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This report documents Phase 1 of a project conducted by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for the assessment and development of an advanced heat pump for recovery of VOC solvents from process gas streams. In Phase 1, MTI has evaluated solvent recovery applications within New York State (NYS), identified host sites willing to implement their application, and conducted a preliminary design of the equipment required. The design and applications were evaluated for technical and economic feasibility. The solvent recovery heat pump system concept resulting from the Phase 1 work is one of a mobile unit that would service multiple stationary adsorbers. A large percentage of solvent recovery applications within the state can be serviced by on-site carbon bed adsorbers that are desorbed at frequencies ranging from once per to once per month. In this way, many users can effectively ``share`` the substantial capital investment associated with the system`s reverse Brayton hardware, providing it can be packaged as a mobile unit. In a typical operating scenario, a carbon adsorption module will be located permanently at the industrial site. The SLA will be ducted through the adsorber and the solvents removed, thus eliminating an air emission problem. Prior to VOC breakthrough, by schedule or by request, the mobile unit would arrive at the site to recover the concentrated solvent. An engine driven, natural gas fueled system, the mobile unit utilizes conditioned engine exhaust gases as the inert gas for desorption. Hot inert gas is directed through the carbon bed, heating it and volatilizing the adsorbed solvent. Using a revere Brayton-cycle refrigeration system to create low temperatures, the solvent vapors are condensed and collected from the inert gas stream. The solvent can then be recycled to the production process or sold for other uses and the adsorber returned to service.

  20. Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations and Emission Rates in New Manufactured and Site-Built Houses

    SciTech Connect

    Armin Rudd

    2008-10-30

    This study was conducted with the primary objective of characterizing and comparing the airborne concentrations and the emission rates of total VOCs and selected individual VOCs, including formaldehyde, among a limited number of new manufactured and site-built houses.

  1. Development of a method utilizing drum headspace VOC concentration as a waste characterization tool

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    Pretest waste characterization for the bin-scale tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) required sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from within transuranic (TRU) waste drums. Although the bin-scale tests have been postponed, the development and demonstration of accurate waste characterization methods continues. The objectives of extensive sampling of waste drums are to obtain a representative sample from each layer of confinement to identify volatile and gaseous constituents, verify process knowledge of the drum contents, and demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. A method to estimate the VOC concentration between layers of confinement from a single headspace sample collected beneath the drum filter of a vented waste drum is investigated. This method of characterizing the void space within a drum could eventually lead to a significant reduction in sampling time and cost. A model based on fundamental principles of transport phenomena is developed to estimate the VOC concentration throughout a waste drum based on the knowledge of the transport properties and the measured drum headspace VOC concentration. Model and experimental results are compared.

  2. Thermal engine driven heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.L.

    1991-07-30

    This patent describes an apparatus for separating volatile organic compounds from a stream of gas. It comprises an internal combustion engine including a rotating shaft; an inert gas generating means for converting at least a portion of exhaust from the internal combustion engine into an inert gas and mixing the inert gas into the stream of gas; heat transfer means for recovering waste heat from the internal combustion engine to heat a portion of the stream of gas; a first and a second refrigeration system operatively connected to the rotating shaft of the internal combustion engine, the first and the second refrigeration systems operating at substantially different temperatures, the first and second refrigeration systems receiving the stream of gas and cooling the stream of gas thereby extracting the volatile organic compounds therefrom.

  3. Performance specifications for technology development: Application for characterization of volatile organic compounds in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, S.E.; Doskey, P.V.; Erickson, M.D.; Lindahl, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report contains information about technology development for the monitoring and remediation of environmental pollution caused by the release of volatile organic compounds. Topics discussed include: performance specification processes, gas chromatography, mass spectrometer, fiber-optic chemical sensors, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, piezoelectric sensors and electrochemical sensors. These methods are analyzed for their cost efficiency, accuracy, and the ability to meet the needs of the customer.

  4. VOC and HAP recovery using ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R. Milota : Kaichang Li

    2007-05-29

    During the manufacture of wood composites, paper, and to a lesser extent, lumber, large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as terpenes, formaldehyde, and methanol are emitted to air. Some of these compounds are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The air pollutants produced in the forest products industry are difficult to manage because the concentrations are very low. Presently, regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs and RCOs) are commonly used for the destruction of VOCs and HAPs. RTOs consume large amounts of natural gas to heat air and moisture. The combustion of natural gas generates increased CO2 and NOx, which have negative implications for global warming and air quality. The aforementioned problems are addressed by an absorption system containing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as an absorbent. RTILs are salts, but are in liquid states at room temperature. RTILs, an emerging technology, are receiving much attention as replacements for organic solvents in industrial processes with significant cost and environmental benefits. Some of these processes include organic synthesis, extraction, and metal deposition. RTILs would be excellent absorbents for exhausts from wood products facilities because of their unique properties: no measurable vapor pressure, high solubility of wide range of organic compounds, thermal stability to 200°C (almost 400°F), and immisciblity with water. Room temperature ionic liquids were tested as possible absorbents. Four were imidizolium-based and were eight phosphonium-based. The imidizolium-based ionic liquids proved to be unstable at the conditions tested and in the presence of water. The phosphonium-based ionic liquids were stable. Most were good absorbents; however, cleaning the contaminates from the ionic liquids was problematic. This was overcome with a higher temperature (120°C) than originally proposed and a very low pressure (1 kPa. Absorption trials were conducted with tetradecy

  5. Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from α-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.; Carrasquillo, A.; Daumit, K.; Hunter, J.; et al

    2015-02-18

    We measured a large suite of gas and particle phase multi-functional organic compounds with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) source. We focus here on results from experiments utilizing an ionization method most selective towards acids (acetate negative ion proton transfer), but our conclusions are based on more general physical and chemical properties of the SOA. Hundreds of compounds were observed in both gasmore »and particle phases, the latter being detected upon temperature programmed thermal desorption of collected particles. Particulate organic compounds detected by the FIGAERO HR-ToF-CIMS are highly correlated with, and explain at least 25–50% of, the organic aerosol mass measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). Reproducible multi-modal structures in the thermograms for individual compounds of a given elemental composition reveal a significant SOA mass contribution from large molecular weight organics and/or oligomers (i.e. multi-phase accretion reaction products). Approximately 50% of the HR-ToF-CIMS particle phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. The relative importance of these accretion-type and other extremely low volatility products appears to vary with photochemical conditions. We present a desorption temperature based framework for apportionment of thermogram signals into volatility bins. The volatility-based apportionment greatly improves agreement between measured and modeled gas–particle partitioning for select major and minor components of the SOA, consistent with thermal decomposition during desorption causing the

  6. Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from α-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.; Carrasquillo, A.; Daumit, K.; Hunter, J.; et al

    2015-02-18

    We measured a large suite of gas and particle phase multi-functional organic compounds with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) source. We focus here on results from experiments utilizing an ionization method most selective towards acids (acetate negative ion proton transfer), but our conclusions are based on more general physical and chemical properties of the SOA. Hundreds of compounds were observed in both gasmore » and particle phases, the latter being detected upon temperature programmed thermal desorption of collected particles. Particulate organic compounds detected by the FIGAERO HR-ToF-CIMS are highly correlated with, and explain at least 25–50% of, the organic aerosol mass measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). Reproducible multi-modal structures in the thermograms for individual compounds of a given elemental composition reveal a significant SOA mass contribution from large molecular weight organics and/or oligomers (i.e. multi-phase accretion reaction products). Approximately 50% of the HR-ToF-CIMS particle phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. The relative importance of these accretion-type and other extremely low volatility products appears to vary with photochemical conditions. We present a desorption temperature based framework for apportionment of thermogram signals into volatility bins. The volatility-based apportionment greatly improves agreement between measured and modeled gas–particle partitioning for select major and minor components of the SOA, consistent with thermal decomposition during desorption causing the

  7. Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from α-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Daumit, K. E.; Hunter, J. F.; et al

    2015-07-16

    We measured a large suite of gas- and particle-phase multi-functional organic compounds with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) source. We focus here on results from experiments utilizing an ionization method most selective towards acids (acetate negative ion proton transfer), but our conclusions are based on more general physical and chemical properties of the SOA. Hundreds of compounds were observed in both gas andmore » particle phases, the latter being detected by temperature-programmed thermal desorption of collected particles. Particulate organic compounds detected by the FIGAERO–HR-ToF-CIMS are highly correlated with, and explain at least 25–50 % of, the organic aerosol mass measured by an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Reproducible multi-modal structures in the thermograms for individual compounds of a given elemental composition reveal a significant SOA mass contribution from high molecular weight organics and/or oligomers (i.e., multi-phase accretion reaction products). Approximately 50 % of the HR-ToF-CIMS particle-phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. The relative importance of these accretion-type and other extremely low volatility products appears to vary with photochemical conditions. We present a desorption-temperature-based framework for apportionment of thermogram signals into volatility bins. The volatility-based apportionment greatly improves agreement between measured and modeled gas-particle partitioning for select major and minor components of the SOA, consistent with thermal decomposition during desorption causing the

  8. Arid sites stakeholder participation in evaluating innovative technologies: VOC-Arid Site Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.S.; McCabe, G.H.; Brockbank, B.R.

    1995-05-01

    Developing and deploying innovative environmental cleanup technologies is an important goal for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), which faces challenging remediation problems at contaminated sites throughout the United States. Achieving meaningful, constructive stakeholder involvement in cleanup programs, with the aim of ultimate acceptance of remediation decisions, is critical to meeting those challenges. DOE`s Office of Technology Development sponsors research and demonstration of new technologies, including, in the past, the Volatile Organic Compounds Arid Site Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID), hosted at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The purpose of the VOC-Arid ID has been to develop and demonstrate new technologies for remediating carbon tetrachloride and other VOC contamination in soils and ground water. In October 1994 the VOC-Arid ID became a part of the Contaminant Plume Containment and Remediation Focus Area (Plume Focus Area). The VOC Arid ID`s purpose of involving stakeholders in evaluating innovative technologies will now be carried on in the Plume Focus Area in cooperation with Site Technology Coordination Groups and Site Specific Advisory Boards. DOE`s goal is to demonstrate promising technologies once and deploy those that are successful across the DOE complex. Achieving that goal requires that the technologies be acceptable to the groups and individuals with a stake in DOE facility cleanup. Such stakeholders include groups and individuals with an interest in cleanup, including regulatory agencies, Native American tribes, environmental and civic interest groups, public officials, environmental technology users, and private citizens. This report documents the results of the stakeholder involvement program, which is an integral part of the VOC-Arid ID.

  9. Large drought-induced variations in oak leaf volatile organic compound emissions during PINOT NOIR 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Geron, Chris; Gu, Lianhong; Daly, Ryan; Harley, Peter; Rasmussen, Rei; Seco, Roger; Guenther, Alex; Karl, Thomas

    2015-12-17

    Here, leaf-level isoprene and monoterpene emissions were collected and analyzed from five of the most abundant oak (Quercus) species in Central Missouri's Ozarks Region in 2012 during PINOT NOIR (Particle Investigations at a Northern Ozarks Tower – NOx, Oxidants, Isoprene Research). June measurements, prior to the onset of severe drought, showed isoprene emission rates and leaf temperature responses similar to those previously reported in the literature and used in Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission models. During the peak of the drought in August, isoprene emission rates were substantially reduced, and response to temperature was dramatically altered, especially for the species in the red oak subgenus (Erythrobalanus).

  10. Metal-organic molecular device for non-volatile memory storage

    SciTech Connect

    Radha, B., E-mail: radha.boya@manchester.ac.uk, E-mail: kulkarni@jncasr.ac.in; Sagade, Abhay A.; Kulkarni, G. U., E-mail: radha.boya@manchester.ac.uk, E-mail: kulkarni@jncasr.ac.in [Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit and DST Unit on Nanoscience, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064 (India)

    2014-08-25

    Non-volatile memory devices have been of immense research interest for their use in active memory storage in powered off-state of electronic chips. In literature, various molecules and metal compounds have been investigated in this regard. Molecular memory devices are particularly attractive as they offer the ease of storing multiple memory states in a unique way and also represent ubiquitous choice for miniaturized devices. However, molecules are fragile and thus the device breakdown at nominal voltages during repeated cycles hinders their practical applicability. Here, in this report, a synergetic combination of an organic molecule and an inorganic metal, i.e., a metal-organic complex, namely, palladium hexadecylthiolate is investigated for memory device characteristics. Palladium hexadecylthiolate following partial thermolysis is converted to a molecular nanocomposite of Pd(II), Pd(0), and long chain hydrocarbons, which is shown to exhibit non-volatile memory characteristics with exceptional stability and retention. The devices are all solution-processed and the memory action stems from filament formation across the pre-formed cracks in the nanocomposite film.

  11. Subtask 1.15-Passive Diffusion Sample Bags Made from Expanded Polytetrafluorethylene (ePTFE) to Measure VOC Concentrations in Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Barry W. Botnen

    2006-08-01

    With laboratory testing of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes complete, collected data support that volatile organic compound (VOC) molecules will readily diffuse across ePTFE membranes. Membrane samples, supplied by BHA Technologies (GE Osmonics), were tested to determine diffusion rates for VOCs in groundwater. Tests were conducted using membranes with two different pore sizes, with and without thermally laminated spun bond backing, and multiple concentrations of contaminated groundwater. Results suggest that typical residence times associated with traditional samplers constructed of polyethylene (2 weeks) can be reduced by 1 week using ePTFE membranes (reducing project costs) and that VOCs will diffuse more readily at lower temperatures (2.2-3.3 C) across ePTFE materials.

  12. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  13. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  14. Large drought-induced variations in oak leaf volatile organic compound emissions during PINOT NOIR 2012

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Geron, Chris; Gu, Lianhong; Daly, Ryan; Harley, Peter; Rasmussen, Rei; Seco, Roger; Guenther, Alex; Karl, Thomas

    2016-12-17

    Here, leaf-level isoprene and monoterpene emissions were collected and analyzed from five of the most abundant oak (Quercus) species in Central Missouri's Ozarks Region in 2012 during PINOT NOIR (Particle Investigations at a Northern Ozarks Tower – NOx, Oxidants, Isoprene Research). June measurements, prior to the onset of severe drought, showed isoprene emission rates and leaf temperature responses similar to those previously reported in the literature and used in Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission models. During the peak of the drought in August, isoprene emission rates were substantially reduced, and response to temperature was dramatically altered, especially for themore » species in the red oak subgenus (Erythrobalanus).« less

  15. Pulsed Corona Plasma Technology for Treating VOC Emissions from Pulp Mills

    SciTech Connect

    Fridman, Alexander A.; Gutsol, Alexander; Kennedy, Lawrence A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Korobtsev, Sergey V.; Shiryaevsky, Valery L.; Medvedev, Dmitry

    2004-07-28

    Under the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies Forest Products program various plasma technologies were evaluated under project FWP 49885 ''Experimental Assessment of Low-Temperature Plasma Technologies for Treating Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Pulp Mills and Wood Products Plants''. The heterogeneous pulsed corona discharge was chosen as the best non-equilibrium plasma technology for control of the vent emissions from HVLC Brownstock Washers. The technology for removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from gas emissions with conditions typical of the exhausts of the paper industry by means of pulsed corona plasma techniques presented in this work. For the compounds of interest in this study (methanol, acetone, dimethyl sulfide and ? -pinene), high removal efficiencies were obtained with power levels competitive with the present technologies for the VOCs removal. Laboratory experiments were made using installation with the average power up to 20 W. Pilot plant prepared for on-site test has average plasma power up to 6.4 kW. The model of the Pilot Plant operation is presented.

  16. Cost effectiveness of silent discharge plasma for point-of-use VOC emissions control in semiconductor fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, M.; Booth, S.R.

    1996-12-11

    Extensive research into the treatment and control of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from semiconductor industry manufacturing processes has identified the need for alternatives to existing combustion devices. Specifically, semiconductor manufacturing design is moving toward the application of effective, small-scale, abatement control technologies for specific point-of-use (POU) waste streams associated with a particular component or manufacturing tool. The consortium of companies involved in semiconductor precompetitive research and development known collectively as SEMATECH recently evaluated eleven emerging environmental technologies designed to treat POU process emissions of VOCs specific to the semiconductor industry. After rigorous technical review only one technology, the Silent Discharge Plasma (SDP) developed at Low Alamos National Laboratory, was considered to successfully meet the required technical performance standards and potential cost effectiveness necessary for continued consideration by SEMATECH in their point-of-use emissions control plans.

  17. Solutions for VOC and HAPS control on natural gas fired internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, J.Z.; Sleigh, S.; Cotherman, R.

    1996-12-31

    Natural gas fired stationary internal combustion engines (IC engines) emit volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hazardous air pollutants (HAP) as part of their normal operations. VOC and HAP emissions are coming under increased scrutiny with the advent of such Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 regulations as Title I`s Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT), Title III`s Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) and Title V`s Operating Permit Program (Title V). In addition, many states are imposing more stringent emission limits on these sources. These emissions may also contribute to the reportable chemicals from the total facility under SARA Title III. Numerous facilities nationwide are interested in reducing these emissions in order to comply with current requirements, to opt out of requirements or to reduce reportable chemicals. This paper will examine the source of these emissions, and discuss combustion control technologies and system operating flexibility, end-of-pipe control technologies, and system tuning opportunities which have the potential to reduce VOC and HAP emissions from IC engines. Data will be presented on potential emission reduction efficiencies achievable using the various control options. 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Modeling ambient air concentrations of volatile organic compounds via digitally filtered FTIR spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Kaltenbach, T.

    1994-12-31

    As part of an agreement with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Eastman Kodak Company has a program to monitor ambient air concentrations of volatile organic compounds at its fence lines. Currently, canister-based point sensors are used to collect a time-averaged sample every sixth day. The staff required to position, retrieve, and analyze these canisters makes this procedure expensive. Alternative methods are being investigated that can provide similar results in real time, while also saving costs. One such method is Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Radian Corporation performed a series of FTIR fence-line monitoring experiments at Kodak about one year ago. The spectra collected during this experiment are complicated by the presence of water vapor bands. Digital filtering techniques utilizing the Fourier transform are being explored as a means of removing the interference due to water vapor. When a digital filter is used as a spectral preprocessor, partial least squares (PLS) techniques can be employed to provide a powerful prediction pool. This seminar will describe the operation of the Fourier filters and present some encouraging preliminary results from PLS models.

  19. Estimating emissions of 20 VOCs. 2: Diffused aeration (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; EMISSION; AERATION; AIR POLLUTION; MASS TRANSFER; VOLATILE MATTER; MATTER; POLLUTION 540120* -- ...

  20. Electrochemical peroxidation of PCBs and VOCs in superfund site water and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Scrudato, R.J.; Chiarenzelli, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    An electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) process has been developed and used to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and volatile organic compounds (VOC)-contaminated water, sludge, and sediments at a New York State Federal and State Superfund Site. The process involves passing an oscillating low-amperage (<10 amps) current through steel electrodes immersed in an acidified water or sediment slurry into which hydrogen peroxide (<1,000 ppm) is added. The generated free radicals attack organic compounds, including organo-metallic complexes and refractory compounds including PCBs. PCB degradation ranged from about 30% to 80% in experiments involving Federal Superfund Site sediments; total PCBs were reduced by {approximately}97% to 68%, respectively, in water and slurry collected from a State Superfund subsurface storage tank. VOC bench-scale experiments involved chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and acetone and after a 3-min ECP treatment, degradation ranged from >94% to about 99.9%. Results indicate the ECP is a viable process to degrade organic contaminants in water and sediment suspensions. Because the treated water suspensions are acidified, select trace metal sorbed to the particulates is solubilized and therefore can be segregated from the particulates, offering a process that simultaneously degrades organic contaminants and separates trace metals. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  1. Volatilization of selected organic compounds from a creosote-waste land-treatment facility. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the emissions of volatile and semi-volatile compounds which are constituents of a complex creosote waste from laboratory simulations of a land treatment system to assess the potential human exposure to hazardous compounds from this source. In addition, the Thibodeaux-Hwang Air Emission Release Rate (AERR) model was evaluated for its use in predicting emission rates of hazardous constituents of creosote wood preservative waste from land treatment facilities. A group of hazardous volatile and semi-volatile constituents present in the creosote waste was selected for evaluation in this study and included a variety of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA's), phenol, and chlorinated and substituted phenols.

  2. Chemiresistor microsensors for in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Michael Loren; Hughes, Robert Clark; Kooser, Ara S.; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.; Davis, Chad Edward

    2003-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the three-year LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project aimed at developing microchemical sensors for continuous, in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds. A chemiresistor sensor array was integrated with a unique, waterproof housing that allows the sensors to be operated in a variety of media including air, soil, and water. Numerous tests were performed to evaluate and improve the sensitivity, stability, and discriminatory capabilities of the chemiresistors. Field tests were conducted in California, Nevada, and New Mexico to further test and develop the sensors in actual environments within integrated monitoring systems. The field tests addressed issues regarding data acquisition, telemetry, power requirements, data processing, and other engineering requirements. Significant advances were made in the areas of polymer optimization, packaging, data analysis, discrimination, design, and information dissemination (e.g., real-time web posting of data; see www.sandia.gov/sensor). This project has stimulated significant interest among commercial and academic institutions. A CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) was initiated in FY03 to investigate manufacturing methods, and a Work for Others contract was established between Sandia and Edwards Air Force Base for FY02-FY04. Funding was also obtained from DOE as part of their Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative program from FY01 to FY03, and a DOE EMSP contract was awarded jointly to Sandia and INEEL for FY04-FY06. Contracts were also established for collaborative research with Brigham Young University to further evaluate, understand, and improve the performance of the chemiresistor sensors.

  3. A Pilot Study of the Effectiveness of Indoor Plants for Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air in a Seven-Story Office Building

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Michael G.; Apte, Joshua S.

    2010-04-27

    plants used in the rooftop greenhouse and on the floors were made up of a number of species selected for the following functions: daytime metabolic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) absorption, nighttime metabolic CO{sub 2} absorption, and volatile organic compound (VOC) and inorganic gas absorption/removal for air cleaning. The building contains a reported 910 indoor plants. Daytime metabolic species reported by the PBC include Areca Palm, Oxycardium, Rubber Plant, and Ficus alii totaling 188 plants (21%). The single nighttime metabolic species is the Sansevieria with a total of 28 plants (3%). The 'air cleaning' plant species reported by the PBC include the Money Plant, Aglaonema, Dracaena Warneckii, Bamboo Palm, and Raphis Palm with a total of 694 plants (76%). The plants in the greenhouse (Areca Palm, Rubber Plant, Ficus alii, Bamboo Palm, and Raphis Palm) numbering 161 (18%) of those in the building are grown hydroponically, with the room air blown by fan across the plant root zones. The plants on the building floors are grown in pots and are located on floors 1-6. We conducted a one-day monitoring session in the PBC on January 1, 2010. The date of the study was based on availability of the measurement equipment that the researchers had shipped from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab in the U.S.A. The study date was not optimal because a large proportion of the regular building occupants were not present being New Year's Day. An estimated 40 people were present in the building all day during January 1. This being said, the building systems were in normal operations, including the air handlers and other HVAC components. The study was focused primarily on measurements in the Greenhouse and 3rd and 5th floor environments as well as rooftop outdoors. Measurements included a set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes, with a more limited set of observations of indoor and outdoor particulate and carbon dioxide concentrations. Continuous measurements of Temperature (T

  4. Direct Push Groundwater Circulation Wells for Remediation of BTEX and Volatile Organics

    SciTech Connect

    Borden, R. E.; Cherry, Robert Stephen

    2000-09-01

    Direct push groundwater circulation wells (DP-GCW) are a promising technology for remediation of groundwater contaminated with dissolved hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. In these wells, groundwater is withdrawn from the formation at the bottom of the well, aerated and vapor stripped and injected back into the formation at or above the water table. Previous field studies have shown that: (a) GCWs can circulate significant volumes of groundwater; and (b) GCWs can effectively remove volatile compounds and add oxygen. In this work, we describe the development and field-testing of a system of DP-GCWs for remediation of volatile organics such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and toluene (BTEX). The GCWs were constructed with No. 20 slotted well screen (2.4 cm ID) and natural sand pack extending from 1.5 to 8.2 m below grade. Air is introduced ~7.5 m below grade via 0.6 cm tubing. Approximately 15% of the vertical length of the air supply tubing is wrapped in tangled mesh polypropylene geonet drainage fabric to provide surface area for biological growth and precipitation of oxidized iron. These materials were selected to allow rapid installation of the GCWs using 3.8 cm direct push Geoprobe® rods, greatly reducing well installation costs. Laboratory testing of these sparged wells and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling showed that these wells, although they used only about 1 L/min of air, could circulate about 1 L/min of water through the surrounding aquifer. This flow was sufficient to capture all of a flowing contaminant if the wells are sufficiently closely together, about 1 meter on center depending on the air flow rate supplied, in a line across the plume. The CFD work showed the details of this ability to capture, and also showed that unforeseen heterogeneities in the aquifer such as a gradient of permeability or a thin impermeable layer (such as a clay layer) did not prevent the system from working largely as intended. The system was tested in a

  5. Direct Push Groundwater Circulation Wells for Remediation of BTEX and Volatile Organics

    SciTech Connect

    Borden, R.C.; Cherry, R.S.

    2000-09-30

    Direct push groundwater circulation wells (DP-GCW) are a promising technology for remediation of groundwater contaminated with dissolved hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. In these wells, groundwater is withdrawn from the formation at the bottom of the well, aerated and vapor stripped and injected back into the formation at or above the water table. Previous field studies have shown that: (a) GCWs can circulate significant volumes of groundwater; and (b) GCWs can effectively remove volatile compounds and add oxygen. In this work, we describe the development and field-testing of a system of DP-GCWs for remediation of volatile organics such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and toluene (BTEX). The GCWs were constructed with No. 20 slotted well screen (2.4 cm ID) and natural sand pack extending from 1.5 to 8.2 m below grade. Air is introduced {approximately}7.5 m below grade via 0.6 cm tubing. Approximately 15% of the vertical length of the air supply tubing is wrapped in tangled mesh polypropylene geonet drainage fabric to provide surface area for biological growth and precipitation of oxidized iron. These materials were selected to allow rapid installation of the GCWs using 3.8 cm direct push Geoprobe{reg_sign} rods, greatly reducing well installation costs. Laboratory testing of these sparged wells and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling showed that these wells, although they used only about 1 L/min of air, could circulate about 1 L/min of water through the surrounding aquifer. This flow was sufficient to capture all of a flowing contaminant if the wells are sufficiently closely together, about 1 meter on center depending on the air flow rate supplied, in a line across the plume. The CFD work showed the details of this ability to capture, and also showed that unforeseen heterogeneities in the aquifer such as a gradient of permeability or a thin impermeable layer (such as a clay layer) did not prevent the system from working largely as intended. The

  6. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 4, Organic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This interim notice covers the following: extractable organic halides in solids, total organic halides, analysis by gas chromatography/Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, hexadecane extracts for volatile organic compounds, GC/MS analysis of VOCs, GC/MS analysis of methanol extracts of cryogenic vapor samples, screening of semivolatile organic extracts, GPC cleanup for semivolatiles, sample preparation for GC/MS for semi-VOCs, analysis for pesticides/PCBs by GC with electron capture detection, sample preparation for pesticides/PCBs in water and soil sediment, report preparation, Florisil column cleanup for pesticide/PCBs, silica gel and acid-base partition cleanup of samples for semi-VOCs, concentrate acid wash cleanup, carbon determination in solids using Coulometrics` CO{sub 2} coulometer, determination of total carbon/total organic carbon/total inorganic carbon in radioactive liquids/soils/sludges by hot persulfate method, analysis of solids for carbonates using Coulometrics` Model 5011 coulometer, and soxhlet extraction.

  7. VOC Public Notice (9-8-15)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    prevents unnecessary risk to VOC sampling personnel and provides a more practical value for determining the risk from VOC exposure to the non-waste handling surface worker....

  8. Membranes for Reverse-Organic Air Separations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Membranes for Reverse-Organic Air Separations Membranes for Reverse-Organic Air Separations New Membranes Use Reverse Separation to Reduce Pollutant Emissions Many industrial applications need a process to separate pollutants known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from air in order to protect the environment and save energy. One such application is the venting of vapor from underground storage tanks (UST) used in gasoline storage and dispensing. These vapors, which can build up and create

  9. Work plan for support to Upper East Fork Poplar Creek east end VOC plumes well installation project at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 guidelines and requirements from the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), the Y-12 Plant initiated investigation and monitoring of various sites within its boundaries in the mid-1980s. The entire Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was placed on the National Priorities List of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) sites in November 1989. Following CERCLA guidelines, sites within the ORR require a remedial investigation (RI) to define the nature and extent of contamination, evaluate the risks to public health and the environment, and determine the goals for a feasibility study (FS) or an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) of potential remedial actions. Data from monitoring wells at the east end of the Y-12 Plant have identified an area of groundwater contamination dominated by the volatile organic compound (VOC) carbon tetrachloride; other VOCs include chloroform, tetrachloroethene, and trichloroethene.

  10. Stratification of particulate and VOC pollutants in horizontal-flow-paint spray booths. Report for September 1988-October 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Darvin, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses stratification of particulate and volatile organic compound (VOC) pollutants in horizontal flow paint spray booths, as part of a joint U.S. Air Force/EPA research and development program on emissions from paint spray booths. The test program discussed in the paper was designed to characterize the pollutants both within and exiting a typical back-draw booth for which emissions control strategies are being developed. The results of one series of tests indicate that the pollutants, both particulate and VOC, fall to the lower level of the booth or stratify at the level at which they were generated. This might be expected since the densities of typical pollutants found in spray booths are greater than air. The results showed, however, that the concentration of pollutants in the lower level prior to exiting the booth was significantly greater than expected. Data indicated that, for the 16 ft (4.9 m) high booth tested, the concentration at the exit of the booth below the 8 ft (2.4 m) level was 5-25 times greater than the concentration above that level. The importance of these findings is that it might be possible to partition a booth's air flow into two zones, one lean and the other concentrated. The concentrated zone could be directed to a proportionally smaller VOC control system of significantly less capital and operating cost.

  11. Test methods for determining short and long term VOC emissions from latex paint

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, K.; Lao, H.C.; Fortmann, R.; Tichenor, B.

    1998-09-01

    The paper discusses an evaluation of latex paint (interior, water based) as a source of indoor pollution. A major objective of the research is the development of methods for predicting emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over time. Test specimens of painted gypsumboard are placed in dynamic flow-through test chambers. Samples of the outlet air are collected on Tenax sorbents and thermally desorbed for analysis by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. These tests produce short- and long-term data for latex paint emissions of Texanol, 2-2(-butoxyethoxy)-ethanol, and glycols. Evaluation of the data shows that most of the Texanol emissions occur within the first few days, and emissions of the glycols occur over several months. This behavior may be described by an evaporative mass transfer process that dominates the short-term emissions, while long-term emissions are limited by diffusion processes within the dry paint-gypsumboard.

  12. Customizing a VOC control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Enneking, J.C.

    1998-12-31

    An extremely important but very difficult element in applying an emission control device to an exhaust stream is to chose the proper technology. Once it has been determined that recovery, rather than destruction, is appropriate, there are still several process choices available. The type of process is generally dictated by the VOC concentration and total air flow rate. Adsorption is usually chosen for low concentrations and high flow rates while refrigeration is usually best for high concentrations and low flow rates. This paper describes six applications. Adsorption was applied to two of them and condensation to the other four. Solvent vapors from a tape coating operation are recovered in an activated carbon adsorption process and reused. VOC`s from soil vapor extraction operations are captured by activated carbon which is regenerated by a mobile unit. VOC`s displaced from filling tank cars at a refinery are condensed at low temperatures in a high pressure system which uses a pressure swing dryer to remove water. Two different processes were installed to prevent VOC emissions from pharmaceutical processing plants. They both use a thermal swing dryer to remove moisture and low temperature condensation to recover the solvent. With very high concentrations of solvent in an inert gas stream, indirect condensation is used to purify the nitrogen and recover the solvent for reuse. Process flow diagrams and operating results are presented.

  13. Infrared Spectroscopy of Wild 2 Particle Hypervelocity Tracks in Stardust Aerogel: Evidence for the presence of Volatile Organics in Comet Dust

    SciTech Connect

    Bajt, S; Sandford, S A; Flynn, G J; Matrajt, G; Snead, C J; Westphal, A J; Bradley, J P

    2007-08-28

    Infrared spectroscopy maps of some tracks, made by cometary dust from 81P/Wild 2 impacting Stardust aerogel, reveal an interesting distribution of volatile organic material. Out of six examined tracks three show presence of volatile organic components possibly injected into the aerogel during particle impacts. When particle tracks contained excess volatile organic material, they were found to be -CH{sub 2}-rich. Off-normal particle tracks could indicate impacts by lower velocity particles that could have bounced off the Whipple shield, therefore carry off some contamination from it. However, this theory is not supported by data that show excess organic-rich material in normal and off-normal particle tracks. It is clear that the population of cometary particles impacting the Stardust aerogel collectors also include grains that contained little or none of this volatile organic component. This observation is consistent with the highly heterogeneous nature of the collected grains, as seen by a multitude of other analytical techniques. We propose that at least some of the volatile organic material might be of cometary origin based on supporting data shown in this paper. However, we also acknowledge the presence of carbon (primarily as -CH{sub 3}) in the original aerogel, which complicates interpretation of these results.

  14. Unipolar resistive switching in metal oxide/organic semiconductor non-volatile memories as a critical phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Bory, Benjamin F.; Meskers, Stefan C. J.; Rocha, Paulo R. F.; Gomes, Henrique L.; Leeuw, Dago M. de

    2015-11-28

    Diodes incorporating a bilayer of an organic semiconductor and a wide bandgap metal oxide can show unipolar, non-volatile memory behavior after electroforming. The prolonged bias voltage stress induces defects in the metal oxide with an areal density exceeding 10{sup 17 }m{sup −2}. We explain the electrical bistability by the coexistence of two thermodynamically stable phases at the interface between an organic semiconductor and metal oxide. One phase contains mainly ionized defects and has a low work function, while the other phase has mainly neutral defects and a high work function. In the diodes, domains of the phase with a low work function constitute current filaments. The phase composition and critical temperature are derived from a 2D Ising model as a function of chemical potential. The model predicts filamentary conduction exhibiting a negative differential resistance and nonvolatile memory behavior. The model is expected to be generally applicable to any bilayer system that shows unipolar resistive switching.

  15. Composites for removing metals and volatile organic compounds and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.; Coleman, Sabre J.; Reynolds, John G.

    2006-12-12

    Functionalized hydrophobic aerogel/solid support structure composites have been developed to remove metals and organic compounds from aqueous and vapor media. The targeted metals and organics are removed by passing the aqueous or vapor phase through the composite which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The composites adsorb the metals and the organics leaving a purified aqueous or vapor stream. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific functionalization of the aerogels tailored towards specific metals and/or organics. After adsorption, the composites can be disposed of or the targeted metals and/or organics can be reclaimed or removed and the composites recycled.

  16. Use of sonication for in-well softening of semivolatile organic compounds. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.W.; Manning, J.; Hoffman, M.R.; Gorelick, S.

    1997-01-01

    'This project investigates the in-situ degradation of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using in-well sonication, in-well vapor stripping, and bioremediation. Pretreating groundwaters with sonication techniques in-situ would form VOCs that can be effectively removed by in-well vapor stripping and bioremediation. The mechanistic studies focus on the coupling of megasonics and ultrasonics to soften (i.e., partially degrade) the SVOCs; oxidative reaction mechanism studies; surface corrosion studies (on the reactor walls/well); enhancement due to addition of oxidants, quantification of the hydroxyl radical formation; identification/quantification of degradation products; volatility/degradability of the treated waters; development of a computer simulation model to describe combined in-well sonication/in-well vapor stripping/bioremediation; systems analysis/economic analysis; large laboratory-scale experiment verification; and field demonstration of the integrated technology. Benefits of this approach include: (1) Remediation is performed in-situ; (2) The treatment systems complement each other; their combination can drastically reduce or remove SVOCs and VOCs; (3) Ability to convert hard-to-degrade organics into more volatile organic compounds; (4) Ability to remove residual VOCs and softened SVOCs through the combined action of in-well vapor stripping and biodegradation; (5) Does not require handling or disposing of water at the ground surface; and (6) Cost-effective and improved efficiency, resulting in shortened clean-up times to remediate a site.'

  17. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site

    SciTech Connect

    Chiriac, R.; De Araujos Morais, J.; Carre, J.; Bayard, R.; Chovelon, J.M.; Gourdon, R.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon

  18. Reducing Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds - Final Report - 08/15/1997 - 02/14/2001

    SciTech Connect

    Stensel, H. David; Strand, Stuart E.

    2001-03-14

    The overall objective of this research was to determine if the shallow suspended growth reactor (SSGR) could provide sufficient treatment performance of organic and reduced sulfur (TRS) compounds, at 50 C to meet the EPA ''cluster rule'' regulatory limits. The biodegradation of a mixture of organic compounds that could be present in pulp and paper high volume low concentration gas streams was evaluated at 50 C in a bench-scale SSGR. The removal of methanol was followed in particular, and was mathematically modeled to evaluate the effect of process design and operating parameters on methanol removal. Additional tests were performed to obtain mass transfer and biodegradation kinetic parameters for the model. The acclimation of microbial populations capable of degrading TRS compounds from various seed sources was studied in batch reactors at 30 and 50 C. The degradation of TRS compounds in bench-scale SSGR was studied at 20-50 C. Also, the biodegradation kinetic and mass transfer coefficients for alpha-terpinene and gamma-terpinene were studied. Finally, a pilot plant was constructed and operated at Simpson pulp and paper mill in Tacoma, WA.

  19. 2010-05 "Interim Measure for Volatile Organic Constituent Contaminant Source Removal in MAD-L and MDA-G"

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Approved March 31, 2010 The intent of this recommendation is to remove large volumes of liquid waste VOCs from the ground and to prevent these contaminants from moving into the groundwater or to the atmosphere. The NNMCAB recognizes it will take additional time and studies for the NMED and DOE to develop final remedies for these MDAs. Therefore, an Interim Measure will provide immediate treatment and removal of source material to reduce further contamination of the site.

  20. Stratification of particulate and VOC pollutants in paint spray booths, June 1990. Report for April 1988-April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Darvin, C.H.; Ayer, J.

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses flow management as part of a joint EPA/U.S. Air Force program on emissions from paint spray booths. The goal of the program is to identify and develop efficient and economical emissions control concepts for this source. Flow management is one potential solution that reduces the volume of gases that must be processed in a control system. Although it will not itself control pollution, it can influence the economic and technical viability of subsequent control systems. The test program discussed here was designed to characterize the pollutants both within and exiting a typical back-draw booth for which emissions control and flow management strategies are being developed. Study results indicate that both particulate and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) fall to the lower level of the booth or, at most, stratify at the level at which they were generated. Results indicate that the concentration at the lower level of the booth near the exhaust was from 5 to 25 times greater than that at the upper level. The importance of these findings is that it might be possible to partition a booth's air flow into two zones, one lean and the other concentrated. The enriched lower zone could then be directed to a proportionately smaller VOC control system, of lower capital and operating costs.

  1. Cost effectiveness of Silent Discharge Plasma for point-of-use VOC emissions control in semiconductor fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, M.; Coogan, J.

    1997-07-01

    Extensive research into the treatment and control of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from semiconductor industry manufacturing processes has identified the need for alternatives to existing combustion devices. Specifically, semiconductor manufacturing design is moving toward exploiting effective, small-scale, abatement control technologies for specific point-of-use (POU) waste streams associated with a particular component or manufacturing tool. The Silent Discharge Plasma (SDP) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory is a nonthermal plasma technology created by a dielectric-ballasted electrical discharge. Influent gas-phase pollutants are destroyed in the reactor by the free radicals or electrons generated by the plasma. This paper examines the potential for SDP to be used in niche circumstances for POU control of VOC exhaust streams specific to the semiconductor industry. A sensitivity analysis is presented, showing how SDP cost of ownership is affected by changes in the major operational parameters of exhaust flow rate, target compound, destruction removal efficiency (DRE), and electrical duty cycle. The results of cost analysis show that SDP performance and cost effectiveness are flow rate- and compound-specific. The authors conclude that the Silent Discharge Plasma is a viable, cost effective technology under high-concentration, low-flow rate regimes, and for target compounds that have been empirically shown to be conducive to destruction via free radical chemistry.

  2. Silent discharge plasma for point-of-use abatement of VOC emissions. Final report ESHCOO3(b)

    SciTech Connect

    Coogan, J.J.; Jassal, A.

    1997-02-14

    Los Alamos and SEMATECH have evaluated a silent discharge plasma (SDP) device for point-of-use (POU) control of specific semiconductor VOC emissions at the source. Destruction efficiencies were initially determined at the bench scale using controlled gas mixtures and system performance was measured for simulated emissions containing a variety of volatile organic compounds (including HMDS) and PFCs. Based on this work, a field-pilot unit was designed and tested at a SEMATECH member site using two slip-streams: (1) PGMEA and HMDS gas mixture from lithography tools and the, (2) acetone, PCE and methanol from a wet bench cleaning tool. Based on the pilot test data, CoO estimates for the SDP technology show annual operating expenses (including amortized capital and installation costs, maintenance, and utilities) are $8.3K for a single 250 scfm lithotrack tool. End-of-pipe (EOP) system costs are $33.3K per 1000 scfm as compared to about $22K per 1000 scfm for a typical EOP concentrator/thermal abatement system. LANL does not recommend replacing existing EOP systems with SDP. However SDP could be easily installed in {open_quotes}niche{close_quotes} circumstances for POU control of VOCs from lithotrack tools.

  3. Volatility and lifetime against OH heterogeneous reaction of ambient isoprene-epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA)

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Hu, Weiwei; Palm, Brett B.; Day, Douglas A.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Krechmer, Jordan E.; Peng, Zhe; de Sá, Suzane S.; Martin, Scot T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Baumann, Karsten; et al

    2016-09-19

    Isoprene-epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) can contribute substantially to organic aerosol (OA) concentrations in forested areas under low NO conditions, hence significantly influencing the regional and global OA budgets, accounting, for example, for 16–36 % of the submicron OA in the southeastern United States (SE US) summer. Particle evaporation measurements from a thermodenuder show that the volatility of ambient IEPOX-SOA is lower than that of bulk OA and also much lower than that of known monomer IEPOX-SOA tracer species, indicating that IEPOX-SOA likely exists mostly as oligomers in the aerosol phase. The OH aging process of ambient IEPOX-SOA was investigated withmore » an oxidation flow reactor (OFR). New IEPOX-SOA formation in the reactor was negligible, as the OFR does not accelerate processes such as aerosol uptake and reactions that do not scale with OH. Simulation results indicate that adding  ∼  100 µg m−3 of pure H2SO4 to the ambient air allows IEPOX-SOA to be efficiently formed in the reactor. The heterogeneous reaction rate coefficient of ambient IEPOX-SOA with OH radical (kOH) was estimated as 4.0 ± 2.0  ×  10−13 cm3 molec−1 s−1, which is equivalent to more than a 2-week lifetime. A similar kOH was found for measurements of OH oxidation of ambient Amazon forest air in an OFR. At higher OH exposures in the reactor (>  1  ×  1012 molec cm−3 s), the mass loss of IEPOX-SOA due to heterogeneous reaction was mainly due to revolatilization of fragmented reaction products. We report, for the first time, OH reactive uptake coefficients (γOH =  0.59 ± 0.33 in SE US and γOH =  0.68 ± 0.38 in Amazon) for SOA under ambient conditions. A relative humidity dependence of kOH and γOH was observed, consistent with surface-area-limited OH uptake. No decrease of kOH was observed as OH concentrations increased. These observations of physicochemical

  4. Speciated measurements of semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs) in a pine forest during BEACHON-RoMBAS 2011

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Chan, A. W. H.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hohaus, T.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Zhao, Y.; Day, D. A.; Kaser, L.; Karl, T.; Hansel, A.; Teng, A. P.; et al

    2016-02-02

    Understanding organic composition of gases and particles is essential to identifying sources and atmospheric processing leading to organic aerosols (OA), but atmospheric chemical complexity and the analytical techniques available often limit such analysis. Here we present speciated measurements of semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs) using a novel dual-use instrument (SV-TAG-AMS) deployed at Manitou Forest, CO, during the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen – Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study (BEACHON-RoMBAS) 2011 campaign. This instrument provides on-line speciation of ambient organic compounds with 2 h time resolution. The species in this volatility range are complexmore » in composition, but their chemical identities reveal potential sources. Observed compounds of biogenic origin include sesquiterpenes with molecular formula C15H24 (e.g., β-caryophyllene and longifolene), which were most abundant at night. A variety of other biogenic compounds were observed, including sesquiterpenoids with molecular formula C15H22, abietatriene and other terpenoid compounds. Many of these compounds have been identified in essential oils and branch enclosure studies but were observed in ambient air for the first time in our study. Semivolatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkanes were observed with highest concentrations during the day and the dependence on temperature suggests the role of an evaporative source. Using statistical analysis by positive matrix factorization (PMF), we classify observed S/IVOCs by their likely sources and processes, and characterize them based on chemical composition. The total mass concentration of elutable S/IVOCs was estimated to be on the order of 0.7 µg m–3 and their volatility distributions are estimated for modeling aerosol formation chemistry.« less

  5. Laboratory and Field Demonstration of Energy Efficient VOC Removal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Efficient VOC Removal Using a Manganese Oxide Catalyst at Room Temperature Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laboratory and Field Demonstration of Energy Efficient VOC ...

  6. Biofiltration control of VOC and air toxic emissions: n-Butane and benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E.R.

    1996-12-31

    n-Butane and benzene vapors are routinely observed in urban atmospheres. Their presence in urban airsheds is of concern because of their ozone production potential as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and/or potential toxicity. Also, these saturated hydrocarbons are representative of airborne aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Separate laboratory studies have been conducted on the biological elimination of n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) from airstreams using treated compost biofilters. The removal efficiencies were found to exceed 90% for a conditioned biofilter medium and pollutant low concentrations (< 25 ppm) and zeroth order kinetics at higher concentrations (> 100 ppm), whereas benzene vapor elimination followed zeroth order kinetics at concentrations up to 200 ppm. The maximum n-butane and benzene elimination capacities observed for the compost biofilters and conditions employed were 25 and 70 g pollutant m{sup -3} h{sup -1}, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Impacts of simulated herbivory on VOC emission profiles from coniferous plants

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Faiola, C. L.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2014-09-18

    The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), blue spruce (Picea pungens), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), grand fir (Abies grandis), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsugas menziesii). Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate, an herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species were measured continuously with a gas chromatographmore » coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC-MS-FID). Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. The compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.« less

  8. Brookhaven National Laboratory - OU I VOC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    National Laboratory - OU I VOC Brookhaven National Laboratory - OU I VOC January 1, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis US Department of Energy Groundwater Database Groundwater Master Report InstallationName, State: Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY Responsible DOE Office: Office of Science Plume Name: OU I VOC Remediation Contractor: Brookhaven Science Associates PBS Number 30 Report Last Updated: 2014 Contaminants Halogenated VOCs/SVOCs Present?: Yes VOC Name Concentration (ppb) Regulatory Driver Cleanup

  9. Brookhaven National Laboratory - OU V VOC | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    V VOC Brookhaven National Laboratory - OU V VOC January 1, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis US Department of Energy Groundwater Database Groundwater Master Report InstallationName, State: Brookhaven National Laboratory Responsible DOE Office: Office of Science Plume Name: OU V VOC Remediation Contractor: Brookhaven Science Associates PBS Number 30 Report Last Updated: 2014 Contaminants Halogenated VOCs/SVOCs Present?: Yes VOC Name Concentration (ppb) Regulatory Driver Cleanup Requirement TCE 2.9 Yes 5

  10. Determination of a cost-effective air pollution control technology for the control of VOC and HAP emissions from a steroids processing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, T.M.

    1997-12-31

    A steroids processing plant located in northeastern Puerto Rico emits a combined average of 342 lb/hr of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from various process operations. The approach that this facility used to implement maximum achievable control technology (MACT) may assist others who must contend with MACT for pharmaceutical or related manufacturing facilities. Federal air regulations define MACT standards for stationary sources emitting any of 189 HAPs. The MACT standards detailed in the NESHAPs are characterized by industry and type of emission control system or technology. It is anticipated that the standard will require HAP reductions of approximately 95%. The steroid plant`s emissions include the following pollutant loadings: VOC/HAP Emission Rate (lb/hr): Methanol 92.0; Acetone 35.0; Methylene chloride 126.0; Chloroform 25.0; Ethyl acetate 56.0; Tetrahydrofuran 5.00; and 1,4-Dioxane 3.00. The facility`s existing carbon adsorption control system was nearing the end of its useful life, and the operators sought to install an air pollution control system capable of meeting MACT requirements for the pharmaceutical industry. Several stand-alone and hybrid control technologies were considered for replacement of the carbon adsorption system at the facility. This paper examines the following technologies: carbon adsorption, membrane separation, thermal oxidation, membrane separation-carbon adsorption, and condensation-carbon adsorption. Each control technology is described; the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing each technology for the steroid processing plant are examined; and capital and operating costs associated with the implementation of each technology are presented. The rationale for the technology ultimately chosen to control VOC and HAP emissions is presented.

  11. Evaluation of Models for Solubility and Volatility of Copper...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; COPPER; COPPER COMPOUNDS; EVALUATION; POWER PLANTS; SOLUBILITY; STEAM; STEAM GENERATION; VOLATILITY; WATER

  12. Brookhaven National Laboratory - OU VI VOC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    VI VOC Brookhaven National Laboratory - OU VI VOC January 1, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis US Department of Energy Groundwater Database Groundwater Master Report InstallationName, State: Brookhaven National Laboratory Responsible DOE Office: Office of Science Plume Name: OU VI VOC Remediation Contractor: Brookhaven Science Associates PBS Number: 30 Report Last Updated: 2014 Contaminants Halogenated VOCs/SVOCs Present?: No Fuel Present? No Metals Present? No Isotopes Present? No Explosives Present? No

  13. Volatility basis-set approach simulation of organic aerosol formation in East Asia: implications for anthropogenic-biogenic interaction and controllable amounts

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka; Takami, A.; Fast, Jerome D.; Kanaya, Y.; Takigawa, M.

    2014-09-16

    Organic aerosol (OA) simulations using the volatility basis-set approach were made for East Asia and its outflow region. Model simulations were evaluated through comparisons with OA measured by aerosol mass spectrometers in and around Tokyo (at Komaba and Kisai in summer 2003 and 2004) and over the outflow region in East Asia (at Fukue and Hedo in spring 2009). The simulations with aging processes of organic vapors reasonably well reproduced mass concentrations, temporal variations, and formation efficiency of observed OA at all sites. As OA mass was severely underestimated in the simulations without the aging processes, the oxidations of organic vapors are essential for reasonable OA simulations over East Asia. By considering the aging processes, simulated OA concentrations considerably increased from 0.24 to 1.28 g m-3 in the boundary layer over the whole of East Asia. OA formed from the interaction of anthropogenic and biogenic sources was also enhanced by the aging processes. The fraction of controllable OA was estimated to be 87 % of total OA over the whole of East Asia, showing that most of the OA in our simulations formed anthropogenically (controllable). A large portion of biogenic secondary OA (78 % of biogenic secondary OA) formed through the influence of anthropogenic sources. The high fraction of controllable OA in our simulations is likely because anthropogenic emissions are dominant over East Asia and OA formation is enhanced by anthropogenic sources and their aging processes. Both the amounts (from 0.18 to 1.12 g m-3) and the fraction (from 75 % to 87 %) of controllable OA were increased by aging processes of organic vapors over East Asia.

  14. Regeneration of carboxylic acid-laden basic sorbents by leaching with a volatile base in an organic solvent

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; Husson, Scott M.

    1999-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with an organic solution of alkylamine thus forming an alkylamine/carboxylic acid complex which is decomposed with improved efficiency to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. Carbon dioxide addition can be used to improve the adsorption or the carboxylic acids by the solid phase sorbent.

  15. Embedded Electronic Nose for VOC Mixture Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Botre, B.; Gharpure, D.; Shaligram, A.

    2009-05-23

    This paper details the work done towards a low cost, small size, portable embedded electronic nose (e-nose) and its application for analysis of different VOC mixtures. The sensor array is composed of commercially available metal oxide semiconductor sensors by Figaro. The embedded E-nose consists of an ADuC831 and has an RS 232 interface for Desktop PC for higher level data collection and NN training. The ESP tool with database facility and multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP NN) is employed to interface the embedded hardware and to process the electronic nose signals before being classified. The use of embedded e-nose for the quantification of VOCs in mixtures is investigated.

  16. Semi volatile organic compounds in ambient PM2.5. Seasonal trends and daily resolved source contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Juergen Schnelle-Kreis; Martin Sklorz; Juergen Orasche; Matthias Stoelzel; Annette Peters; Ralf Zimmermann

    2007-06-01

    Concentrations of ambient semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) in the PM2.5 fraction of Augsburg, Germany, have been monitored on a daily basis from January 2003 through December 2004. Samples were taken in a large garden in the city center. Quantitative analysis of n-alkanes, alkanones, alkanoic acid methylesters, long chain linear alkyl benzenes and toluenes, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and oxidized PAH, and some abietan type diterpenes was done. All compounds showed distinct seasonal variations in concentration. Most compounds showed highest concentrations during the cold seasons, but some n-alkanones and 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecanone showed maximum concentration during summer. Changes in patterns between and within compound classes were obvious, e.g., the hopane pattern exhibited a strong seasonal variation. The main source related contributions to changes observed were discussed. Using positive matrix factorization (PMF) for the statistical investigation of the data set, five factors have been separated. These factors are dominated by the pattern of single sources or groups of similar sources: factor 1, lubricating oil; factor 2, emissions of unburned diesel and heating oil consumption; factor 3, wood combustion; factor 4, brown coal combustion; and factor 5, biogenic emissions and transport components. Like the SVOC, the factors showed strong seasonality with highest values in winter for factors 1-4 and in summer for factor 5. 56 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. What Is Price Volatility

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    What Is Price Volatility? The term "price volatility" is used to describe price fluctuations of a commodity. Volatility is measured by the day-to-day percentage difference in the price of the commodity. The degree of variation, not the level of prices, defines a volatile market. Since price is a function of supply and demand, it follows that volatility is a result of the underlying supply and demand characteristics of the market. Therefore, high levels of volatility reflect

  18. Decomposing VOCs with an electron-beam plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Vitale, S.A.; Hadidi, K.; Cohn, D.R.; Bromberg, L.; Falkos, P.

    1996-04-01

    Several emerging technologies are being tested for decomposing VOCs. Among these are bioreactors, catalytic oxidation, photoinduced decomposition, thermal plasma processes, and nonequilibrium plasma processes. For a new technology to be successfully offered for commercial use, it must be reliable, economically competitive, and ready for use on an industrial scale. The authors have been working on an electron-beam-generated plasma reactor that now meets these prerequisites. The reactor can decompose halogenated organic compounds in dilute concentrations 1--3,000 ppm in airstreams at atmospheric pressure. The technology is more energy efficient than thermal technologies and thus represents lower electricity costs for the overall process. The reactor can easily be scaled to industrial needs and was tested successfully in Hanford, WA, to treat the offgas from the remediation of soils contaminated with CCl{sub 4}.

  19. Ecosystem-scale volatile organic compound fluxes during an extreme drought in a broadleaf temperate forest of the Missouri Ozarks (central USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Seco, Roger; Karl, Thomas; Guenther, Alex; Hosman, Kevin P.; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Gu, Lianhong; Geron, Chris; Harley, Peter; Kim, Saewung

    2015-07-07

    Considerable amounts and varieties of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are exchanged between vegetation and the surrounding air. These BVOCs play key ecological and atmospheric roles that must be adequately represented for accurately modeling the coupled biosphere–atmosphere–climate earth system. One key uncertainty in existing models is the response of BVOC fluxes to an important global change process: drought. Here, we describe the diurnal and seasonal variation in isoprene, monoterpene, and methanol fluxes from a temperate forest ecosystem before, during, and after an extreme 2012 drought event in the Ozark region of the central USA. BVOC fluxes were dominated by isoprene, which attained high emission rates of up to 35.4 mg m 2 h 1 at midday. Methanol fluxes were characterized by net deposition in the morning, changing to a net emission flux through the rest of the daylight hours. Net flux of CO2 reached its seasonal maximum approximately a month earlier than isoprenoid fluxes, which highlights the differential response of photosynthesis and isoprenoid emissions to progressing drought conditions. Nevertheless, both processes were strongly suppressed under extreme drought, although isoprene fluxes remained relatively high compared to reported fluxes from other ecosystems. Methanol exchange was less affected by drought throughout the season, confirming the complex processes driving biogenic methanol fluxes. The fraction of daytime (7–17 h) assimilated carbon released back to the atmosphere combining the three BVOCs measured was 2% of gross primary productivity (GPP) and 4.9% of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) on average for our whole measurement campaign, while exceeding 5% of GPP and 10% of NEE just before the strongest drought phase. In conclusion, the MEGANv2.1 model correctly predicted diurnal variations in fluxes driven mainly by light and temperature, although further research is needed to address model BVOC fluxes during drought

  20. Ecosystem-scale volatile organic compound fluxes during an extreme drought in a broadleaf temperate forest of the Missouri Ozarks (central USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Seco, Roger; Karl, Thomas; Guenther, Alex B.; Hosman, Kevin P.; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Gu, Lianhong; Geron, Chris; Harley, Peter; Kim, Saewung

    2015-07-07

    Considerable amounts and varieties of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are exchanged between vegeta-tion and the surrounding air. These BVOCs play key ecological and atmospheric roles that must be adequately repre-sented for accurately modeling the coupled biosphere–atmosphere–climate earth system. One key uncertainty in existing models is the response of BVOC fluxes to an important global change process: drought. We describe the diur-nal and seasonal variation in isoprene, monoterpene, and methanol fluxes from a temperate forest ecosystem before, during, and after an extreme 2012 drought event in the Ozark region of the central USA. BVOC fluxes were domi-nated by isoprene, which attained high emission rates of up to 35.4 mg m-2h-1 at midday. Methanol fluxes were characterized by net deposition in the morning, changing to a net emission flux through the rest of the daylight hours. Net flux of CO2 reached its seasonal maximum approximately a month earlier than isoprenoid fluxes, which high-lights the differential response of photosynthesis and isoprenoid emissions to progressing drought conditions. Never-theless, both processes were strongly suppressed under extreme drought, although isoprene fluxes remained relatively high compared to reported fluxes from other ecosystems. Methanol exchange was less affected by drought throughout the season, conflrming the complex processes driving biogenic methanol fluxes. The fraction of daytime (7–17 h) assimilated carbon released back to the atmosphere combining the three BVOCs measured was 2% of gross primary productivity (GPP) and 4.9% of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) on average for our whole measurement cam-paign, while exceeding 5% of GPP and 10% of NEE just before the strongest drought phase. The MEGANv2.1 model correctly predicted diurnal variations in fluxes driven mainly by light and temperature, although further research is needed to address model BVOC fluxes

  1. Ecosystem-scale volatile organic compound fluxes during an extreme drought in a broadleaf temperate forest of the Missouri Ozarks (central USA)

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Seco, Roger; Karl, Thomas; Guenther, Alex; Hosman, Kevin P.; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Gu, Lianhong; Geron, Chris; Harley, Peter; Kim, Saewung

    2015-07-07

    Considerable amounts and varieties of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are exchanged between vegetation and the surrounding air. These BVOCs play key ecological and atmospheric roles that must be adequately represented for accurately modeling the coupled biosphere–atmosphere–climate earth system. One key uncertainty in existing models is the response of BVOC fluxes to an important global change process: drought. Here, we describe the diurnal and seasonal variation in isoprene, monoterpene, and methanol fluxes from a temperate forest ecosystem before, during, and after an extreme 2012 drought event in the Ozark region of the central USA. BVOC fluxes were dominated by isoprene,more » which attained high emission rates of up to 35.4 mg m 2 h 1 at midday. Methanol fluxes were characterized by net deposition in the morning, changing to a net emission flux through the rest of the daylight hours. Net flux of CO2 reached its seasonal maximum approximately a month earlier than isoprenoid fluxes, which highlights the differential response of photosynthesis and isoprenoid emissions to progressing drought conditions. Nevertheless, both processes were strongly suppressed under extreme drought, although isoprene fluxes remained relatively high compared to reported fluxes from other ecosystems. Methanol exchange was less affected by drought throughout the season, confirming the complex processes driving biogenic methanol fluxes. The fraction of daytime (7–17 h) assimilated carbon released back to the atmosphere combining the three BVOCs measured was 2% of gross primary productivity (GPP) and 4.9% of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) on average for our whole measurement campaign, while exceeding 5% of GPP and 10% of NEE just before the strongest drought phase. In conclusion, the MEGANv2.1 model correctly predicted diurnal variations in fluxes driven mainly by light and temperature, although further research is needed to address model BVOC fluxes during drought events.« less

  2. Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms andbathrooms

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, B.C.; Hodgson, A.T.; Hotchi, T.; Ming, K.Y.; Sextro,R.G.; Wood, E.E.; Brown, N.J.

    2005-01-05

    Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential bedrooms (n=4), bathrooms (n=2), and a furnished test chamber. Rooms were studied ''as-is'' with material surfaces and furnishings unaltered. Surface materials were characterized and areas quantified. Experiments included rapid volatilization of a volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture with the room closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase, followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. The mixture included n-alkanes, aromatics, glycol ethers, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, dichlorobenzene, and organophosphorus compounds. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at one surface sink and one potential embedded sink. The 2-parameter sink model tracked measurements for most compounds, but improved fits were obtained for some VOCs with a 3-parameter sink-diffusion or a 4-parameter two-sink model. Sorptive partitioning and initial adsorption rates increased with decreasing vapor pressure within each chemical class.

  3. HYDROGEN AND VOC RETENTION IN WASTE BOXES

    SciTech Connect

    PACE ME; MARUSICH RM

    2008-11-21

    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741, 2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single-container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes. The study evaluates the accumulation of hydrogen and VOCs within the waste box and the transport of these gases and vapors out of the waste box. To perform the analysis, there were numerous and major assumptions made regarding the generation rate and the transport pathway dimensions and their number. Since there is little actual data with regards to these assumptions, analyses of three potential configurations were performed to obtain some indication of the bounds of the issue (the concentration of hydrogen or flammable VOCs within a waste box). A brief description of each of the three cases along with the results of the analysis is summarized.

  4. Development of HUMASORB{trademark}, a lignite derived humic acid for removal of metals and organic contaminants from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Sanjay, H.G.; Srivastave, K.C.; Walia, D.S.

    1995-10-01

    Heavy metal and organic contamination of surface and groundwater systems is a major environmental concern. The contamination is primarily due to improperly disposed industrial wastes. The presence of toxic heavy metal ions, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides in water is of great concern and could affect the safety of drinking water. Decontamination of surface and groundwater can be achieved using a broad spectrum of treatment options such as precipitation, ion-exchange, microbial digestion, membrane separation, activated carbon adsorption, etc. The state of the art technologies for treatment of contaminated water however, can in one pass remediate only one class of contaminants, i.e., either VOCs (activated carbon) or heavy metals (ion exchange). This would require the use of at a minimum, two different stepwise processes to remediate a site. The groundwater contamination at different Department of Energy (DOE) sites (e.g., Hanford) is due to the presence of both VOCs and heavy metals. The two-step approach increases the cost of remediation. To overcome the sequential treatment of contaminated streams to remove both organics and metals, a novel material having properties to remove both classes of contaminants in one step is being developed as part of this project.The objective of this project is to develop a lignite-derived adsorbent, Humasorb{sup TM} to remove heavy metals and organics from ground water and surface water streams.

  5. Observations of Diurnal to Weekly Variations of Monoterpene-Dominated Fluxes of Volatile Organic Compounds from Mediterranean Forests: Implications for Regional Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Fares, Silvano; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Xiaoyan, Jiang; Guenther, Alex B.; Hansel, Armin; Loreto, Francesco

    2013-09-04

    Most vascular plants species, especially trees, emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC). Global estimates of BVOC emissions from plants range from 1 to 1.5 Pg C yr?1.1 Mediterranean forest trees have been described as high BVOC emitters, with emission depending primarily on light and temperature, and therefore being promoted by the warm Mediterranean climate. In the presence of sufficient sunlight and nitrogen oxides (NOx), the oxidation of BVOCs can lead to the formation of tropospheric ozone, a greenhouse gas with detrimental effects on plant health, crop yields, and human health. BVOCs are also precursors for aerosol formation, accounting for a significant fraction of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced in the atmosphere. The presidential Estate of Castelporziano covers an area of about 6000 ha located 25 km SW from the center of Rome, Italy (Figure 1) and hosts representative forest ecosystems typical of Mediterranean areas: holm oak forests, pine forests, dune vegetation, mixed oak and pine forests. Between 1995 and 2011, three intensive field campaigns were carried out on Mediterranean-type ecosystems inside the Estate. These campaigns were aimed at measuring BVOC emissions and environmental parameters, to improve formulation of basal emission factors (BEFs), that is, standardized emissions at 30 C and 1000 ?mol m?2s?1 of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). BEFs are key input parameters of emission models. The first campaign in Castelporziano was a pioneering integrated study on biogenic emissions (1993? 19964). BVOC fluxes from different forest ecosystems were mainly investigated using plant- and leaf enclosures connected to adsorption tubes followed by GC?MS analysis in the laboratory. This allowed a first screening of Mediterranean species with respect to their BVOC emission potential, environmental control, and emission algorithms. In particular, deciduous oak species revealed high isoprene emissions (Quercus f rainetto, Quercus petrea

  6. Integrated test plan for crosswell compressional and shear wave seismic tomography for site characterization at the VOC Arid Site

    SciTech Connect

    Elbring, G.J.; Narbutovskih, S.M.

    1994-02-01

    This integrated test plan describes the demonstration of the crosswell acoustic tomography technique as part of the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID). The purpose of this demonstration is to image the subsurface seismic velocity structure and to relate the resulting velocity model to lithology and saturation. In fiscal year (FY) 1994 an initial fielding will test three different downhole sources at two different sites at the Hanford US Department of Energy facility to identify which sources will provide the energy required to propagate between existing steel-cased wells at these two sites. Once this has been established, a second fielding will perform a full compressional and shear wave tomographic survey at the most favorable site. Data reduction, analysis, and interpretation of this full data set will be completed by the end of this fiscal year. Data collection for a second survey will be completed by the end of the fiscal year, and data reduction for this data set will be completed in FY 1995. The specific need is detailed subsurface characterization with minimum intrusion. This technique also has applications for long term vadose zone monitoring for both Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) waste storage facilities and for remediation monitoring. Images produced are continuous between boreholes. This is a significant improvement over the single point data derived solely from core information. Saturation changes, either naturally occurring (e.g., perched water tables) or remediation induced (e.g., water table mounding from injection wells or during inwell air sparging) could be imaged. These crosswell data allow optimal borehole placement for groundwater remediation, associated monitoring wells and possibly evaluation of the effective influence of a particular remediation technique.

  7. Flow dynamics and potential for Biodegradation of Organic Contaminants in Fractured Rock Vadose Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, J.T.; Holman, H.-Y.; Su, T.-S.; Liou, M.S.; Conrad, M.S.; Pruess, K.; Hunter-Devera, J.C.

    1998-12-01

    We present an experimental approach for investigating the potential for bioremediation of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in fractured-rock vadose zones. This approach is based on the coupling of fluid flow dynamics and biotransformation processes. Fluid flow and distribution within fracture networks may be a significant factor in the ability of microorganisms to degrade VOCs, as they affect the availability of substrate, moisture and nutrients. Biological activity can change liquid surface tension and generate biofilms that may change the nettability of solid surfaces, locally alter fracture permeability and redirect infiltrating liquids. Our approach has four components: (1) establishing a conceptual model for fluid and contaminant distribution in the geologic matrix of interest; (2) physical and numerical experiments of liquid seepage in the fracture plane; (3) non-destructive monitoring of biotransformations on rock surfaces at the micron-scale; and, (4) integration of flow and biological activity in natural rock ''geocosms''. Geocosms are core-scale flow cells that incorporate some aspects of natural conditions, such as liquid seepage in the fracture plane and moisture content. The experimental work was performed with rock samples and indigenous microorganisms from the site of the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), located in a basalt flow basin where VOC contamination threatens the Snake River Aquifer. The insights gained from this approach should contribute to the design of techniques to monitor and stimulate naturally occurring biological activity and control the spread of organic contaminants.

  8. Using a flame ionization detector (FID) to continuously measure toxic organic vapors in a paint spray booth. Rept. for Jul 91-Jan 92

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, J.K.; Howe, G.B.; Pate, B.A.; Wander, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports the demonstration of linear and similar responses of a Ratfisch RS-55CA flame ionization detector (FID) to a solvent mixture identical to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the coating and catalyst (NSN 8010-01-336-3036) and to the calibrating gas (propane) used in field calibrations of the FID. Sensitivity and linearity have been shown to extend from 715 to 45 mg/cu m, which brackets the calculated short-term exposure limit (STEL) and lower action thresholds. Monitoring is maintained constantly and, under field conditions, equilibration occurs rapidly (analysis and output transpire in milliseconds). As a trigger for fail-safe conversion from recirculation mode to a straight-through paint spray booth configuration, the FID may confidently be expected to initiate a corrective response before a transient elevation of VOC concentrations overexposes area personnel.

  9. Mobilization and Transport of Organic Compounds from Reservoir Rock and Caprock in Geological Carbon Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Shewell, Jesse L.

    2014-05-06

    Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is an excellent solvent for organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX), phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Monitoring results from geological carbon sequestration (GCS) field tests has shown that organic compounds are mobilized following CO2 injection. Such results have raised concerns regarding the potential for groundwater contamination by toxic organic compounds mobilized during GCS. Knowledge of the mobilization mechanism of organic compounds and their transport and fate in the subsurface is essential for assessing risks associated with GCS. Extraction tests using scCO2 and methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) were conducted to study the mobilization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including BTEX), the PAH naphthalene, and n-alkanes (n-C20 – n-C30) by scCO2 from representative reservoir rock and caprock obtained from depleted oil reservoirs and coal from an enhanced coal-bed methane recovery site. More VOCs and naphthalene were extractable by scCO2 compared to the CH2Cl2 extractions, while scCO2 extractable alkane concentrations were much lower than concentrations extractable by CH2Cl2. In addition, dry scCO2 was found to extract more VOCs than water saturated scCO2, but water saturated scCO2 mobilized more naphthalene than dry scCO2. In sand column experiments, moisture content was found to have an important influence on the transport of the organic compounds. In dry sand columns the majority of the compounds were retained in the column except benzene and toluene. In wet sand columns the mobility of the BTEX was much higher than that of naphthalene. Based upon results determined for the reservoir rock, caprock, and coal samples studied here, the risk to aquifers from contamination by organic compounds appears to be relatively low; however, further work is necessary to fully evaluate risks from depleted oil reservoirs.

  10. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations, VOCS, environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory sick building syndrome symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, M.G.; Erdmann, C.A.

    2002-10-01

    Using the 100 office-building Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study dataset, we performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the associations between indoor minus outdoor CO{sub 2} (dCO{sub 2}) concentrations and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (Lresp) Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. Using principal components analysis we identified a number of possible sources of 73 measured volatile organic compounds in the office buildings, and assessed the impact of these VOCs on the probability of presenting the SBS symptoms. Additionally we included analysis adjusting for the risks for predisposition of having SBS symptoms associated with the allergic, asthmatic, and environmentally sensitive subpopulations within the office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependant associations (p<0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100-ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average significantly reduce the prevalence of several SBS symptoms, up to 80%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. VOC sources were observed to play an role in direct association with mucous membrane and lower respiratory irritation, and possibly to be indirectly involved in indoor chemical reactions with ozone that produce irritating compounds associated with SBS symptoms. O-xylene, possibly emitted from furniture coatings was associated with shortness of breath (OR at the maximum concentration = 8, p < 0.05). The environmental sensitivities of a large subset of the office building population add to the overall risk of SBS symptoms (ORs

  11. Laboratory Studies of Processing of Carbonaceous Aerosols by Atmospheric Oxidants/Hygroscopicity and CCN Activity of Secondary & Processed Primary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemann, P.J.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Petters, M.D.

    2012-06-13

    The atmosphere is composed of a complex mixture of gases and suspended microscopic aerosol particles. The ability of these particles to take up water (hygroscopicity) and to act as nuclei for cloud droplet formation significantly impacts aerosol light scattering and absorption, and cloud formation, thereby influencing air quality, visibility, and climate in important ways. A substantial, yet poorly characterized component of the atmospheric aerosol is organic matter. Its major sources are direct emissions from combustion processes, which are referred to as primary organic aerosol (POA), or in situ processes in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the atmosphere to low volatility reaction products that subsequent condense to form particles that are referred to as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). POA and VOCs are emitted to the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural (biogenic) sources. The overall goal of this experimental research project was to conduct laboratory studies under simulated atmospheric conditions to investigate the effects of the chemical composition of organic aerosol particles on their hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity, in order to develop quantitative relationships that could be used to more accurately incorporate aerosol-cloud interactions into regional and global atmospheric models. More specifically, the project aimed to determine the products, mechanisms, and rates of chemical reactions involved in the processing of organic aerosol particles by atmospheric oxidants and to investigate the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles (as represented by molecule sizes and the specific functional groups that are present) and the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of oxidized POA and SOA formed from the oxidation of the major classes of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs that are emitted to the atmosphere, as well as model hydrocarbons. The general approach for this project was

  12. Brookhaven National Laboratory - OU I/IV VOC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    I/IV VOC Brookhaven National Laboratory - OU I/IV VOC January 1, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis US Department of Energy Groundwater Database Groundwater Master Report InstallationName, State: Brookhaven National Laboratory Responsible DOE Office: Office Science Plume Name: OU I/IV VOC Remediation Contractor: Brookhaven Science Associates PBS Number 30 Report Last Updated: 2014 Contaminants Halogenated VOCs/SVOCs Present?: Yes Fuel Present? No Metals Present? No Isotopes Present? Yes Explosives Present?

  13. APPLICATION OF STIR BAR SORPTIVE EXTRACTION TO ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE AND SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS OF POTENTIAL CONCERN IN SOLIDS AND AQUEOUS SAMPLES FROM THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    FRYE JM; KUNKEL JM

    2009-03-05

    Stir bar sorptive extraction was applied to aqueous and solid samples for the extraction and analysis of organic compounds from the Hanford chemicals of potential concern list, as identified in the vapor data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory analyzed these compounds from vapor samples on thermal desorption tubes as part of the Hanford Site industrial hygiene vapor sampling effort.

  14. Zero discharge organic coatings, powder paint - UV curable paint - E-coat. Volume 1. Final report, June 1993-June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, J.; Martin, D.R.; Spadafora, S.J.; Eng, A.T.; Stark, H.

    1995-06-01

    Zero Discharge Organic Coatings project developed powder paint, Ultraviolet (UV) curable paint, and electro- coating (E-coat) paint for military Applications. These technologies offer potential for high performance coatings with little or no volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions or hazardous waste generation. The ZDOC project focused on formulating non-toxic corrosion inhibitors into these coating technologies, and the applications development of powder coatings. Non-toxic replacements for traditional lead and chromate inhibitors were selected based on a previous NAWCADWAR investigation. Once incorporated, the performance of the coatings with and without inhibitors was compared. Also, the protective mechanisms of these inhibitors were studied. The applications development for powder coatings analyzed technologies to allow powder coating of non-conductive substrates and evaluated the use of IR energy to cure powder coatings. Inhibitors were successfully incorporated into electrocoatings and powder coatings, however corrosion performance results varied with coating formulation.

  15. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Palm, B. B.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Ortega, A. M.; Day, D. A.; Kaser, L.; Jud, W.; Karl, T.; Hansel, A.; Hunter, J. F.; Cross, E. S.; et al

    2015-11-04

    Ambient air was oxidized by OH radicals in an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) located in a montane pine forest during the BEACHON-RoMBAS campaign to study biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and aging. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semi-continuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative time scales of condensation of low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles, condensational loss to the walls, and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. MoremoreSOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 4 ?g m-3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 1 ?g m-3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.41.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene + p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 LT. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small oxidized organic compounds, and net production at lower ages followed by net consumption of terpenoid oxidation products as photochemical age increased. New particle formation was observed in the reactor after oxidation, especially during times when precursor gas concentrations and SOA formation were largest. Approximately 6 times more SOA was formed in the reactor from OH oxidation

  16. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - Presentation by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), June 2011 | Department of Energy Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - Presentation by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), June 2011 Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - Presentation by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), June 2011 Presentation on Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions, given by David Cygan of the Gas Technology Institute, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio

  17. Particulate and gaseous organic receptor modeling for the southern California Air Quality Study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.G.; Chow, J.G.; Lu, Z.; Gertler, A.W.

    1993-11-01

    The Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model was applied to the chemically-speciated diurnal particulate matter samples and volatile organic compound (VOC) acquired during the summer and fall campaigns of the Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS). Source profiles applicable to the Los Angeles area were used to apportion PM[sub (2.5)] and PM[sub (10)] to primary paved road dust, primary construction dust, primary motor vehicle exhaust, primary marine aerosol, secondary ammonium nitrate, and secondary ammonium sulfate. Nonmethane hydrocarbon was apportioned to motor vehicle exhaust, liquid fuel, gasoline vapor, gas leaks, architectural and industrial coatings, and biogenic emissions. Suspended dust was the major contributor to PM(10) during the summer, while secondary ammonium nitrate and primary motor vehicle exhaust contributions were high in the fall. Motor vehicle exhaust was the major contributor to nonmethane hydrocarbons, ranging from 30% to 70% of the total.

  18. Oil Price Volatility

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Speculation and Oil Price Volatility Robert J. Weiner Robert J. Weiner Professor of International Business, Public Policy & Professor of International Business, Public Policy & Public Administration, and International Affairs Public Administration, and International Affairs George Washington University; George Washington University; Membre Associ Membre Associ é é , GREEN, Universit , GREEN, Universit é é Laval Laval EIA Annual Conference Washington Washington 7 April 2009 7 April

  19. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-11-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  20. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  1. Microsoft Word - Annual GW Rpt_CY08_DOE.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process... organic compound SWDA Safe Water Drinking Act SWMU Solid ... Measure VE Vapor Extraction VOC volatile organic ...

  2. Options for VOC reduction in a regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO)

    SciTech Connect

    Waldern, P.J.; Nutcher, P.; Lewandowski, D.

    1997-12-31

    Environmental regulations stemming from the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments are requiring treatment of high volume but relatively dilute VOC contaminated air and waste gas streams. Because of its low operating costs, Regenerative Thermal Oxidation (RTO) has emerged as the preferred treatment method for many of these streams. In the past, this technology usually required multiple (3 or more) beds of heat sink packing. However, some new units are being supplied with only two beds. Consequently, capital costs are lower. This paper describes test data from a unique twin bed RTO. Data for two different types of heat sink material will be presented, random packing and structured packing. The effect of cycle time, bed length, and packing type on thermal efficiency will be described. A cost comparison is included showing the effect of packing type on both capital and operating costs for various RTO sizes.

  3. Rotary regenerative catalytic oxidizer for VOC emission control

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, J.C.; Chen, J.M.

    1998-12-31

    Thermal or catalytic oxidation has been widely accepted in industries as one of the most effective technologies for the control of VOC emissions. To reduce energy cost, this technology normally incorporates heat exchanger to recover waste heat from hot combustion exhaust. Among various heat recovery methods, it is known that the regenerative system has the highest thermal efficiency (> 90%). The normal regenerative heat exchanger design is to use ceramic heat sink material packed in a fixed-bed configuration to capture excess heat from outgoing hot combustion exhaust and use it later to preheat incoming cold VOC laden gas stream by periodically switching gas streams using valves. This paper presents a novel design of the regenerative catalytic oxidizer. This design uses a honeycomb rotor with discrete parallel channels as the heat transfer media on which catalyst is coated to promote oxidation reaction. Heat recovery of this unit is accomplished by rotating the rotor between cold and hot flow streams. The thermal efficiency of the unit can be controlled by the rotation speed. Because it can rotate between hot and cold streams at higher rate than that can be achieved by valve switching, the rotary regenerative catalytic oxidizer uses much less heat transfer media than that is normally required for the fixed-bed design for the same thermal efficiency. This leads to a more compact and less costly unit design. The continuous rotation mechanism also eliminates the pressure fluctuation that is experienced by the fixed-bed design using valves for flow switching. The advantages of this new design are demonstrated by the data collected from a laboratory scale test unit.

  4. Volatile chemical reagent detector

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Liaohai; McBranch, Duncan; Wang, Rong; Whitten, David

    2004-08-24

    A device for detecting volatile chemical reagents based on fluorescence quenching analysis that is capable of detecting neutral electron acceptor molecules. The device includes a fluorescent material, a contact region, a light source, and an optical detector. The fluorescent material includes at least one polymer-surfactant complex. The polymer-surfactant complex is formed by combining a fluorescent ionic conjugated polymer with an oppositely charged surfactant. The polymer-surfactant complex may be formed in a polar solvent and included in the fluorescent material as a solution. Alternatively, the complex may be included in the fluorescent material as a thin film. The use of a polymer-surfactant complex in the fluorescent material allows the device to detect both neutral and ionic acceptor molecules. The use of a polymer-surfactant complex film allows the device and the fluorescent material to be reusable after exposing the fluorescent material to a vacuum for limited time.

  5. Limited effect of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides on secondary organic aerosol formation

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Zheng, Y.; Unger, N.; Hodzic, A.; Emmons, L.; Knote, C.; Tilmes, S.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Yu, P.

    2015-12-08

    Globally, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is mostly formed from emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by vegetation, but it can be modified by human activities as demonstrated in recent research. Specifically, nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) have been shown to play a critical role in the chemical formation of low volatility compounds. We have updated the SOA scheme in the global NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) Community Atmospheric Model version 4 with chemistry (CAM4-chem) by implementing a 4-product volatility basis set (VBS) scheme, including NOx-dependent SOA yields and aging parameterizations. Small differences are found for themore » no-aging VBS and 2-product schemes; large increases in SOA production and the SOA-to-OA ratio are found for the aging scheme. The predicted organic aerosol amounts capture both the magnitude and distribution of US surface annual mean measurements from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network by 50 %, and the simulated vertical profiles are within a factor of 2 compared to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements from 13 aircraft-based field campaigns across different regions and seasons. We then perform sensitivity experiments to examine how the SOA loading responds to a 50 % reduction in anthropogenic nitric oxide (NO) emissions in different regions. We find limited SOA reductions of 0.9–5.6, 6.4–12.0 and 0.9–2.8 % for global, southeast US and Amazon NOx perturbations, respectively. The fact that SOA formation is almost unaffected by changes in NOx can be largely attributed to a limited shift in chemical regime, to buffering in chemical pathways (low- and high-NOx pathways, O3 versus NO3-initiated oxidation) and to offsetting tendencies in the biogenic versus anthropogenic SOA responses.« less

  6. Limited effect of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides on Secondary Organic Aerosol formation

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Zheng, Y.; Unger, N.; Hodzic, A.; Emmons, L.; Knote, C.; Tilmes, S.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Yu, P.

    2015-08-28

    Globally, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is mostly formed from emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by vegetation, but can be modified by human activities as demonstrated in recent research. Specifically, nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) have been shown to play a critical role in the chemical formation of low volatility compounds. We have updated the SOA scheme in the global NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 4 with chemistry (CAM4-chem) by implementing a 4-product Volatility Basis Set (VBS) scheme, including NOx-dependent SOA yields and aging parameterizations. The predicted organic aerosol amounts capture both the magnitude and distribution ofmore » US surface annual mean measurements from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network by 50 %, and the simulated vertical profiles are within a factor of two compared to Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) measurements from 13 aircraft-based field campaigns across different region and seasons. We then perform sensitivity experiments to examine how the SOA loading responds to a 50 % reduction in anthropogenic nitric oxide (NO) emissions in different regions. We find limited SOA reductions of 0.9 to 5.6, 6.4 to 12.0 and 0.9 to 2.8 % for global, the southeast US and the Amazon NOx perturbations, respectively. The fact that SOA formation is almost unaffected by changes in NOx can be largely attributed to buffering in chemical pathways (low- and high-NOx pathways, O3 versus NO3-initiated oxidation) and to offsetting tendencies in the biogenic versus anthropogenic SOA responses.« less

  7. Carlsbad Field Office P. O. Box 3090 Ca

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    for a volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration of concern listed in Part 4 , Table ... , VOC disposal room sample obtained from Panel 5, closed Room 7 location 7i, and the ...

  8. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Palm, Brett B.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Ortega, Amber M.; Day, Douglas A.; Kaser, Lisa; Jud, Werner; Karl, Thomas; Hansel, Armin; Hunter, James F.; Cross, Eben S.; et al

    2016-03-08

    An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) is a vessel inside which the concentration of a chosen oxidant can be increased for the purpose of studying SOA formation and aging by that oxidant. During the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen–Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) field campaign, ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH radicals in an OFR to measure the amount of SOA that could be formed from the real mix of ambient SOA precursor gases, and how that amount changed with time as precursors changed. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed formore » semicontinuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative timescales of condensation of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles; condensational loss to the walls; and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 3 µg m−3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 0.9 µg m−3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.4–1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene+p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 local time. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254-70), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of

  9. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Palm, Brett B.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Ortega, Amber M.; Day, Douglas A.; Kaser, Lisa; Jud, Werner; Karl, Thomas; Hansel, Armin; Hunter, James F.; Cross, Eben S.; et al

    2016-03-08

    An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) is a vessel inside which the concentration of a chosen oxidant can be increased for the purpose of studying SOA formation and aging by that oxidant. During the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen–Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) field campaign, ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH radicals in an OFR to measure the amount of SOA that could be formed from the real mix of ambient SOA precursor gases, and how that amount changed with time as precursors changed. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed formore » semicontinuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative timescales of condensation of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles; condensational loss to the walls; and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 3 µg m–3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 0.9 µg m–3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.4–1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene+p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 local time. Higher photochemical aging (>10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254-70), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small

  10. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - Presentation...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions, given by David Cygan of the Gas Technology ... D.C. on June 1-2, 2011. flexiblechpcygan.pdf (587.21 KB) More Documents & ...

  11. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 The Gas Technology Institute, in collaboration with Cannon Boiler Works, Integrated CHP Systems Corp., Capstone Turbine Corporation, Johnston Boiler Company, and Inland Empire Foods has developed a Flexible Combined Heat and Power (FlexCHP) system that incorporates a supplemental Ultra-Low-NOx (ULN) burner into a 65 kW microturbine

  12. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions Introduction A combined heat and power (CHP) system can be a financially attractive energy option for many industrial and commercial facilities. This is particularly the case in areas of the country with high electricity rates. However, regions with air quality concerns often have strict limits on criteria pollutants, such as nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and

  13. Microsoft Word - Attachment H.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... period between the closure of the first 3 panel and the initiation of final facility ... to 5 confirm that the annual average concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) ...

  14. Biological Air Emissions Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Air quality standards are becoming more stringent for the U.S. wood products industry. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (including methanol,...

  15. Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report SANDIA REPORT SAND2008-0972P

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill ... Measure VE Vapor Extraction VOC volatile organic ... of coarse to fne- grained sands, silts, and clays with ...

  16. SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-1199P Unlimited Release

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill ... Measure VE Vapor Extraction VOC volatile organic ... of coarse to fne- grained sands, silts, and clays with ...

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - 1996 NARSTO Northeast Field Study (NARSTO...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of characterizing the ozone formation process and its dependence on ambient levels of NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Other Contacts Co-Investigators Linda Bowerman...

  18. Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Manufacturing Workshop

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    ... 4. Introduce modular panels with photovoltaic cells http:www.deltechomes.com 5. ... environment, liberating water, volatile organic compounds (VOC's), and hemicellulose (HC) ...

  19. Oak Ridge Site Specific Advisory Board Monthly Meeting W W W

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Completed shipment and disposal of five of the six Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators ... East Fork Poplar Creek VOC - volatile organic compound WAC - waste acceptance criteria ...

  20. Laboratory equipment and data interpretation method for predicting volatile emissions during solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Su, H.J.J.; Jensen, R.H.; Hinsenveld, M.

    1996-12-31

    Volatilization is a valid concern in the solidification of wastes containing organics. In the presence of strongly adsorbing substances, however, even volatile compounds may not rule out solidification. In order to distinguish between wastes having negligible emissions and those from which emissions may be problematic, a definition of a volatilization potential and a method of determining this potential is needed. The assessment method can be based on the emission rate measured in a standardized laboratory setup. This paper begins to develop a laboratory setup and a reference framework for the interpretation of the measured emissions from sludges. A volatilization quality index is derived, which can be used to evaluate and rank the potential of volatilization from sludges during mixing operations. This quality index is related to the measured emissions from an organic sludge taken from a waste site. The implications of the experimental results are related to practice.

  1. Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15: Semi-Volatile Thermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... biogenic volatile organic compound U.S. Department of Energy EI electron impact GC GoAmazon gas chromatograph(y) Green Ocean Amazon 201415 HR-TOF-MS INPA High-Resolution-Time-o...

  2. Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler

    DOEpatents

    Gundel, Lara; Daisey, Joan M.; Stevens, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

  3. Modeling the formation and aging of secondary organic aerosols in Los Angeles during CalNex 2010

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Hayes, P. L.; Carlton, A. G.; Baker, K. R.; Ahmadov, R.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Alvarez, S.; Rappenglück, B.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; et al

    2014-12-20

    Four different parameterizations for the formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are evaluated using a 0-D box model representing the Los Angeles Metropolitan Region during the CalNex 2010 field campaign. We constrain the model predictions with measurements from several platforms and compare predictions with particle and gas-phase observations from the CalNex Pasadena ground site. That site provides a unique opportunity to study aerosol formation close to anthropogenic emission sources with limited recirculation. The model SOA formed only from the oxidation of VOCs (V-SOA) is insufficient to explain the observed SOA concentrations, even when using SOA parameterizations with multi-generationmore » oxidation that produce much higher yields than have been observed in chamber experiments, or when increasing yields to their upper limit estimates accounting for recently reported losses of vapors to chamber walls. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ) model (version 5.0.1) provides excellent predictions of secondary inorganic particle species but underestimates the observed SOA mass by a factor of 25 when an older VOC-only parameterization is used, which is consistent with many previous model-measurement comparisons for pre-2007 anthropogenic SOA modules in urban areas. Including SOA from primary semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (P-S/IVOCs) following the parameterizations of Robinson et al. (2007), Grieshop et al. (2009), or Pye and Seinfeld (2010) improves model/measurement agreement for mass concentration. When comparing the three parameterizations, the Grieshop et al. (2009) parameterization more accurately reproduces both the SOA mass concentration and oxygen-to-carbon ratio inside the urban area. Our results strongly suggest that other precursors besides VOCs, such as P-S/IVOCs, are needed to explain the observed SOA concentrations in Pasadena. All the parameterizations over-predict urban SOA formation at long

  4. Modeling the formation and aging of secondary organic aerosols in Los Angeles during CalNex 2010

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Hayes, P. L.; Carlton, A. G.; Baker, K. R.; Ahmadov, R.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Alvarez, S.; Rappenglück, B.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; et al

    2015-05-26

    Four different literature parameterizations for the formation and evolution of urban secondary organic aerosol (SOA) frequently used in 3-D models are evaluated using a 0-D box model representing the Los Angeles metropolitan region during the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) 2010 campaign. We constrain the model predictions with measurements from several platforms and compare predictions with particle- and gas-phase observations from the CalNex Pasadena ground site. That site provides a unique opportunity to study aerosol formation close to anthropogenic emission sources with limited recirculation. The model SOA that formed only from the oxidationmore » of VOCs (V-SOA) is insufficient to explain the observed SOA concentrations, even when using SOA parameterizations with multi-generation oxidation that produce much higher yields than have been observed in chamber experiments, or when increasing yields to their upper limit estimates accounting for recently reported losses of vapors to chamber walls. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ) model (version 5.0.1) provides excellent predictions of secondary inorganic particle species but underestimates the observed SOA mass by a factor of 25 when an older VOC-only parameterization is used, which is consistent with many previous model–measurement comparisons for pre-2007 anthropogenic SOA modules in urban areas. Including SOA from primary semi-volatile and intermediate-volatility organic compounds (P-S/IVOCs) following the parameterizations of Robinson et al. (2007), Grieshop et al. (2009), or Pye and Seinfeld (2010) improves model–measurement agreement for mass concentration. The results from the three parameterizations show large differences (e.g., a factor of 3 in SOA mass) and are not well constrained, underscoring the current uncertainties in this area. Our results strongly suggest that other precursors besides VOCs, such as P-S/IVOCs, are needed to explain the

  5. Method of measurement of VOCs in the off-gas and wastewater of wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Min Wang; Keener, T.C.; Orton, T.L.; Zhu, H.; Bishop, P.; Pekonen, S.; Siddiqui, K.

    1997-12-31

    VOCs need to be controlled according to Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), so an accurate estimation of the total VOC emissions must be attained. This paper reports on a study where EPA method 624 was revised so that this method could be used for VOC analysis both in the water and off-gas of wastewater treatment plants. The revised method uses the same approach and equipment as water and soil analyses, thereby providing a great time and cost advantage for anyone needing to perform this type of analysis. Without using a cryogenic preconcentration step, gas samples from Tedlar bags are easily analyzed to concentrations of approximately 20 ppb using scan mode in a GC-MS unit. For the wastewater, scan mode was still used for the identification, but Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) mode was used for quantitative analysis because of lower VOC concentration in the water. The results show that this method`s detection limit (MDL) was lowered 2--3 orders of magnitude when compared with scan mode. The modified method has been successfully applied to the identification and quantitative analysis of wastewater and off-gas VOCs from a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) aeration basin (120 MGD).

  6. Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products

    DOEpatents

    Banerjee, Sujit (1832 Jacksons Creek Point, Marietta, GA 30068); Boerner, James Robert (154 Junedale Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45218); Su, Wei (2262 Orleans Ave., Marietta, GA 30062)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

  7. Experiences with a compost biofilter for VOC control from batch chemical manufacturing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, G.L.; Briggs, T.G.

    1997-12-31

    The Synthetic Chemicals Division of Eastman Kodak Company makes a large number of complex organic chemicals using batch reactor syntheses. Exhaust gas, resulting from batch reactor operations, typically contains many different volatile organic chemicals with dynamic concentration profiles. Exhaust streams of this type have been considered difficult to treat effectively by biofiltration. Eastman Kodak Company was interested in exploring the applicability of biofiltration to treat these types of off-gas streams as an alternative to more costly control technologies. To this end, a 20,000 cfm capacity BIOTON{reg_sign} biofilter was installed in December 1995 in Kodak Park, Rochester, New York. A study was initiated to determine the overall efficiency of the biofilter, as well as the chemical specific efficiencies for a number of organic compounds. Flame ionization detectors operated continuously on the inlet and outlet of the biofilter to measure total hydrocarbon concentrations. A process mass spectrometer was installed to simultaneously monitor the concentrations of seven organics in the inlet and outlet of the biofilter. In addition, the process control software for the biofilter continuously recorded pressure drop, temperature, and moisture content of the bed. This paper presents operating and performance data for the BIOTON biofilter from start-up through about eleven months of continuous operation. Included are data collected over a wide range of loading conditions, during initial start-up, and during start-up after shutdown periods. Data for total hydrocarbons, methanol, acetone, and heptane are presented. The relationship between organic loading and removal efficiency is discussed in the biofilter, which typically operates significantly below its design loading specification. The overall control efficiency of the biofilter at design loadings exceeds the design control efficiency of 90%.

  8. Summary Report for the Development of Materials for Volatile Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, Denis M.; Chun, Jaehun; Henager, Charles H.; Matyas, Josef; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2010-11-22

    The materials development summarized here is in support of the Waste Forms campaign, Volatile Radionuclide task. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal and immobilization of iodine and krypton, specifically 129I and 85Kr. During FY 2010, aerogel materials were investigated for removal and immobilization of 129I. Two aerogel formulations were investigated, one based on silica aerogels and the second on chalcogenides. For 85Kr, metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated.

  9. TV picture-tube manufacturer uses regenerative catalytic oxidizer to reduce VOC emissions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Toshiba Display Services, a television picture-tube manufacturer in Horseheads, NY, recently was able to meet stringent state regulations to reduce emissions from two of its film applications lines by installing a regenerative catalytic oxidation system. Toshiba officials initially evaluated several technologies to control volatile organic compounds. After deciding that oxidation was the best technology for its facility, the company invited a number of suppliers to submit proposals. Because all of the oxidation technologies considered by Toshiba had the capability to achieve the destruction and removal efficiency requirement, the company combined the second and third decision elements and conducted an in-depth comparison of the initial capital and ongoing operating costs for each proposal. Officials narrowed the field to two systems--the lowest-cost regenerative thermal oxidation system on the market and a regenerative catalytic oxidation system. The company selected St. Louis, Mo.-based Monsanto Enviro-Chem Systems Inc., to install its DynaCycle{reg_sign} regenerative catalytic oxidation system, marking the first Dyna-Cycle installation in a US television picture-tube facility.

  10. Permanent total enclosures for VOC emission control at a RCRA transfer and storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, S.L.; Rozmus, G.F.; Mehta, J.; Ardzinski, E. |

    1997-12-31

    Rollins Environmental Services operates a Transfer and Storage facility at their Allworth site in Mt. Pleasant, Tennessee. VOC control was originally accomplished by the use of close capture vents routed through a Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer. Capture efficiencies at several locations in the plant where hazardous waste was sampled and processed had been inadequate to fully meet EPA Clean Air Act Amendments Best Available Control Technology (BACT) or the requirements of OSHA 1910 Subpart Z--Toxic and Hazardous Substances standards and OSHA 1910.120(p)(5)--New Technology Program without the use of high levels of personal protective equipment (PPE) and extensive Industrial Hygiene monitoring. Therefore, a program was instituted to install permanent total enclosures in these areas with the goal of 100% capture of VOC`s. This paper presents the methodology by which this program was conceived and managed and the findings of the Industrial Safety and Health monitoring studies performed before and after the installation of the Permanent Total Enclosures and balancing of air flows in the system.

  11. Reduction of VOC emissions from metal dip coating applications -- Canam Steel Corporation Point of Rocks, MD case study

    SciTech Connect

    Monfet, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of VOC emissions from metal dip coating applications is not an environmental constraint, it is an economic opportunity. This case study shows how the industry can reap economic benefits from VOC reductions while improving air quality. The Canam Steel Corporation plant located in Point of Rocks, MD operates dip tanks for primer application on fabricated steel joists and joist girders. This process is presently subject to a regulation that limits the paint VOC content to 3.5 pounds per gallon of coating less water. As a result of the high paint viscosity associated with that regulation, the paint thickness of the dipped steel is thicker than the customers` specifications. Most of the VOC emissions can therefore be associated with the excess of paint applied to the products rather than to the required thickness of the coating. The higher paint usage rate has more than environmental consequences, it increases the cost of the applied coating. The project is to reduce the paint usage by controlling the viscosity of the coating in the tank. Experimental results as well as actual mass balance calculations show that using a higher VOC content paint would reduce the overall VOC emissions. The author explained the project to the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) Air and Radiation Management Administration. First, the MDE agreed to develop a new RACT determination for fabricated steel dipping operations. The new regulation would limit the amount of VOC than can be emitted to dip coat a ton of fabricated steel. Second, the MDE agreed to allow experimentation of the higher VOC content paint as a pilot project for the new regulation. This paper demonstrates the need for a RACT determination specific to fabricated steel dipping operations.

  12. Current status of fluoride volatility method development

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlir, J.; Marecek, M.; Skarohlid, J.

    2013-07-01

    The Fluoride Volatility Method is based on a separation process, which comes out from the specific property of uranium, neptunium and plutonium to form volatile hexafluorides whereas most of fission products (mainly lanthanides) and higher transplutonium elements (americium, curium) present in irradiated fuel form nonvolatile tri-fluorides. Fluoride Volatility Method itself is based on direct fluorination of the spent fuel, but before the fluorination step, the removal of cladding material and subsequent transformation of the fuel into a powdered form with a suitable grain size have to be done. The fluorination is made with fluorine gas in a flame fluorination reactor, where the volatile fluorides (mostly UF{sub 6}) are separated from the non-volatile ones (trivalent minor actinides and majority of fission products). The subsequent operations necessary for partitioning of volatile fluorides are the condensation and evaporation of volatile fluorides, the thermal decomposition of PuF{sub 6} and the finally distillation and sorption used for the purification of uranium product. The Fluoride Volatility Method is considered to be a promising advanced pyrochemical reprocessing technology, which can mainly be used for the reprocessing of oxide spent fuels coming from future GEN IV fast reactors.

  13. Volatilization of organotin compounds from estuarine and coastal environments

    SciTech Connect

    Amouroux, D.; Tessier, E.; Donard, O.F.X.

    2000-03-15

    The occurrence and speciation of volatile tin compounds (Sn) have been investigated in a contaminated area of the Arcachon Bay (SW France) and in the water column of the Scheldt (Belgium/Netherlands) and Gironde (SW France) estuaries. This paper describes the application of a multi-isotope analytical method, using gas chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Analytes were collected by cryogenic trapping of the gaseous species. This trapping has allowed the authors to probe volatile tin compounds by detecting both {sup 118}Sn and {sup 120}Sn isotopes. Volatile organic tin compounds have been determined in both sediment and water. They could result from both natural methylation and hybridization processes of inorganic tin and from anthropogenic butyltin derivatives released from ship antifouling paintings which have accumulated in sediments. The most ubiquitous species were found to be the methylated forms of butyltin derivatives. These results suggest that biological and/or chemical methylation mechanisms are likely to occur in sediments and to lead to remobilization of tin species into the water column and subsequently to the atmosphere. Finally, sediment-water and water-atmosphere fluxes have been calculated to assess the potential impact of these processes on the fate of organotin compounds in coastal environments.

  14. Securing non-volatile memory regions

    DOEpatents

    Faraboschi, Paolo; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy; Muralimanohar, Naveen

    2013-08-20

    Methods, apparatus and articles of manufacture to secure non-volatile memory regions are disclosed. An example method disclosed herein comprises associating a first key pair and a second key pair different than the first key pair with a process, using the first key pair to secure a first region of a non-volatile memory for the process, and using the second key pair to secure a second region of the non-volatile memory for the same process, the second region being different than the first region.

  15. Modelling of volatility in monetary transmission mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Dobešová, Anna; Klepáč, Václav; Kolman, Pavel; Bednářová, Petra

    2015-03-10

    The aim of this paper is to compare different approaches to modeling of volatility in monetary transmission mechanism. For this purpose we built time-varying parameter VAR (TVP-VAR) model with stochastic volatility and VAR-DCC-GARCH model with conditional variance. The data from three European countries are included in the analysis: the Czech Republic, Germany and Slovakia. Results show that VAR-DCC-GARCH system captures higher volatility of observed variables but main trends and detected breaks are generally identical in both approaches.

  16. The effects of hydrogen dilution on Voc in a-Si:H pin solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Crandall, R.S.; Han, D.

    1997-07-01

    The authors study the effects of hydrogen dilution on the open circuit voltage of a-Si:H pin solar cells fabricated by rf glow discharge growth. They keep the p and n layers the same and only vary the i-layer properties. A normal a-Si:H i-layer, an H-diluted i-layer, and a thin H-diluted layer inserted between p and normal i layer are selected for this study. They measure the JV characteristics and the internal electric field distribution using a transient-null-current technique both in annealed and light soaked states. They find that hydrogen dilution does stabilize the Voc either in a bulk H-diluted i layer or in a thin layer between p and normal i layer after 100 hours Am1 sun light soaking. From dark IV measurement, both H-diluted cells show little change in current at voltage near Voc before and after light soaking; while the normal a-Si:H cell does show a noticeable change. Also the internal field measurements find a stronger electric field starting from p and i interface for both H-diluted cells compared to the normal a-Si:H cell. Furthermore, there are no measurable changes in the field profiles after 100 hour AM1 light-soaking for both H-diluted and normal a-Si cells. All these suggest that hydrogen dilution increases the field strength near p and i interface, which is the key that leads to a more stable Voc of H-diluted cells.

  17. Reactive flash volatilization of fluid fuels

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Dreyer, Bradon J.; Salge, James R.

    2013-01-08

    The invention provides methods for the production of synthesis gas. More particularly, various embodiments of the invention relate to systems and methods for volatilizing fluid fuel to produce synthesis gas by using a metal catalyst on a solid support matrix.

  18. sc0011884-advanced-cooling | netl.doe.gov

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovative, Economical, Ultra-clean Incinerator for Low Heating Value VOC Emissions Last Reviewed 6/15/2016 DE-SC0011884 Goal The project goal is to develop an innovative, non-catalytic high destruction efficiency, and low fuel consumption volatile organic compounds (VOC) incinerator to reduce VOCs from condensate tanks and other low heat value waste gas streams. Performers Advanced Cooling Technologies (ACT), Inc., Lancaster, PA 17601 Background VOC emissions from various sources (oil and gas

  19. FDATMOS16 non-linear partitioning and organic volatility distributions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Madronich, Sasha 1 ; Kleinman, Larry 2 ; Conley, Andrew 1 ; Lee-Taylor, Julie 1 ; Hodzic, A. 1 ; Aumont, Bernard 3 + Show Author Affiliations National Center ...

  20. Ecosystem-scale volatile organic compound fluxes during an extreme...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Resource Relation: Journal Name: Global Change Biology; Journal Volume: 21; Journal Issue: 10 Publisher: Wiley Research Org: Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA ...

  1. Ecosystem-scale volatile organic compound fluxes during an extreme...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 21; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 1354-1013 Publisher: Wiley Research Org: Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); ...

  2. Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-76OR23100 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN Sponsoring Org: National ...

  3. Probing ternary solvent effect in high Voc polymer solar cells using advanced AFM techniques

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Li, Chao; Soleman, Mikhael; Lorenzo, Josie; Dhasmana, Nitesh; Chantharasupawong, Panit; Ievlev, Anton; Gesquiere, Andre; Tetard, Laurene; Thomas, Jayan

    2016-01-25

    This work describes a simple method to develop a high Voc low band gap PSCs. In addition, two new atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanoscale characterization techniques to study the surface morphology and physical properties of the structured active layer are introduced. With the help of ternary solvent processing of the active layer and C60 buffer layer, a bulk heterojunction PSC with Voc more than 0.9 V and conversion efficiency 7.5% is developed. In order to understand the fundamental properties of the materials ruling the performance of the PSCs tested, AFM-based nanoscale characterization techniques including Pulsed-Force-Mode AFM (PFM-AFM) and Mode-Synthesizing AFMmore » (MSAFM) are introduced. Interestingly, MSAFM exhibits high sensitivity for direct visualization of the donor–acceptor phases in the active layer of the PSCs. Lastly, conductive-AFM (cAFM) studies reveal local variations in conductivity in the donor and acceptor phases as well as a significant increase in photocurrent in the PTB7:ICBA sample obtained with the ternary solvent processing.« less

  4. Understanding sources of organic aerosol during CalNex-2010 using the CMAQ-VBS

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Woody, M. C.; Baker, K. R.; Hayes, P. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Koo, B.; Pye, H. O. T.

    2015-10-05

    for that model is estimated to be too low by about 7. For CMAQ-VBS, 90 % of the anthropogenic SOA mass formed was attributed to aged secondary semivolatile vapors (70 % originating from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and 20 % from intermediate volatility compounds (IVOCs)). From source-apportioned model results, we found most of the CMAQ-VBS modeled POA at the Pasadena CalNex site was attributable to meat cooking emissions (48 %, and consistent with a substantial fraction of cooking OA in the observations), compared to 18 % from gasoline vehicle emissions, 13 % from biomass burning (in the form of residential wood combustion), and 8 % from diesel vehicle emissions. All "other" inventoried emission sources (e.g. industrial/point sources) comprised the final 13 %. The CMAQ-VBS semivolatile POA treatment underpredicted AMS hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) + cooking-influenced OA (CIOA) at Pasadena by a factor of 1.8 (1.16 ?g m?3 modeled vs. 2.05 ?g m?3 observed) compared to a factor of 1.4 overprediction of POA in CMAQ-AE6, but did well to capture the AMS diurnal profile of HOA and CIOA, with the exception of the midday peak. We estimated that using the National Emission Inventory (NEI) POA emissions without scaling to represent SVOCs underestimates SVOCs by ~1.7.less

  5. Volatile Species Retention During Metallic Fuel Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Fielding; Douglas L. Proter

    2013-10-01

    Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Bases on these results it is very probably that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

  6. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Organization Organization Organization

  7. Non-volatile memory for checkpoint storage

    SciTech Connect

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Cipolla, Thomas M.; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Ohmacht, Martin; Takken, Todd E.

    2014-07-22

    A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in high performance parallel computing systems and storing of checkpoint data to a non-volatile memory storage device. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity. In one embodiment, the non-volatile memory is a pluggable flash memory card.

  8. Proboscis extension reflex platform for volatiles and semi-volatiles detection

    DOEpatents

    Wingo, Robert M.; McCabe, Kirsten J.; Haarmann, Timothy K.

    2010-11-30

    The present invention provides an apparatus for the detection of volatile and semi-volatile chemicals using the olfactory abilities of honey bees that are trained to respond to the presence of a specific chemical in a sample of gas with the proboscis extension reflex (PER). In particular, the geometry and arrangement of the parts of the apparatus are such that the amount of surface area in contact with the sample of gas prior to its introduction to the bees is minimized to improve the detection of particular volatile and semi-volatile that have a tendency to "stick" to contacting surfaces, especially certain chemicals associated with explosives and narcotics. According to another aspect of the present invention, a pre-concentrating means is incorporated with the device to effectively increase the concentration of "sticky" chemicals presented to the insects.

  9. Bioorganic nanodots for non-volatile memory devices

    SciTech Connect

    Amdursky, Nadav; Shalev, Gil; Handelman, Amir; Natan, Amir; Rosenwaks, Yossi; Litsyn, Simon; Szwarcman, Daniel; Rosenman, Gil; Roizin, Yakov

    2013-12-01

    In recent years we are witnessing an intensive integration of bio-organic nanomaterials in electronic devices. Here we show that the diphenylalanine bio-molecule can self-assemble into tiny peptide nanodots (PNDs) of ∼2 nm size, and can be embedded into metal-oxide-semiconductor devices as charge storage nanounits in non-volatile memory. For that purpose, we first directly observe the crystallinity of a single PND by electron microscopy. We use these nanocrystalline PNDs units for the formation of a dense monolayer on SiO{sub 2} surface, and study the electron/hole trapping mechanisms and charge retention ability of the monolayer, followed by fabrication of PND-based memory cell device.

  10. Design of Semiconductor-Based Back Reflectors for High Voc Monolithic Multijunction Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, I.; Geisz, J.; Steiner, M.; Olson, J.; Friedman, D.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-06-01

    State-of-the-art multijunction cell designs have the potential for significant improvement before going to higher number of junctions. For example, the Voc can be substantially increased if the photon recycling taking place in the junctions is enhanced. This has already been demonstrated (by Alta Devices) for a GaAs single-junction cell. For this, the loss of re-emitted photons by absorption in the underlying layers or substrate must be minimized. Selective back surface reflectors are needed for this purpose. In this work, different architectures of semiconductor distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) are assessed as the appropriate choice for application in monolithic multijunction solar cells. Since the photon re-emission in the photon recycling process is spatially isotropic, the effect of the incident angle on the reflectance spectrum is of central importance. In addition, the DBR structure must be designed taking into account its integration into the monolithic multijunction solar cells, concerning series resistance, growth economics, and other issues. We analyze the tradeoffs in DBR design complexity with all these requirements to determine if such a reflector is suitable to improve multijunction solar cells.

  11. Measuring Spatial Variability of Vapor Flux to Characterize Vadose-zone VOC Sources: Flow-cell Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mainhagu, Jon; Morrison, C.; Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Brusseau, Mark

    2014-10-20

    A method termed vapor-phase tomography has recently been proposed to characterize the distribution of volatile organic contaminant mass in vadose-zone source areas, and to measure associated three-dimensional distributions of local contaminant mass discharge. The method is based on measuring the spatial variability of vapor flux, and thus inherent to its effectiveness is the premise that the magnitudes and temporal variability of vapor concentrations measured at different monitoring points within the interrogated area will be a function of the geospatial positions of the points relative to the source location. A series of flow-cell experiments was conducted to evaluate this premise. A well-defined source zone was created by injection and extraction of a non-reactive gas (SF6). Spatial and temporal concentration distributions obtained from the tests were compared to simulations produced with a mathematical model describing advective and diffusive transport. Tests were conducted to characterize both areal and vertical components of the application. Decreases in concentration over time were observed for monitoring points located on the opposite side of the source zone from the local–extraction point, whereas increases were observed for monitoring points located between the local–extraction point and the source zone. The results illustrate that comparison of temporal concentration profiles obtained at various monitoring points gives a general indication of the source location with respect to the extraction and monitoring points.

  12. CX-013757: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Methane and Volatile Organic Carbon (VOC) Emissions Best Practices Database Project CX(s) Applied: A9, A11Date: 03/30/2015 Location(s): District of ColumbiaOffices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  13. Economic impact analysis and regulatory flexibility analysis of air pollution regulations: Architectural and industrial maintenance coatings. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, L.; Madariaga, B.

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the results of cost, economic impact, and regulatory flexibility analysis of a proposed federal rule for volatile organic compounds (VOC) for the architectural and industrial maintenance (AIM) coatings industry.

  14. Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  15. Rhenium volatilization in waste glasses (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Rhenium volatilization in waste glasses Citation Details In-Document ... OSTI Identifier: 1252517 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Journal of ...

  16. Analysis of Price Volatility in Natural Gas Markets

    Reports and Publications

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of price volatility in the spot natural gas market, with particular emphasis on the Henry Hub in Louisiana.

  17. Reducing volatilization of heavy metals in phosphate-pretreated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The results showed that the volatilization behavior in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash ... Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Waste Management; Journal ...

  18. Chemical characterization of biogenic secondary organic aerosol generated from plant emissions under baseline and stressed conditions: inter- and intra-species variability for six coniferous species

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Faiola, C. L.; Wen, M.; VanReken, T. M.

    2015-04-01

    The largest global source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere is derived from the oxidation of biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. Alterations to the biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) profile could impact the characteristics of the SOA formed from those emissions. This study investigated the impacts of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on the composition of SOA derived from real plant emissions. Herbivory was simulated via application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a proxy compound. Experiments were repeated under pre- andmore » post-treatment conditions for six different coniferous plant types. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the plants were oxidized to form SOA via dark ozone-initiated chemistry. The SOA chemical composition was measured using a Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS). The aerosol mass spectra of pre-treatment biogenic SOA from all plant types tended to be similar with correlations usually greater than or equal to 0.90. The presence of a stressor produced characteristic differences in the SOA mass spectra. Specifically, the following m/z were identified as a possible biogenic stress AMS marker with the corresponding HR ion(s) shown in parentheses: m/z 31 (CH3O+), m/z 58 (C2H2O2+, C3H6O+), m/z 29 (C2H5+), m/z 57 (C3H5O+), m/z 59 (C2H3O2+, C3H7O+), m/z 71 (C3H3O2+, C4H7O+), and m/z 83 (C5H7O+). The first aerosol mass spectrum of SOA generated from the oxidation of the plant stress hormone, MeJA, is also presented. Elemental analysis results demonstrated an O : C range of baseline biogenic SOA between 0.3 and 0.47. The O : C of standard MeJA SOA was 0.52. Results presented here could be used to help identify a biogenic plant stress marker in ambient data sets collected in forest environments.« less

  19. VOLATILE CHLORIDE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hanley, W.R.

    1959-01-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium, iron, and aluminum from centain shale type ores which contain uranium in minute quantities. The ore is heated wiih a chlorinating agent. such as chlorine, to form a volatilized stream of metal chlorides. The chloride stream is then passed through granular alumina which preferentially absorbs the volatile uranium chloride and from which the uranium may later be recovered. The remaining volatilized chlorides, chiefly those of iron and aluminum, are further treated to recover chlorine gas for recycle, and to recover ferric oxide and aluminum oxide as valuable by-products.

  20. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  1. Volatility of Vanadia from Vanadia-Based SCR Catalysts under...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Volatility of Vanadia from Vanadia-Based SCR Catalysts under Accelerated Aging Conditions TiO2-supported vanadia (and tungsta) can be stabillized by optimization of the catalyst ...

  2. Volatile fluoride process for separating plutonium from other materials

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F. H.; Newton, A. S.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or fission products by formation of the higher fluorides off uranium and/or plutonium is described. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first converted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treated with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sub 6/ leaving plutonium behind. Thc plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 5004DEC and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

  3. VOLATILE FLUORIDE PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM OTHER MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Newton, A.S.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or tission products by formation of the higher fluorides of uranium and/or plutonium is discussed. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first convcrted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treatced with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sup 6/ leaving plutonium behind. The plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 500 deg C and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

  4. Recovery of manganese oxides from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries. An application as catalysts for VOCs elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, María V.; Falco, Lorena R.; Peluso, Miguel A.; Sambeth, Jorge E.; Thomas, Horacio J.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Manganese oxides were synthesized using spent batteries as raw materials. • Spent alkaline and zinc–carbon size AA batteries were used. • A biohydrometallurgical process was employed to bio-lixiviate batteries. • Manganese oxides were active in the oxidation of VOCs (ethanol and heptane). - Abstract: Manganese, in the form of oxide, was recovered from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries employing a biohydrometallurgy process, using a pilot plant consisting in: an air-lift bioreactor (containing an acid-reducing medium produced by an Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans bacteria immobilized on elemental sulfur); a leaching reactor (were battery powder is mixed with the acid-reducing medium) and a recovery reactor. Two different manganese oxides were recovered from the leachate liquor: one of them by electrolysis (EMO) and the other by a chemical precipitation with KMnO{sub 4} solution (CMO). The non-leached solid residue was also studied (RMO). The solids were compared with a MnO{sub x} synthesized in our laboratory. The characterization by XRD, FTIR and XPS reveal the presence of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the EMO and the CMO samples, together with some Mn{sup 4+} cations. In the solid not extracted by acidic leaching (RMO) the main phase detected was Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The catalytic performance of the oxides was studied in the complete oxidation of ethanol and heptane. Complete conversion of ethanol occurs at 200 °C, while heptane requires more than 400 °C. The CMO has the highest oxide selectivity to CO{sub 2}. The results show that manganese oxides obtained using spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries as raw materials, have an interesting performance as catalysts for elimination of VOCs.

  5. Field portable detection of VOCs using a SAW/GC system

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, E.J.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes research on a fast gas chromatography (GC) vapor analysis system which uses a new type of Surface Acoustic Wave detector technology to characterize organic contamination in soil and groundwater. The project was sponsored by the Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The instrument was field tested at the Savannah River Plant.

  6. Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, Terrence L.; Wilson, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing.

  7. Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, T.L.; Wilson, J.H.

    1993-09-21

    A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing. 2 figures.

  8. LANL organic analysis detection capabilities for chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Ansell, G.B.; Cournoyer, M.E.; Hollis, K.W.; Monagle, M.

    1996-12-31

    Organic analysis is the analytical arm for several Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) research programs and nuclear materials processes, including characterization and certification of nuclear and nonnuclear materials used in weapons, radioactive waste treatment and waste certification programs. Organic Analysis has an extensive repertoire of analytical technique within the group including headspace gas, PCBs/pesticides, volatile organics and semivolatile organic analysis. In addition organic analysis has mobile labs with analytic capabilities that include volatile organics, total petroleum hydrocarbon, PCBs, pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and high explosive screening. A natural extension of these capabilities can be applied to the detection of chemical and biological agents,

  9. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy ? FY11 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2011-10-31

    The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel volatile organic compounds (VOCs) air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. we targeted a VOC air cleaning system that could enable a 50% reduction in ventilation rates. In a typical commercial HVAC system that provides a mixture of recirculated and outdoor air, a VOC air cleaner in the supply airstream must have a 15% to 20% VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply.

  10. Method of increasing biodegradation of sparingly soluble vapors

    DOEpatents

    Cherry, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    A method for increasing biodegradation of sparingly soluble volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a bioreactor is disclosed. The method comprises dissolving in the aqueous phase of the bioreactor a water soluble, nontoxic, non-biodegradable polymer having a molecular weight of at least 500 and operable for decreasing the distribution coefficient of the VOCs. Polyoxyalkylene alkanols are preferred polymers. A method of increasing the growth rate of VOC-degrading microorganisms in the bioreactor and a method of increasing the solubility of sparingly soluble VOCs in aqueous solution are also disclosed.

  11. Volatility literature of chlorine, iodine, cesium, strontium, technetium, and rhenium; technetium and rhenium volatility testing

    SciTech Connect

    Langowski, M.H.; Darab, J.G.; Smith, P.A.

    1996-03-01

    A literature review pertaining to the volatilization of Sr, Cs, Tc (and its surrogate Re), Cl, I and other related species during the vitrification of Hanford Low Level Waste (LLW) streams has been performed and the relevant information summarized. For many of these species, the chemistry which occurs in solution prior to the waste stream entering the melter is important in dictating their loss at higher temperatures. In addition, the interactive effects between the species being lost was found to be important. A review of the chemistries of Tc and Re was also performed. It was suggested that Re would indeed act as an excellent surrogate for Tc in non-radioactive materials testing. Experimental results on Tc and Re loss from sodium aluminoborosilicate melts of temperatures ranging from 900--1350{degrees}C performed at PNL are reported and confirm that Re behaves in a nearly identical manner to that of technetium.

  12. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Xu, L.; Williams, L. R.; Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Chhabra, P.; Herndon, S.; Brooks, W. A.; et al

    2016-02-02

    The composition of PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 µm) in the greater London area was characterized during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012. Two high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS) were deployed at a rural site (Detling, Kent) and an urban site (North Kensington, London). The simultaneous and high-temporal resolution measurements at the two sites provide a unique opportunity to investigate the spatial distribution of PM1. We find that the organic aerosol (OA) concentration is comparable between the rural and urban sites, but the contribution from different sources is distinctly different between the two sites.more » The concentration of solid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site, due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area. While the concentrations of oxygenated OA (OOA) are well-correlated between the two sites, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. At the rural site, more than 70 % of the carbon in OOA is estimated to be non-fossil, which suggests that OOA is likely related to aged biomass burning considering the small amount of biogenic SOA in winter. Thus, it is possible that the biomass burning OA contributes a larger fraction of ambient OA in wintertime than what previous field studies have suggested. A suite of instruments was deployed downstream of a thermal denuder (TD) to investigate the volatility of PM1 species at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250 °C in the TD, 40 % of the residual mass is OA, indicating the presence of non-volatile organics in the aerosol. Although the OA associated with refractory black carbon (rBC; measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer) only accounts for < 10 % of the total OA (measured by a HR-ToF-AMS) at 250 °C, the two measurements are well-correlated, suggesting that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have

  13. An advanced hybrid reprocessing system based on UF{sub 6} volatilization and chromatographic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Yuezhou; Liu, Ruiqin; Wu, Yan; Zu, Jianhua; Zhao, Long; Mimura, Hitoshi; Shi, Weiqun; Chai, Zhifang; Yang, Jinling; Ding, Youqian

    2013-07-01

    To recover U, Pu, MA (Np, Am, Cm) and some specific fission products FPs (Cs, Sr, Tc, etc.) from various spent nuclear fuels (LWR/FBR: Oxide, Metal Fuels), we are studying an advanced hybrid reprocessing system based on UF6 volatilization (Pyro) and chromatographic separation (Aqueous). Spent fuels are de-cladded by means of thermal and mechanical methods and then applied to the fluorination/volatilization process, which selectively recovers the most amount of U. Then, the remained fuel components are converted to oxides and dissolved by HNO{sub 3} solution. Compared to U, since Pu, MA and FPs are significantly less abundant in spent fuels, the scale of the aqueous separation process could become reasonably small and result in less waste. For the chromatographic separation processes, we have prepared different types of porous silica-based organic/inorganic adsorbents with fast diffusion kinetics, improved chemical stability and low pressure drop in a packed column. So they are advantageously applicable to efficient separation of the actinides and FP elements from the fuel dissolved solution. In this work, adsorption and separation behavior of representative actinides and FP elements was studied. Small scale separation tests using simulated and genuine fuel dissolved solutions were carried out to verify the feasibility of the proposed process. (authors)

  14. High-G testing of MEMS mechanical non-volatile memory and silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-G testing of MEMS mechanical non-volatile memory and silicon re-entry switch. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-G testing of MEMS mechanical non-volatile memory ...

  15. Nanoporous Al2O3 as a "Getter" for Volatile Radionuclides into...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications and Industries Environmental cleanup of volatile materials Nuclear fuel reprocessing Governmentcommercial nuclear facilities Chemical separationconcentration Water ...

  16. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; George, Anthe

    2015-08-26

    A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water). The amounts of char (organic fraction) and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. In conclusion, the reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis) and high

  17. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; George, Anthe

    2015-08-26

    A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water). The amountsmore » of char (organic fraction) and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. In conclusion, the reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis) and high

  18. High Efficiency Organic Solar Cells: December 16, 2009 - February 2, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, K.; Joslin, S.

    2011-05-01

    Details on the development of novel organic solar cells incorporating Trimetasphere based acceptors are presented including: baseline performance for Lu-PCBEH acceptor blended with P3HT demonstrated at 4.89% PCE exceeding the 4.5% PCE goal; an increase of over 250mV in Voc was demonstrated for Lu-PCBEH blended with low band gap polymers compared to a comparable C60-PCBM device. The actual Voc was certified at 260mV higher for a low band gap polymer device using the Lu-PCBEH acceptor; and the majority of the effort was focused on development of a device with over 7% PCE. While low current and fill factors suppressed overall device performance for the low band gap polymers tested, significant discoveries were made that point the way for future development of these novel acceptor materials.

  19. Integrated system for the destruction of organics by hydrolysis and oxidation with peroxydisulfate

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Balazs, G. Bryan; Hsu, Peter; Lewis, Patricia R.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated system for destruction of organic waste comprises a hydrolysis step at moderate temperature and pressure, followed by direct chemical oxidation using peroxydisulfate. This system can be used to quantitatively destroy volatile or water-insoluble halogenated organic solvents, contaminated soils and sludges, and the organic component of mixed waste. The hydrolysis step results in a substantially single phase of less volatile, more water soluble hydrolysis products, thus enabling the oxidation step to proceed rapidly and with minimal loss of organic substrate in the off-gas.

  20. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Xu, L.; Williams, L. R.; Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Chhabra, P.; Herndon, S.; Brooks, W. A.; et al

    2015-08-28

    The composition of PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 ?m) in the greater London area was characterized during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012. Two High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS) were deployed at a rural site (Detling, Kent) and an urban site (North Kensington, London). The simultaneous and high-temporal resolution measurements at the two sites provide a unique opportunity to investigate the spatial distribution of PM1. We find that the organic aerosol (OA) concentration is comparable between the rural and urban sites, but the sources of OA are distinctly different. The concentration ofmoresolid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site, due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area. While the concentrations of oxygenated OA (OOA) are well-correlated between the two sites, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. At the rural site, more than 70 % of the carbon in OOA is estimated to be non-fossil, which suggests that OOA is likely related to aged biomass burning considering the small amount of biogenic SOA in winter. Thus, it is possible that the biomass burning OA contributes a larger fraction of ambient OA in wintertime than what previous field studies have suggested. A suite of instruments was deployed downstream of a thermal denuder (TD) to investigate the volatility of PM1 species at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250 C in the TD, 40 % of the residual mass is OA, indicating the presence of non-volatile organics in the aerosol. Although the OA associated with refractory black carbon (rBC, measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer) only accounts for less

  1. Final Technical Report: A Paradigm Shift in Chemical Processing: New Sustainable Chemistries for Low-VOC Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Kenneth F.

    2006-07-26

    The project employed new processes to make emulsion polymers from reduced levels of petroleum-derived chemical feedstocks. Most waterborne paints contain spherical, emulsion polymer particles that serve as the film-forming binder phase. Our goal was to make emulsion polymer particles containing 30 percent feedstock that would function as effectively as commercial emulsions made from higher level feedstock. The processes developed yielded particles maintained their film formation capability and binding capacity while preserving the structural integrity of the particles after film formation. Rohm and Haas Company (ROH) and Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) worked together to employ novel polymer binders (ROH) and new, non-volatile, biomass-derived coalescing agents (ADM). The University of Minnesota Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science utilized its unique microscopy capabilities to characterize films made from the New Emulsion Polymers (NEP).

  2. Organizing Committee

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee R. Todd Anderson Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental Sciences Anjuli Barnzai Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental...

  3. Method for refreshing a non-volatile memory

    DOEpatents

    Riekels, James E.; Schlesinger, Samuel

    2008-11-04

    A non-volatile memory and a method of refreshing a memory are described. The method includes allowing an external system to control refreshing operations within the memory. The memory may generate a refresh request signal and transmit the refresh request signal to the external system. When the external system finds an available time to process the refresh request, the external system acknowledges the refresh request and transmits a refresh acknowledge signal to the memory. The memory may also comprise a page register for reading and rewriting a data state back to the memory. The page register may comprise latches in lieu of supplemental non-volatile storage elements, thereby conserving real estate within the memory.

  4. Flameless thermal oxidation. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Flameless Thermal Oxidizer (FTO) is a commercial technology offered by Thermatrix, Inc. The FTO has been demonstrated to be an effective destructive technology for process and waste stream off-gas treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and in the treatment of VOC and chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) off-gases generated during site remediation using either baseline or innovative in situ environmental technologies. The FTO process efficiently converts VOCs and CVOCs to carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen chloride. When FTO is coupled with a baseline technology, such as soil vapor extraction (SVE), an efficient in situ soil remediation system is produced. The innovation is in using a simple, reliable, scalable, and robust technology for the destruction of VOC and CVOC off-gases based on a design that generates a uniform thermal reaction zone that prevents flame propagation and efficiently oxidizes off-gases without forming products of incomplete combustion (PICs).

  5. Highly efficient inverted organic solar cells using amino acid modified indium tin oxide as cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Aiyuan; Nie, Riming; Deng, Xianyu; Wei, Huaixin; Li, Yanqing; Tang, Jianxin; Zheng, Shizhao; Wong, King-Young

    2014-03-24

    In this paper, we report that highly efficient inverted organic solar cells were achieved by modifying the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) using an amino acid, Serine (Ser). With the modification of the ITO surface, device efficiency was significantly enhanced from 0.63% to 4.17%, accompanied with an open circuit voltage (Voc) that was enhanced from 0.30?V to 0.55?V. Ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies indicate that the work function reduction induced by the amino acid modification resulting in the decreased barrier height at the ITO/organic interface played a crucial role in the enhanced performances.

  6. Air stripping of volatile organic chlorocarbons: System development, performance, and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    McKillip, S.T.; Sibley, K.L.; Horvath, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    The Savannah River Site, which has been in operation since the 1950`s, is a 780-square kilometer reservation that produces tritium for the national defense program. As a result of past waste handling practices, the ground water at several locations on the Site has become contaminated with solvents, metals, and radionuclides. In 1981, the ground water located under the Site`s fuel and target rod fabrication area (M-Area) was found to be contaminated with degreasing solvents, specifically trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). In 1983, a program was started to evaluate air stripping and determine its applicability to cleanup of M-Area contamination. Lessons learned regarding the efficiency and effectiveness of air stripping technology are presented.

  7. Air stripping of volatile organic chlorocarbons: System development, performance, and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    McKillip, S.T.; Sibley, K.L.; Horvath, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site, which has been in operation since the 1950's, is a 780-square kilometer reservation that produces tritium for the national defense program. As a result of past waste handling practices, the ground water at several locations on the Site has become contaminated with solvents, metals, and radionuclides. In 1981, the ground water located under the Site's fuel and target rod fabrication area (M-Area) was found to be contaminated with degreasing solvents, specifically trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). In 1983, a program was started to evaluate air stripping and determine its applicability to cleanup of M-Area contamination. Lessons learned regarding the efficiency and effectiveness of air stripping technology are presented.

  8. In-situ remediation system for volatile organic compounds with deep recharge mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Jr., Dennis G.; Looney, Brian B.; Nichols, Ralph L.; Phifer, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the treatment and remediation of a contaminated aquifer in the presence of an uncontaminated aquifer at a different hydraulic potential. The apparatus consists of a wellbore inserted through a first aquifer and into a second aquifer, an inner cylinder within the wellbore is supported and sealed to the wellbore to prevent communication between the two aquifers. Air injection is used to sparge the liquid having the higher static water level and, to airlift it to a height whereby it spills into the inner cylinder. The second treatment area provides treatment in the form of aeration or treatment with a material. Vapor stripped in sparging is vented to the atmosphere. Treated water is returned to the aquifer having the lower hydraulic potential.

  9. Position Paper on Practicable Performance Criteria for the Removal Efficiency of Volatile Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    R. T. Jubin; N. Soelberg; D. M. Strachan

    2012-03-01

    As a result of fuel reprocessing, volatile radionuclides may be released from the facility stack if no processes are put in place to remove them. The radionuclides that are of concern in this document are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. The question we attempted to answer is how efficient must this removal process be for each of these radionuclides? To answer this question, we examined the three regulations that may impact the degree to which these radionuclides must be reduced before process gases can be released from the facility. These regulations are 40 CFR 61 (EPA 2010a), 40 CFR 190(EPA 2010b), and 10 CFR 20 (NRC 2012). These regulations apply to the total radionuclide release and to a particular organ - the thyroid. Because these doses can be divided amongst all the radionuclides in different ways and even within the four radionuclides in question, we provided several cases. We first looked at the inventories for these radionuclides for three fuel types (PWR UOX, PWR MOX, and AHTGR), several burn-up values, and time out of reactor extending to 200 y. We calculated doses to the maximum exposed individual (MEI) with the EPA code CAP-88 (Rosnick 1992). Finally, we looked at two dose cases. Allocating all of the allowable dose to be used by the volatile radionuclides is one case, but, perhaps, unrealistic. In lieu of this, we arbitrarily selected a value of 10% of the allowable dose to be assigned to the volatile radionuclides. We calculated the required decontamination factors (DFs) for both of these cases, including the case for the thyroid dose for which 14C and 129I were the main contributors. With respect to 129I doses, we found that the highest dose was calculated with iodine as a fine particulate. The dose scaled as the fraction of the total 129I that was particulate. Therefore, we assumed for all of our calculations that 100% of the 129I was particulate and allow the user of the results given here to scale our calculated doses to their needs.

  10. Small-scale thermal studies of volatile homemade explosives

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Warner, Kirsten F.; Sorensen, Daniel N.; Phillips, Jason J.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.

    2016-01-26

    Several homemade or improvised explosive mixtures that either contained volatile components or produced volatile products were examined using standard small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing that employed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques (constant heating rate and standard sample holders). KClO3 and KClO4 mixtures with dodecane exhibited different enthalpy behavior when using a vented sample holder in contrast to a sealed sample holder. The standard configuration produced profiles that exhibited only endothermic transitions. The sealed system produced profiles that exhibited additional exothermic transitions absent in the standard configuration produced profiles. When H2O2/fuel mixtures were examined, the volatilization of the peroxide (endothermic)more » dominated the profiles. When a sealed sample holder was used, the energetic releases of the mixture could be clearly observed. For AN and AN mixtures, the high temperature decomposition appears as an intense endothermic event. Using a nominally sealed sample holder also did not adequately contain the system. Only when a high-pressure rated sample holder was used the high temperature decomposition of the AN could be detected as an exothermic release. The testing was conducted during a proficiency (or round-robin type) test that included three U.S. Department of Energy and two U.S. Department of Defense laboratories. In the course of this proficiency test, certain HMEs exhibited thermal behavior that was not adequately accounted for by standard techniques. Further examination of this atypical behavior highlighted issues that may have not been recognized previously because some of these materials are not routinely tested. More importantly, if not recognized, the SSST testing results could lead to inaccurate safety assessments. Furthermore, this study provides examples, where standard techniques can be applied, and results can be obtained, but these results may be misleading in establishing

  11. Efficient growth of HTS films with volatile elements

    DOEpatents

    Siegal, Michael P.; Overmyer, Donald L.; Dominguez, Frank

    1998-01-01

    A system for applying a volatile element-HTS layer, such as Tl-HTS, to a substrate in a multiple zone furnace, said method includes heating at higher temperature, in one zone of the furnace, a substrate and adjacent first source of Tl-HTS material, to sublimate Tl-oxide from the source to the substrate; and heating at lower temperature, in a separate zone of the furnace, a second source of Tl-oxide to replenish the first source of Tl-oxide from the second source.

  12. Efficient growth of HTS films with volatile elements

    DOEpatents

    Siegal, M.P.; Overmyer, D.L.; Dominguez, F.

    1998-12-22

    A system is disclosed for applying a volatile element-HTS layer, such as Tl-HTS, to a substrate in a multiple zone furnace, said method includes heating at higher temperature, in one zone of the furnace, a substrate and adjacent first source of Tl-HTS material, to sublimate Tl-oxide from the source to the substrate; and heating at lower temperature, in a separate zone of the furnace, a second source of Tl-oxide to replenish the first source of Tl-oxide from the second source. 3 figs.

  13. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Organization Organization LM Organization Chart LM High-Level Organization Chart.jpg Download Printable Version LM Functional Organization Chart

  14. Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15. Semi-Volatile Thermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 201415. Semi-Volatile Thermal Desorption Aerosol Gas ... Research is urgently needed to elucidate fundamental processes of natural and ...

  15. Method for removing organic liquids from aqueous solutions and mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Coronado, Paul R.; Dow, Jerome P.

    2004-03-23

    A method for removing organic liquids from aqueous solutions and mixtures. The method employs any porous material preferably in granular form and having small pores and a large specific surface area, that is hydrophobic so that liquid water does not readily wet its surface. In this method, organics, especially organic solvents that mix with and are more volatile than water, are separated from aqueous solution by preferentially evaporating across the liquid/solid boundary formed at the surfaces of the hydrophobic porous materials. Also, organic solvents that are immiscible with water, preferentially wet the surfaces of the hydrophobic material and are drawn within the porous materials by capillary action.

  16. Mr. John Kieling, Acting Chief Hazardous Waste Bureau

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    P O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 JUl 2 0 2011 New Mexico Environment Department 2905 Rodeo Park Drive East, Building 1 Santa Fe, NM 87505-6303 Subject: Notification of Exceedance of a Disposal Room Volatile Organic Compound Monitoring Action Level for Carbon Tetrachloride Dear Mr. Kieling: The purpose of this letter is to notify you of the receipt of validated analytical results for a volatile organic compound (VOC), carbon tetrachloride, which exceeded the 50 percent action level listed

  17. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOEpatents

    Nemser, Stuart M.

    2005-05-03

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In the first part of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the second part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. In one aspect of this invention, a vacuum is drawn in the membrane separation unit thus reducing overall VOC emissions.

  18. Buildings Energy Data Book: 1.4 Environmental Data

    Buildings Energy Data Book

    0 2010 Emissions Summary Table for U.S. Buildings Energy Consumption (Thousand Short Tons) (1) Buildings Buildings Percent Wood/SiteFossil Electricity Total U.S. Total of U.S. Total SO2 (2) 54% NOx 17% CO 5% VOCs 2% PM-2.5 15% PM-10 7% Note(s): Source(s): 1) VOCs = volatile organic compounds; PM-10 = particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter. PM-2.5 = particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter. CO and VOCs site fossil emissions mostly from wood

  19. An Innovative Reactor Technology to Improve Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Rempel, Jane

    2013-03-30

    As residential buildings achieve tighter envelopes in order to minimize energy used for space heating and cooling, accumulation of indoor air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), becomes a major concern causing poor air quality and increased health risks. Current VOC removal methods include sorbents, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO), and increased ventilation, but these methods do not capture or destroy all VOCs or are prohibitively expensive to implement. TIAX's objective in this program was to develop a new VOC removal technology for residential buildings. This novel air purification technology is based on an innovative reactor and light source design along with UVPCO properties of the chosen catalyst to purify indoor air and enhance indoor air quality (IAQ). During the program we designed, fabricated and tested a prototype air purifier to demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness. We also measured kinetics of VOC destruction on photocatalysts, providing deep insight into reactor design.

  20. Method of characterizing void volume headspace in vented transuranic waste sludge drums using limited sampling data

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Connolly, M.J.; Arnold, P.M.; O`Leary, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy must demonstrate to the Environmental Protection Agency that a drum headspace sample is representative of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within the entire void space of the waste container in order to demonstrate compliance in the future when drums could be directly emplaced in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A test program is underway at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to determine if the drum headspace VOC concentration is representative of the concentration in the entire drum void space and demonstrate that the VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusive and permeative transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. A comparison of model predictions of VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement with actual measurement from transuranic waste sludge drums demonstrate that the model may be useful in characterizing VOC concentration throughout entire drum void volume.

  1. Lab Organizations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizations Lab Organizations National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. Los Alamos National Security, LLC Leadership Team Organization Chart PRINCIPAL ASSOCIATE DIRECTORATES Capital Projects, Larry Simmons Global Security, Terry Wallace Operations and Business, Craig Leasure Science, Technology, and Engineering, Alan Bishop

  2. FLUORIDE VOLATILITY PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Katz, J.J.; Hyman, H.H.; Sheft, I.

    1958-04-15

    The separation and recovery of uraniunn from contaminants introduced by neutron irradiation by a halogenation and volatilization method are described. The irradiated uranium is dissolved in bromine trifluoride in the liquid phase. The uranium is converted to the BrF/sub 3/ soluble urmium hexafluoride compound whereas the fluorides of certain contaminating elements are insoluble in liquid BrF/sub 3/, and the reaction rate of the BrF/sub 3/ with certain other solid uranium contamirnnts is sufficiently slower than the reaction rate with uranium that substantial portions of these contaminating elements will remain as solids. These solids are then separated from the solution by a distillation, filtration, or centrifugation step. The uranium hexafluoride is then separated from the balance of the impurities and solvent by one or more distillations.

  3. In-Situ Contained And Of Volatile Soil Contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Varvel, Mark Darrell

    2005-12-27

    The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

  4. In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Varvel, Mark Darrell

    2005-12-27

    The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

  5. Organizing Committee

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics May 26-27, 2011 Ted Barnes DOE Office of Nuclear Physics Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, DOE Office of Advanced Computational Research Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Richard Gerber NERSC User Services Harvey Wasserman NERSC User Services Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:21

  6. Fermilab | About | Organization | Fermilab Organization

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organization Fermilab Organization < Back to Leadership and Organization Fermilab Org Chart Accelerator Division Accelerator Physics Center CMS Center Core Computing Division ESH&Q FESS Finance Section LBNF Project Far-Site LBNF Project Near-Site LBNF Project Office LBNF Project LCLS-II Project Neutrino Division Office of Communication Office of Integrated Planning and Performance Management Office of Project Support Services Office of the CFO Office of the CIO Office of the CPO PIP-II

  7. System for loading executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Johnson, Monte L.

    2007-09-25

    A system for loading an executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises a surface control unit comprising executable code. An integrated downhole network comprises data transmission elements in communication with the surface control unit and the volatile memory. The executable code, stored in the surface control unit, is not permanently stored in the downhole tool string component. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the downhole tool string component comprises boot memory. In another embodiment, the executable code is an operating system executable code. Preferably, the volatile memory comprises random access memory (RAM). A method for loading executable code to volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises sending the code from the surface control unit to a processor in the downhole tool string component over the network. A central processing unit writes the executable code in the volatile memory.

  8. A Big Data Approach to Analyzing Market Volatility

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Bethel, E. Wes; Gu, Ming; Leinweber, David; Ruebel, Oliver

    2013-06-05

    Understanding the microstructure of the financial market requires the processing of a vast amount of data related to individual trades, and sometimes even multiple levels of quotes. Analyzing such a large volume of data requires tremendous computing power that is not easily available to financial academics and regulators. Fortunately, public funded High Performance Computing (HPC) power is widely available at the National Laboratories in the US. In this paper we demonstrate that the HPC resource and the techniques for data-intensive sciences can be used to greatly accelerate the computation of an early warning indicator called Volume-synchronized Probability of Informed trading (VPIN). The test data used in this study contains five and a half year?s worth of trading data for about 100 most liquid futures contracts, includes about 3 billion trades, and takes 140GB as text files. By using (1) a more efficient file format for storing the trading records, (2) more effective data structures and algorithms, and (3) parallelizing the computations, we are able to explore 16,000 different ways of computing VPIN in less than 20 hours on a 32-core IBM DataPlex machine. Our test demonstrates that a modest computer is sufficient to monitor a vast number of trading activities in real-time ? an ability that could be valuable to regulators. Our test results also confirm that VPIN is a strong predictor of liquidity-induced volatility. With appropriate parameter choices, the false positive rates are about 7percent averaged over all the futures contracts in the test data set. More specifically, when VPIN values rise above a threshold (CDF > 0.99), the volatility in the subsequent time windows is higher than the average in 93percent of the cases.

  9. Fermilab | About | Organization | Fermilab Organization | Explanation...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of Symbols Line Organization: sectors, divisions, sections Line Organization Matrix Organization: centers, projects and programs utilizing resources spanning the entire...

  10. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    About Us » Organization Organization Organization OCIO Organizational Chart (Printable) News & Blog CIO Leadership Organization Contact Us

  11. Summary Report on the Volatile Radionuclide and Immobilization Research for FY2011 at PNNL

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, Denis M.; Chun, Jaehun; Matyas, Josef; Lepry, William C.; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2011-09-01

    The materials development summarized here is in support of the Waste Forms campaign, Volatile Radionuclide task. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal and immobilization of iodine and krypton, specifically 129I and 85Kr. During FY 2011, aerogel materials were investigated for removal and immobilization of 129I. Two aerogel formulations were investigated, one based on silica aerogels and the second on chalcogen-based aerogels (i.e., chalcogels). A silica aerogel was tested at ORNL for total I2 sorption capacity. It was determined to have 48 mass% capacity while having little physisorbed I2 (I2 not taken up in the aerogel pores). For 85Kr, metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated and a new MOF with about 8 mass% capacity for Xe and Kr. The selectivity can be changed from Xe > Kr to Xe < Kr simply by lowering the temperature below 0 C. A patent disclosure has been filed. Lastly, silicon carbide (SiC) was loaded with Kr. The diffusion of Kr in SiC was found to be less than detectable at 500 C.

  12. Organic Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Mielke

    2009-02-27

    Intense magnetic fields are an essential tool for understanding layered superconductors. Fundamental electronic properties of organic superconductors are revealed in intense (60 tesla) magnetic fields. Properties such as the topology of the Fermi surface and the nature of the superconducting order parameter are revealed. With modest maximum critical temperatures~13K the charge transfer salt organic superconductors prove to be incredibly valuable materials as their electronically clean nature and layered (highly anisotropic) structures yield insights to the high temperature superconductors. Observation of de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillatory phenomena, magnetic field induced superconductivity and re-entrant superconductivity are some of the physical phenomena observed in the charge transfer organic superconductors. In this talk, I will discuss the nature of organic superconductors and give an overview of the generation of intense magnetic fields; from the 60 tesla millisecond duration to the extreme 1000 tesla microsecond pulsed magnetic fields.

  13. Organizing Committee

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific Computing Research An ASCR / NERSC Workshop January 5-6, 2011 Dr. Karen Pao ASCR Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for Services Richard Gerber NERSC User Services John Shalf NERSC Advanced Technologies Group Harvey Wasserman NERSC User Services Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:22

  14. Organizing Committee

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee R. Todd Anderson Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental Sciences Anjuli Barnzai Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental Sciences Susan Gregurick Program Manager, BER Biological Systems Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for Services Richard Gerber NERSC User Services Harvey Wasserman NERSC System Architecture Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:21

  15. Organizing Committee

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Science August 3-4, 2010 Dr. John Mandrekas Advanced Fusion Simulations; FES HPC Allocations Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for Services Richard Gerber NERSC User Services Alice Koniges NERSC Advanced Technologies Harvey Wasserman NERSC User Services Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:21

  16. Organizing Committee

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics November 12-13, 2009 Amber Boehnlein Division Scientist, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, on assignment to DOE Office of HEP. Glen Crawford Program Manager, Research and Technology Division, DOE Office of HEP. Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for Services Richard Gerber NERSC User Services Harvey

  17. Organizing Committee

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences An ASCR / BES / NERSC Workshop February 9-10, 2010 Jim Davenport Program Manager for Theoretical Condensed Material Physics Mark R. Pederson Program Manager for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry Nicholas B. Woodward Program Manager, Geosciences Research Program Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for

  18. Methods of Si based ceramic components volatilization control in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John; Dion Ouellet, Noemie

    2016-09-06

    A method of controlling volatilization of silicon based components in a gas turbine engine includes measuring, estimating and/or predicting a variable related to operation of the gas turbine engine; correlating the variable to determine an amount of silicon to control volatilization of the silicon based components in the gas turbine engine; and injecting silicon into the gas turbine engine to control volatilization of the silicon based components. A gas turbine with a compressor, combustion system, turbine section and silicon injection system may be controlled by a controller that implements the control method.

  19. CX-011446: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Measurements and Modeling to Quantify Emissions of Methane and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from Shale Gas Operations CX(s) Applied: B3.1 Date: 11/13/2013 Location(s): Pennsylvania Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  20. Reduce air, reduce compliance cost new patented spray booth technology

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, F.

    1997-12-31

    A New Paint Spray Booth System that dramatically reduces air volumes normally required for capturing and controlling paint overspray that contains either Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) or Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP), or both. In turn, a substantial reduction in capital equipment expenditures for air abatement systems and air make-up heaters as well as related annual operating expenses is realized.

  1. Organization Chart | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Organization Chart Organization Chart Organization Chart Printable PDF Mission Leadership

  2. High-G testing of MEMS mechanical non-volatile memory and silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: High-G testing of MEMS mechanical non-volatile memory and silicon re-entry switch. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-G testing of MEMS mechanical ...

  3. Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15. Semi-Volatile Thermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 201415. Semi-Volatile Thermal Desorption Aerosol Gas ... GoAmazon 201415 afforded study of the chemical transformations in the region downwind of ...

  4. Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15. Semi-Volatile Thermal Desorption

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (SVTAG) Field Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15. Semi-Volatile Thermal Desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (SVTAG) Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15. Semi-Volatile Thermal Desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (SVTAG) Field Campaign Report In areas where biogenic emissions are oxidized in the presence of anthropogenic pollutants such as SO2,

  5. Estimation of stochastic volatility with long memory for index prices of FTSE Bursa Malaysia KLCI

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kho Chia; Kane, Ibrahim Lawal; Rahman, Haliza Abd; Bahar, Arifah; Ting, Chee-Ming

    2015-02-03

    In recent years, modeling in long memory properties or fractionally integrated processes in stochastic volatility has been applied in the financial time series. A time series with structural breaks can generate a strong persistence in the autocorrelation function, which is an observed behaviour of a long memory process. This paper considers the structural break of data in order to determine true long memory time series data. Unlike usual short memory models for log volatility, the fractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is neither a Markovian process nor can it be easily transformed into a Markovian process. This makes the likelihood evaluation and parameter estimation for the long memory stochastic volatility (LMSV) model challenging tasks. The drift and volatility parameters of the fractional Ornstein-Unlenbeck model are estimated separately using the least square estimator (lse) and quadratic generalized variations (qgv) method respectively. Finally, the empirical distribution of unobserved volatility is estimated using the particle filtering with sequential important sampling-resampling (SIR) method. The mean square error (MSE) between the estimated and empirical volatility indicates that the performance of the model towards the index prices of FTSE Bursa Malaysia KLCI is fairly well.

  6. Combustion of volatile matter during the initial stages of coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Marlow, D.; Niksa, S.; Kruger, C.H.

    1990-08-01

    Both the secondary pyrolysis and combustion of the volatiles from a bituminous coal will be studied. Devolatilization and secondary pyrolysis experiments will be conducted in a novel flow reactor in which secondary pyrolysis of the volatiles occurs after devolatilization is complete. This allows unambiguous measurements of the yields from both processes. Measurements will be made for reactor temperatures from 1500 to 1700 K, and a nominal residence time of 200 msec. These conditions are typical of coal combustion. Yields of tar, soot, H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} hydrocarbons will be determined as a function of reactor temperature. The yields will be reported as a function of the temperature of the reactor. The instrumentation for temperature measurements will be developed during future studies. Combustion studies will be conducted in a constant volume bomb, which will be designed and constructed for this study. Tar and soot will be removed before introducing the volatiles to the bomb, so that only the combustion of the light gas volatiles will be considered. The burning velocities of light gas volatiles will be determined both as functions of mixture stoichiometry and the temperature at which the volatiles are pyrolysed. 90 refs., 70 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    About Us Organization Organization Organization Download Printable PDF PDF icon Organization Chart - Dated: 07122015 Key Resources PMCDP EVMS PARS IIe FPD Resource Center PM ...

  8. A Literature Survey to Identify Potentially Volatile Iodine-Bearing Species Present in Off-Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Bruffey, S. H.; Spencer, B. B.; Strachan, D. M.; Jubin, R. T.; Soelberg, N. R.; Riley, B. J.

    2015-06-30

    Four radionuclides have been identified as being sufficiently volatile in the reprocessing of nuclear fuel that their gaseous release needs to be controlled to meet regulatory requirements (Jubin et al. 2011, 2012). These radionuclides are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. Of these, 129I has the longest half-life and potentially high biological impact. Accordingly, control of the release of 129I is most critical with respect to the regulations for the release of radioactive material in stack emissions. It is estimated that current EPA regulations (EPA 2010) would require any reprocessing plant in the United States to limit 129I release to less than 0.05 Ci/MTIHM for a typical fuel burnup of 55 gigawatt days per metric tonne (GWd/t) (Jubin 2011). The study of inorganic iodide in off-gas systems has been almost exclusively limited to I2 and the focus of organic iodide studies has been CH3I. In this document, we provide the results of an examination of publically available literature that is relevant to the presence and sources of both inorganic and organic iodine-bearing species in reprocessing plants. We especially focus on those that have the potential to be poorly sequestered with traditional capture methodologies. Based on the results of the literature survey and some limited thermodynamic modeling, the inorganic iodine species hypoiodous acid (HOI) and iodine monochloride (ICl) were identified as potentially low-sorbing iodine species that could present in off-gas systems. Organic species of interest included both short chain alkyl iodides such as methyl iodide (CH3I) and longer alkyl iodides up to iodododecane (C10H21I). It was found that fuel dissolution may provide conditions conducive to HOI formation and has been shown to result in volatile long-chain alkyl iodides, though these may not volatilize until later in the reprocessing sequence. Solvent extraction processes were found to be significant sources of various organic iodine-bearing species; formation of these

  9. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, Joseph P.; Marek, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper (II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the orginal organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge and transferred to a virtrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage.

  10. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Volatiles combustion in fluidized beds. [Quarterly] technical progress report, 4 December 1994--4 March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergrass II, R.A.; Mansker, L.D.; Hesketh, R.P.

    1995-08-01

    The goal of this project is to investigate the conditions in which volatiles will bum within both the dense and freeboard regions of fluidized beds. Experiments using a fluidized bed operated at incipient fluidization are being conducted to characterize the effect of particle surface area, initial fuel concentration, and particle type on the inhibition of volatiles within a fluidized bed. The work conducted during the period 4 December, 1994 through, 3 March 1995 is presented in this technical progress report. The research consists of the application of a detailed chemical kinetics model for propane combustion and planned improvements in the experimental system.

  12. Volatiles combustion in fluidized beds. Technical progress report, 4 March 1993--3 June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hesketh, R.P.

    1993-09-01

    The goal of this project is to investigate the conditions in which volatiles will burn within both the dense and freeboard regions of fluidized beds. Experiments using a fluidized bed operated at incipient fluidization will be performed to characterize the effect of particle surface area, initial fuel concentration, and particle type on the inhibition of volatiles within a fluidized bed. The work conducted during the period 4 March, 1993 through 3 June, 1993 is reported in this technical progress report. The work during this time period consists primarily of the startup and trouble shooting of the fluidized bed reactor and gas phase modeling of methane and propane.

  13. Method for removing volatile components from a ceramic article, and related processes

    DOEpatents

    Klug, Frederic Joseph; DeCarr, Sylvia Marie

    2002-01-01

    A method of removing substantially all of the volatile component in a green, volatile-containing ceramic article is disclosed. The method comprises freezing the ceramic article; and then subjecting the frozen article to a vacuum for a sufficient time to freeze-dry the article. Frequently, the article is heated while being freeze-dried. Use of this method efficiently reduces the propensity for any warpage of the article. The article is often formed from a ceramic slurry in a gel-casting process. A method for fabricating a ceramic core used in investment casting is also described.

  14. Method For Removing Volatile Components From A Gel-Cast Ceramic Article

    DOEpatents

    Klug, Frederic Joseph; DeCarr, Sylvia Marie

    2004-09-07

    A method of removing substantially all of the volatile component in a green, volatile-containing ceramic article is disclosed. The method comprises freezing the ceramic article; and then subjecting the frozen article to a vacuum for a sufficient time to freeze-dry the article. Frequently, the article is heated while being freeze-dried. Use of this method efficiently reduces the propensity for any warpage of the article. The article is often formed from a ceramic slurry in a gel-casting process. A method for fabricating a ceramic core used in investment casting is also described.

  15. Performance and kinetic study of semi-dry thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sajeena Beevi, B.; Madhu, G.; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Performance of the reactor was evaluated by the degradation of volatile solids. • Biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS. • Value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day{sup −1}. • During the digestion 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is promoted as an energy source and waste disposal. In this study semi dry anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes was conducted for 45 days in a lab-scale batch experiment for total solid concentration of 100 g/L for investigating the start-up performances under thermophilic condition (50 °C). The performance of the reactor was evaluated by measuring the daily biogas production and calculating the degradation of total solids and the total volatile solids. The biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS (volatile solid) for the total solid (TS) concentration of 100 g/L. About 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained during the digestion. A first order model based on the availability of substrate as the limiting factor was used to perform the kinetic studies of batch anaerobic digestion system. The value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day{sup −1}.

  16. Organization Chart - Home

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    LSD Logo About Us People & Organization Research News & Events Safety Internal Resources Organization Chart Departments Scientific Staff Directory Committees Organization Chart...

  17. Co-pyrolysis of coal with organic solids

    SciTech Connect

    Straka, P.; Buchtele, J.

    1995-12-01

    The co-pyrolysis of high volatile A bituminous coal with solid organic materials (proteins, cellulose, polyisoprene, polystyrene, polyethylene-glycolterephtalate-PEGT) at a high temperature conditions was investigated. Aim of the work was to evaluate, firstly, the changes of the texture and of the porous system of solid phase after high temperature treatment in presence of different types of macromolecular solids, secondly, properties and composition of the tar and gas. Considered organic solids are important waste components. During their co-pyrolysis the high volatile bituminous coal acts as a hydrogen donor in the temperature rank 220-480{degrees}C. In the rank 500- 1000{degrees}C the solid phase is formed. The co-pyrolysis was carried out at heating rate 3 K/min. It was found that an amount of organic solid (5-10%) affects important changes in the optical texture forms of solid phase, in the pore distribution and in the internal surface area. Transport large pores volume decreases in presence of PEGT, polystyrene and cellulose and increases in presence of proteins and polyisoprene. (image analysis measurements show that the tendency of coal to create coarse pores during co-pyrolysis is very strong and increases with increasing amount of organic solid in blend). An addition of considered materials changes the sorption ability (methylene blue test, iodine adsorption test), moreover, the reactivity of the solid phase.

  18. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy. [Hydrocarbon (HC)

    SciTech Connect

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  19. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    SciTech Connect

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  20. In Vitro Genotoxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Vehicle Exhaust Particulate and Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Materials

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2002 DEER Conference Presentation: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

  1. Henry's law constants for paint solvents and their implications on volatile organic compound emissions from automotive painting

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.R.; Kalis, E.M.; DeWulf, T.; Andrews, K.M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes experimental results of equilibrium partitioning of several significant paint solvents and formaldehyde between air and water to quantify the potential for capturing and retaining the constituents in spraybooth scrubber water during automotive painting. The compounds studied are toluene, n-butanol, methyl ethyl ketone methyl propyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, methyl amyl ketone, butyl cellosolve, butyl cellosolve acetate, butyl carbitol, and n-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone. A set of field data collected at a Ford Motor Company assembly plant was also analyzed to determine whether data were consistent with the equilibrium phenomenon. The primary findings include: (a) There were more than six orders of magnitude difference in the Henry's law constants among the solvents studied. A solvent with a smaller constant is less easily stripped from water. The Henry's law constants decrease in the following order: toluene and xylenes > methyl ethyl ketone > n-butanol > butyl cellosolve acetate > butyl cellosolve > formaldehyde > butyl carbitol > n-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone. (b) Field data showed accumulation of n-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and stable concentrations of butyl carbitol, butyl cellosolve, and n-butanol in the paint-sludge pit water during a 2-month period. Stable concentrations indicate a continuous, balanced capture and stripping of the solvents. Data were consistent with measured Henry's law constants. (c) The low Henry's law constant for formaldehyde is the result of the fact that it is hydrated when dissolved in water.

  2. Pulsed Laser Imager for Detecting Emissions of Hydrocarbons and Volatile Organic Compounds: Inventions and Innovation Petroleum Project Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Wogsland, J.

    2001-01-25

    Project fact sheet written for the Inventions and Innovation Program about an advanced laser technology that safely detects leaks and emissions without requiring an air sample.

  3. PNNL: IDREAM - Organization Chart

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    IDREAM Organizational Chart Enlarge Image | PDF version IDREAM Organization Chart

  4. Experimental studies of actinide volatilities with application to mixed waste oxidation processors

    SciTech Connect

    Krikorian, O.H.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Condit, R.H.; Adamson, M.G.; Fontes, A.S. Jr.; Fleming, D.L.

    1993-04-30

    The transpiration technique is used to measure volatilities of U from U{sub 3}O{sub 8}(s), Pu from PuO{sub 2}(s) and Pu and Am from PuO{sub 2}/2%AmO{sub 2}(s) in the presence of steam and oxygen at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1300{degree}C.

  5. Kinetics of coal combustion: Part 2, Mechanisms and kinetics of coal volatiles combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Essenhigh, R.H.; Bailey, E.G.; Shaw, D.W. )

    1988-12-01

    Values of global kinetic constants for the combustion of coal volatiles have been determined for the first time for volatiles from three coals (two bituminous coals and a Texas lignite). Global kinetic constants for methane and propane were also measured in the same apparatus to allow comparison with reference gases. Comparisons have also been made with values of global kinetics for pure hydrocarbons from a range of experiments as found in the literature. The volatiles were pyrolyzed from crushed coal drawn on weighed trays through a gas-fired muffle furnace, and they were burned at the top of a tube in an intense back-mix volume treated theoretically as a stirred reactor. Two types of experiment were carried out: partial combustion measurements near the stoichiometric for all coals from which the global kinetics were determined; and extinction limits for the Pittsburgh {number sign}8 coal volatiles to determine the extinction loop. The near stoichiometric generated kinetic data were used to predict the extinction limits with substantial agreement. Extinction loops for methane, propane and carbon monoxide were also measured for comparison.

  6. Final Report - Glass Formulation Testing to Increase Sulfate Volatilization from Melter, VSL-04R4970-1, Rev. 0, dated 2/24/05

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Matlack, K. A.; Pegg, I. L.; Gong, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objectives of the DM100 and DM10 tests were to determine the impact of four different organics and one inorganic feed additive on sulfate volatilization and to determine the sulfur partitioning between the glass and the off-gas system. The tests provided information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data including sulfur incorporation and partitioning. A series of DM10 and DM100 melter tests were conducted using a LAW Envelope A feed. The testing was divided into three parts. The first part involved a series of DM10 melter tests with four different organic feed additives: sugar, polyethylene glycol (PEG), starch, and urea. The second part involved two confirmatory 50-hour melter tests on the DM100 using the best combination of reductants and conditions based on the DM10 results. The third part was performed on the DM100 with feeds containing vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) as an inorganic additive to increase sulfur partitioning to the off-gas. Although vanadium oxide is not a reductant, previous testing has shown that vanadium shows promise for partitioning sulfur to the melter exhaust, presumably through its known catalytic effect on the SO{sub 2}/SO{sub 3} reaction. Crucible-scale tests were conducted prior to the melter tests to confirm that the glasses and feeds would be processable in the melter and that the glasses would meet the waste form (ILAW) performance requirements. Thus, the major objectives of these tests were to: Perform screening tests on the DM10 followed by tests on the DM100-WV system using a LAW -Envelope A feed with four organic additives to assess their impact on sulfur volatilization. Perform tests on the DM100-WV system using a LAW -Envelope A feed containing vanadium oxide to assess its impact on sulfur volatilization. Determine feed processability and product quality with the above additives. Collect melter emissions data to determine the effect of additives on sulfur partitioning and melter emissions

  7. Fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor: Detection of volatile chlorinated compounds in air and water using ultra-thin membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, N.C. Jr.; Olsen, K.B.; Osantowski, R.E.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Griffin, J.W.

    1993-05-01

    Prior work on the fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor called HaloSnif{trademark} has been extended to include an ultra-thin membrane which allows passage of volatile organic chlorinated compounds (VOCl). The membrane has been demonstrated to exclude H{sub 2}O during VOCl monitoring. The system is capable of measuring VOCl in gas-phase samples or aqueous solutions over a wide linear dynamic range. The lower limit of detection for trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), and other related compounds in the gas-phase is 1 to 5 ppm{sub v/v}, and in the aqueous-phase is 5 to 10 mg/L. Waste site characterization and remediation activities often require chemical analysis in the vadose zone and in groundwater. These analyses are typically performed in analytical laboratories using widely accepted standardized methods such as gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The new developments with HaloSnif provide rapid field screening which can augment the standardized methods.

  8. Investigation into the effect of high concentrations of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion on methanogenic communities

    SciTech Connect

    Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H.; Walter, Andreas; Ebner, Christian; Insam, Heribert

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Different methanogenic communities in mesophilic and thermophilic reactors. • High VFA levels do not cause major changes in archaeal communities. • Real-time PCR indicated greater diversity than ANAEROCHIP microarray. - Abstract: A study was conducted to determine whether differences in the levels of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in anaerobic digester plants could result in variations in the indigenous methanogenic communities. Two digesters (one operated under mesophilic conditions, the other under thermophilic conditions) were monitored, and sampled at points where VFA levels were high, as well as when VFA levels were low. Physical and chemical parameters were measured, and the methanogenic diversity was screened using the phylogenetic microarray ANAEROCHIP. In addition, real-time PCR was used to quantify the presence of the different methanogenic genera in the sludge samples. Array results indicated that the archaeal communities in the different reactors were stable, and that changes in the VFA levels of the anaerobic digesters did not greatly alter the dominating methanogenic organisms. In contrast, the two digesters were found to harbour different dominating methanogenic communities, which appeared to remain stable over time. Real-time PCR results were inline with those of microarray analysis indicating only minimal changes in methanogen numbers during periods of high VFAs, however, revealed a greater diversity in methanogens than found with the array.

  9. Erace--an integrated system for treating organic-contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Caley, S.M.; Heath, W.O.; Bergsman, T.M.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Pillay, C.; Moss, R.W.; Shah, R.R.; Goheen, S.C.; Camiaoni, D.M.

    1994-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a suite of electrical technologies for treating sites contaminated with hazardous organic compounds. These include: (1) Six-Phase Soil Heating (SPSH) to remove volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds from soils; (2) In Situ Corona (ISC) to decompose nonvolatile and bound organic contaminants in soils; (3) High-Energy Corona (HEC) to treat contaminated off-gases; and (4) Liquid Corona (LC) to treat contaminated liquids. These four technologies comprise ERACE (Electrical Remediation at Contaminated Environments), an integrated system for accomplishing site remediation with little or no secondary wastes produced that would require off-site treatment or disposal. Each ERACE technology can be employed individually as a stand-alone treatment process, or combined as a system for total site remediation. For example, an ERACE system for treating sites contaminated with volatile organics would integrate SPSH to remove the contaminants from the soil, LC to continuously treat an aqueous stream condensed out of the soil off-gas, and HEC to treat non-condensibles remaining in the off-gas, before atmospheric release.

  10. Application of high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry measurements to estimate volatility distributions of α-pinene and naphthalene oxidation products

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Chhabra, P. S.; Lambe, A. T.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Stark, H.; Jayne, J. T.; Onasch, T. B.; Davidovits, P.; Kimmel, J. R.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-01-05

    Recent developments in high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-CIMS) have made it possible to directly detect atmospheric organic compounds in real time with high sensitivity and with little or no fragmentation, including low-volatility, highly oxygenated organic vapors that are precursors to secondary organic aerosol formation. Here, using ions identified by high-resolution spectra from an HR-ToF-CIMS with acetate reagent ion chemistry, we develop an algorithm to estimate the vapor pressures of measured organic acids. The algorithm uses identified ion formulas and calculated double bond equivalencies, information unavailable in quadrupole CIMS technology, as constraints for the number of possible oxygen-containing functionalmore » groups. The algorithm is tested with acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometry (acetate-CIMS) spectra of O3 and OH oxidation products of α-pinene and naphthalene formed in a flow reactor with integrated OH exposures ranged from 1.2 × 1011 to 9.7 × 1011 molec s cm−3, corresponding to approximately 1.0 to 7.5 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Measured gas-phase organic acids are similar to those previously observed in environmental chamber studies. For both precursors, we find that acetate-CIMS spectra capture both functionalization (oxygen addition) and fragmentation (carbon loss) as a function of OH exposure. The level of fragmentation is observed to increase with increased oxidation. The predicted condensed-phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA) average acid yields and O/C and H/C ratios agree within uncertainties with previous chamber and flow reactor measurements and ambient CIMS results. While acetate reagent ion chemistry is used to selectively measure organic acids, in principle this method can be applied to additional reagent ion chemistries depending on the application.« less

  11. Volatility characterization of nanoparticles from single and dual-fuel low temperature combustion in compression ignition engines

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Lucachick, Glenn; Curran, Scott; Storey, John Morse; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Northrop, William F.

    2016-03-10

    Our work explores the volatility of particles produced from two diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) modes proposed for high-efficiency compression ignition engines. It also explores mechanisms of particulate formation and growth upon dilution in the near-tailpipe environment. Moreover, the number distribution of exhaust particles from low- and mid-load dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) and single-fuel premixed charge compression ignition (PPCI) modes were experimentally studied over a gradient of dilution temperature. Particle volatility of select particle diameters was investigated using volatility tandem differential mobility analysis (V-TDMA). Evaporation rates for exhaust particles were compared with V-TDMA results for candidate pure n-alkanesmore » to identify species with similar volatility characteristics. The results show that LTC particles are mostly comprised of material with volatility similar to engine oil alkanes. V-TDMA results were used as inputs to an aerosol condensation and evaporation model to support the finding that smaller particles in the distribution are comprised of lower volatility material than large particles under primary dilution conditions. Although the results show that saturation levels are high enough to drive condensation of alkanes onto existing particles under the dilution conditions investigated, they are not high We conclude that observed particles from LTC operation must grow from low concentrations of highly non-volatile compounds present in the exhaust.« less

  12. Ordered organic-organic multilayer growth

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Lunt, Richard R

    2015-01-13

    An ordered multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure is formed by depositing at least two layers of thin film crystalline organic materials successively wherein the at least two thin film layers are selected to have their surface energies within .+-.50% of each other, and preferably within .+-.15% of each other, whereby every thin film layer within the multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure exhibit a quasi-epitaxial relationship with the adjacent crystalline organic thin film.

  13. Ordered organic-organic multilayer growth

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lunt, Richard R.

    2016-04-05

    An ordered multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure is formed by depositing at least two layers of thin film crystalline organic materials successively wherein the at least two thin film layers are selected to have their surface energies within .+-.50% of each other, and preferably within .+-.15% of each other, whereby every thin film layer within the multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure exhibit a quasi-epitaxial relationship with the adjacent crystalline organic thin film.

  14. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOEpatents

    Bowser, John

    2004-04-13

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In one of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the other part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. Ambient air is charged to the membrane separation unit during the latter part of the cycle.

  15. Photocatalyst activation in a pulsed low pressure discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, A.; Guaitella, O.; Gatilova, L.; Thevenet, F.; Guillard, C.; Roepcke, J.; Stancu, G.D.

    2005-11-28

    The effect of combining plasma and photocatalyst for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) removal was investigated in a pulsed low-pressure dc discharge. The photocatalyst was TiO{sub 2} while the VOC was acetylene (1000 ppm) diluted in dry air. The temporal evolution of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} concentration was measured by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) in the mid-infrared region during the plasma pulse (one second). The contribution of external ultraviolet radiation and plasma exposure were quantified, both with and without a photocatalyst. The synergetic effect was clearly demonstrated.

  16. Ignition Quality Tester (IQT): An Alternative for Characterizing the Combustion Kinetics of Low Volatility Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Osecky, E.; Bogin, G.; Ratcliff, M.; Luecke, J.; Chen, J. Y.; Zigler, B. T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) is a constant volume spray combustion system that can be heated and pressurized to conditions that are similar to a diesel engine at top dead center. With no moving parts and the ability to handle low volatility fuels, the IQT can be a bridge between engines and traditional methods for studying chemical kinetics. By comparing experimental data with model predictions, the IQT has been used to validate skeletal kinetic models of ignition. CFD modeling of the IQT using KIVA-3V was used to predict ignition of n-heptane accurately. Operating the IQT in a regime where chemical kinetics dominates (long ignition delays) allowed NTC behavior to be observed for some isomers of heptane. Experimental results with the low volatility fuel heptamethylnonane also show NTC behavior. At long ignition delays, experimental results can be compared with 0-D detailed chemical mechanisms.

  17. The role of non-volatile memory from an application perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kettering, Brett M; Nunez, James A

    2010-09-16

    Current, emerging, and future NVM (non-volatile memory) technologies give us hope that we will be able to architect HPC (high performance computing) systems that initially use them in a memory and storage hierarchy, and eventually use them as the memory and storage for the system, complete with ownership and protections as a HDD-based (hard-disk-drive-based) file system provides today.

  18. Implications of changing correlations between WTI and other commodities, asset classes, and implied volatility

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Implications of changing correlations between WTI and other commodities, asset classes, and implied volatility James Preciado October 2012 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information Administration Washington, DC 20585 This paper is released to encourage discussion and critical comment. The analysis and conclusions expressed here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Energy Information Administration. WORKING PAPER SERIES October 2012 James

  19. Princeton and PPPL launch center to study volatile space weather and

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    violent solar storms | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Princeton and PPPL launch center to study volatile space weather and violent solar storms By John Greenwald December 12, 2013 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Computer simulation of the solar wind in contact with the Earth's magnetosphere. The streaming wind compresses the magnetosphere on the side of the Earth that is nearest the sun, and stretches the magnetosphere into a long "tail" as the wind blows past the

  20. Electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectral analysis of a volatile uranyl derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Reutter, D.J.; Hardy, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Quadrupole mass spectral analysis of the volatile uranium ligand complex bis (1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato) dioxouranium-di-n-butyl sulfoxide is described utilizing electron impact (EI) and methane chemical ionization (CI) ion sources. All major ions are tentatively identified and the potential usefulness of this complex for determining uranium isotope /sup 235/U//sup 238/U abundance is demonstrated.

  1. A new model for thermal volatilization of solid particles undergoing flash-pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Villermaux, J.; Antoine, B.; Lede, J.; Soulignac, F.

    1983-01-01

    The authors propose a new model describing the volatilization of a solid by thermal penetration (VTP model). This model was initially imagined for interpreting flash-pyrolysis of sawdust particles. Actually, it could be applied to any kind of solid reactions where volatilization is controlled by heat conduction from the outer surface. Although relying on very simple assumptions, the VTP model makes it possible to estimate the rate of consumption of solid particles as a function of physicochemical parameters. Evidence for the existence of two volatilization regimes is provided, depending on the value of the thermal Thiele Modulus M and the thermal Biot number B. The ablation regime is achieved if both M = t /SUB T/ /t /SUB R/ and B = hL /SUB o/ /lambda are large (M, B > 100). In this regime, the shrinking velocity is constant and the reaction takes place only in a thin layer at the solid surface. Experimental data on wood pyrolysis obtained with sawdust or with massive rods confirm the existence of these two regimes (see companion paper). Total consumption times estimated in a cyclone reactor or direct measurement of ablation velocities are in agreement with theoretical predictions of the VPT model. These preliminary results have been obtained with very simple numerical methods which are not best adapted to the ''stiff'' conditions encountered in the ablation regime (M and B both large). Further improvements are in progress, which will make it possible to perform more accurate simulations in a broader range of variation of parameters.

  2. New model for thermal volatilization of solid particles undergoing flash-pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Villermaux, J.; Antoine, B.; Lede, J.; Soulignac, F.

    1983-01-01

    Many industrial processes involve the consumption of solid particles immersed in a reacting medium. Among these, the gasification of coal and biomass in fixed, fluidized or moving beds is of special interest. A great number of models describing gas-solid reactions can be found in the literature. Models dealing with the thermal volatilization of a solid controlled by heat transfer between the surrounding medium and the inner volume of the particle are more scarce. In addition, existing models often rely on the concept of a surface reaction, which is questionable, because deeper layers also contribute to the reaction as heat penetrates into the solid. A new model is proposed describing the volatilization of a solid by thermal penetration. This model was initially imagined for interpreting flash-pyrolysis of sawdust particles. Actually, it could be applied to any kind of solid reactions where volatilization is controlled by heat conduction from the outer surface. Only a few preliminary but significant results are presented in this paper. (Refs. 6)>

  3. New model for thermal volatilization of solid particles undergoing flash-pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Villermaux, J.; Antoine, B.; Lede, J.; Soulignac, F.

    1983-01-01

    Many industrial processes involve the consumption of solid particles immersed in a reacting medium. Among these, the gasification of coal and biomass in fixed, fluidized or moving beds is of special interest. A great number of models describing gas-solid reactions can be found in the literature. Models dealing with the thermal volatilization of a solid controlled by heat transfer between the surrounding medium and the inner volume of the particle are more scarce. In addition, existing models often rely on the concept of a ''surface reaction'', which is questionable, because deeper layers also contribute to the reaction as heat penetrates into the solid. A new model is proposed describing the volatilization of a solid by thermal penetration. This model was initially imagined for interpreting flash-pyrolysis of sawdust particles. Actually, it could be applied to any kind of solid reactions where volatilization is controlled by heat conduction from the outer surface. Only a few preliminary but significant results are presented in this paper. (6 figs., 6 refs.)

  4. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Organization Organization The organizational structure of the Office of International Affairs (IA) is as follows: Office of Resource Management (IA-10) Office of the Deputy ...

  5. Coupled Physical/Chemical and Biofiltration Technologies to Reduce Air Emissions from Forest Products Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. McGinnis

    2001-12-31

    The research is a laboratory and bench-scale investigation of a system to concentrate and destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including hazardous air pollutants, formed from the drying of wood and the manufacture of wood board products (e.g., particle board and oriented strandboard). The approach that was investigated involved concentrating the dilute VOCs (<500 ppmv) with a physical/chemical adsorption unit, followed by the treatment of the concentrated voc stream (2,000 to 2,500 ppmv) with a biofiltration unit. The research program lasted three years, and involved three research organizations. Michigan Technological University was the primary recipient of the financial assistance, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and Mississippi State University (MSU) were subcontractors to MTU. The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a pilot-scale demonstration of the technology with sufficient data to provide for the design of an industrial system. No commercialization activities were included in this project.

  6. Partitioning Behavior of Organic Contaminants in Carbon Storage Environments: A Critical Review

    SciTech Connect

    Burant, Aniela; Lowry, Gregory V; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2012-12-04

    Carbon capture and storage is a promising strategy for mitigating the CO{sub 2} contribution to global climate change. The large scale implementation of the technology mandates better understanding of the risks associated with CO{sub 2} injection into geologic formations and the subsequent interactions with groundwater resources. The injected supercritical CO{sub 2} (sc-CO{sub 2}) is a nonpolar solvent that can potentially mobilize organic compounds that exist at residual saturation in the formation. Here, we review the partitioning behavior of selected organic compounds typically found in depleted oil reservoirs in the residual oil–brine–sc-CO{sub 2} system under carbon storage conditions. The solubility of pure phase organic compounds in sc-CO{sub 2} and partitioning of organic compounds between water and sc-CO{sub 2} follow trends predicted based on thermodynamics. Compounds with high volatility and low aqueous solubility have the highest potential to partition to sc-CO{sub 2}. The partitioning of low volatility compounds to sc-CO{sub 2} can be enhanced by co-solvency due to the presence of higher volatility compounds in the sc-CO{sub 2}. The effect of temperature, pressure, salinity, pH, and dissolution of water molecules into sc-CO{sub 2} on the partitioning behavior of organic compounds in the residual oil-brine-sc-CO{sub 2} system is discussed. Data gaps and research needs for models to predict the partitioning of organic compounds in brines and from complex mixtures of oils are presented. Models need to be able to better incorporate the effect of salinity and co-solvency, which will require more experimental data from key classes of organic compounds.

  7. Partitioning Behavior of Organic Contaminants in Carbon Storage Environments: A Critical Review

    SciTech Connect

    Burant, Aniela; Lowry, Gregory V.; Karamalidis, Athanasios K.

    2013-01-13

    Carbon capture and storage is a promising strategy for mitigating the CO{sub 2} contribution to global climate change. The large scale implementation of the technology mandates better understanding of the risks associated with CO{sub 2} injection into geologic formations and the subsequent interactions with groundwater resources. The injected supercritical CO{sub 2} (sc-CO{sub 2}) is a nonpolar solvent that can potentially mobilize organic compounds that exist at residual saturation in the formation. Here, we review the partitioning behavior of selected organic compounds typically found in depleted oil reservoirs in the residual oilbrinesc-CO{sub 2} system under carbon storage conditions. The solubility of pure phase organic compounds in sc-CO{sub 2} and partitioning of organic compounds between water and sc-CO{sub 2} follow trends predicted based on thermodynamics. Compounds with high volatility and low aqueous solubility have the highest potential to partition to sc-CO{sub 2}. The partitioning of low volatility compounds to sc-CO{sub 2} can be enhanced by cosolvency due to the presence of higher volatility compounds in the sc-CO{sub 2}. The effect of temperature, pressure, salinity, pH, and dissolution of water molecules into sc-CO{sub 2} on the partitioning behavior of organic compounds in the residual oilbrinesc-CO{sub 2} system is discussed. Data gaps and research needs for models to predict the partitioning of organic compounds in brines and from complex mixtures of oils are presented. Models need to be able to better incorporate the effect of salinity and cosolvency, which will require more experimental data from key classes of organic compounds.

  8. Departmental Organization and Management

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1993-06-10

    Effective immediately, the Departmental organization structure reflected in the chart at Attachment 1 has been approved.

  9. Transportation Organization and Functions

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Office of Packaging and Transportation list of organizations and functions, with a list of acronyms.

  10. Effects of uncertainty in SAPRC90 rate constants and selected product yields on reactivity adjustment factors for alternative fuel vehicle emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, M.S.; Russell, A.G.; Yang, Y.J.; Milford, J.B.; Kirchner, F.; Stockwell, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    Tropospheric ozone is formed in the atmosphere by a series of reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). While NOx emissions are primarily composed of only two compounds, nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), there are hundreds of different VOCs being emitted. In general, VOCs promote ozone formation, however, the rate and extent of ozone produced by the individual VOCs varies considerably. For example, it is widely acknowledged that formaldehyde (HCHO) is a very reactive VOC, and produces ozone rapidly and efficiently under most conditions. On the other hand, VOCs such as methane, ethane, propane, and methanol do not react as quickly, and are likely to form less urban ozone than a comparable mass of HCHO. The difference in ozone forming potential is one of the bases for the use of alternative fuels. The fuels considered in this study included compressed natural gas, LPG, mixtures of methanol and gasoline, ethanol and gasoline, and a reformulated gasoline.

  11. Assessment of gas flammability in transuranic waste container

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Loehr, C.A.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Spangler, L.R.

    1995-12-01

    The Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package [Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) SARP] set limits for gas generation rates, wattage limits, and flammable volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in transuranic (TRU) waste containers that would be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Based on existing headspace gas data for drums stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), over 30 percent of the contact-handled TRU waste drums contain flammable VOC concentrations greater than the limit. Additional requirements may be imposed for emplacement of waste in the WIPP facility. The conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the facility required that flame tests be performed if significant levels of flammable VOCs were present in TRU waste containers. This paper describes an approach for investigating the potential flammability of TRU waste drums, which would increase the allowable concentrations of flammable VOCS. A flammability assessment methodology is presented that will allow more drums to be shipped to WIPP without treatment or repackaging and reduce the need for flame testing on drums. The approach includes experimental work to determine mixture lower explosive limits (MLEL) for the types of gas mixtures observed in TRU waste, a model for predicting the MLEL for mixtures of VOCS, hydrogen, and methane, and revised screening limits for total flammable VOCs concentrations and concentrations of hydrogen and methane using existing drum headspace gas data and the model predictions.

  12. Public health assessment for JIS Landfill, South Brunswick, Middlesex County, New Jersey, Region 2. Cerclis No. NJD97400998. addendum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-25

    The Jones Industrial Services (JIS) Landfill site is an approximately eleven acre landfill located on a 24 acre site in South Brunswick Town, Middlesex County, New Jersey. The landfill records document that sludges, solvents, pesticides, and industrial wastes, some of which are toxic and/or hazardous substances were accepted at the landfill from the 1960`s through the early 1970`s. On-site and off-site soil and groundwater is contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, and heavy metals. The landfill may have posed a public health hazard in the past, since the site information indicates that human exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metals in domestic drinking water wells may have occurred. However, available data do not indicate that humans are presently being exposed to contaminants at levels expected to cause adverse health effects.

  13. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2014-09-16

    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  14. Uncorrelated volatile behavior during the 2011 apparition of comet C/2009 P1 Garradd

    SciTech Connect

    Feaga, Lori M.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Farnham, Tony L.; Bodewits, Dennis; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Gersch, Alan M.; Protopapa, Silvia [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Yang, Bin [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Drahus, Michal [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schleicher, David G., E-mail: feaga@astro.umd.edu [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The High Resolution Instrument Infrared Spectrometer (HRI-IR) on board the Deep Impact Flyby spacecraft detected H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and CO in the coma of the dynamically young Oort Cloud comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) post-perihelion at a heliocentric distance of 2 AU. Production rates were derived for the parent volatiles, Q {sub H2O} = 4.6 0.8 10{sup 28}, Q {sub CO2} = 3.9 0.7 10{sup 27}, and Q {sub CO} = 2.9 0.8 10{sup 28} molecules s{sup 1}, and are consistent with the trends seen by other observers and within the error bars of measurements acquired during a similar time period. When compiled with other observations of Garradd's dominant volatiles, unexpected behavior was seen in the release of CO. Garradd's H{sub 2}O outgassing, increasing and peaking pre-perihelion and then steadily decreasing, is more typical than that of CO, which monotonically increased throughout the entire apparition. Due to the temporal asymmetry in volatile release, Garradd exhibited the highest CO to H{sub 2}O abundance ratio ever observed for any comet inside the water snow line at ?60% during the HRI-IR observations. Also, the HRI-IR made the only direct measurement of CO{sub 2}, giving a typical cometary abundance ratio of CO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O of 8% but, with only one measurement, no sense of how it varied with orbital position.

  15. Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds

    DOEpatents

    Dinh, T.V.

    1996-06-11

    A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate there through to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex. 23 figs.

  16. Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds

    DOEpatents

    Dinh, Tuan V.

    1996-01-01

    A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate therethrough to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex.

  17. Spatial resolution and the geologic interpretation of Martian morphology - implications for subsurface volatiles

    SciTech Connect

    Zimbelman, J.R.

    1987-08-01

    Viking Orbiter images of the Acheron Fossae on Mars are presented and analyzed, with an emphasis on the impact of image resolution on the interpretation. High-resolution (less than 10 m/pixel) images reveal small mounds which can be interpreted as aeolian dunes, but these features are not evident on images with resolution of 50 m/pixel or greater. Also reported are the results of a visual inspection of 527 usable high-resolution images: it is found that all of the morphological features identified can arise in the absence of subsurface volatiles. 21 references.

  18. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    7451 M MINIATURIZED CHEMICAL DETECTORS FOR POINT-OF-CARE DIAGNOSIS U.S. Patent Application Nos. 14/992,855; 14/945,274 Technology Readiness Level:4/5 Basic technological components are integrated A NEW DETECTOR FOR MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS Building on decades of portable chemical analysis research, Sandia's latest chemical detector, based on our miniaturized pulse-discharged ionization detector (mini-PDID), makes it possible to diagnose illnesses by identifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

  19. Progress Toward Operable Unit 1 Groundwater Cleanup at the Mound, Ohio,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Site | Department of Energy Progress Toward Operable Unit 1 Groundwater Cleanup at the Mound, Ohio, Site Progress Toward Operable Unit 1 Groundwater Cleanup at the Mound, Ohio, Site July 2, 2015 - 12:41pm Addthis What does this project do? Goal 1. Protect human health and the environment. Groundwater in Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) has been impacted by volatile organic compound (VOC)-contaminated materials in the former solid waste landfill. The remedy for controlling contamination from residual

  20. PDID: Pulsed-Discharge Ionization Detector A new detector for medical analysis

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    PDID: Pulsed-Discharge Ionization Detector A New Detector for Medical Diagnosis Matthew Moorman mmoorma@sandia.gov MicroSystems Enabled Detection Department 01716 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-1387C Sandia's Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Biomarker

  1. Vehicle Emission Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Emission Basics Vehicle Emission Basics November 22, 2013 - 2:07pm Addthis Vehicle emissions are the gases emitted by the tailpipes of vehicles that use internal combustion engines. These vehicles can run on gasoline, diesel, biofuels, natural gas, or propane. Vehicle emissions are composed of varying amounts of: water vapor carbon dioxide (CO2) nitrogen oxygen pollutants such as: carbon monoxide (CO) nitrogen oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs) volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

  2. Laboratory Organization Chart

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Chief Information Officer Chief Financial Officer Biosciences EESA Climate & Ecosystem Sciences Division Energy Geosciences Division Download a printable Organization Chart ...

  3. Organizations | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Biosciences Division Environmental Science Division Mathematics and Computer Science Division Organizations Integrating research in the ...

  4. Community Organizing and Outreach

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Community Organizing and Outreach, call slides and discussion summary, April 23, 2015.

  5. Application and results of whole-body autoradiography in distribution studies of organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, K.

    1983-01-01

    With the growing concern for the health hazards of occupational exposure to toxic substances attention has been focused on the organic solvents, which are associated with both deleterious nervous system effects and specific tissue injuries. Relatively little is known about the distribution of organic solvents and their metabolites in the living organism. Knowledge of the specific tissue localizations and retention of solvents and solvent metabolites is of great value in revealing and understanding the sites and mechanisms of organic solvent toxicity. Whole-body autoradiography has been modified and applied to distribution studies of benzene, toluene, m-xylene, styrene, methylene chloride, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene and carbon disulfide. The high volatility of these substances has led to the development of cryo-techniques. Whole-body autoradiographic techniques applicable to the study of volatile substances are reviewed. The localizations of nonvolatile solvent metabolites and firmly bound metabolites have also been examined. The obtained results are discussed in relation to toxic effects and evaluated by comparison with other techniques used in distribution studies of organic solvents and their metabolites.

  6. Organic photosensitive devices

    DOEpatents

    Rand, Barry P; Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-11-26

    The present invention generally relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices. More specifically, it is directed to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices having a photoactive organic region containing encapsulated nanoparticles that exhibit plasmon resonances. An enhancement of the incident optical field is achieved via surface plasmon polariton resonances. This enhancement increases the absorption of incident light, leading to a more efficient device.

  7. Comparison of coating alternatives for US Coast Guard aircraft. Final report for April 1993-August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, D.J.; Spadafora, S.J.

    1994-12-12

    Current coatings used on U.S. Coast Guard aircraft contain high volatile organic compound (VOC) contents. Federal, state, and local environmental agencies restrict the amount of VOCs from the use of these materials through legislation such as the Clean Air Act and local Air Quality Management District Rules. At the request of the Coast Guard, the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division Warminster investigated several low VOC candidate replacements to the current paint scheme. The physical performance properties of these materials (i.e. corrosion resistance, adhesion, etc.) were characterized using standard coatings tests. The results of this program show that there are several acceptable alternatives. Replacement of current coating systems would reduce the total amount of hazardous materials emitted from Coast Guard painting operations and eliminate the need for expensive control equipment which will be required by the Clean Air Act (resulting in substantial future cost savings).

  8. EMFLUX{reg_sign} soil-gas survey of Technical Area 54, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-30

    This EMFLUXR Soil-Gas Survey was conducted on Material Disposal Areas (MDAS) G, J, and L in Technical Area 54 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), New Mexico. MDA L has been used for disposal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and MDA G (comprising sub-areas G-1 through G-8) for disposal of both VOCs and radioactive waste; MDA I has reportedly been used for disposal of waste without either of these contaminants. All three of the sites are currently active. Figure 1 shows the location of the three MDAs within Technical Area 54 of operable Unit 1148. The purpose of the EMFLUX{reg_sign} Soil-Gas Survey was to determine the presence, identities, and relative strengths of contaminants within the three areas of LANL investigated. Quadrel understands that this information will be used in Phase-I assessment of these areas to determine flux rates of -- VOCs emanating from the ground.

  9. Volatiles combustion in fluidized beds. Final technical report, 4 September 1992--4 June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergrass, R.A. II; Raffensperger, C.; Hesketh, R.P.

    1996-02-29

    The goal of this project is to investigate the conditions in which volatiles will burn within both the dense and freeboard regions of fluidized beds. Experiments using a fluidized bed operated at incipient fluidization are being conducted to characterize the effect of particle surface area, initial fuel concentration, and particle type on the inhibition of volatiles within a fluidized bed. A review of the work conducted under this grant is presented in this Final Technical Report. Both experimental and theoretical work have been conducted to examine the inhibition of the combustion by the fluidized bed material, sand. It has been shown that particulate phase at incipient fluidization inhibits the combustion of propane by free radical destruction at the surface of sand particles within the particulate phase. The implications of these findings is that at bed temperatures lower than the critical temperatures, gas combustion can only occur in the bubble phase or at the top surface of a bubbling fluidized bed. In modeling fluidized bed combustion this inhibition by the particulate phase should be included.

  10. Combustion rates of chars from high-volatile fuels for FBC application

    SciTech Connect

    Masi, S.; Salatino, P.; Senneca, O.

    1997-12-31

    The fluidized bed combustion of high volatile fuels is often associated with huge occurrence of comminution phenomena. These result into in-bed generation of substantial amounts of carbon fines which further undergo competitive processes of combustion and elutriation. The small size of carbon fines generated by comminution is such that their further combustion is largely controlled by the intrinsic kinetics of carbon oxidation, alone or in combination with intraparticle diffusion. The competition between fine combustion and elutriation strongly affects the efficiency of fixed carbon conversion and calls for thorough characterization of the combustion kinetics and of residence times of fines in a fluidized bed of coarse solids. In this paper a collection of intrinsic combustion kinetic and porosimetric data for chars from three high-volatile fuels suitable for FBC application is presented. Chars from a Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), a Tyre Derived Fuel (TDF) and a biomass (Robinia Pseudoacacia) are obtained from devolatilization, in fluidized bed, of fuel samples. Thermogravimetric analysis, mercury porosimetry and helium pycnometry are used to characterize the reactivity and the pore structure of the chars. Combustion rates are characterized over a wide range of temperatures (320--850 C) and oxygen partial pressures, covering the entire range of interest in fluidized bed combustion. Analysis of thermogravimetric and porosimetric data is directed to obtaining the parameters (pre-exponential factors, reaction orders, activation energies, intraparticle diffusivities) of combustion kinetic submodels for application in fluidized bed combustor modeling.

  11. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, T.N. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass.

  12. The Use of Positive Matrix Factorization with Conditional Probability Functions in Air Quality Studies: An Application to Hydrocarbon Emissions in Houston, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, YuLong; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2006-06-01

    As part of a study to identify groups of compounds (source categories) associated with different processing facilities, a multivariate receptor model called Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to hourly average concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured at five Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) located near the Ship Channel in Houston, Texas. The observations were made between June and October, 2003, and limited to nighttime measurements (21:00 pm 6:00 am) in order to remove the complexity of photochemical processing and associated changes in the concentrations of primary and secondary VOCs. Six to eight volatile organic compounds source categories were identified for the five Ship Channel sites. The dominant source categories were found to be those associated with petrochemical, chemical industries and fuel evaporation. In contrast, source categories associated with on-road vehicles were found to be relatively insignificant. Although evidence of biogenic emissions was found at almost all the sites, this broad category was significant only at the Wallisville site, which was also the site furthest away from the Ship Channels area and closest to the northeast forest of Texas. Natural gas, accumulation and fuel evaporation sources were found to contribute most to the ambient VOCs, followed by the petrochemical emission of highly reactive ethene and propylene. Solvent / paint industry and fuel evaporation and emission from refineries were next in importance while the on-road vehicle exhaust generally contributed less than 10% of the total ambient VOCs. Specific geographic areas associated with each source category were identified through the use of a Conditional Probability Function (CPF) analysis that related elevated concentrations of key VOCs in each category to a network of grids superimposed on the source inventories of the VOCs.

  13. In-well vapor stripping drilling and characterization work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, K.J.

    1994-03-13

    This work plan provides the information necessary for drilling, sampling, and hydrologic testing of wells to be completed in support of a demonstration of the in-well vapor stripping system. The in-well vapor stripping system is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase. Air-lift pumping is used to lift and aerate groundwater within the well. The volatiles escaping the aerated water are drawn off by a slight vacuum and treated at the surface while the water is allowed to infiltrate the vadose zone back to the watertable.

  14. Carlsbad Field Office P. O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    AUG 1 1 2011 Mr. John Kieling , Acli ng Bureau Chief Hazardous Waste Bureau New Mexico Environment Department 2905 Rodeo Park Drive Eas!, Building 1 Santa Fe, NM 87505-6303 Subject: Notification of Exceedance of a Disposal Room Volatile Orga nic Compound Monitoring Action Level for Carbon Tetrachloride Dear Me. Kieling: The purpose of th is letter is to notify you of the re ce ipt of validaled analytical resu lts for a volatile organic compound (VOC), carbon tetra chloride, which exceeded Ihe 50

  15. Organic contaminant separator

    DOEpatents

    Del Mar, Peter; Hemberger, Barbara J.

    1991-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a polyolefin tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.01 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the tube, (b) passing a solvent through the tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the tube. Further, a chromatographic apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a polyolefin tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.01 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the tube is disclosed.

  16. Organic photosensitive devices

    DOEpatents

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2013-01-22

    A photoactive device is provided. The device includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a photoactive region disposed between and electrically connected to the first and second electrodes. The photoactive region further includes an organic donor layer and an organic acceptor layer that form a donor-acceptor heterojunction. The mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region are different by a factor of at least 100, and more preferably a factor of at least 1000. At least one of the mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region is greater than 0.001 cm.sup.2/V-sec, and more preferably greater than 1 cm.sup.2/V-sec. The heterojunction may be of various types, including a planar heterojunction, a bulk heterojunction, a mixed heterojunction, and a hybrid planar-mixed heterojunction.

  17. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Organization Organization View Office of Management Organization Chart in PDF format. Office of Corporate Business Operations The Office of Corporate Business Operations provides the leadership and centralized management and direction of the Office of Management (MA) planning, budgeting, financial, human resources, and program execution processes; ensures that these processes are effective, and fully integrated and consistent with the Department-wide processes and requirements. This office is

  18. Astatinated organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Milius, Richard A.; Lambrecht, Richard M.; Bloomer, William D.

    1989-05-02

    Methods and kits for incorporating a radioactive astatine isotope (particularly .sup.211 At) into an organic compound by electrophilic astatodestannylation of organostannanes.

  19. Bisfuel links - Professional organizations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Professional organizations http://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/content" target="_blank">American Chemical Society

  20. Submitting Organization Sandia National ...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... coatings for organic solar cells. 2. The intrinsic ... For one application, the average water contact angle is ... (2) High-definition flat panel displays: By incorporating ...

  1. Astatinated organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Milius, R.A.; Lambrecht, R.M.; Bloomer, W.D.

    1989-05-02

    Methods and kits for incorporating a radioactive astatine isotope (particularly [sup 211]At) into an organic compound by electrophilic astatodestannylation of organostannanes. 3 figs.

  2. VOLATILE TRANSPORT INSIDE SUPER-EARTHS BY ENTRAPMENT IN THE WATER-ICE MATRIX

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, A.; Podolak, M.; Sasselov, D.

    2013-05-20

    Whether volatiles can be entrapped in a background matrix composing planetary envelopes and be dragged via convection to the surface is a key question in understanding atmospheric fluxes, cycles, and composition. In this paper, we consider super-Earths with an extensive water mantle (i.e., water planets), and the possibility of entrapment of methane in their extensive water-ice envelopes. We adopt the theory developed by van der Waals and Platteeuw for modeling solid solutions, often used for modeling clathrate hydrates, and modify it in order to estimate the thermodynamic stability field of a new phase called methane filled ice Ih. We find that in comparison to water ice VII the filled ice Ih structure may be stable not only at the high pressures but also at the high temperatures expected at the core-water mantle transition boundary of water planets.

  3. Methods for characterizing subsurface volatile contaminants using in-situ sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2006-02-21

    An inverse analysis method for characterizing diffusion of vapor from an underground source of volatile contaminant using data taken by an in-situ sensor. The method uses one-dimensional solutions to the diffusion equation in Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates for isotropic and homogenous media. If the effective vapor diffusion coefficient is known, then the distance from the source to the in-situ sensor can be estimated by comparing the shape of the predicted time-dependent vapor concentration response curve to the measured response curve. Alternatively, if the source distance is known, then the effective vapor diffusion coefficient can be estimated using the same inverse analysis method. A triangulation technique can be used with multiple sensors to locate the source in two or three dimensions. The in-situ sensor can contain one or more chemiresistor elements housed in a waterproof enclosure with a gas permeable membrane.

  4. Volatilization and redox testing in a DC arc melter: FY-93 and FY-94

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, J.D.; Sears, J.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.; McIlwain, M.E.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to study the dissolution, retention, volatilization, and trapping of transuranic radionuclide elements (TRUs), mixed fission and activation products, and high vapor pressure metals (HVPMS) during processing in a high temperature arc furnace. In all cases, surrogate elements (lanthanides) were used in place of radioactive ones. The experiments were conducted utilizing a small DC arc melter developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center (IRC). The small arc melter was originally developed in 1992 and has been used previously for waste form studies of iron enriched basalt (IEB) and IEB with zirconium and titanium additions (IEB4). Section 3 contains a description of the small arc melter and its operational capabilities are discussed in Chapter 4. The remainder of the document describes each testing program and then discusses results and findings.

  5. VOLATILE-RICH CIRCUMSTELLAR GAS IN THE UNUSUAL 49 CETI DEBRIS DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, Aki; Grady, Carol A.; Welsh, Barry Y.; Kamp, Inga; Weinberger, Alycia J.

    2014-11-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph far-UV spectra of the edge-on disk around 49 Ceti, one of the very few debris disks showing submillimeter CO emission. Many atomic absorption lines are present in the spectra, most of which arise from circumstellar gas lying along the line-of-sight to the central star. We determined the line-of-sight C I column density, estimated the total carbon column density, and set limits on the O I column density. Surprisingly, no line-of-sight CO absorption was seen. We discuss possible explanations for this non-detection, and present preliminary estimates of the carbon abundances in the line-of-sight gas. The C/Fe ratio is much greater than the solar value, suggesting that 49 Cet harbors a volatile-rich gas disk similar to that of ? Pictoris.

  6. Modeling Volatile Species Retention Experiments: Interim Progress Report (M3FT-12LA0202053)

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Neil N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-06

    Metal nuclear fuel is a candidate transmutation fuel form for advanced fuel cycles. One constituent of the fuel, americium, has a high vapor pressure, and there is a concern that excessive volatility losses of americium will occur during casting of the metal. A number of experiments have been performed using americium and surrogate metals, including experiments slated for FY12, to address the concern. The present task is to model and numerically simulate these experiments. This report describes a system-level model of the relevant experiments that has been developed together with some results. It also describes some initial 3D, full-physics simulations of portions of the experiments that have been performed.

  7. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Organization Organization The Office of Economic Impact and Diversity is comprised of: The Office of the Director- contact us Office of Minority Business and Economic Development - contact us Office of Minority Education and Community Development - contact us Office of Civil Rights - contact us Office of Diversity and Inclusion - contact us Stay in Touch Get email updates from our office. Subscribe

  8. Department of Energy Idaho - Organization

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organization Chart Last Updated: 11/14/2011

  9. Evaluating anaerobic digestion for reduction of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, H.A.

    1994-12-31

    A small-scale anaerobic digestion test has been developed for monitoring start-up work with inoperative digesters. The test is described and variables critical to its consistent operation are detailed. The method has been used in many anaerobic digestion studies, including evaluation of the digestibility of various municipal solid wastes like grass and hedge clippings, garbage and newspapers. Digestion rates are expressed in terms of the rate of production of combustible gas and the retention time needed for a fixed degree of volatile solids destruction. An example shows the advantage of digesting selected combined charges, and it is suggested that this approach might be fruitful with many toxic organic materials. Application of this test to find the digestion rates of some high-yield biomass crops is also described.

  10. Field-usable portable analyzer for chlorinated organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Buttner, W.J.; Penrose, W.R.; Stetter, J.R.; Williams, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    In 1992, a chemical sensor was developed which showed almost perfect selectivity to vapors of chlorinated solvents. When interfaced to an instrument, a chemical analyzer will be produced that has near- absolute selectivity to vapors of volatile chlorinated organic compounds. TRI has just completed the second of a 2-phase program to develop this new instrument system, which is called the RCL MONITOR. In Phase II, this instrument was deployed in 5 EM40 operations. Phase II applications covered clean-up process monitoring, environmental modeling, routine monitoring, health and safety, and technology validation. Vapor levels between 0 and 100 ppM can be determined in 90 s with a lower detection limit of 0.5 ppM using the hand-portable instrument. Based on the favorable performance of the RCL MONITOR, the commercial instrument was released for commercial sales on Sept. 20, 1996.

  11. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R.

    2016-05-03

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  12. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-10-23

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  13. Development and Application of A Membrane-Based Thermodenuder for Measurement of Volatile Particles Emitted by A Jet Turbine Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Mengdawn

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of volatile particles emitted by modern jet engines is a daunting task. Besides the complexity in sampling jet aircraft exhaust, the main difficulty lies at how to faithfully capture the phase-partition dynamics of volatile particles as they travel downstream from the engine exhaust nozzle. As a result, the physico-chemical properties of the exhaust are also transformed. We have developed a sampling instrument that aims at enabling study of the phase-partition dynamics. The objective of this research project was to design and evaluate a new thermodenuder for performing phase separation of the engine-emitted volatile particles. The backbone of the new thermodenuder is a thin metallic membrane. The membrane enables extraction of molecules that can be thermally desorbed from the condensed particulate phases and collected for subsequent chemical analysis. Toward realization of the technique in the future field aircraft emissions measurement we tested this new thermo-denuding device using laboratory-generated particles that were made of non-volatile or semi-volatile chemicals. The particle penetration efficiency, a measure of the device performance, of this thermodenuder was found to be better than 99%. Results obtained from the tests executed at a number of operating temperature conditions show reasonably good thermal separation. We have scheduled to apply this new device to characterize emissions from a T63 turboshaft engine in the spring of 2010 and are expecting to show the engine results at the conference. The test results based on the laboratory-generated particles were encouraging for the intended application. With excellent particle transmission efficiency and an ability to simultaneously measure the composition in the gas and particle phases of the engine particles, we believe the new technology will make a great contribution to measurement research of engine emissions.

  14. Influence of sample composition on aerosol organic and black carbon determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Novakov, T.; Corrigan, C.E.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper we present results on characterization of filter-collected redwood (Sequoia sempevirens)-needle and eucalyptus smoke particles by thermal, optical, and solvent extraction methods. Our results demonstrate that organic and black carbon concentrations determined by thermal and optical methods are not only method dependent, but also critically influenced by the overall chemical composition of the samples. These conclusions are supported by the following: (1) the organic fraction of biomass smoke particles analyzed includes a component, ranging in concentration from about 6-20% of total carbon or from 16-30% of organic carbon, that is relatively non-volatile and has a combustion temperature close to that of black carbon; (2) presence of K or Na in biomass smoke samples lowers the combustion temperatures of this organic component and of black carbon, making their combustion properties indistinguishable; (3) about 20% of total organic material is nonvolatile when heated to 550{degrees}C in an inert atmosphere. Consequently, thermal methods that rely on a specific temperature to separate organic from black carbon may either underestimate or overestimate the black and organic carbon concentrations, depending on the amounts of Na and K and on the composition and concentration of organic material present in a sample. These analytical uncertainties and, under some conditions, absorption by organic material may contribute to the variability of empirically derived proportionality between light transmission through filter deposits and black carbon concentrations.

  15. Center Organization | Center for Energy Efficient Materials

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Organization People People Scientific Advisory Board Center Organization

  16. Organic Separation Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-09-22

    Separable organics have been defined as “those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer” (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations, could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be “no visible layer” of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.

  17. Departmental Organization Management System

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-08-27

    Public Law 95-91, 42 United States Code 7101, Department of Energy Organization Act, Section 642 gives to the Secretary of the Department of Energy the responsibility to approve organization changes affecting the number, designation, or mission of Departmental Elements and to approve the addition, deletion, or transfer of missions and/or functions of or between Departmental Elements. In order to streamline the organizational change process, the Secretary has delegate to the Heads of Departmental Headquarters and Field Elements the authority to approve organization changes. No cancellations.

  18. Method for isotopic analysis of chlorinated organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Holt, Ben D.; Sturchio, Neil C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing a VOC sample for carbon and chlorine isotope ratio analysis by mass spectrometer. A VOC sample is placed in a combustion tube and reacted with CuO to form CO.sub.2 and CuCl. The CO.sub.2 is then extracted and analyzed for the carbon isotope ratio. The CuCl is separated from the excess CuO and reacted with CH.sub.3 I to form CH.sub.3 Cl, extracted and analyzed for chlorine isotope ratio.

  19. Method for isotopic analysis of chlorinated organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Holt, B.D.; Sturchio, N.C.

    1999-08-24

    The present invention provides a method for preparing a VOC sample for carbon and chlorine isotope ratio analysis by mass spectrometer. A VOC sample is placed in a combustion tube and reacted with CuO to form CO{sub 2} and CuCl. The CO{sub 2} is then extracted and analyzed for the carbon isotope ratio. The CuCl is separated from the excess CuO and reacted with CH{sub 3}I to form CH{sub 3}Cl, extracted and analyzed for chlorine isotope ratio. 9 figs.

  20. Full body powder antichip. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-17

    Chipping is the major paint defect listed for automobile customer dissatisfaction. The improved chip resistance and smoother paint surfaces produced by full body powder antichip will result in greater customer satisfaction and greater demand for US-produced automobiles. Powder antichip contains virtually no solvent, thereby reducing the potential VOC emissions from Newark Assembly by more than 90 tons per year as compared to the solvent-borne material presently applied in most full body applications. Since Newark Assembly Plant is in a severe non-attainment air quality area, which must demonstrate a 15% reduction in emissions by 1996, projects such as this are crucial to the longevity of industry in this region. The liquid paint spray systems include incineration of the oven volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) at 1,500 F. Since there are minimal VOC`s in powder coatings and the only possible releases occur only during polymerization, incineration is not required. The associated annual savings resulting from the elimination of the incinerator utilized on the liquid spray system is 1.44 {times} 10{sup 10} BTU`s per unit installed. The annual cost savings is approximately $388 thousand, far below the original estimates.

  1. Integrated test plan for preliminary demonstration of the in situ permeable flow sensor in the unsaturated sediments at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-05-26

    This integrated test plan describes the demonstration of the in situ permeable flow sensor, developed by Sandia National Laboratory, to measure air flow in unsaturated sediments. The ability of this technology to measure groundwater flow velocity in saturated sediments has already been successfully demonstrated. This preliminary test of this device in the unsaturated zone will be considered successful if in fact the flowmeters are able to detect a gas flow velocity. The field demonstration described in this integrated test plan is being conducted as part of the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID). The VOC-Arid ID is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) integrated demonstrations designed to support the testing of emerging environmental management and restoration technologies. The purpose of the VOC-Arid ID is to identify, develop, and demonstrate technologies that may be used to characterize, remediate, and/or monitor arid or semiarid sites containing VOCs (e.g., carbon tetrachloride) with or without associated metal and radionuclide contamination. Initially, the VOC-Arid ID activities are focusing primarily on the carbon tetrachloride and associated contamination found in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. Testing of the in situ permeable flow sensor will be conducted at the location of the proposed Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The data regarding subsurface air flow rates and pathways collected during the flow sensor testing will be used in the ongoing characterization of the proposed ERDF.

  2. Vaporization dynamics of volatile perfluorocarbon droplets: A theoretical model and in vitro validation

    SciTech Connect

    Doinikov, Alexander A. Bouakaz, Ayache; Sheeran, Paul S.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Perfluorocarbon (PFC) microdroplets, called phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs), are a promising tool in ultrasound imaging and therapy. Interest in PCCAs is motivated by the fact that they can be triggered to transition from the liquid state to the gas state by an externally applied acoustic pulse. This property opens up new approaches to applications in ultrasound medicine. Insight into the physics of vaporization of PFC droplets is vital for effective use of PCCAs and for anticipating bioeffects. PCCAs composed of volatile PFCs (with low boiling point) exhibit complex dynamic behavior: after vaporization by a short acoustic pulse, a PFC droplet turns into a vapor bubble which undergoes overexpansion and damped radial oscillation until settling to a final diameter. This behavior has not been well described theoretically so far. The purpose of our study is to develop an improved theoretical model that describes the vaporization dynamics of volatile PFC droplets and to validate this model by comparison with in vitro experimental data. Methods: The derivation of the model is based on applying the mathematical methods of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics to the process of the acoustic vaporization of PFC droplets. The used approach corrects shortcomings of the existing models. The validation of the model is carried out by comparing simulated results with in vitro experimental data acquired by ultrahigh speed video microscopy for octafluoropropane (OFP) and decafluorobutane (DFB) microdroplets of different sizes. Results: The developed theory allows one to simulate the growth of a vapor bubble inside a PFC droplet until the liquid PFC is completely converted into vapor, and the subsequent overexpansion and damped oscillations of the vapor bubble, including the influence of an externally applied acoustic pulse. To evaluate quantitatively the difference between simulated and experimental results, the L2-norm errors were calculated for all cases where the

  3. Inverted organic photosensitive device

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Tong, Xiaoran; Lee, Jun Yeob; Cho, Yong Joo

    2015-09-08

    There is disclosed a method for preparing the surface of a metal substrate. The present disclosure also relates to an organic photovoltaic device including a metal substrate made by such method. Also disclosed herein is an inverted photosensitive device including a stainless steel foil reflective electrode, an organic donor-acceptor heterojunction over the reflective electrode, and a transparent electrode over the donor-acceptor heterojunction.

  4. Geothermal Drilling Organization

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, A.R.

    1999-07-07

    The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), founded in 1982 as a joint Department of Energy (DOE)-Industry organization, develops and funds near-term technology development projects for reducing geothermal drilling costs. Sandia National Laboratories administers DOE funds to assist industry critical cost-shared projects and provides development support for each project. GDO assistance to industry is vital in developing products and procedures to lower drilling costs, in part, because the geothermal industry is small and represents a limited market.

  5. Other Organizations' Awards

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    other awards Other Organizations' Awards Members of the NIF & Photon Science Directorate have been honored with a variety of prestigious awards over the years. Below is a sampling. Name Year Granting Organization Name of Award and Citation Frederico Fiuza 2013 European Physical Society Plasma Physics Ph.D. Research Award for work on his doctoral thesis, "Multi-scale PIC Simulations of High Energy Density Scenarios: from Laboratory to Astrophysics." Frederic Perez 2012 European

  6. Organic contaminant separator

    DOEpatents

    Del Mar, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube is disclosed.

  7. Organic contaminant separator

    DOEpatents

    Del Mar, Peter

    1995-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube is disclosed.

  8. Organic contaminant separator

    DOEpatents

    Del Mar, P.

    1993-12-28

    A process is presented of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube. The solvent is capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus is presented for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium. The apparatus includes a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester. The composite tube has an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and has sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube. 2 figures.

  9. Organic containment separator

    DOEpatents

    Del Mar, Peter

    1995-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube is disclosed.

  10. Organic contaminant separator

    DOEpatents

    Mar, Peter D.

    1994-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube is disclosed.

  11. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongyu; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ► The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ► Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ► Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup −1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  12. Water-enhanced solvation of organics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.H.

    1993-07-01

    Water-enhanced solvation (WES) was explored for Lewis acid solutes in Lewis base organic solvents, to develop cheap extract regeneration processes. WES for solid solutes was determined from ratios of solubilities of solutes in water-sat. and low-water solvent; both were determined from solid-liquid equilibrium. Vapor-headspace analysis was used to determine solute activity coefficients as function of organic phase water concentration. WES magnitudes of volatile solutes were normalized, set equal to slope of log {gamma}{sub s} vs x{sub w}/x{sub s} curve. From graph shape {Delta}(log {gamma}{sub s}) represents relative change in solute activity coefficient. Solutes investigated by vapor-headspace analysis were acetic acid, propionic acid, ethanol, 1,2-propylene glycol, 2,3-butylene glycol. Monocarboxylic acids had largest decrease in activity coefficient with water addition followed by glycols and alcohols. Propionic acid in cyclohexanone showed greatest water-enhancement {Delta} (log {gamma}{sub acid})/{Delta}(x{sub w}/x{sub acid}) = {minus}0.25. In methylcyclohexanone, the decrease of the activity coefficient of propionic acid was {minus}0.19. Activity coefficient of propionic acid in methylcyclohexanone stopped decreasing once the water reached a 2:1 water to acid mole ratio, implying a stoichiometric relation between water, ketone, and acid. Except for 2,3-butanediol, activity coefficients of the solutes studied decreased monotonically with water content. Activity coefficient curves of ethanol, 1,2-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol did not level off at large water/solute mole ratio. Solutes investigated by solid-liquid equilibrium were citric acid, gallic acid, phenol, xylenols, 2-naphthol. Saturation concentration of citric acid in anhydrous butyl acetate increased from 0.0009 to 0.087 mol/L after 1.3 % (g/g) water co-dissolved into organic phase. Effect of water-enhanced solvation for citric acid is very large but very small for phenol and its derivatives.

  13. Characterization of Organic Coatings on Hygroscopic Salt Particles and their Atmospheric Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Ezell, Michael J.; Perraud, Veronique; Johnson, Stanley N.; Bruns, Emily; Yu, Yong; Imre, D.; Alexander, M. L.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2010-03-30

    The photooxidation of ?-pinene in the presence of NO2, with and without added NaNO3 seed particles, has been studied in a large diameter flow tube. Particles formed by homogeneous nucleation and by condensation on the pre-existing seeds were sampled at various stages of the reaction, dried using four diffusion dryers, size selected at different mobility diameters (dm) using a differential mobility analyzer (DMA), and characterized with a single particle mass spectrometer (SPLAT II). It was found that homogeneously nucleated particles are spherical, have a density (?) of 1.25 0.02 g cm-3 ( 2 ?) and contain a significant amount of organic nitrates. The mass spectra of the low volatility products condensed on the NaNO3 seed particles were found to be virtually the same as in the case of homogeneous nucleation. The data show that the presence of even a submonolayer of organics on the NaNO3 particles causes water retention that leads to a decrease in particle density and that the amount of water retained increases with organic coating thickness. Thicker coatings appear to inhibit water evaporation from the particle seeds altogether. This suggests that in the atmosphere, where low volatility organics are plentiful, some hygroscopic salts will retain water and have different densities and refractive indices than expected in the absence of the organic coating. This water retention combined with the organic shell on the particles can potentially impact light scattering by these particles and activity as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), as well as heterogeneous chemistry and photochemistry on the particles.

  14. A NEW DEVICE AND METHOD FOR MEASURING VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IN MONITORING WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Vangelas, K; Warren Hyde, W; Brian02 Looney, B; Kirk Cantrell, K; Tyler Gilmore, T

    2006-11-06

    Accurate, timely measurement of chlorinated solvents and other volatile contaminants in groundwater is crucial to support responsible environmental management. Traditionally, two distinctly different paradigms have been explored to meet this need--fixed laboratory analysis and ''real-time'' sensors. While these alternatives remain important, field based and field screening tools represent a potentially useful intermediate approach that balances some of the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional ''endmember'' paradigms. The value of accurate, in-field measurements during characterization was recognized in recent sampling/decision methods, such as the TRIAD approach (ITRC, 2003). Strategies that support gathering accurate data on the timescales representative of the rate of change of the system (e.g., months to years, not seconds to minutes) is key for long-term monitoring for chlorinated solvent plumes in which attenuation based remedies are being considered. A team of researchers developed a down-well sampling device that, when used in combination with field gas analysis tools, provides data in the field. The test results indicate this tool, as configured, will provide accurate measurements (as compared with laboratory methods) at concentrations in the hundreds of ppb or higher range, but require confirmatory traditional sampling with laboratory analysis at concentrations approaching 20 ppb and less. The logistics and costs of the sampling device were somewhat complex. The results of the study, while equivocal, generally suggest that future development of this type of in-field technique may be warranted.

  15. Quantifying the value that wind power provides as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2002-05-31

    Advocates of renewable energy have long argued that wind power and other renewable technologies can mitigate fuel price risk within a resource portfolio. Such arguments--made with renewed vigor in the wake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during the winter of 2000/2001--have mostly been qualitative in nature, however, with few attempts to actually quantify the price stability benefit that wind and other renewables provide. This paper attempts to quantify this benefit by equating it with the cost of achieving price stability through other means, particularly gas-based financial derivatives (futures and swaps). We find that over the past two years, natural gas consumers have had to pay a premium of roughly 0.50 cents/kWh over expected spot prices to lock in natural gas prices for the next 10 years. This incremental cost is potentially large enough to tip the scales away from new investments in natural gasfired generation and in favor of investments in wind power and other renewable technologies.

  16. Method and apparatus for measuring volatile compounds in an aqueous solution

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Tyler J [Pasco, WA; Cantrell, Kirk J [West Richland, WA

    2002-07-16

    The present invention is an improvement to the method and apparatus for measuring volatile compounds in an aqueous solution. The apparatus is a chamber with sides and two ends, where the first end is closed. The chamber contains a solution volume of the aqueous solution and a gas that is trapped within the first end of the chamber above the solution volume. The gas defines a head space within the chamber above the solution volume. The chamber may also be a cup with the second end. open and facing down and submerged in the aqueous solution so that the gas defines the head space within the cup above the solution volume. The cup can also be entirely submerged in the aqueous solution. The second end of the. chamber may be closed such that the chamber can be used while resting on a flat surface such as a bench. The improvement is a sparger for mixing the gas with the solution volume. The sparger can be a rotating element such as a propeller on a shaft or a cavitating impeller. The sparger can also be a pump and nozzle where the pump is a liquid pump and the nozzle is a liquid spray nozzle open, to the head space for spraying the solution volume into the head space of gas. The pump could also be a gas pump and the nozzle a gas nozzle submerged in the solution volume for spraying the head space gas into the solution volume.

  17. Volatile out gassing characteristics of highly filled ethylene vinyl acetate binder materials: Gas phase infra-red spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Mogon; Bowditch, Martin; Jones, Ben; Netherton, David; Khan, Niaz; Letant, Sonia; Maxwell, Robert S.; Birdsell, Stephen A.

    2012-12-08

    Gas phase Infra-red (IR) spectroscopy has been used to investigate volatile out gassing properties of highly filled poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) materials. In these studies, a Scout-ENTM heated gas cell was interfaced to a vacuum FTIR spectrometer, and the quantification of evolved species was achieved through calibration of the gas cell with certified gas standards. The volatile out gassing properties were monitored as a function of time during storage at 75°C under vacuum conditions (< 1mbar). Acetic acid, carbon dioxide and water were identified as the major out gassing products through IR absorption peaks at 1797, 2354 and 3853 cm-1, respectively. We present a comparison of three highly filled poly (ethyleneco- vinyl acetate) resins.

  18. Volatile out gassing characteristics of highly filled ethylene vinyl acetate binder materials: Gas phase infra-red spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Patel, Mogon; Bowditch, Martin; Jones, Ben; Netherton, David; Khan, Niaz; Letant, Sonia; Maxwell, Robert S.; Birdsell, Stephen A.

    2012-12-08

    Gas phase Infra-red (IR) spectroscopy has been used to investigate volatile out gassing properties of highly filled poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) materials. In these studies, a Scout-ENTM heated gas cell was interfaced to a vacuum FTIR spectrometer, and the quantification of evolved species was achieved through calibration of the gas cell with certified gas standards. The volatile out gassing properties were monitored as a function of time during storage at 75°C under vacuum conditions (< 1mbar). Acetic acid, carbon dioxide and water were identified as the major out gassing products through IR absorption peaks at 1797, 2354 and 3853 cm-1, respectively.more » We present a comparison of three highly filled poly (ethyleneco- vinyl acetate) resins.« less

  19. The Pond 2 selenium volatilization study: A synthesis of five years of experimental results, 1990--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, P.T.; Jayaweera, G.R.; Biggar, J.W.; Wu, L.; Frankenberger, W.T.

    1996-02-01

    Microbial volatilization is a potential remedial measure to decrease the selenium inventory in Kesterson Reservoir soils. Past studies in both the field and the laboratory suggest that a significant percentage of the selenium inventory may be removed in this fashion. The objectives of this study include the quantification of selenium losses and a test of a pilot-scale design which in the future may be used in other parts of the Reservoir.

  20. Organic aerogel microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, S.T.; Kong, F.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-06-01

    Organic aerogel microspheres are disclosed which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonstick gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  1. Organic aerogel microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Steven T.; Kong, Fung-Ming; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  2. The geothermal power organization

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, K.L.

    1997-12-31

    The Geothermal Power Organization is an industry-led advisory group organized to advance the state-of-the-art in geothermal energy conversion technologies. Its goal is to generate electricity from geothermal fluids in the most cost-effective, safe, and environmentally benign manner possible. The group achieves this goal by determining the Member`s interest in potential solutions to technological problems, advising the research and development community of the needs of the geothermal energy conversion industry, and communicating research and development results among its Members. With the creation and adoption of a new charter, the Geothermal Power Organization will now assist the industry in pursuing cost-shared research and development projects with the DOE`s Office of Geothermal Technologies.

  3. Treatment of organic waste

    DOEpatents

    Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1979-01-01

    An organic waste containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of strontium, cesium, iodine and ruthenium is treated to achieve a substantial reduction in the volume of the waste and provide for fixation of the selected element in an inert salt. The method of treatment comprises introducing the organic waste and a source of oxygen into a molten salt bath maintained at an elevated temperature to produce solid and gaseous reaction products. The gaseous reaction products comprise carbon dioxide and water vapor, and the solid reaction products comprise the inorganic ash constituents of the organic waste and the selected element which is retained in the molten salt. The molten salt bath comprises one or more alkali metal carbonates, and may optionally include from 1 to about 25 wt.% of an alkali metal sulfate.

  4. Collaborative Research: Nanopore Confinement of C-H-O Mixed Volatile Fluids Relevant to Subsurface Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, Brian P.

    2015-03-11

    The scientific objective of this proposal was to obtain a fundamental atomic- to macro-scale understanding of the sorptivity, structure and dynamics of simple and complex hydrocarbon (HC) fluids at mineral surfaces or within nanoporous matrices over temperatures, pressures and compositions encountered in near-surface and shallow crustal environments. The research supported by this award was complementary to that conducted by the group of Prof. David cole at Ohio State University. The scope of the present award was to utilize molecular-level modeling to provide critically important insights into the interfacial properties of mineral-volatile systems, assist in the interpretation of experimental data and predict fluid behavior beyond the limits of current experimental capability. During the past three years the effort has focused primarily on the behavior of C-H volatiles including methane (CH4) and propane (C3H8), mixed-volatile systems including hydrocarbon - CO2 with and without H2O present. The long-range goal is to quantitatively link structure, dynamics and reactivity in complex mineral-/C-H-O systems from the atomic to the molecular to the macroscopic levels. The results are relevant to areas of growing importance such as gas shale, HC-bearing hydrothermal systems, and CO2 storage.

  5. Organized for safety

    SciTech Connect

    McCleary, M.D.; Schuberth, P.C.; Hining, D.E.

    1996-11-01

    The Exxon Company, International Drilling Organization (ECIDO) is committed to an injury-free workplace through continuous efforts by identifying and eliminating or managing safety risks associated with drilling activities. The newly developed and recently completed ECIDO Safety Management Program (SMP) strengthens this commitment by defining a comprehensive, management approved, organized framework for drill teams from which operations safety is managed both effectively and consistently worldwide. The SMP is proactive, focuses on positive recognition, promotes greater individual involvement, and gives part ownership of the safety program at the rig level to the crews.

  6. Organic metal neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Butler, M.A.; Ginley, D.S.

    1984-11-21

    A device for detection of neutrons comprises: as an active neutron sensing element, a conductive organic polymer having an electrical conductivity and a cross-section for said neutrons whereby a detectable change in said conductivity is caused by impingement of said neutrons on the conductive organic polymer which is responsive to a property of said polymer which is altered by impingement of said neutrons on the polymer; and means for associating a change in said alterable property with the presence of neutrons at the location of said device.

  7. Reducing volatilization of heavy metals in phosphate-pretreated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Ying; Zheng Jianchang; Zou Luquan; Liu Qiang; Zhu Ping; Qian Guangren

    2011-02-15

    This research investigated the feasibility of reducing volatilization of heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals via phosphate pre-treatment. To evaluate the evaporation characteristics of three heavy metals from phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash, volatilization tests have been performed by means of a dedicated apparatus in the 100-1000 deg. C range. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test and BCR sequential extraction procedure were applied to assess phosphate stabilization process. The results showed that the volatilization behavior in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash could be reduced effectively. Pyromorphite-like minerals formed in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash were mainly responsible for the volatilization reduction of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash at higher temperature, due to their chemical fixation and thermal stabilization for heavy metals. The stabilization effects were encouraging for the potential reuse of MSWI fly ash.

  8. Water purification using organic salts

    DOEpatents

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  9. Organization Chart | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organization Chart Download Other Organization Charts Computing, Environment, and Life Sciences Energy and Global Security Physical Science and Engineering Photon Sciences PDF icon argonne_org_chart

  10. Business Operations Organization Chart

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Office of Business Operations Organization Chart Office of Business Operations Michael Budney, Director Project Management Coordination Office Scott Hine, Director Information and Technology Services Office Steve VonVital, Director (Acting) Workforce Management Office Jennifer Blankenheim, Director Golden Field Office Timothy Meeks, Director

  11. Project organizations and schedules

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, R.J.

    1990-07-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) faces the challenge of simultaneously carrying out a large-scale construction project with demanding cost, schedule, and performance goals; and creating a scientific laboratory capable of exploiting this unique scientific instrument. This paper describes the status of the laboratory organization developed to achieve these goals, and the major near-term schedule objectives of the project.

  12. Organic solvent topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  13. A Compute Capable SSD Architecture for Next-Generation Non-volatile Memories

    SciTech Connect

    De, Arup

    2014-01-01

    Existing storage technologies (e.g., disks and ash) are failing to cope with the processor and main memory speed and are limiting the overall perfor- mance of many large scale I/O or data-intensive applications. Emerging fast byte-addressable non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies, such as phase-change memory (PCM), spin-transfer torque memory (STTM) and memristor are very promising and are approaching DRAM-like performance with lower power con- sumption and higher density as process technology scales. These new memories are narrowing down the performance gap between the storage and the main mem- ory and are putting forward challenging problems on existing SSD architecture, I/O interface (e.g, SATA, PCIe) and software. This dissertation addresses those challenges and presents a novel SSD architecture called XSSD. XSSD o oads com- putation in storage to exploit fast NVMs and reduce the redundant data tra c across the I/O bus. XSSD o ers a exible RPC-based programming framework that developers can use for application development on SSD without dealing with the complication of the underlying architecture and communication management. We have built a prototype of XSSD on the BEE3 FPGA prototyping system. We implement various data-intensive applications and achieve speedup and energy ef- ciency of 1.5-8.9 and 1.7-10.27 respectively. This dissertation also compares XSSD with previous work on intelligent storage and intelligent memory. The existing ecosystem and these new enabling technologies make this system more viable than earlier ones.

  14. Blackcomb: Hardware-Software Co-design for Non-Volatile Memory in Exascale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, Robert

    2014-11-26

    different process variations without performance overhead in the system's early life. We have investigated the applicability of NVM for persistent memory design [Zhao 2013]. New byte addressable NVM enables fast persistent memory that allows in-memory persistent data objects to be updated with much higher throughput. Despite the significant improvement, the performance of these designs is only 50% of the native system with no persistence support, due to the logging or copy-on-write mechanisms used to update the persistent memory. A challenge in this approach is therefore how to efficiently enable atomic, consistent, and durable updates to ensure data persistence that survives application and/or system failures. We have designed a persistent memory system, called Klin, that can provide performance as close as that of the native system. The Klin design adopts a non-volatile cache and a non-volatile main memory for constructing a multi-versioned durable memory system, enabling atomic updates without logging or copy-on-write. Our evaluation shows that the proposed Kiln mechanism can achieve up to 2X of performance improvement to NVRAM-based persistent memory employing write-ahead logging. In addition, our design has numerous practical advantages: a simple and intuitive abstract interface, microarchitecture-level optimizations, fast recovery from failures, and no redundant writes to slow non-volatile storage media. The work was published in MICRO 2013 and received Best Paper Honorable Mentioned Award.

  15. Impact of the revised OSHA exposure standard on evaluation and control of benzene and other volatile organic chemicals in the liquid petroleum pipeline industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, D.O.

    1989-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the benzene exposure potential of workers in the liquid petroleum pipeline industry and to assess the impact of compliance with the revised standard on this industry. In addition, exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB), and ethylene dichloride (EDC), which have toxicological profiles similar to that of benzene and are routinely found in this industry, were evaluated and appropriate control protocols were recommended. Exposure potential to benzene in excess of the 0.5 ppm (8-hour TWA) OSHA action level was shown to be limited to three free product handling operations, and that this increased exposure potential was dependent on the length of time necessary to perform the operations. The incidence and magnitude of benzene overexposure was not severe and control could be accomplished with engineering methods, along with work practice controls and personal protective equipment. Through application of a risk assessment model it was shown that 14 excess leukemia deaths per one thousand workers could be expected in the employee population that routinely performs those operation having maximum benzene exposure potential. This compares to less than on excess leukemia death per one thousand workers in the total work population. The evaluation of EDB and EDC indicated that exposure potential to EDB was of greatest concern. Even though exposure could be limited through application of standard industrial hygiene methods, any control protocol short of total elimination of EDB from the product stream may be not sufficient to reduce exposure to accepted levels.

  16. Applicant Organization: | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    65 KB) More Documents & Publications Abengoa Bioenergy Biomass of Kansas, LLC Applicant Organization: Broin Companies

  17. Applicant Organization: | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    33 KB) More Documents & Publications BlueFire Ethanol, Inc. BlueFire Ethanol Applicant Organization:

  18. Investigation of microcantilever array with ordered nanoporous coatings for selective chemical detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Thornberg, Steven Michael; Lee, J. -H.; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Hesketh, Peter J.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Houk, Ronald J. T.

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the potential for novel nanoporous framework materials (NFM) such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to provide selectivity and sensitivity to a broad range of analytes including explosives, nerve agents, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). NFM are highly ordered, crystalline materials with considerable synthetic flexibility resulting from the presence of both organic and inorganic components within their structure. Detection of chemical weapons of mass destruction (CWMD), explosives, toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) devices, such as microcantilevers and surface acoustic wave sensors, requires the use of recognition layers to impart selectivity. Traditional organic polymers are dense, impeding analyte uptake and slowing sensor response. The nanoporosity and ultrahigh surface areas of NFM enhance transport into and out of the NFM layer, improving response times, and their ordered structure enables structural tuning to impart selectivity. Here we describe experiments and modeling aimed at creating NFM layers tailored to the detection of water vapor, explosives, CWMD, and VOCs, and their integration with the surfaces of MEMS devices. Force field models show that a high degree of chemical selectivity is feasible. For example, using a suite of MOFs it should be possible to select for explosives vs. CWMD, VM vs. GA (nerve agents), and anthracene vs. naphthalene (VOCs). We will also demonstrate the integration of various NFM with the surfaces of MEMS devices and describe new synthetic methods developed to improve the quality of VFM coatings. Finally, MOF-coated MEMS devices show how temperature changes can be tuned to improve response times, selectivity, and sensitivity.

  19. FUNDING BY ORGANIZATION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ORGANIZATION FY 2013 FY 2014 FY 2015 Current Enacted Request Department of Energy Budget by Organization National Nuclear Security Administration Weapons Activities 6,966,855 7,781,000 8,314,902 +533,902 +6.9% Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation 2,237,420 1,954,000 1,555,156 -398,844 -20.4% Naval Reactors 994,118 1,095,000 1,377,100 +282,100 +25.8% Federal Salaries and Expenses/1 377,457 377,000 410,842 +33,842 +9.0% Cerro Grande Fire Activities -61 0 0 0 N/A Total, National Nuclear Security

  20. FUNDING BY ORGANIZATION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ORGANIZATION FY 2014 FY 2014 FY 2015 FY 2016 Enacted Current Enacted Request $ % Department of Energy Budget by Organization National Nuclear Security Administration Weapons Activities 7,781,000 7,790,197 8,180,359 8,846,948 +666,589 +8.1% Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation 1,954,000 1,941,983 1,615,248 1,940,302 +325,054 +20.1% Naval Reactors 1,095,000 1,101,500 1,233,840 1,375,496 +141,656 +11.5% Office of the Administrator 377,000 370,500 0 0 0 N/A Federal Salaries and Expenses 0 0 369,587

  1. DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Spritzer

    2003-02-01

    General Atomics (GA) has recently completed a Phase I program for the development of a two-step alternative to incineration for the destruction of organics in transuranic wastes at the Savannah River Site. This process is known as thermal desorption-supercritical water oxidation, or TD-SCWO. The GA TD process uses heat to volatilize and transport organics from the waste material for subsequent treatment by SCWO. SCWO oxidizes organics in a steam medium at elevated temperatures and pressures in a manner that achieves excellent destruction efficiencies and compliance with all environmental requirements without the need for complex pollution-abatement equipment. This application of TD-SCWO is focused on a full-scale batch process for 55-gallon drums of mixed transuranic waste at the Savannah River Site. The Phase I reduced-scale test results show that the process operates as intended on surrogate waste matrices chosen to be representative of Savannah River Site transuranic mixed wastes. It provides a high degree of hydrogen removal and full containment of the radionuclide surrogate, with minimal requirements for pre-treatment and post-treatment. Other test objectives were to verify that the process produces no dioxins or furans, and meets all applicable regulatory criteria for retention of toxic metals, particulate, and criteria pollutants, while meeting WIPP/WAC and TRUPACT-II requirements. Thermal desorption of surrogate SRS mixed wastes at 500 psi and 1000 F met all tested requirements for WIPP/WAC and TRUPACT-II. SCWO of the desorbed surrogate organic materials at 500 psi and 1500 F also appears to meet all requirements for a nonincineration alternative, although >99.99% DRE for chlorinated solvents has not yet been demonstrated.

  2. Organic solvent topical report

    SciTech Connect

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-05-13

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

  3. LM Functional Organization Chart | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    LM Functional Organization Chart LM Functional Organization Chart LM Functional Organization Chart.png Download Printable Version

  4. TEC Working Group Member Organizations Representatives | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Member Organizations Representatives TEC Working Group Member Organizations Representatives PDF icon TEC MEMBER ORGANIZATION REPRESENTATIVES TOPIC GROUP PARTICIPATION February 2006...

  5. Form:Policy Organization | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Policy Organization Jump to: navigation, search Add a Policy Organization Input your policy organization name below to add to the registry. If your policy organization is already...

  6. PNNL: Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis - Organization Chart

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Enlarge Image | PDF version EFRC Organization Chart

  7. Aqueous Processing of Atmospheric Organic Particles in Cloud Water Collected via Aircraft Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, Eric J.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Wirth, Christopher; Shepson, Paul B.; Stirm, Brian H.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2015-07-21

    Cloud water and below-cloud atmospheric particle samples were collected onboard a research aircraft during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) over a forested region of Alabama in June 2013. The organic molecular composition of the samples was studied to gain insights into the aqueous-phase processing of organic compounds within cloud droplets. High resolution mass spectrometry with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization and direct infusion electrospray ionization were utilized to compare the organic composition of the particle and cloud water samples, respectively. Isoprene and monoterpene-derived organosulfates and oligomers were identified in both the particles and cloud water, showing the significant influence of biogenic volatile organic compound oxidation above the forested region. While the average O:C ratios of the organic compounds were similar between the atmospheric particle and cloud water samples, the chemical composition of these samples was quite different. Specifically, hydrolysis of organosulfates and formation of nitrogen-containing compounds were observed for the cloud water when compared to the atmospheric particle samples, demonstrating that cloud processing changes the composition of organic aerosol.

  8. Separation of C2 Hydrocarbons by Porous Materials: Metal Organic Frameworks as Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Debasis; Liu, Jun; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-12-22

    The effective separation of small hydrocarbon molecules (C1 C4) is an important process for petroleum industry, determining the end price of many essential commodities in our daily lives. Current technologies for separation of these molecules rely on energy intensive fractional distillation processes at cryogenic temperature, which is particularly difficult because of their similar volatility. In retrospect, adsorptive separation using solid state adsorbents might be a cost effective alternative. Several types of solid state adsorbents (e.g. zeolite molecular sieves) were tested for separation of small hydrocarbon molecules as a function of pressure, temperature or vacuum. Among different types of plausible adsorbents, metal organic frameworks (MOFs), a class of porous, crystalline, inorganic-organic hybrid materials, is particularly promising. In this brief comment article, we discuss the separation properties of different types of solid state adsorbents, with a particular emphasis on MOF based adsorbents for separation of C2 hydrocarbon molecules.

  9. Applications of a simulation model to description of anaerobic conversion of complex organic matter into methane

    SciTech Connect

    Vavilin, V.A.; Rytow, S.V.; Lokshina, L.Ya.

    1996-12-31

    Three years passed since the generalized model of anaerobic degradation of complex organic matter has been developed. Now the new modifications were created. Anaerobic degradation was described as a multistep process of series and parallel reactions in which several groups of bacteria take part. Hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis were considered in the model with the various kinetic functions. A two-phase equation describing a particulate substrate degradation as a heterogeneous reaction has been developed. Acetic, butyric, and propionic groups of acidogenic bacteria producing the particular products were considered. The additional group of homoacetogenic bacteria producing acetate from hydrogen and carbon dioxide was involved into new version of the model. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide inhibition were described previously. In that paper, it was shown by simulation of several case-studies that unionized volatile fatty acids (VFA) are the inhibitors of key stages of anaerobic conversion of complex organic matter: hydrolysis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis.

  10. "Green" Replacement for Industrial Applications of Polar Organic...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search "Green" Replacement for Industrial Applications ... The lower volatility can lead to more energy intensive separation of the solvent; however, ...

  11. Emissions of Volatile Particulate Components from Turboshaft Engines running JP-8 and Fischer-Tropsch Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Mengdawn; Corporan, E.; DeWitt, M.; Landgraf, Bradley J

    2009-01-01

    Rotating-wing aircraft or helicopters are heavily used by the US military and also a wide range of commercial applications around the world, but emissions data for this class of engines are limited. In this study, we focus on emissions from T700-GE-700 and T700-GE-701C engines; T700 engine was run with military JP-8 and T701C run with both JP-8 and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels. Each engine was run at three engine power settings from the idle to maximum power in sequence. Exhaust particles measured at the engine exhaust plane (EEP) have a peak mobility diameter less than 50nm in all engine power settings. At a 4-m downstream location, sulfate/sulfur measurements indicate all particulate sulfur exists practically as sulfate, and the particulate sulfur and sulfate contents increased as the engine power increased. The conversion of sulfur to sulfate was found not to be dependent on engine power setting. Analysis also showed that conversion of sulfur to sulfate was not by the adsorption of sulfur dioxide gas on the soot particles and then subsequently oxidized to form sulfate, but by gas-phase conversion of SO2 via OH or O then subsequently forming H2SO4 and condensing on soot particles. Without the sulfur and aromatic components, use of the FT fuel led to significant reduction of soot emissions as compared to that of the JP-8 fuel producing less number of particles than that of the JP-8 fuel; however, the FT fuel produced much higher number concentrations of particles smaller than 7nm than that of JP-8 in all engine power settings. This indicates non-aromatics components in the FT fuel could have contributed to the enhancement of emissions of particles smaller than 7nm. These small particles are volatile, not observed at the EEP, and may be important in playing a role for the formation of secondary particles in the atmosphere or serving as a site for effective cloud nuclei condensation to occur.

  12. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  13. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  14. Organization Amount Volunteer

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organization Amount Volunteer Albuquerque a nd 4 C orners Pipes a nd D rums 75 Rand, C hristine --- 7 5 Albuquerque B aseball Academy T ouch E m A ll Foundation 500 Mang, J acquelyn --- 2 50 Mang, J oseph --- 2 50 Alm, I nc 200 Martz, C arol A nn --- 1 00 Martz, H arry --- 1 00 Alzheimer's A ssociation, N ew Mexico C hapter 100 Heckethorn, S usan --- 1 00 Amarillo H igh S chool 250 Jones, Tommy --- 250 American A ssociation o f University Women --- Los Alamos 275 George, Denise --- 25 Whyte, H

  15. Reticulated Organic Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Schiros T.; Yager K.; Mannsfeld S.; Chiu C.-Y.; Ciston J.; Gorodetsky A.; Palma M.; Bullard Z.; Kramer T.; Delongchamp D.; Fischer D.; Kymissis I.; Toney M.F.; Nuckolls C.

    2012-03-21

    This paper shows how the self-assembled interlocking of two nanostructured materials can lead to increased photovoltaic performance. A detailed picture of the reticulated 6-DBTTC/C{sub 60} organic photovoltaic (OPV) heterojunction, which produces devices approaching the theoretical maximum for these materials, is presented from near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Grazing Incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The complementary suite of techniques shows how self-assembly can be exploited to engineer the interface and morphology between the cables of donor (6-DBTTC) material and a polycrystalline acceptor (C{sub 60}) to create an interpenetrating network of pure phases expected to be optimal for OPV device design. Moreover, we find that there is also a structural and electronic interaction between the two materials at the molecular interface. The data show how molecular self-assembly can facilitate 3-D nanostructured photovoltaic cells that are made with the simplicity and control of bilayer device fabrication. The significant improvement in photovoltaic performance of the reticulated heterojunction over the flat analog highlights the potential of these strategies to improve the efficiency of organic solar cells.

  16. Organization | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Careers/ Human Resources Directory Diversity and Inclusion Environment, Safety & Health Furth Plasma Physics Library Lab Leadership Organization Chart Technology Transfer Contact Us Business Operations Careers/ Human Resources Directory Diversity and Inclusion Environment, Safety & Health Furth Plasma Physics Library Lab Leadership Organization Chart Technology Transfer Organization Careers/ Human Resources Join Princeton's TALENT NETWORK to enhance your job search and the application

  17. A hybrid magnetic/complementary metal oxide semiconductor three-context memory bit cell for non-volatile circuit design

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanović, B. E-mail: lionel.torres@lirmm.fr; Brum, R. M.; Torres, L.

    2014-04-07

    After decades of continued scaling to the beat of Moore's law, it now appears that conventional silicon based devices are approaching their physical limits. In today's deep-submicron nodes, a number of short-channel and quantum effects are emerging that affect the manufacturing process, as well as, the functionality of the microelectronic systems-on-chip. Spintronics devices that exploit both the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment, in addition to its fundamental electronic charge, are promising solutions to circumvent these scaling threats. Being compatible with the CMOS technology, such devices offer a promising synergy of radiation immunity, infinite endurance, non-volatility, increased density, etc. In this paper, we present a hybrid (magnetic/CMOS) cell that is able to store and process data both electrically and magnetically. The cell is based on perpendicular spin-transfer torque magnetic tunnel junctions (STT-MTJs) and is suitable for use in magnetic random access memories and reprogrammable computing (non-volatile registers, processor cache memories, magnetic field-programmable gate arrays, etc). To demonstrate the potential our hybrid cell, we physically implemented a small hybrid memory block using 45 nm × 45 nm round MTJs for the magnetic part and 28 nm fully depleted silicon on insulator (FD-SOI) technology for the CMOS part. We also report the cells measured performances in terms of area, robustness, read/write speed and energy consumption.

  18. Stacked organic photosensitive devices

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen; Xue, Jiangeng; Uchida, Soichi; Rand, Barry P.

    2007-03-27

    A device is provided having a first electrode, a second electrode, a first photoactive region having a characteristic absorption wavelength .lamda..sub.1 and a second photoactive region having a characteristic absorption wavelength .lamda..sub.2. The photoactive regions are disposed between the first and second electrodes, and further positioned on the same side of a reflective layer, such that the first photoactive region is closer to the reflective layer than the second photoactive region. The materials comprising the photoactive regions may be selected such that .lamda..sub.1 is at least about 10% different from .lamda..sub.2. The device may further comprise an exciton blocking layer disposed adjacent to and in direct contact with the organic acceptor material of each photoactive region, wherein the LUMO of each exciton blocking layer other than that closest to the cathode is not more than about 0.3 eV greater than the LUMO of the acceptor material.

  19. Organic Matter Management

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2002-01-01

    Soil organic matter (S)M) is an essential attribute of soil quality with a key role in soil conservation and sustainable agriculture. Many practices-some involving land use changes-have been shown to increase SOM and thus received considerable attention for their possible role in climate change mitigation. Carbon sequestration in managed soils occurs when there is a net removal of atmospheric CO2 because of the balance between carbon inputs (net primary productivity) and outputs (soil respiration, management-related C emissions). Soil C sequestration has the additional appeal that all its practices conform to principles of sustainable agriculture (e.g., reduced tillage, erosion control, diverse cropping systems, improved soil fertility). Long-term field experiments have been instrumental to increase our understanding of SOM dynamics. This chapter presents fundamental concepts to guide readers on the role of SOM in sustainable agriculture and climate change mitigation.

  20. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  1. Pyrolysis Autoclave Technology Demonstration Program for Treatment of DOE Solidified Organic Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Roesener, W.S.; Mason, J.B.; Ryan, K.; Bryson, S.; Eldredge, H.B.

    2006-07-01

    In the summer of 2005, MSE Technologies Applications, Inc. (MSE) and THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT) conducted a demonstration test of the Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR{sup sm}) in-drum pyrolysis autoclave system under contract to the Department of Energy. The purpose of the test was to demonstrate that the THOR{sup sm} pyrolysis autoclave system could successfully treat solidified organic waste to remove organics from the waste drums. The target waste was created at Rocky Flats and currently resides at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Removing the organics from these drums would allow them to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for disposal. Two drums of simulated organic setup waste were successfully treated. The simulated waste was virtually identical to the expected waste except for the absence of radioactive components. The simulated waste included carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, Texaco Regal oil, and other organics mixed with calcium silicate and Portland cement stabilization agents. The two-stage process consisted of the THOR{sup sm} electrically heated pyrolysis autoclave followed by the MSE off gas treatment system. The treatment resulted in a final waste composition that meets the requirements for WIPP transportation and disposal. There were no detectable volatile organic compounds in the treated solid residues. The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for total organics in the two drums ranged from >99.999% to >99.9999%. The operation of the process proved to be easily controllable using the pyrolysis autoclave heaters. Complete treatment of a fully loaded surrogate waste drum including heat-up and cooldown took place over a two-day period. This paper discusses the results of the successful pyrolysis autoclave demonstration testing. (authors)

  2. Organic rankine cycle fluid

    DOEpatents

    Brasz, Joost J.; Jonsson, Ulf J.

    2006-09-05

    A method of operating an organic rankine cycle system wherein a liquid refrigerant is circulated to an evaporator where heat is introduced to the refrigerant to convert it to vapor. The vapor is then passed through a turbine, with the resulting cooled vapor then passing through a condenser for condensing the vapor to a liquid. The refrigerant is one of CF.sub.3CF.sub.2C(O)CF(CF.sub.3).sub.2, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 CFC(O)CF(CF.sub.3).sub.2, CF.sub.3(CF.sub.2).sub.2C(O)CF(CF.sub.3).sub.2, CF.sub.3(CF.sub.2).sub.3C(O)CF(CG.sub.3).sub.2, CF.sub.3(CF.sub.2).sub.5C(O)CF.sub.3, CF.sub.3CF.sub.2C(O)CF.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3, CF.sub.3C(O)CF(CF.sub.3).sub.2.

  3. Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

    1995-05-01

    Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction.

  4. Sample extraction and injection with a microscale preconcentrator.

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Chan, Helena Kai Lun

    2007-09-01

    This report details the development of a microfabricated preconcentrator that functions as a fully integrated chemical extractor-injector for a microscale gas chromatograph (GC). The device enables parts-per-billion detection and quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air with size and power advantages over macro-scale systems. The 44 mm{sup 3} preconcentrator extracts VOCs using highly adsorptive, granular forms of graphitized carbon black and carbon molecular sieves. The micron-sized silicon cavities have integrated heating and temperature sensing allowing low power, yet rapid heating to thermally desorb the collected VOCs (GC injection). The keys to device construction are a new adsorbent-solvent filling technique and solvent-tolerant wafer-level silicon-gold eutectic bonding technology. The product is the first granular adsorbent preconcentrator integrated at the wafer level. Other advantages include exhaustive VOC extraction and injection peak widths an order of magnitude narrower than predecessor prototypes. A mass transfer model, the first for any microscale preconcentrator, is developed to describe both adsorption and desorption behaviors. The physically intuitive model uses implicit and explicit finite differences to numerically solve the required partial differential equations. The model is applied to the adsorption and desorption of decane at various concentrations to extract Langmuir adsorption isotherm parameters from effluent curve measurements where properties are unknown a priori.

  5. Sensitivity analysis of ozone formation and transport for a Central California air pollution episode

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Ling; Tonse, Shaheen; Cohan, Daniel S.; Mao, Xiaoling; Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2009-05-15

    CMAQ-HDDM is used to determine spatial and temporal variations in ozone limiting reagents and local vs upwind source contributions for an air pollution episode in Central California. We developed a first- and second- order sensitivity analysis approach with the Decoupled Direct Method to examine spatial and temporal variations of ozone-limiting reagents and the importance of local vs upwind emission sources in the San Joaquin Valley of central California for a five-day ozone episode (29th July-3rd Aug, 2000). Despite considerable spatial variations, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission reductions are overall more effective than volatile organic compound (VOC) control for attaining the 8-hr ozone standard in this region for this episode, in contrast to the VOC control that works better for attaining the prior 1-hr ozone standard. Inter-basin source contributions of NO{sub x} emissions are limited to the northern part of the SJV, while anthropogenic VOC (AVOC) emissions, especially those emitted at night, influence ozone formation in the SJV further downwind. Among model input parameters studied here, uncertainties in emissions of NO{sub x} and AVOC, and the rate coefficient of the OH + NO{sub 2} termination reaction, have the greatest effect on first-order ozone responses to changes in NO{sub x} emissions. Uncertainties in biogenic VOC emissions only have a modest effect because they are generally not collocated with anthropogenic sources in this region.

  6. Demonstrating and implementing innovative technologies: Case studies from the USDOE Office of Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, T.M.; Koegler, K.J.; Mamiya, L.S.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes elements of success for demonstration, evaluation, and transfer for deployment of innovative technologies for environmental restoration. They have been compiled from lessons learned through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development`s Volatile Organic Compounds in Arid Soil Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID). The success of the VOC-Arid ID program was determined by the rapid development demonstration, and transfer for deployment of technologies to operational sites that improve on safety, cost, and/or schedule of performance over baseline technologies. The VOC-Arid ID successfully fielded more than 25 innovative technology field demonstrations; several of the technologies demonstrated have been successfully transferred for deployment Field demonstration is a critical element in the successful transfer of innovative technologies into environmental restoration operations. The measures of success for technology demonstrations include conducting the demonstration in a safe and controlled environment and generating the appropriate information by which to evaluate the technology. However, field demonstrations alone do not guarantee successful transfer for deployment There are many key elements throughout the development and demonstration process that have a significant impact on the success of a technology. This paper presents key elements for a successful technology demonstration and transfer for deployment identified through the experiences of the VOC-Arid ID. Also, several case studies are provided as examples.

  7. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander Fridman

    2005-06-01

    This DOE project DE-FC36-04GO14052 ''Plasma Pilot Plant Test for Treating VOC Emissions from Wood Products Plants'' was conducted by Drexel University in cooperation with Georgia-Pacific (G-P) and Kurchatov Institute (KI). The objective of this project was to test the Plasma Pilot Plant capabilities in wood industry. The final goal of the project was to replace the current state-of-the-art, regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology by Low-Temperature Plasma Technology (LTPT) in paper and wood industry for Volatile Organic Components (VOC) destruction in High Volume Low Concentration (HVLC) vent emissions. MetPro Corporation joined the team as an industrial partner from the environmental control business and a potential leader for commercialization. Concurrent Technology Corporation (CTC) has a separate contract with DOE for this technology evaluation. They prepared questionnaires for comparison of this technology and RTO, and made this comparison. These data are presented in this report along with the description of the technology itself. Experiments with the pilot plant were performed with average plasma power up to 3.6 kW. Different design of the laboratory and pilot plant pulsed coronas, as well as different analytical methods revealed many new peculiarities of the VOC abatement process. The work reported herein describes the experimental results for the VOCs removal efficiency with respect to energy consumption, residence time, water effect and initial concentration.

  8. Is spin transport through molecules really occurring in organic spin valves? A combined magnetoresistance and inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Galbiati, Marta; Tatay, Sergio; Delprat, Sophie; Khanh, Hung Le; Deranlot, Cyrile; Collin, Sophie; Seneor, Pierre Mattana, Richard Petroff, Frédéric

    2015-02-23

    Molecular and organic spintronics is an emerging research field which combines the versatility of chemistry with the non-volatility of spintronics. Organic materials have already proved their potential as tunnel barriers (TBs) or spacers in spintronics devices showing sizable spin valve like magnetoresistance effects. In the last years, a large effort has been focused on the optimization of these organic spintronics devices. Insertion of a thin inorganic tunnel barrier (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or MgO) at the bottom ferromagnetic metal (FM)/organic interface seems to improve the spin transport efficiency. However, during the top FM electrode deposition, metal atoms are prone to diffuse through the organic layer and potentially short-circuit it. This may lead to the formation of a working but undesired FM/TB/FM magnetic tunnel junction where the organic plays no role. Indeed, establishing a protocol to demonstrate the effective spin dependent transport through the organic layer remains a key issue. Here, we focus on Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Alq{sub 3}/Co junctions and show that combining magnetoresistance and inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy measurements one can sort out working “organic” and short-circuited junctions fabricated on the same wafer.

  9. Organization Chart | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organization Chart Organization Chart Organization Chart Printable PDF Mission Leadership

    Contact Us Business Operations Careers/ Human Resources Directory Diversity and Inclusion Environment, Safety & Health Furth Plasma Physics Library Lab Leadership Organization Chart Technology Transfer Organization Chart Organization Chart (org chart) Associated Files: PDF icon Organization chart (PDF)

  10. Final Report, The Influence of Organic-Aerosol Emissions and Aging on Regional and Global Aerosol Size Distributions and the CCN Number Budget

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, Neil M.

    2015-12-23

    We conducted laboratory experiments and analyzed data on aging of organic aerosol and analysis of field data on volatility and CCN activity. With supplemental ASR funding we participated in the FLAME-IV campaign in Missoula MT in the Fall of 2012, deploying a two-chamber photochemical aging system to enable experimental exploration of photochemical aging of biomass burning emissions. Results from that campaign will lead to numerous publications, including demonstration of photochemical production of Brown Carbon (BrC) from secondary organic aerosol associated with biomass burning emissions as well as extensive characterization of the effect of photochemical aging on the overall concentrations of biomass burning organic aerosol. Excluding publications arising from the FLAME-IV campaign, project research resulted in 8 papers: [11, 5, 3, 10, 12, 4, 8, 7], including on in Nature Geoscience addressing the role of organic compounds in nanoparticle growth [11

  11. An assessment of the flammability and explosion potential of transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, M.

    1991-06-01

    The explosion potential of transuranic (TRU) waste, destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot (WIPP), was recently examined in EEG-45. That investigation focused on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste, particularly acetone, and concluded that an explosion due to the VOCs was unlikely. Recent evidence raises serious concerns about drums containing mixed radioactive hazardous waste bound for the WIPP. Static electricity generated by the plastic bags represents a potential ignition source for other fuels, such as methane gas or hydrogen gas, during transportation and during the test phase. The potential danger of explosion due to hydrogen gas or methane gas generation has not yet been resolved. This report investigates that potential hazard and examines documented ignitions, fires, explosions and incidents of overpressurization of containers at generating and storage sites planning to send transuranic waste to the WIPP for disposal. 68 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Emissions Inventory Report Summary: Reporting Requirements for the New Mexico Administrative code, Title 20, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20 NMAC 2.73) for Calendar Year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is subject to emissions reporting requirements for regulated air contaminants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73, (20 NMAC 2.73), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The Laboratory has the potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For 1997, combustion products from the industrial sources contributed the greatest amount of regulated air emissions from the Laboratory. Research and development activities contributed the greatest amount of VOCs. Emissions of beryllium and aluminum were reported for activities permitted under 20 NMAC 2.72, Construction Permits.

  13. Transport characteristics across drum filter vents and polymer bags

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-08-01

    The rate at which hydrogen (H {sub 2}) or a volatile organic compound (VOC) exits a layer of confinement in a vented waste drum is proportional to the concentration difference across the layer. The proportionality constant is the gas transport characteristic. A series of transport experiments were conducted to determine H{sub 2} and VOC transport characteristics across different drum filter vents and polymer bags. This report reviews the methods and results of past investigators in defining transport characteristics across filter vents and polymer bags, describes the apparatus and procedures used in these experiments, compares the reported and estimated transport characteristics with earlier results, and discusses the impact of changing the transport characteristic values used in model calculations.

  14. Measuring fuel contamination using high speed gas chromatography and cone penetration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, S.P.; Bratton, W.L.; Akard, M.L.

    1995-10-01

    Decision processes during characterization and cleanup of hazardous waste sites are greatly retarded by the turnaround time and expense incurred through the use of conventional sampling and laboratory analyses. Furthermore, conventional soil and groundwater sampling procedures present many opportunities for loss of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by exposing sample media to the atmosphere during transfers between and among sampling devices and containers. While on-site analysis by conventional gas chromatography can reduce analytical turnaround time, time-consuming sample preparation procedures are still often required, and the potential for loss of VOC is not reduced. This report describes the development of a high speed gas chromatography and cone penetration testing system which can detect and measure subsurface fuel contamination in situ during the cone penetration process.

  15. Method of doping organic semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Kloc, Christian Leo; Ramirez, Arthur Penn; So, Woo-Young

    2010-10-26

    An apparatus has a crystalline organic semiconducting region that includes polyaromatic molecules. A source electrode and a drain electrode of a field-effect transistor are both in contact with the crystalline organic semiconducting region. A gate electrode of the field-effect transistor is located to affect the conductivity of the crystalline organic semiconducting region between the source and drain electrodes. A dielectric layer of a first dielectric that is substantially impermeable to oxygen is in contact with the crystalline organic semiconducting region. The crystalline organic semiconducting region is located between the dielectric layer and a substrate. The gate electrode is located on the dielectric layer. A portion of the crystalline organic semiconducting region is in contact with a second dielectric via an opening in the dielectric layer. A physical interface is located between the second dielectric and the first dielectric.

  16. Impact of chamber wall loss of gaseous organic compounds on secondary organic aerosol formation: Explicit modeling of SOA formation from alkane and alkene oxidation

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    La, Y. S.; Camredon, M.; Ziemann, P. J.; Valorso, R.; Matsunaga, A.; Lannuque, V.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.

    2016-02-08

    Recent studies have shown that low volatility gas-phase species can be lost onto the smog chamber wall surfaces. Although this loss of organic vapors to walls could be substantial during experiments, its effect on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation has not been well characterized and quantified yet. Here the potential impact of chamber walls on the loss of gaseous organic species and SOA formation has been explored using the Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of the Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) modeling tool, which explicitly represents SOA formation and gas–wall partitioning. The model was compared with 41 smog chambermore » experiments of SOA formation under OH oxidation of alkane and alkene series (linear, cyclic and C12-branched alkanes and terminal, internal and 2-methyl alkenes with 7 to 17 carbon atoms) under high NOx conditions. Simulated trends match observed trends within and between homologous series. The loss of organic vapors to the chamber walls is found to affect SOA yields as well as the composition of the gas and the particle phases. Simulated distributions of the species in various phases suggest that nitrates, hydroxynitrates and carbonylesters could substantially be lost onto walls. The extent of this process depends on the rate of gas–wall mass transfer, the vapor pressure of the species and the duration of the experiments. Furthermore, this work suggests that SOA yields inferred from chamber experiments could be underestimated up a factor of 2 due to the loss of organic vapors to chamber walls.« less

  17. ARM - Measurement - Organic Carbon Concentration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsOrganic Carbon Concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Organic Carbon Concentration The concentration of carbon bound in organic compounds. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available

  18. Clean Technology & Sustainable Industries Organization | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    leCleanTechnology%26SustainableIndustriesOrganization&oldid765712" Categories: Organizations Networking Organizations Trade Groups Stubs Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

  19. Our Organization and Employees | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Our Organization and Employees Our Organization and Employees PDF icon FE Org Chart Feb2016.pdf More Documents & Publications Office of Fossil Energy Organization Chart HC ...

  20. World Health Organization (WHO) | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Health Organization (WHO) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: World Health Organization (WHO) Name: World Health Organization (WHO) Address: 20, avenue Appia 1211 Geneva, Switzerland...

  1. APS Organization Chart | Advanced Photon Source

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    APS Organization Chart The Advanced Photon Source (APS) organization comprises three divisions and one project office. Advanced Photon Source Organization Photon Sciences Overview...

  2. Form:Networking Organization | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Networking Organization Jump to: navigation, search Add a Networking Organization Input your networking organization name below to add to the registry. If your networking...

  3. Portsmouth Paducah Project Office (PPPO) Organization | Department...

    Energy Saver

    Portsmouth Paducah Project Office (PPPO) Organization Portsmouth Paducah Project Office (PPPO) Organization Portsmouth Paducah Project Office (PPPO) Organization PDF icon Printable...

  4. Form:Financial Organization | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Financial Organization Jump to: navigation, search Add a Financial Organization Input the name of the finanical organization below to add it to the registry. If the financial...

  5. Stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 in all volatile treated water at elevated temperatures. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Theus, G.J.; Emanuelson, R.H.

    1983-05-01

    This report describes a continuing study of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of Inconel alloys 600 and 690 in all-volatile treated (AVT) water. Specimens of alloys 600 and 690 are being exposed to AVT water at 288/sup 0/, 332/sup 0/, 343/sup 0/, and 360/sup 0/C. Alloy 600 generally resists SCC in high-purity water under normal service conditions but is susceptible under other specific conditions. In general, mill-annealed alloy 600 is more susceptible than stress-relieved material. Susceptibility to SCC increases rapidly with increasing exposure temperature. Very high stresses (near or above yield) are required to induce cracking in AVT or other high-purity waters. Most of the data presented in this report are for alloy 600; alloy 690 has not yet cracked. However, the program is being continued and will subsequently characterize the high-purity water cracking behavior, if any, of alloy 690.

  6. Organic fuels | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    to: navigation, search Name: Organic fuels Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77056 Product: Biodiesel producer and distributor Coordinates: 29.76045, -95.369784 Show Map Loading...

  7. Organic Power | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Power Jump to: navigation, search Name: Organic Power Place: Ireland Sector: Biomass, Hydro, Wind energy Product: Irish project developer active in wind energy, combined heat and...

  8. Magnetoelectroluminescence of organic heterostructures: Analytical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetoelectroluminescence of organic ... field modulation curve of the electroluminescence increases while its depth decreases. ...

  9. The effect of planets beyond the ice line on the accretion of volatiles by habitable-zone rocky planets

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, Elisa V. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Lissauer, Jack J., E-mail: elisa.quintana@nasa.gov [Space Science and Astrobiology Division 245-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Models of planet formation have shown that giant planets have a large impact on the number, masses, and orbits of terrestrial planets that form. In addition, they play an important role in delivering volatiles from material that formed exterior to the snow line (the region in the disk beyond which water ice can condense) to the inner region of the disk where terrestrial planets can maintain liquid water on their surfaces. We present simulations of the late stages of terrestrial planet formation from a disk of protoplanets around a solar-type star and we include a massive planet (from 1 M {sub ?} to 1 M {sub J}) in Jupiter's orbit at ?5.2 AU in all but one set of simulations. Two initial disk models are examined with the same mass distribution and total initial water content, but with different distributions of water content. We compare the accretion rates and final water mass fraction of the planets that form. Remarkably, all of the planets that formed in our simulations without giant planets were water-rich, showing that giant planet companions are not required to deliver volatiles to terrestrial planets in the habitable zone. In contrast, an outer planet at least several times the mass of Earth may be needed to clear distant regions of debris truncating the epoch of frequent large impacts. Observations of exoplanets from radial velocity surveys suggest that outer Jupiter-like planets may be scarce, therefore, the results presented here suggest that there may be more habitable planets residing in our galaxy than previously thought.

  10. LM Organization Chart | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Organization Chart LM Organization Chart LM Organization Chart (47.99 KB) More Documents & Publications 2011-2015 Human Capital Management Plan VBH-0017 - In the Matter of Jimmie L. Russell WIP Organization Chart

  11. LM Functional Organization Chart | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Functional Organization Chart LM Functional Organization Chart LM Functional Organization Chart (39.96 KB) More Documents & Publications LM Organization Chart Quality Assurance Program Plan Environmental Justice and Tribal Consultation Training

  12. High temperature corrosion studies. A. Iron: based superalloy in SO/sub 2//O/sub 2/ atmospheres. B. Gas: solid reaction with formation of volatile species

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, T.K.

    1980-03-01

    The thermogravimetric method was used to study high temperature corrosion under SO/sub 2//O/sub 2/ atmosphere applied to Armco 18SR alloys with different heat treatment histories, Armco T310 and pure chromium between 750 and 1100/sup 0/C. The weight gain follows the parabolic rate law. The volatilization of the protective Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ layer via formation of CrO/sub 3/ was taken into account above 900/sup 0/C for long time runs. The parabolic rate and the volatilization rate, derived from fitting the experimental data to the modified Tedmon's non-linear model, were correlated using the Arrhenius equation. Armco 18SR-C has the best corrosion resistance of the Armco 18SR alloys. Armco T310 is not protective at high temperatures. The available rate data on the oxidation of chromium oxide, chlorination of chromium, oxidation-chlorination of chromium oxide, chlorination of nickel and chlorination of iron were found to be predictable. The calculation of high temperature volatilization rate was performed using the available fluid correlation equations and the Lennard-Jones parameters derived from the molecule with similar structure and from the low temperature viscosity measurement. The lower predicted volatilization rate is due to the use of the Chapman-Enskog equation with the Lennard-Jones parameters mostly derived from the low temperature viscosity measurement. This was substantiated by comparing the reliable high temperature diffusion rate in the literature with the above mentioned calculational method. The experimental volatilization rates of this study are compared with the other related studies and the mass transfer predictions.

  13. Ultrasonic process for remediation of organics-contaminated groundwater/wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.M.; Peters, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    A technology is being developed that employs ultrasonic-wave energy for remediation of groundwater/wastewater contaminated with volatile organic compounds such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) and trichloroethylene (TCE). This paper presents the updated results of a laboratory investigation of ultrasonic groundwater remediation using synthetic groundwaters prepared with laboratory deionized water. Key process parameters investigated included steady-state temperature, contaminant concentration, solution pH, sonication time, and intensity of the applied ultrasonics-wave energy. High destruction efficiencies of the target contaminants were achieved, and the sonication time required for a given degree of destruction decreased with increasing intensity of the applied ultrasonic energy. The sonication time can be further reduced by adding a chemical oxidant such as hydrogen peroxide.

  14. In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, R.T.; Jackson, K.J.; Duba, A.G.; Chen, C.I.

    1998-05-19

    An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants are described. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating. 21 figs.

  15. In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Robert T.; Jackson, Kenneth J.; Duba, Alfred G.; Chen, Ching-I

    1998-01-01

    An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating.

  16. Metal-Organic Framework Thin Films as Stationary Phases in Microfabricated Gas-Chromatography Columns.

    SciTech Connect

    Read, Douglas; Sillerud, Colin Halliday

    2016-01-01

    The overarching goal of this project is to integrate Sandia's microfabricated gas-chromatography ( GC) columns with a stationary phase material that is capable of retaining high-volatility chemicals and permanent gases. The successful integration of such a material with GCs would dramatically expand the repertoire of detectable compounds for Sandia's various microanalysis systems. One such promising class of candidate materials is metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In this report we detail our methods for controlled deposition of HKUST-1 MOF stationary phases within GC columns. We demonstrate: the chromatographic separation of natural gas; a method for determining MOF film thickness from chromatography alone; and the first-reported GC x GC separation of natural gas -- in general -- let alone for two disparate MOF stationary phases. In addition we determine the fundamental thermodynamic constant for mass sorption, the partition coefficient, for HKUST-1 and several light hydrocarbons and select toxic industrial chemicals.

  17. Renewable Energy Nongovernmental Organization Network (RENOVE...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Nongovernmental Organization Network (RENOVE) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renewable Energy Nongovernmental Organization Network (RENOVE) Place: Brasilia, Brazil Phone Number:...

  18. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1996-01-09

    A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

  19. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Wylie, Allan H.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

  20. Borehole induction logging for the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project LLNL gasoline spill site

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, S.; Newmark, R.; Wilt, M.

    1994-01-21

    Borehole induction logs were acquired for the purpose of characterizing subsurface physical properties and monitoring steam clean up activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This work was part of the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project`s demonstrated clean up of a gasoline spin. The site is composed of unconsolidated days, sands and gravels which contain gasoline both above and below the water table. Induction logs were used to characterize lithology, to provide ``ground truth`` resistivity values for electrical resistance tomography (ERT), and to monitor the movement of an underground steam plume used to heat the soil and drive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the extraction wells.