National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for vessel ron brown

  1. Ron Faibish | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Photo of Ron Faibish Ron Faibish Energy Systems Program Leader - EGS E-mail rfaibish

  2. UNIRIB Participant Experiences: Ron Goans

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Goans Ron Goans Ron Goans Ron Goans is a graduate research assistant working on the thesis component of his master's degree in physics while performing experiments at the...

  3. Employee Spotlight: Ron Barber

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Ron Barber September 9, 2014 Ron Barber, a mechanical engineer in the Laboratory's Accelerator Operations and Technology Division, has always enjoyed the great outdoors for fun and exploration, but six or seven years ago he began to combine his love of nature and open spaces with a personal interest in researching the astronomical knowledge of long-ago civilizations that once inhabited the American Southwest and the Sierra Madre Mountains in Mexico. "People have been watching, and to some

  4. Ron Crafts | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    to: navigation, search Name: Ron Crafts Place: Utah Zip: 84057 Product: CEO of Better Diesel References: Ron Crafts1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it....

  5. Ron Shepard | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Ron Shepard Senior Chemist (Theoretical Chemistry) Telephone (630) 252-3584 E-mail shepard@tcg.anl

  6. Ron Tollner | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Ron Tollner Manager, Building & Systems Operations Telephone 630.252.4457 E-mail tollner@anl.gov

  7. In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ron Zuckerman

    2016-07-12

    Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

  8. SimwYpes(tm) and RonJohn Blend | Y-12 National Security Complex

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    SimwYpes(tm) and RonJohn ... SimwYpes(tm) and RonJohn Blend The mp4 video format is not supported by this browser. Download video Captions: On Time: 2:20 min. Created to remove residual amounts of beryllium oxide and beryllium particulate from solid surfaces without leaving a residue, SimwYpes are ideal for multiple uses. Quick, gentle, but effective. The inventors of RonJohn solvent talk about its invention and uses

  9. Mr. Ron Murphree, Chair Oak Ridge Site-Specific Advisory Board

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    0 Mr. Ron Murphree, Chair Oak Ridge Site-Specific Advisory Board P.O. Box 2001, MS-7604 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 3783 1 Dear Mr. Murphree: Thank you for your recent letter providing a...

  10. 1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    and backscatter lidar (DABUL) obtained cloud data from aboard the research vessel Ron Brown. This lidar system, which obtains information on cloud occurrence and phase,...

  11. Fermilab Today | Brown University Profile

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Brown University April 29, 2010 NAME: Brown University HOME TOWN: Providence, Rhode Island MASCOT: Bruno the Bear SCHOOL COLORS: Seal brown and cardinal red PARTICLE PHYSICS...

  12. Genome Data from DOOR: a Database for prOkaryotic OpeRons

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    DOOR (Database of prOkaryotic OpeRons) is an operon database developed by Computational Systems Biology Lab (CSBL) at University of Georgia. Although the operons in the database are based on prediction, there are some unique features. These are: • A algorithm is consistently best at all aspects including sensitivity and specificity for both true positives and true negatives, and the overall accuracy reaches 90 percent. The prediction algorithm is based on this paper: P. Dam, V. Olman, K. Harris, Z. Su, Y. Xu., Operon prediction using both genome-specific and general genomic information, Nucleic Acids Res., 35(1):288-98, 2007 • DOOR provides one of the largest data sets of operon information available to the public. DOOR provides operons for 675 prokaryotic genomes. Although most of operons in DOOR are not verified by experiments, the creators are also trying to provide some limited literature information, which is extracted from ODB. They emphasize that if the users are looking for strictly experimentally verified operons, they should look into DBTBS and RegulonDB first. • Operons which include RNA genes, which are rarely seen in other operon databases especially for predicted operon databases • Defined the similarity scores between operons, which is based on weighted maximum matching between operons. Similar operon groups can be used to predict accurate orthologous genes,and their upstream regions can be used to find the consensus binding motifs. • Integration of two motif finding programs in the database: MEME and CUBIC. DOOR provides an Organism View for browsing, a gene search tool, an operon search tool, and the operon prediction interface.[Text taken and edited from http://csbl1.bmb.uga.edu/OperonDB/tutorial.php

  13. ARM - Campaign Instrument - ronbrown

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsronbrown Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : NOAA Research Vessel Ron Brown...

  14. Conversation with Paul Brown | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Conversation with Paul Brown Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Personal Communication: Conversation with Paul Brown Author Paul Brown Recipient...

  15. NREL: Energy Analysis - Austin Brown

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Austin Brown Photo of Austin Brown Austin Brown is currently away from the lab on a detail to the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the Executive Office of the President. Senior Analyst (Strategic Planning) On staff since 2010 Phone number: 202-488-2203 E-mail: austin.brown@nrel.gov Areas of expertise Crosscutting low-carbon strategies Clean transportation technologies and policies Primary research interests Clean energy research portfolio planning Energy and society Sustainable

  16. brown-98.pdf

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    High Resolution Validation in the Shortwave: ASTI/LBLRTM QME P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, and E. J. Mlawer Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts T. R. Shippert Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington F. J. Murcray Denver University Denver, Colorado Introduction To assess our modeling capability in the shortwave and to resolve issues including those described by Cess et al. (1995) and others (Li and Moreau 1996; Arking 1996), a Quality Measurement

  17. BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-22

    Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

  18. Fuel Composition Effects at Constant RON and MON in an HCCI Engine Operated with Negative Valve Overlap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G; Farrell, John T

    2006-01-01

    The effects of fuel properties on gasoline HCCI operation have been investigated in a single cylinder, 500 cc, 11.3 CR port fuel injected research engine, operated at lambda=1 and equipped with hydraulic valve actuation. HCCI is promoted by early exhaust valve closing to retain hot exhaust in the cylinder, thereby increasing the cylinder gas temperature. Test fuels were formulated with pure components to have the same RON, MON, and octane sensitivity as an indolene reference fuel, but with a wide range of fuel composition differences. Experiments have been carried out to determine if fuel composition plays a role in HCCI combustion properties, independent of octane numbers. Fuel economy, emissions, and combustion parameters have been measured at several fixed speed/load conditions over a range of exhaust valve closing angles. When the data are compared at constant combustion phasing, fuel effects on emissions and other combustion properties are small. However, when compared at constant exhaust valve closing angle, fuel composition effects are more pronounced, specifically regarding ignition. Operability range differences are also related to fuel composition. An all-paraffinic (normal, iso, and cycloparaffins) fuel exhibited distinctly earlier combustion phasing, increased rate of cylinder pressure rise, and increased rate of maximum heat release compared to the indolene reference fuel. Conversely, olefin-containing fuels exhibited retarded combustion phasing. The fuels with the most advanced ignition showed a wider operating range in terms of engine speed and load, irrespective of exhaust closing angle. These ignition differences reflect contributions from both fuel and EGR kinetics, the effects of which are discussed. The fuel composition variables are somewhat inter-correlated, which makes the experimental separation their effects imprecise with this small set of fuels, though clear trends are evident. The overall effects of fuel composition on engine performance

  19. Brown County Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search Name Brown County Wind Facility Brown County Wind Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Adams Electric...

  20. Mr. Ron Murphree, Chair

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    0, 2014 Mr. David Meyer Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE), U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue SW Washington, DC 20585 Re: Comments on draft National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Dear Mr. Meyer: Clean Line Energy Partners LLC ("Clean Line") appreciates the opportunity to provide comments on the draft National Electric Transmission Congestion Study ("Draft Study"), published by the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") in

  1. Employee Spotlight: Ron Barber

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Barber works for the Accelerator Operations and Technology Division's Mechanical Design Engineering group. Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the Employee Spotlight ...

  2. Women @ Energy: Nancy Brown | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Nancy Brown Women @ Energy: Nancy Brown March 15, 2013 - 11:00am Addthis Dr. Nancy Jeanne Brown is a Senior Scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Dr. Nancy Jeanne Brown is a Senior Scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Check out other profiles in the Women @ Energy series and share your favorites on Pinterest. Dr. Nancy Jeanne Brown is a Senior Scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Her research interests are atmospheric science, chemical

  3. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassbender, Alexander G.

    1992-01-01

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  4. Dissolver vessel bottom assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilian, Douglas C.

    1976-01-01

    An improved bottom assembly is provided for a nuclear reactor fuel reprocessing dissolver vessel wherein fuel elements are dissolved as the initial step in recovering fissile material from spent fuel rods. A shock-absorbing crash plate with a convex upper surface is disposed at the bottom of the dissolver vessel so as to provide an annular space between the crash plate and the dissolver vessel wall. A sparging ring is disposed within the annular space to enable a fluid discharged from the sparging ring to agitate the solids which deposit on the bottom of the dissolver vessel and accumulate in the annular space. An inlet tangential to the annular space permits a fluid pumped into the annular space through the inlet to flush these solids from the dissolver vessel through tangential outlets oppositely facing the inlet. The sparging ring is protected against damage from the impact of fuel elements being charged to the dissolver vessel by making the crash plate of such a diameter that the width of the annular space between the crash plate and the vessel wall is less than the diameter of the fuel elements.

  5. Reactor vessel support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Martin P.; Holley, John C.

    1982-01-01

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  6. Tow Vessel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Tow Vessel Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleTowVessel&oldid596390" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  7. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webber, Nels W.

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  8. brown out | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    brown out Home Dc's picture Submitted by Dc(266) Contributor 31 October, 2014 - 10:58 What do you know about the grid? black out brown out bulk power system electricity grid future...

  9. Reactor vessel annealing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Phillip E.; Katz, Leonoard R.; Nath, Raymond J.; Blaushild, Ronald M.; Tatch, Michael D.; Kordalski, Frank J.; Wykstra, Donald T.; Kavalkovich, William M.

    1991-01-01

    A system for annealing a vessel (14) in situ by heating the vessel (14) to a defined temperature, composed of: an electrically operated heater assembly (10) insertable into the vessel (14) for heating the vessel (14) to the defined temperature; temperature monitoring components positioned relative to the heater assembly (10) for monitoring the temperature of the vessel (14); a controllable electric power supply unit (32-60) for supplying electric power required by the heater assembly (10); a control unit (80-86) for controlling the power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60); a first vehicle (2) containing the power supply unit (32-60); a second vehicle (4) containing the control unit (80-86); power conductors (18,22) connectable between the power supply unit (32-60) and the heater unit (10) for delivering the power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60) to the heater assembly (10); signal conductors (20,24) connectable between the temperature monitoring components and the control unit (80-86) for delivering temperature indicating signals from the temperature monitoring components to the control unit (80-86); and control conductors (8) connectable between the control unit (80-86) and the power supply unit (32-60) for delivering to the power supply unit (32-60) control signals for controlling the level of power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60) to the heater assembly (10).

  10. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Outwater, John O. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  11. Center Stack Vacuum Vessel

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Stack Vacuum Vessel Current in center stack: 2 million amps, enough to light 2 million 100 watt light bulbs. Overall diameter and vacuum vessel diameter: 16.6 feet, 11.2 feet Height and weight of whole machine: 23.3 feet, 85 tons Components of the NSTX-U ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Heating power: 10 million amps, enough to produce

  12. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  13. Alabama Nuclear Profile - Browns Ferry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Browns Ferry" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date" 1,"1,101","8,072",83.7,"BWR","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel"

  14. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Germer, John H.

    1987-01-01

    In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

  15. High pressure storage vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Qiang

    2013-08-27

    Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

  16. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Upton, H.A.

    1994-10-04

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough. 2 figs.

  17. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C.; Upton, Hubert A.

    1994-01-01

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough.

  18. Vessel structural support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenko, James X.; Ott, Howard L.; Wilson, Robert M.; Wepfer, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    Vessel structural support system for laterally and vertically supporting a vessel, such as a nuclear steam generator having an exterior bottom surface and a side surface thereon. The system includes a bracket connected to the bottom surface. A support column is pivotally connected to the bracket for vertically supporting the steam generator. The system also includes a base pad assembly connected pivotally to the support column for supporting the support column and the steam generator. The base pad assembly, which is capable of being brought to a level position by turning leveling nuts, is anchored to a floor. The system further includes a male key member attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a female stop member attached to an adjacent wall. The male key member and the female stop member coact to laterally support the steam generator. Moreover, the system includes a snubber assembly connected to the side surface of the steam generator and also attached to the adjacent wall for dampening lateral movement of the steam generator. In addition, the system includes a restraining member of "flat" attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a bumper attached to the adjacent wall. The flat and the bumper coact to further laterally support the steam generator.

  19. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Brown University - Metcalf...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Brown University - Metcalf Research Lab - RI 01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Brown University (Metcalf Research Lab.) (RI.01 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP...

  20. Coal gasification vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, Billy W.

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  1. CMI Education Partner: Brown University | Critical Materials Institute

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Education Partner: Brown University Brown University offers courses in several areas: Engineering School Institute of Environment and Study Brown University: Engineering School http://www.brown.edu/academics/engineering/undergraduate-study/courses ENGN 0030 - Introduction to Engineering: An introduction to various engineering disciplines, thought processes, and issues. Topics include computing in engineering, engineering design, optimization, and estimation. Case studies in engineering are used

  2. Ukrainian mineral wax from brown coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shabad, T.

    1986-07-01

    An unusual mineral enterprise is the mineral wax plant of Semenovskoye in the Aleksandriya brown coal basin of the Ukraine. The only plant of its kind in the Soviet Union, it has been in operation since 1959, extracting mineral wax from the local bitumen-rich brown coal. The plant yields about 7.5 tons of mineral wax a day (about 2700 tons a year), for use in a variety of applications.

  3. Microsoft PowerPoint - 7 Kevin Brown

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (CBP) Toolsets Kevin G. Brown Vanderbilt University and CRESP Cementitious Barriers Partnership Performance & Risk Assessment Community of Practice Technical Exchange Meeting December 11-12, 2014 Las Vegas NM Project Team Members Vanderbilt University & CRESP D. Kosson*, K.G. Brown*, S. Mahadevan, J. Branch, F. Sanchez Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) C. Langton*, G. Flach*, H. Burns*, R. Seitz, S. Marra Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands (ECN) & CRESP H. van der

  4. LPG storage vessel cracking experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantwell, J.E. )

    1988-10-01

    In order to evaluate liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) handling and storage hazards, Caltex Petroleum Corp. (Dallas) surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one-third of the storage vessels. In most cases, the cracking appeared to be due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems found were due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. This article's recommendations concern minimizing cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

  5. LPG storage vessel cracking experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantwell, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    As part of an overall company program to evaluate LPG handling and storage hazards the authors surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one third of the storage vessels. In most cases the cracking appeared due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide were found. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. Recommendations are made to minimize cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

  6. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

    1980-05-09

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  7. CHF Enhancement by Vessel Coating for External Reactor Vessel Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan-Bill Cheung; Joy L. Rempe

    2004-06-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) is a key severe accident management (SAM) strategy that has been adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). One viable means for IVR is the method of external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) by flooding of the reactor cavity during a severe accident. As part of a joint Korean – United States International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (K-INERI), an experimental study has been conducted to investigate the viability of using an appropriate vessel coating to enhance the critical heat flux (CHF) limits during ERVC. Toward this end, transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB (Subscale Boundary Layer Boiling) facility at Penn State using test vessels with micro-porous aluminum coatings. Local boiling curves and CHF limits were obtained in these experiments. When compared to the corresponding data without coatings, substantial enhancement in the local CHF limits for the case with surface coatings was observed. Results of the steady state boiling experiments showed that micro-porous aluminum coatings were very durable. Even after many cycles of steady state boiling, the vessel coatings remained rather intact, with no apparent changes in color or structure. Moreover, the heat transfer performance of the coatings was found to be highly desirable with an appreciable CHF enhancement in all locations on the vessel outer surface but with very little effect of aging.

  8. Reactor vessel seal service fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ritz, W.C.

    1975-12-01

    An apparatus for the preparation of exposed sealing surfaces along the open rim of a nuclear reactor vessel comprised of a motorized mechanism for traveling along the rim and simultaneously brushing the exposed surfaces is described.

  9. Level indicator for pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-04-28

    A liquid-level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic-field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal-processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  10. FIA-12-0044- In the Matter of Cynthia Brown

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cynthia Brown filed an Appeal regarding a request filed under the Freedom of Information Act. In March 2012, Ms. Brown filed a request for records regarding her late mother.

  11. FIA-12-0009- In the Matter of Cynthia Brown

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cynthia Brown filed an Appeal regarding a request she filed under the Freedom of Information Act. In December 2011, Ms. Brown filed a request for records regarding her late mother.

  12. Brown-Atchison E C A Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Brown-Atchison E C A Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Brown-Atchison E C A Inc Place: Kansas Phone Number: 785-486-2117 Website: baelectric.com Outage Hotline: After Hours:...

  13. Chelsea Brown | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Brown Graduate student Subtask 4 project: "Water Oxidation using Functionalized Porphyrin Chromophores and Iridium Catalyst"

  14. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Brown, Ron" Name Name ORCID Search Authors Type: All BookMonograph ConferenceEvent ... Search Results Page 1 of 1 Search for: All records CreatorsAuthors contains: "Brown, Ron

  15. 1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Daily-averaged air temperature from the buoy at 165E, 0N (blue), 165E, 2S (green), 165E, 5S (red), Ron Brown ETL system (cyan), Ron Brown ship system (magenta), and Mirai M-aeri...

  16. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Scott, Donald G.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  17. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Scott, D.G.

    1984-06-25

    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal 10 borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  18. Cover Heated, Open Vessels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Cover Heated, Open Vessels Cover Heated, Open Vessels This tip sheet on covering heated, open vessels provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #19 Cover Heated, Open Vessels (January 2012) (386.38 KB) More Documents & Publications Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam Improving

  19. Microsoft PowerPoint - 1 Kevin Brown

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Program Update Interagency Steering Committee on Performance and Risk Assessment Community of Practice Annual Technical Exchange Meeting Richland, Washington December 15-16, 2015 Project Team Members Vanderbilt University & CRESP D. Kosson*, K.G. Brown*, A.C. Garrabrants, S. Mahadevan, J. Branch, F. Sanchez Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) C. Langton*; G. Flach*; H. Burns*; R. Seitz, S. Marra; F.G. Smith, III Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands (ECN) & CRESP H. van der

  20. Microsoft PowerPoint - 19 Kevin Brown

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EVALUATING WASTEFORM LEACHING AND PERFORMANCE DOE COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE (P&RA COP) ANNUAL TECHNICAL EXCHANGE MEETING GERMANTOWN, MARYLAND OCTOBER 19 AND 20, 2016 Kevin G. Brown 1 , David S. Kosson 1 , Janelle Branch Lewis 1 , Andrew C. Garrabrants 1 , Hans van der Sloot 2 , Paul Seignette 3 , J.C.L Meeussen 4 1 Vanderbilt University 2 Hans van der Sloot Consultancy 3 Energy Research Center of the Netherlands 4 Nuclear Research Group (Netherlands) SUMMARY OF MAJOR ACTIVITIES * Experimental -

  1. Containment of explosions in spherical vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, T.A.; Greene, J.M. ); Baker, W.E. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Lewis, B.B. )

    1992-01-01

    A correlation of the experimentally recorded dynamic response of a spherical containment vessel with theoretical finite element calculations is presented. Three experiments were performed on the 6-ft-diameter steel vessel using centrally located 12-lb. and 40-lb. high explosive charges. Pressure-time loading on the inner wall of the vessel was recorded for each test using pressure transducers. Resulting dynamic response of the vessel was recorded for each test using strain gages mounted at selected locations on the outer surface of the vessel. Response of the vessel was primarily elastic. A finite element model of the vessel was run using DYNA3D, a dynamic structural analysis code. Pressure loading for the finite element model was based on results from a one-dimensional reactive hydrodynamics code. Correlations between experiments and analysis were generally good for the tests for frequency and strain magnitude at most locations. Comparisons of experimental and calculated pressure-time histories were less satisfactory.

  2. Containment of explosions in spherical vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, T.A.; Greene, J.M.; Baker, W.E.; Lewis, B.B.

    1992-12-31

    A correlation of the experimentally recorded dynamic response of a spherical containment vessel with theoretical finite element calculations is presented. Three experiments were performed on the 6-ft-diameter steel vessel using centrally located 12-lb. and 40-lb. high explosive charges. Pressure-time loading on the inner wall of the vessel was recorded for each test using pressure transducers. Resulting dynamic response of the vessel was recorded for each test using strain gages mounted at selected locations on the outer surface of the vessel. Response of the vessel was primarily elastic. A finite element model of the vessel was run using DYNA3D, a dynamic structural analysis code. Pressure loading for the finite element model was based on results from a one-dimensional reactive hydrodynamics code. Correlations between experiments and analysis were generally good for the tests for frequency and strain magnitude at most locations. Comparisons of experimental and calculated pressure-time histories were less satisfactory.

  3. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawabe, James K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell.

  4. Browning: Email in Response to Smart Grid Request for Information |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Browning: Email in Response to Smart Grid Request for Information Browning: Email in Response to Smart Grid Request for Information Email from Stephen Browning explaing the two attachments submitted in response to the Smart Grid Request for Information on Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges. Smart Gird Policy Memo (15.63 KB) More Documents & Publications Power North America RFI Comments City Utilities of Springfield Missouri Comments on Smart Grid RFI:

  5. Senior Obama Administration Officials to Join Governor Brown...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Secretary Daniel Poneman will join California Governor Jerry Brown, Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti and state, local and tribal leaders from across the country for a media...

  6. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 09 BIOMASS FUELS Brown Grease; Trap Waste; Biodiesel; Biofuel; Wastewater; Anaerobic Digestion Word Cloud More Like ...

  7. MEMORANDUM FROM: THOMAS E. BROWN, DIRECTOR OFFICE OF CONTRACT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ,2008 MEMORANDUM FROM: THOMAS E. BROWN, DIRECTOR OFFICE OF CONTRACT MANAGEMENT OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND ASSISTANCE MANAGEMENT SUBJECT: Contract Change Order Administration of...

  8. Flow Test At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Brown, 1995) |...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Flow Test At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Brown, 1995) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  9. Flow Test At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Brown, 1994) |...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Flow Test At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Brown, 1994) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  10. Hydrogen storage in insulated pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S.M.; Garcia-Villazana, O.

    1998-08-01

    Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen (CH{sub 2}). Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of liquid hydrogen tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (lower energy requirement for hydrogen liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). This paper shows an evaluation of the applicability of the insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles. The paper shows an evaluation of evaporative losses and insulation requirements and a description of the current analysis and experimental plans for testing insulated pressure vessels. The results show significant advantages to the use of insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles.

  11. Device for inspecting vessel surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Appel, D. Keith

    1995-01-01

    A portable, remotely-controlled inspection crawler for use along the walls of tanks, vessels, piping and the like. The crawler can be configured to use a vacuum chamber for supporting itself on the inspected surface by suction or a plurality of magnetic wheels for moving the crawler along the inspected surface. The crawler is adapted to be equipped with an ultrasonic probe for mapping the structural integrity or other characteristics of the surface being inspected. Navigation of the crawler is achieved by triangulation techniques between a signal transmitter on the crawler and a pair of microphones attached to a fixed, remote location, such as the crawler's deployment unit. The necessary communications are established between the crawler and computers external to the inspection environment for position control and storage and/or monitoring of data acquisition.

  12. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawabe, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell. 6 figures.

  13. Systems and Professional Development - David Brown, Director, Systems &

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Professional Development, OAPM | Department of Energy Systems and Professional Development - David Brown, Director, Systems & Professional Development, OAPM Systems and Professional Development - David Brown, Director, Systems & Professional Development, OAPM Topics Discussed: Importance of Contracting in DOE Compared with Other Civilian Agencies Professional Workforce Workload DOE's Certified Workforce Acquisition Workload The Holy Grail of Contract and Project Management More...

  14. Novel Solvent System for Post Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture Brown...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COsub 2 Capture Brown, Alfred; Brown, Nathan 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS Clean Coal Technology Coal - Environmental (Carbon Capture) Clean Coal Technology Coal -...

  15. Evaluation of in-vessel corium retention through external reactor vessel cooling for integral reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, R. J.; Lee, J. R.; Kim, S. B.; Jin, Y.; Kim, H. Y.

    2012-07-01

    In-vessel corium retention through external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC) for a small integral reactor has been evaluated to determine the thermal margin for the prevention of a reactor vessel failure. A thermal load analysis from the corium pool to the outer reactor vessel wall in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel has been performed to determine the heat flux distribution. The critical heat flux (CHF) on the outer reactor vessel wall has been determined to fix the maximum heat removal rate through the external coolant between the outer reactor vessel and the insulation of the reactor vessel. Finally, the thermal margin has been evaluated by comparison of the thermal load with the maximum heat removal rate of the CHF on the outer reactor vessel wall. The maximum heat flux from the corium pool to the outer reactor vessel is estimated at approximately 0.25 MW/m{sup 2} in the metallic layer because of the focusing effect. The CHF of the outer reactor vessel is approximately 1.1 MW/m{sup 2} because of a two phase natural circulation mass flow. Since the thermal margin for the IVR-ERVC is sufficient, the reactor vessel integrity is maintained during a severe accident of a small integral reactor. (authors)

  16. Foam vessel for cryogenic fluid storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spear, Jonathan D

    2011-07-05

    Cryogenic storage and separator vessels made of polyolefin foams are disclosed, as are methods of storing and separating cryogenic fluids and fluid mixtures using these vessels. In one embodiment, the polyolefin foams may be cross-linked, closed-cell polyethylene foams with a density of from about 2 pounds per cubic foot to a density of about 4 pounds per cubic foot.

  17. Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.

    2013-03-19

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

  18. Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Magnotta, F.

    1998-08-25

    A lightweight, low permeability liner is described for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using tori spherical or near tori spherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film sealed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life. 19 figs.

  19. Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, Fred; Myers, Blake; Magnotta, Frank

    1998-01-01

    A lightweight, low permeability liner for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using torispherical or near torispherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film seamed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life.

  20. Metallurgical evaluation of FMPC Vessel No. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagnall, C.; Wise, W.N.

    1989-03-01

    A major purpose of this evaluation program was to accumulate information on the behavior and properties of a vessel at the Feed Materials Production Center, fabricated of Monel 400, after service exposure in a UF/sub 6/--UF/sub 4/ reduction tower. These data will then be used to aid in the formulation of an equation to predict remaining life for the vessels. In addition, data from this destructive evaluation will provide information on the reliability of the reaction vessel surveillance program currently in operation at FMPC. After 1400 h of operation, Vessel No. 2 was removed from service and assigned to this program for extensive study. The report describes an initial survey of the physical condition of the vessel, provides details of the sampling plan, and then proceeds to document information in the various areas of investigation. These include radiography, chemical analysis, and mechanical properties over a temperature range up to 1800/degree/F. Metallographic studies from six key locations of the reaction vessel were conducted; major weld areas and selected tensile specimens were also examined. The report continues with a summary of the findings and a discussion of key aspects in relation to pertinent literature. The final section of the report provides conclusions drawn from evaluation of Vessel No. 2, and sets forth recommendations related to fabrication and extension of its operating life. 12 refs., 43 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Reactor vessel using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Zeltner, Walter A. (Oregon, WI)

    1992-08-11

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane.

  2. Structural Analysis of the NCSX Vacuum Vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Dahlgren; Art Brooks; Paul Goranson; Mike Cole; Peter Titus

    2004-09-28

    The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) vacuum vessel has a rather unique shape being very closely coupled topologically to the three-fold stellarator symmetry of the plasma it contains. This shape does not permit the use of the common forms of pressure vessel analysis and necessitates the reliance on finite element analysis. The current paper describes the NCSX vacuum vessel stress analysis including external pressure, thermal, and electro-magnetic loading from internal plasma disruptions and bakeout temperatures of up to 400 degrees centigrade. Buckling and dynamic loading conditions are also considered.

  3. Thermal wake/vessel detection technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roskovensky, John K.; Nandy, Prabal; Post, Brian N

    2012-01-10

    A computer-automated method for detecting a vessel in water based on an image of a portion of Earth includes generating a thermal anomaly mask. The thermal anomaly mask flags each pixel of the image initially deemed to be a wake pixel based on a comparison of a thermal value of each pixel against other thermal values of other pixels localized about each pixel. Contiguous pixels flagged by the thermal anomaly mask are grouped into pixel clusters. A shape of each of the pixel clusters is analyzed to determine whether each of the pixel clusters represents a possible vessel detection event. The possible vessel detection events are represented visually within the image.

  4. Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) Vessel Relocated after 50 years.

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Printer Friendly Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) Vessel Relocated Engineering Test Reactor Vessel Pre-startup 1957 Click on image to enlarge. Image 1 of 5 Gantry jacks attached to ETR vessel. Initial lift starts. - Click on image to enlarge. Image 2 of 5 ETR vessel removed from substructure. Vessel lifted approximately 40 ft. - Click on image to enlarge. On Monday, September 24, 2007 the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) vessel was removed from its location and delivered to the Idaho CERCLA Disposal

  5. Forum Agenda: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Agenda for the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum held Sept. 27-29, 2010, in Beijing, China Forum Agenda: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum ...

  6. Brown County, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Brown County is a county in Ohio. Its FIPS County Code is 015. It is classified as ASHRAE...

  7. Brown County, Indiana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Brown County is a county in Indiana. Its FIPS County Code is 013. It is classified as ASHRAE...

  8. Brown County, Kansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Brown County is a county in Kansas. Its FIPS County Code is 013. It is classified as ASHRAE...

  9. Brown County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Brown County is a county in Minnesota. Its FIPS County Code is 015. It is classified as...

  10. Brown County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Brown County is a county in Texas. Its FIPS County Code is 049. It is classified as ASHRAE...

  11. Brown County, South Dakota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Brown County is a county in South Dakota. Its FIPS County Code is 013. It is classified as...

  12. From: Meredith Brown Subject: Yellow Alert:...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Fri, 12 Jun 1998 17:03:23 -0500 From: Meredith Brown Subject: Yellow Alert: Small Bench Top Fire Title: Bench Top Fire Involving Use of Alcohol and Burner...

  13. Brown County, Nebraska: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Brown County is a county in Nebraska. Its FIPS County Code is 017. It is classified as...

  14. Brown County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Brown County is a county in Wisconsin. Its FIPS County Code is 009. It is classified as...

  15. Brown County Rural Elec Assn | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Rural Elec Assn Jump to: navigation, search Name: Brown County Rural Elec Assn Place: Minnesota Phone Number: 1-800-658-2368 Website: www.browncountyrea.coop Outage Hotline:...

  16. Brown County, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Brown County is a county in Illinois. Its FIPS County Code is 009. It is classified as...

  17. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2007-02-20

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  18. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  19. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  20. Neutron shielding panels for reactor pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, Norman R.

    2011-11-22

    In a nuclear reactor neutron panels varying in thickness in the circumferential direction are disposed at spaced circumferential locations around the reactor core so that the greatest radial thickness is at the point of highest fluence with lesser thicknesses at adjacent locations where the fluence level is lower. The neutron panels are disposed between the core barrel and the interior of the reactor vessel to maintain radiation exposure to the vessel within acceptable limits.

  1. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result

  2. PURE NIOBIUM AS A PRESSURE VESSEL MATERIAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T. J.; Carter, H. F.; Foley, M. H.; Klebaner, A. L.; Nicol, T. H.; Page, T. M.; Theilacker, J. C.; Wands, R. H.; Wong-Squires, M. L.; Wu, G.

    2010-04-09

    Physics laboratories around the world are developing niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for use in particle accelerators. These SRF cavities are typically cooled to low temperatures by direct contact with a liquid helium bath, resulting in at least part of the helium container being made from pure niobium. In the U.S., the Code of Federal Regulations allows national laboratories to follow national consensus pressure vessel rules or use of alternative rules which provide a level of safety greater than or equal to that afforded by ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Thus, while used for its superconducting properties, niobium ends up also being treated as a material for pressure vessels. This report summarizes what we have learned about the use of niobium as a pressure vessel material, with a focus on issues for compliance with pressure vessel codes. We present results of a literature search for mechanical properties and tests results, as well as a review of ASME pressure vessel code requirements and issues.

  3. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    program by other municipal agencies (as applicable). In order to accomplish the goals of the project, the following steps were performed: 1. Operation of a demonstration facility designed to receive 10,000 to 12,000 gallons of raw Trap Waste each day from private Trap Waste hauling companies. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Pacific Biodiesel Technologies (PBTech). The demonstration facility would also recover 300 gallons of Brown Grease per day from the raw Trap Waste. The recovered Brown Grease was expected to contain no more than 2% Moisture, Insolubles, and Unsaponifiables (MIU) combined. 2. Co-digestion of the side streams (generated during the recovery of 300 gallons of Brown Grease from the raw Trap Waste) with wastewater sludge in the WWTP's anaerobic digesters. The effects of the side streams on anaerobic digestion were quantified by comparison with baseline data. 3. Production of 240 gallons per day of ASTM D6751-S15 grade Biodiesel fuel via a Biodiesel conversion demonstration facility, with the use of recovered Brown Grease as a feedstock. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Blackgold Biofuels (BGB). Side streams from this process were also co-digested with wastewater sludge. Bench-scale anaerobic digestion testing was conducted on side streams from both demonstration facilities to determine potential toxicity and/or changes in biogas production in the WWTP anaerobic digester. While there is a lot of theoretical data available on the lab-scale production of Biodiesel from grease Trap Waste, this full-scale demonstration project was one of the first of its kind in the United States. The project's environmental impacts were expected to include: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by prevention of the release of methane at landfills. Although the combustion product of Biodiesel and Methane gas produced in the Anaerobic digester, Carbon Dioxide, is also a greenhouse gas; it is 20 times weaker for the same amount (per mole

  4. Code System to Calculate Pressure Vessel Failure Probabilities.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-03-27

    Version 00 OCTAVIA (Operationally Caused Transients And Vessel Integrity Analysis) calculates the probability of pressure vessel failure from operationally-caused pressure transients which can occur in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). For specified vessel and operating environment characteristics the program computes the failure pressure at which the vessel will fail for different-sized flaws existing in the beltline and the probability of vessel failure per reactor year due to the flaw. The probabilities are summed over themore » various flaw sizes to obtain the total vessel failure probability. Sensitivity studies can be performed to investigate different vessel or operating characteristics in the same computer run.« less

  5. Cavity closure arrangement for high pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amtmann, Hans H.

    1981-01-01

    A closure arrangement for a pressure vessel such as the pressure vessel of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor wherein a liner is disposed within a cavity penetration in the reactor vessel and defines an access opening therein. A closure is adapted for sealing relation with an annular mounting flange formed on the penetration liner and has a plurality of radially movable locking blocks thereon having outer serrations adapted for releasable interlocking engagement with serrations formed internally of the upper end of the penetration liner so as to effect high strength closure hold-down. In one embodiment, ramping surfaces are formed on the locking block serrations to bias the closure into sealed relation with the mounting flange when the locking blocks are actuated to locking positions.

  6. Applications of the RELAP5 code to the station blackout transients at the Browns Ferry Unit One Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, R.R.; Wagoner, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    As a part of the charter of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program, station blackout transients have been analyzed using a RELAP5 model of the Browns Ferry Unit 1 Plant. The task was conducted as a partial fulfillment of the needs of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in examining the Unresolved Safety Issue A-44: Station Blackout (1) the station blackout transients were examined (a) to define the equipment needed to maintain a well cooled core, (b) to determine when core uncovery would occur given equipment failure, and (c) to characterize the behavior of the vessel thermal-hydraulics during the station blackout transients (in part as the plant operator would see it). These items are discussed in the paper. Conclusions and observations specific to the station blackout are presented.

  7. Vessel with filter and method of use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrell, Jonathan S.; Ripley, Edward B.; Cecala, David M.

    2008-01-29

    Chemical processing apparatuses which incorporate a process vessel, such as a crucible or retort, and which include a gas separation or filtration system. Various embodiments incorporate such features as loose filtration material, semi-rigid filtration material, and structured filtration material. The vessel may include material that is a microwave susceptor. Filtration media may be selected so that if it inadvertently mixes with the chemical process or the reaction products of such process, it would not adversely affect the results of the chemical process.

  8. EDS V25 containment vessel explosive qualification test report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudolphi, John Joseph

    2012-04-01

    The V25 containment vessel was procured by the Project Manager, Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PMNSCM) as a replacement vessel for use on the P2 Explosive Destruction Systems. It is the first EDS vessel to be fabricated under Code Case 2564 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which provides rules for the design of impulsively loaded vessels. The explosive rating for the vessel based on the Code Case is nine (9) pounds TNT-equivalent for up to 637 detonations. This limit is an increase from the 4.8 pounds TNT-equivalency rating for previous vessels. This report describes the explosive qualification tests that were performed in the vessel as part of the process for qualifying the vessel for explosive use. The tests consisted of a 11.25 pound TNT equivalent bare charge detonation followed by a 9 pound TNT equivalent detonation.

  9. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  10. Final Vitrification Melter And Vessels Evaluation Documentation

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has prepared final evaluations and made waste incidental to reprocessing determinations for the vitrification melter and feed vessels (the concentrator feed makeup tank and the melter feed hold tank), used by DOE’s West Valley Demonstration Project as part of the process to vitrify waste from prior commercial reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel.

  11. Reactor pressure vessel with forged nozzles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Desai, Dilip R.

    1993-01-01

    Inlet nozzles for a gravity-driven cooling system (GDCS) are forged with a cylindrical reactor pressure vessel (RPV) section to which a support skirt for the RPV is attached. The forging provides enhanced RPV integrity around the nozzle and substantial reduction of in-service inspection costs by eliminating GDCS nozzle-to-RPV welds.

  12. Investigation of Cracked Lithium Hydride Reactor Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    bird, e.l.; mustaleski, t.m.

    1999-06-01

    Visual examination of lithium hydride reactor vessels revealed cracks that were adjacent to welds, most of which were circumferentially located in the bottom portion of the vessels. Sections were cut from the vessels containing these cracks and examined by use of the metallograph, scanning electron microscope, and microprobe to determine the cause of cracking. Most of the cracks originated on the outer surface just outside the weld fusion line in the base material and propagated along grain boundaries. Crack depths of those examined sections ranged from {approximately}300 to 500 {micro}m. Other cracks were reported to have reached a maximum depth of 1/8 in. The primary cause of cracking was the creation of high tensile stresses associated with the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the filler metal and the base metal during operation of the vessel in a thermally cyclic environment. This failure mechanism could be described as creep-type fatigue, whereby crack propagation may have been aided by the presence of brittle chromium carbides along the grain boundaries, which indicates a slightly sensitized microstructure.

  13. Fast Flux Test Facility Reactor Vessel Removal Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOWMAN, B.R.

    2002-10-23

    This study assesses the feasibility of removing the FFTF reactor vessel from its current location in the reactor cavity inside the Containment vessel to a transporter for relocation to a burial pit in the 200 Area.

  14. Cover Heated, Open Vessels, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    9 Cover Heated, Open Vessels Open vessels that contain heated liquids often have high heat loss due to surface evaporation. Both energy and liquid losses are reduced by covering ...

  15. Forum Agenda: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Agenda for the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum held Sept. 27-29, 2010, in Beijing, China

  16. Relief device for a vacuum vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fast, Ronald W.

    1987-04-28

    A pressure relief device 5 for a vessel having redundant pressure relief capabilities. An annular plate 12 overlies a surface 11 which has an aperature to the vessel. A seal is formed between the surface 11 and annular plate 12. A solid plate 13 overlies the annular plate 12. A seal is formed between the solid plate 13 and annular plate 12. The relief device 5 will open at a first predetermined pressure by lifting the solid plate 13. In the event the seal between solid plate 13 and annular plate 12 should stick the relief device 5 will open at a second slightly higher, predetermined pressure by lifting the annular plate 12 and solid plate 13 together. Hinging means 6 are provided to reclose the pressure relief device 5 when conditions return to normal.

  17. From Cold War to cold vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melrath, C.

    1996-09-01

    This article describes a former Soviet weapons plant which is converted to produce cryogenic vessels and other peaceful cylinders. In 1995, Byelocorp Scientific Inc. (BSI), a New York-based firm that specializes in transferring technologies developed in the former Soviet Union, began converting a huge military defense plant in Kazakhstan into civilian-industrial use. The nearly 750,000-square-foot factory in Almaty, the capital of the former Soviet republic, was previously used to manufacture torpedo shells and ballistic rocket casings. The old defense plant, which was known as Gidromash, will now manufacture cylinders of a kinder, gentler variety--cryogenic vessels. The Kazakhstan operation is being managed jointly with Supco Srl., an Italian manufacturing, engineering, and construction company. With financing from the US Department of Defense, BSI, Supco, and the Kazakhstan government, a new joint venture called Byelkamit (a combination of Byelocorp, Kazakhstan, America, and Italy) was established.

  18. (Irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corwin, W.R.

    1990-09-24

    The traveler served as a member of the two-man US Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored team who visited the Prometey Complex in Leningrad to assess the potential for expanded cooperative research concerning integrity of the primary pressure boundary in commercial light-water reactors. The emphasis was on irradiation embrittlement, structural analysis, and fracture mechanics research for reactor pressure vessels. At the irradiation seminar in Cologne, presentations were made by German, French, Finnish, Russian, and US delegations concerning many aspects of irradiation of pressure vessel steels. The traveler made presentations on mechanisms of irradiation embrittlement and on important aspects of the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program results of irradiated fracture mechanics tests.

  19. Photoacoustic removal of occlusions from blood vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visuri, Steven R.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Celliers, Peter M.; London, Richard A.; Maitland, IV, Duncan J.; Esch, Victor C.

    2002-01-01

    Partial or total occlusions of fluid passages within the human body are removed by positioning an array of optical fibers in the passage and directing treatment radiation pulses along the fibers, one at a time, to generate a shock wave and hydrodynamics flows that strike and emulsify the occlusions. A preferred application is the removal of blood clots (thrombin and embolic) from small cerebral vessels to reverse the effects of an ischemic stroke. The operating parameters and techniques are chosen to minimize the amount of heating of the fragile cerebral vessel walls occurring during this photo acoustic treatment. One such technique is the optical monitoring of the existence of hydrodynamics flow generating vapor bubbles when they are expected to occur and stopping the heat generating pulses propagated along an optical fiber that is not generating such bubbles.

  20. Starting procedure for internal combustion vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Harry A.

    1978-09-26

    A vertical vessel, having a low bed of broken material, having included combustible material, is initially ignited by a plurality of ignitors spaced over the surface of the bed, by adding fresh, broken material onto the bed to buildup the bed to its operating depth and then passing a combustible mixture of gas upwardly through the material, at a rate to prevent back-firing of the gas, while air and recycled gas is passed through the bed to thereby heat the material and commence the desired laterally uniform combustion in the bed. The procedure permits precise control of the air and gaseous fuel mixtures and material rates, and permits the use of the process equipment designed for continuous operation of the vessel.

  1. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sepelak, George R.

    1978-01-01

    A support system for nuclear reactor pressure vessels which can withstand all possible combinations of stresses caused by a postulated core disrupting accident during reactor operation. The nuclear reactor pressure vessel is provided with a flange around the upper periphery thereof, and the flange includes an annular vertical extension formed integral therewith. A support ring is positioned atop of the support ledge and the flange vertical extension, and is bolted to both members. The plug riser is secured to the flange vertical extension and to the top of a radially outwardly extension of the rotatable plug. This system eliminates one joint through which fluids contained in the vessel could escape by making the fluid flow path through the joint between the flange and the support ring follow the same path through which fluid could escape through the plug risers. In this manner, the sealing means to prohibit the escape of contained fluids through the plug risers can also prohibit the escape of contained fluid through the securing joint.

  2. Midland reactor pressure vessel flaw distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foulds, J.R.; Kennedy, E.L.; Rosinski, S.T.

    1993-12-01

    The results of laboratory nondestructive examination (NDE), and destructive cross-sectioning of selected weldment sections of the Midland reactor pressure vessel were analyzed per a previously developed methodology in order to develop a flaw distribution. The flaw distributions developed from the NDE results obtained by two different ultrasonic test (UT) inspections (Electric Power Research Institute NDE Center and Pacific Northwest Laboratories) were not statistically significantly different. However, the distribution developed from the NDE Center`s (destructive) cross-sectioning-based data was found to be significantly different than those obtained through the UT inspections. A fracture mechanics-based comparison of the flaw distributions showed that the cross-sectioning-based data, conservatively interpreted (all defects considered as flaws), gave a significantly lower vessel failure probability when compared with the failure probability values obtained using the UT-based distributions. Given that the cross-sectioning data were reportedly biased toward larger, more significant-appearing (by UT) indications, it is concluded that the nondestructive examinations produced definitively conservative results. In addition to the Midland vessel inspection-related analyses, a set of twenty-seven numerical simulations, designed to provide a preliminary quantitative assessment of the accuracy of the flaw distribution method used here, were conducted. The calculations showed that, in more than half the cases, the analysis produced reasonably accurate predictions.

  3. Confinement Vessel Assay System: Calibration and Certification Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frame, Katherine C.; Bourne, Mark M.; Crooks, William J.; Evans, Louise; Gomez, Cipriano; Mayo, Douglas R.; Miko, David K.; Salazar, William R.; Stange, Sy; Vigil, Georgiana M.

    2012-07-17

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1 to 2 inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. The Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) was developed to measure the amount of SNM in CVs before and after cleanout. Prior to cleanout, the system will be used to perform a verification measurement of each vessel. After cleanout, the system will be used to perform safeguards-quality assays of {le} 100-g {sup 239}Pu equivalent in a vessel for safeguards termination. The system was calibrated in three different mass regions (low, medium, and high) to cover the entire plutonium mass range that will be assayed. The low mass calibration and medium mass calibration were verified for material positioned in the center of an empty vessel. The systematic uncertainty due to position bias was estimated using an MCNPX model to simulate the response of the system to material localized at various points along the inner surface of the vessel. The background component due to cosmic ray spallation was determined by performing measurements of an empty vessel and comparing to measurements in the same location with no vessel present. The CVAS has been tested and calibrated in preparation for verification and safeguards measurements of CVs before and after cleanout.

  4. Production and degradation of oxalic acid by brown rot fungi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espejo, E.; Agosin, E. )

    1991-07-01

    Our results show that all of the brown rot fungi tested produce oxalic acid in liquid as well as in semisolid cultures. Gloeophyllum trabeum, which accumulates the lowest amount of oxalic acid during decay of pine holocellulose, showed the highest polysaccharide-depolymerizing activity. Semisolid cultures inoculated with this fungus rapidly converted {sup 14}C-labeled oxalic acid to CO{sub 2} during cellulose depolymerization. The other brown rot fungi also oxidized {sup 14}C-labeled oxalic acid, although less rapidly. In contrast, semisolid cultures inoculated with the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor did not significantly catabolize the acid and did not depolymerize the holocellulose during decay. Semisolid cultures of G. trabeum amended with desferrioxamine, a specific iron-chelating agent, were unable to lower the degree of polymerization of cellulose or to oxidize {sup 14}C-labeled oxalic acid to the extent or at the rate that control cultures did. These results suggest that both iron and oxalic acid are involved in cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi.

  5. CNG Exports by Vessel out of the U.S. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Vessel out of the U.S. CNG Exports by Vessel out of the U.S. CNG Exports by Vessel Form (Excel) (40.5 KB) CNG Exports by Vessel Form (pdf) (10.88 KB) More Documents & Publications CNG Imports by Vessel into the U.S. Other Imports by Truck into the U.S. Other Exports by Vessel

  6. Reactor pressure vessel structural integrity research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennell, W.E.; Corwin, W.R.

    1995-04-01

    Development continues on the technology used to assess the safety of irradiation-embrittled nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) containing flaws. Fracture mechanics tests on RPV steel, coupled with detailed elastic-plastic finite-element analyses of the crack-tip stress fields, have shown that (1) constraint relaxation at the crack tip of shallows surface flaws results in increased data scatter but no increase in the lower-bound fracture toughness, (2) the nil ductility temperature (NDT) performs better than the reference temperature for nil ductility transition (RT{sub NDT}) as a normalizing parameter for shallow-flaw fracture toughness data, (3) biaxial loading can reduce the shallow-flaw fracture toughness, (4) stress-based dual-parameter fracture toughness correlations cannot predict the effect of biaxial loading on a shallow-flaw fracture toughness because in-plane stresses at the crack tip are not influenced by biaxial loading, and (5) an implicit strain-based dual-parameter fracture toughness correlation can predict the effect of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Experimental irradiation investigations have shown that (1) the irradiation-induced shift in Charpy V-notch vs temperature behavior may not be adequate to conservatively assess fracture toughness shifts due to embrittlement, and (2) the wide global variations of initial chemistry and fracture properties of a nominally uniform material within a pressure vessel may confound accurate integrity assessments that require baseline properties.

  7. Inexpensive Delivery of Compressed Hydrogen with Advanced Vessel Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    | Department of Energy Inexpensive Delivery of Compressed Hydrogen with Advanced Vessel Technology Inexpensive Delivery of Compressed Hydrogen with Advanced Vessel Technology Presentation on inexpensive delivery of compressed hydrogen with advanced vessel technology. wkshp_storage_berry.pdf (367.52 KB) More Documents & Publications Overview of FreedomCAR & Fuels Partnership/DOE Delivery Program President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks

  8. International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum - Presentations |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum - Presentations International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum - Presentations These presentations were given at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum held September 27-29, 2010 in Beijing, China. September 27, 2010 Keynote: Status and Progress in Research, Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen-Compressed Natural Gas Vehicles in China Professor Z.Q. Mao Tsinghua University and Chair of

  9. International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings Proceedings from the forum, which took place in Beijing, China, on September 27-29, 2010. International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings (284.25 KB) More Documents & Publications Workshop Notes from ""Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels: Lessons Learned for the Safe Deployment of Vehicles"" Workshop,

  10. Forum Agenda: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    FORUM AGENDA U.S. Department of Energy and Tsinghua University International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum Tsinghua University Beijing, PRC September 27 - 29, 2010 The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Tsinghua University in Beijing co-hosted the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 - 29, 2010 in Beijing, China. High pressure vessel experts gathered to share lessons learned from CNG and hydrogen vehicle deployments, and to identify R&D needs to

  11. Mooring system for oil tanker storage vessel or the like

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hvide, H.J.

    1993-08-24

    A mooring system for an ocean going vessel, said vessel hull having a thickness, said system comprising: (a) a rigid shaft having an upper end and a lower end, said shaft being immovably fixed at said upper end to said vessel and said lower end of said shaft being disposed beneath and external of said hull; and (b) a chain table rotatably mounted on said lower end of said rigid shaft.

  12. High-pressure Storage Vessels for Hydrogen, Natural Gas and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends | Department of Energy High-pressure Storage Vessels for Hydrogen, Natural Gas and Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends High-pressure Storage Vessels for Hydrogen, Natural Gas and Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 - 29, 2010, in Beijing, China. ihfpv_lynch.pdf (4.21 MB) More Documents & Publications Properties, Behavior and Material Compatibility of Hydrogen, Natural Gas

  13. Webinar: Material Characterization of Storage Vessels for Fuel...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Above is the video recording for the webinar, "Material Characterization of Storage Vessels for Fuel Cell Forklifts," originally held on August 14, 2012. In addition to this ...

  14. Study Reveals Challenges and Opportunities Related to Vessels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Reveals Challenges and Opportunities Related to Vessels for U.S. Offshore Wind Study Reveals ... The installation of offshore wind farms requires a highly specialized fleet of ...

  15. Method and device for supporting blood vessels during anastomosis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doss, J.D.

    1985-05-20

    A device and method for preventing first and second severed blood vessels from collapsing during attachment to each other. The device comprises a dissolvable non-toxic stent that is sufficiently rigid to prevent the blood vessels from collapsing during anastomosis. The stent can be hollow or have passages to permit blood flow before it dissolves. A single stent can be inserted with an end in each of the two blood vessels or separate stents can be inserted into each blood vessel. The stent may include a therapeutically effective amount of a drug which is slowly released into the blood stream as the stent dissolves. 12 figs.

  16. Roadmap for Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel...

    Energy Savers

    Reactor Sustainability Program Roadmap for Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel Research and Development by the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program The ...

  17. Experimental evaluation of solids suspension uniformity in canyon process vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, N.M.

    1996-06-25

    Experimental evaluation of solids suspension in canyon process vessels was performed at several paddle agitator speeds and different volume levels in a geometrically similar vessel. The paddle agitator speeds examined were 280, 370, 528, and 686 rpm and volume levels were 30%, 50%, and 70% fill capacity. Experiments were conducted with simulated solid particles that have particle size range and density similar to plutonium particles and corrosion products typically seen in canyon vessels. Solids suspension took place in baffled cylindrical vessel equipped with two flat-blade agitators and cooling helices.

  18. Static-stress analysis of dual-axis safety vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bultman, D.H.

    1992-11-01

    An 8-ft-diameter safety vessel, made of HSLA-100 steel, is evaluated to determine its ability to contain the quasi-static residual pressure from a high-explosive (HE) blast. The safety vessel is designed for use with the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrotest (DARHT) facility being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A smaller confinement vessel fits inside the safety vessel and contains the actual explosion, and the safety vessel functions as a second layer of containment in the unlikely case of a confinement vessel leak. The safety vessel is analyzed as a pressure vessel based on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1, and the Welding Research Council Bulletin, WRC107. Combined stresses that result from internal pressure and external loads on nozzles are calculated and compared to the allowable stresses for HSLA-100 steel. Results confirm that the shell and nozzle components are adequately designed for a static pressure of 830 psi, plus the maximum expected external loads. Shell stresses at the shellto-nozzle interface, produced from external loads on the nozzles, were less than 700 psi. The maximum combined stress resulting from the internal pressure plus external loads was 17,384 psi, which is significantly less than the allowable stress of 42,375 psi for HSLA-100 steel.

  19. Webinar: Material Characterization of Storage Vessels for Fuel Cell Forklifts

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording of the webinar titled, Material Characterization of Storage Vessels for Fuel Cell Forklifts, originally presented on August 14, 2012.

  20. Method for Preparing Nanoporous Cell-Scaled Reaction Vessels...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Method for Preparing Nanoporous Cell-Scaled Reaction Vessels Oak Ridge ... reactions at the microscale level. *Cell-mimicking structures can be prepared as ...

  1. Stress analysis and evaluation of a rectangular pressure vessel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    States)) 42 ENGINEERING; 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; PRESSURE VESSELS; STRESS ANALYSIS; RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE;...

  2. From Meredith Brown racer@lanl.gov Subject: Yellow Alert- Supplied...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    12 Jan 2000 130859 -0700 From Meredith Brown racer@lanl.gov Subject: Yellow Alert- Supplied Air Fitting Failure Title: Yellow Alert- Mechanical Failure of Supplied Air Fitting...

  3. From: Meredith Brown Subject: Red Alert: Contaminatio...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Meredith Brown Subject: Red Alert: Contamination Spread Outside of RCAs ... Priority Descriptor: REDUrgent (based on the actual spread of contamination offsite) ...

  4. ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF BROWN DWARFS: JETS, VORTICES, AND TIME VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xi; Showman, Adam P.

    2014-06-10

    A variety of observational evidence demonstrates that brown dwarfs exhibit active atmospheric circulations. In this study we use a shallow-water model to investigate the global atmospheric dynamics in the stratified layer overlying the convective zone on these rapidly rotating objects. We show that the existence and properties of the atmospheric circulation crucially depend on key parameters including the energy injection rate and radiative timescale. Under conditions of strong internal heat flux and weak radiative dissipation, a banded flow pattern comprised of east-west jet streams spontaneously emerges from the interaction of atmospheric turbulence with the planetary rotation. In contrast, when the internal heat flux is weak and/or radiative dissipation is strong, turbulence injected into the atmosphere damps before it can self-organize into jets, leading to a flow dominated by transient eddies and isotropic turbulence instead. The simulation results are not very sensitive to the form of the forcing. Based on the location of the transition between jet-dominated and eddy-dominated regimes, we suggest that many brown dwarfs may exhibit atmospheric circulations dominated by eddies and turbulence (rather than jets) due to the strong radiative damping on these worlds, but a jet structure is also possible under some realistic conditions. Our simulated light curves capture important features from observed infrared light curves of brown dwarfs, including amplitude variations of a few percent and shapes that fluctuate between single-peak and multi-peak structures. More broadly, our work shows that the shallow-water system provides a useful tool to illuminate fundamental aspects of the dynamics on these worlds.

  5. From: Doris Brown To: Congestion Study Comments Subject: NIETCs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Doris Brown To: Congestion Study Comments Subject: NIETCs Date: Monday, October 20, 2014 2:47:39 PM I am opposed to the establishment of National Interest Energy Transmission Corridors (NIETC's) Easements for the corridors will mainly have to be obtained through eminent domain. Compensation for the easements can only be "just" as required in the Bill of Rights if it reflects all the possibilities of what the easement may be used for. Utilities do not want to farm the land, so farming

  6. Fluid-solid contact vessel having fluid distributors therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., John B.

    1980-09-09

    Rectangularly-shaped fluid distributors for large diameter, vertical vessels include reinforcers for high heat operation, vertical sides with gas distributing orifices and overhanging, sloped roofs. Devices are provided for cleaning the orifices from a buildup of solid deposits resulting from the reactions in the vessel.

  7. Static-stress analysis of dual-axis confinement vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bultman, D.H.

    1992-11-01

    This study evaluates the static-pressure containment capability of a 6-ft-diameter, spherical vessel, made of HSLA-100 steel, to be used for high-explosive (HE) containment. The confinement vessel is designed for use with the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrotest Facility (DARHT) being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two sets of openings in the vessel are covered with x-ray transparent covers to allow radiographic imaging of an explosion as it occurs inside the vessel. The confinement vessel is analyzed as a pressure vessel based on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1, and the Welding Research Council Bulletin, WRC-107. Combined stresses resulting from internal pressure and external loads on nozzles are calculated and compared with the allowable stresses for HSLA-100 steel. Results confirm that the shell and nozzles of the confinement vessel are adequately designed to safely contain the maximum residual pressure of 1675 psi that would result from an HE charge of 24.2 kg detonated in a vacuum. Shell stresses at the shell-to-nozzle interface, produced from external loads on the nozzles, were less than 400 psi. The maximum combined stress resulting from the internal pressure plus external loads was 16,070 psi, which is less than half the allowable stress of 42,375 psi for HSLA-100 steel.

  8. DISCOVERY OF A CANDIDATE FOR THE COOLEST KNOWN BROWN DWARF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luhman, K. L.; Bochanski, J. J.; Burgasser, A. J.

    2011-03-20

    We have used multi-epoch images from the Infrared Array Camera on board the Spitzer Space Telescope to search for substellar companions to stars in the solar neighborhood based on common proper motions. Through this work, we have discovered a faint companion to the white dwarf WD 0806-661. The comoving source has a projected separation of 130'', corresponding to 2500 AU at the distance of the primary (19.2 pc). If it is physically associated, then its absolute magnitude at 4.5 {mu}m is {approx}1 mag fainter than the faintest known T dwarfs, making it a strong candidate for the coolest known brown dwarf. The combination of M{sub 4.5} and the age of the primary (1.5 Gyr) implies an effective temperature of {approx}300 K and a mass of {approx}7 M{sub Jup} according to theoretical evolutionary models. The white dwarf's progenitor likely had a mass of {approx}2 M{sub sun}, and thus could have been born with a circumstellar disk that was sufficiently massive to produce a companion with this mass. Therefore, the companion could be either a brown dwarf that formed like a binary star or a giant planet that was born within a disk and has been dynamically scattered to a larger orbit.

  9. NEOWISE-R observation of the coolest known brown dwarf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Edward L.; Mainzer, Amy; Bauer, James; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Davy Kirkpatrick, J.; Masci, Frank; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Gelino, Christopher R.; Beichman, Charles A.; Cutri, Roc; Cushing, Michael C.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Grav, T.

    2014-11-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft has been reactivated as NEOWISE-R to characterize and search for near-Earth objects. The brown dwarf WISE J085510.83–071442.5 has now been re-observed by NEOWISE-R, and we confirm the results of Luhman, who found a very low effective temperature (≈250 K), a very high proper motion (8.''1 ± 0.''1 yr{sup –1}), and a large parallax (454 ± 45 mas). The large proper motion has separated the brown dwarf from the background sources that influenced the 2010 WISE data, allowing a measurement of a very red WISE color of W1 – W2 >3.9 mag. A re-analysis of the 2010 WISE astrometry using only the W2 band, combined with the new NEOWISE-R 2014 position, gives an improved parallax of 448 ± 33 mas and a proper motion of 8.''08 ± 0.''05 yr{sup –1}. These are all consistent with values from Luhman.

  10. CONFIRMATION OF ONE OF THE COLDEST KNOWN BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luhman, K. L.; Bochanski, J. J.; Burgasser, A. J.; Labbe, I.; Monson, A. J.; Persson, S. E.; Saumon, D.; Marley, M. S.

    2012-01-10

    Using two epochs of 4.5 {mu}m images from the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, we recently identified a common proper motion companion to the white dwarf WD 0806-661 that is a candidate for the coldest known brown dwarf. To verify its cool nature, we have obtained images of this object at 3.6 {mu}m with IRAC, at J with the High Acuity Wide-field K-band Imager (HAWK-I) on the Very Large Telescope, and in a filter covering the red half of J with FourStar on Magellan. WD 0806-661 B is detected by IRAC but not HAWK-I or FourStar. From these data we measure colors of [3.6] - [4.5] = 2.77 {+-} 0.16 and J - [4.5] > 7.0 (S/N < 3). Based on these colors and its absolute magnitudes, WD 0806-661 B is the coldest companion directly imaged outside of the solar system and is a contender for the coldest known brown dwarf with the Y dwarf WISEP J1828+2650. It is unclear which of these two objects is colder given the available data. A comparison of its absolute magnitude at 4.5 {mu}m to the predictions of theoretical spectra and evolutionary models suggests that WD 0806-661 B has T{sub eff} = 300-345 K.

  11. Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharbaugh, John E.

    1987-01-01

    An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment

  12. CNG Imports by Vessel into the U.S. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Vessel into the U.S. CNG Imports by Vessel into the U.S. CNG Imports by Vessel Form (Excel) (41 KB) CNG Imports by Vessel Form (pdf) (14.24 KB) More Documents & Publications Other Imports by Vessel into the U.S. Other Imports by Truck

  13. Other Imports by Vessel into the U.S. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Vessel into the U.S. Other Imports by Vessel into the U.S. Other Imports by Vessel Form (Excel) (41 KB) Other Imports by Vessel Form (pdf) (14.23 KB) More Documents & Publications CNG Imports by Vessel into the U.S. Other Imports by Truck

  14. Radiation effects on reactor pressure vessel supports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.E.; Lipinski, R.E.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the findings from the work done in accordance with the Task Action Plan developed to resolve the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Generic Safety Issue No. 15, (GSI-15). GSI-15 was established to evaluate the potential for low-temperature, low-flux-level neutron irradiation to embrittle reactor pressure vessel (RPV) supports to the point of compromising plant safety. An evaluation of surveillance samples from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) had suggested that some materials used for RPV supports in pressurized-water reactors could exhibit higher than expected embrittlement rates. However, further tests designed to evaluate the applicability of the HFIR data to reactor RPV supports under operating conditions led to the conclusion that RPV supports could be evaluated using traditional method. It was found that the unique HFIR radiation environment allowed the gamma radiation to contribute significantly to the embrittlement. The shielding provided by the thick steel RPV shell ensures that degradation of RPV supports from gamma irradiation is improbable or minimal. The findings reported herein were used, in part, as the basis for technical resolution of the issue.

  15. Welding the AT-400A Containment Vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon, E.

    1998-11-01

    Early in 1994, the Department of Energy assigned Sandia National Laboratories the responsibility for designing and providing the welding system for the girth weld for the AT-400A containment vessel. (The AT-400A container is employed for the shipment and long-term storage of the nuclear weapon pits being returned from the nation's nuclear arsenal.) Mason Hanger Corporation's Pantex Plant was chosen to be the production facility. The project was successfully completed by providing and implementing a turnkey welding system and qualified welding procedure at the Pantex Plant. The welding system was transferred to Pantex and a pilot lot of 20 AT-400A containers with W48 pits was welded in August 1997. This document is intended to bring together the AT-400A welding system and product (girth weld) requirements and the activities conducted to meet those requirements. This document alone is not a complete compilation of the welding development activities but is meant to be a summary to be used with the applicable references.

  16. Aqueous Solution Vessel Thermal Model Development II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen

    2015-10-28

    The work presented in this report is a continuation of the work described in the May 2015 report, “Aqueous Solution Vessel Thermal Model Development”. This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model aims to predict the temperature and bubble volume fraction in an aqueous solution of uranium. These values affect the reactivity of the fissile solution, so it is important to be able to calculate them and determine their effects on the reaction. Part A of this report describes some of the parameter comparisons performed on the CFD model using Fluent. Part B describes the coupling of the Fluent model with a Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) neutron transport model. The fuel tank geometry is the same as it was in the May 2015 report, annular with a thickness-to-height ratio of 0.16. An accelerator-driven neutron source provides the excitation for the reaction, and internal and external water cooling channels remove the heat. The model used in this work incorporates the Eulerian multiphase model with lift, wall lubrication, turbulent dispersion and turbulence interaction. The buoyancy-driven flow is modeled using the Boussinesq approximation, and the flow turbulence is determined using the k-ω Shear-Stress-Transport (SST) model. The dispersed turbulence multiphase model is employed to capture the multiphase turbulence effects.

  17. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 (11 January - 24 February, 2005)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozyr, Alex

    2006-08-30

    This report presents methods, and analytical and quality control procedures for salinity, oxygen, nutrient, inorganic carbon, organic carbon, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), and bomb 14C system parameters performed during the A16S_2005 cruise, which took place from January 11 to February 24, 2005, aboard research vessel (R/V) Ronald H. Brown under the auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The R/V Ronald H. Brown departed Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 11, 2005, and ended its cruise in Fortaleza, Brazil, on February 24, 2005. The research conducted was one of a series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by NOAA and the National Science Foundation as part of the CLIVAR/CO2/repeat hydrography/tracer program. Samples were taken from 36 depths at 121 stations. The data presented in this report include the analyses of water samples for total inorganic carbon (TCO2), fugacity of CO2 (fCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CFC, 14C, hydrographic, and other chemical measurements. The R/V Ronald H. Brown A16S_2005 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  18. Reactor Vessel and Reactor Vessel Internals Segmentation at Zion Nuclear Power Station - 13230

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Conrad; Spann, Holger

    2013-07-01

    Zion Nuclear Power Station (ZNPS) is a dual-unit Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant located on the Lake Michigan shoreline, in the city of Zion, Illinois approximately 64 km (40 miles) north of Chicago, Illinois and 67 km (42 miles) south of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Each PWR is of the Westinghouse design and had a generation capacity of 1040 MW. Exelon Corporation operated both reactors with the first unit starting production of power in 1973 and the second unit coming on line in 1974. The operation of both reactors ceased in 1996/1997. In 2010 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved the transfer of Exelon Corporation's license to ZionSolutions, the Long Term Stewardship subsidiary of EnergySolutions responsible for the decommissioning of ZNPS. In October 2010, ZionSolutions awarded Siempelkamp Nuclear Services, Inc. (SNS) the contract to plan, segment, remove, and package both reactor vessels and their respective internals. This presentation discusses the tools employed by SNS to remove and segment the Reactor Vessel Internals (RVI) and Reactor Vessels (RV) and conveys the recent progress. SNS's mechanical segmentation tooling includes the C-HORCE (Circumferential Hydraulically Operated Cutting Equipment), BMT (Bolt Milling Tool), FaST (Former Attachment Severing Tool) and the VRS (Volume Reduction Station). Thermal segmentation of the reactor vessels will be accomplished using an Oxygen- Propane cutting system. The tools for internals segmentation were designed by SNS using their experience from other successful reactor and large component decommissioning and demolition (D and D) projects in the US. All of the designs allow for the mechanical segmentation of the internals remotely in the water-filled reactor cavities. The C-HORCE is designed to saw seven circumferential cuts through the Core Barrel and Thermal Shield walls with individual thicknesses up to 100 mm (4 inches). The BMT is designed to remove the bolts that fasten the Baffle Plates to

  19. Start-up control system and vessel for LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durrant, Oliver W.; Kakarala, Chandrasekhara R.; Mandel, Sheldon W.

    1987-01-01

    A reflux condensing start-up system includes a steam generator, a start-up vessel connected parallel to the steam generator, a main steam line connecting steam outlets of the steam generator and start-up vessel to a steam turbine, a condenser connected to an outlet of the turbine and a feedwater return line connected between the condenser and inlets of the steam generator and start-up vessel. The start-up vessel has one or more heaters at the bottom thereof for heating feedwater which is supplied over a start-up line to the start-up vessel. Steam is thus generated to pressurize the steam generator before the steam generator is supplied with a heat transfer medium, for example liquid sodium, in the case of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. The start-up vessel includes upper and lower bulbs with a smaller diameter mid-section to act as water and steam reservoirs. The start-up vessel can thus be used not only in a start-up operation but as a mixing tank, a water storage tank and a level control at low loads for controlling feedwater flow.

  20. Start-up control system and vessel for LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durrant, Oliver W.; Kakarala, Chandrasekhara R.; Mandel, Sheldon W.

    1987-01-01

    A reflux condensing start-up system comprises a steam generator, a start-up vessel connected parallel to the steam generator, a main steam line connecting steam outlets of the steam generator and start-up vessel to a steam turbine, a condenser connected to an outlet of the turbine and a feedwater return line connected between the condenser and inlets of the steam generator and start-up vessel. The start-up vessel has one or more heaters at the bottom thereof for heating feedwater which is supplied over a start-up line to the start-up vessel. Steam is thus generated to pressurize the steam generator before the steam generator is supplied with a heat transfer medium, for example liquid sodium, in the case of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. The start-up vessel includes upper and lower bulbs with a smaller diameter mid-section to act as water and steam reservoirs. The start-up vessel can thus be used not only in a start-up operation but as a mixing tank, a water storage tank and a level control at low loads for controlling feedwater flow.

  1. Confinement Vessel Assay System: Design and Implementation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frame, Katherine C.; Bourne, Mark M.; Crooks, William J.; Evans, Louise; Mayo, Douglas R.; Gomez, Cipriano D.; Miko, David K.; Salazar, William R.; Stange, Sy; Vigil, Georgiana M.

    2012-07-18

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1- to 2-inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. We have developed a neutron assay system for the purposes of Materials Control and Accountability (MC&A) measurements of the vessel prior to and after cleanout. We present our approach to confronting the challenges in designing, building, and testing such a system. The system was designed to meet a set of functional and operational requirements. A Monte Carlo model was developed to aid in optimizing the detector design as well as to predict the systematic uncertainty associated with confinement vessel measurements. Initial testing was performed to optimize and determine various measurement parameters, and then the system was characterized using {sup 252}Cf placed a various locations throughout the measurement system. Measurements were also performed with a {sup 252}Cf source placed inside of small steel and HDPE shells to study the effect of moderation. These measurements compare favorably with their MCNPX model equivalent, making us confident that we can rely on the Monte Carlo simulation to predict the systematic uncertainty due to variations in response to material that may be localized at different points within a vessel.

  2. Rheological properties of water-coal slurries based on brown coal in the presence of sodium lignosulfonates and alkali

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.P. Savitskii; A.S. Makarov; V.A. Zavgorodnii

    2009-07-01

    The effect of the oxidized surface of brown coal on the structural and rheological properties of water-coal slurries was found. The kinetics of structure formation processes in water-coal slurries based on as-received and oxidized brown coal was studied. The effect of lignosulfonate and alkali additives on the samples of brown coal was considered.

  3. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, J.G.

    1993-11-16

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. 1 figures.

  4. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2012-09-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  5. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2011-01-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  6. Nondestructive Technique Survey for Assessing Integrity of Composite Firing Vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, A.

    2000-08-01

    The repeated use and limited lifetime of a composite tiring vessel compel a need to survey techniques for monitoring the structural integrity of the vessel in order to determine when it should be retired. Various nondestructive techniques were researched and evaluated based on their applicability to the vessel. The methods were visual inspection, liquid penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing, surface mounted strain gauges, thermal inspection, acoustic emission, ultrasonic testing, radiography, eddy current testing, and embedded fiber optic sensors. It was determined that embedded fiber optic sensor is the most promising technique due to their ability to be embedded within layers of composites and their immunity to electromagnetic interference.

  7. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, James G.

    1993-01-01

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel.

  8. PERFORMANCE OF A CONTAINMENT VESSEL CLOSURE FOR RADIOACTIVE GAS CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of the design and testing of the containment vessel closure for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This package is a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The containment vessel closure incorporates features specifically designed for the containment of tritium when subjected to the normal and hypothetical conditions required of Type B radioactive material shipping Packages. The paper discusses functional performance of the containment vessel closure of the BTSP prototype packages and separate testing that evaluated the performance of the metallic C-Rings used in a mock BTSP closure.

  9. RAMONA-3B application to Browns Ferry ATWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slovik, G.C.; Neymotin, L.; Cazzoli, E.; Saha, P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses two preliminary MSIV clsoure ATWS calculations done using the RAMONA-3B code and the work being done to create the necessary cross section sets for the Browns Ferry Unit 1 reactor. The RAMONA-3B code employs a three-dimensional neutron kinetics model coupled with one-dimensional, four equation, nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium thermal hydraulics. To be compatible with 3-D neutron kinetics, the code uses parallel coolant channels in the core. It also includes a boron transport model and all necessary BWR components such as jet pump, recirculation pump, steam separator, steamline with safety and relief valves, main steam isolation valve, turbine stop valve, and turbine bypass valve. A summary of RAMONA-3B neutron kinetics and thermal hydraulics models is presented in the Appendix.

  10. 2016-3-17_Allocations_Brown_Bag

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Bagwell & Richard Gerber! ! NERSC Brown Bag! March 17, 2016 Allocations --- 1 --- Allocations Summary * How t he N ERSC p ie i s d istributed - A l i'le h istory * DOE O ffices & P rograms * NERSC r eserves * The E RCAP p rocess * How u ser a ccounts a nd a llocaBons w ork * What h appens w hen u ser/repo r un o ut o f B me * Q & A --- 2 --- Allocations History 0 500000000 1E+09 1.5E+09 2E+09 2.5E+09 3E+09 3.5E+09 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

  11. ATWS at Browns Ferry Unit One - accident sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, R.M.; Hodge, S.A.

    1984-07-01

    This study describes the predicted response of Unit One at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant to a postulated complete failure to scram following a transient occurrence that has caused closure of all Main Steam Isolation Valves (MSIVs). This hypothetical event constitutes the most severe example of the type of accident classified as Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS). Without the automatic control rod insertion provided by scram, the void coefficient of reactivity and the mechanisms by which voids are formed in the moderator/coolant play a dominant role in the progression of the accident. Actions taken by the operator greatly influence the quantity of voids in the coolant and the effect is analyzed in this report. The progression of the accident sequence under existing and under recommended procedures is discussed. For the extremely unlikely cases in which equipment failure and wrongful operator actions might lead to severe core damage, the sequence of emergency action levels and the associated timing of events are presented.

  12. ATWS analysis for Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant Unit 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dallman, R.J.; Jouse, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    Analyses of postulated Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) were performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant Unit 1 (BFNP1) was selected as the subject of this work because of the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The work is part of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A Main Steamline Isolation Valve (MSIV) closure served as the transient initiator for these analyses, which proceeded a complete failure to scram. Results from the analyses indicate that operator mitigative actions are required to prevent overpressurization of the primary containment. Uncertainties remain concerning the effectiveness of key mitigative actions. The effectiveness of level control as a power reduction procedure is limited. Power level resulting from level control only reduce the Pressure Suppression Pool (PSP) heatup rate from 6 to 4F/min.

  13. LNG Exports by Vessel out of the U.S. Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Vessel out of the U.S. Form LNG Exports by Vessel out of the U.S. Form LNG Exports by Vessel Form (Excel) (40.5 KB) LNG Exports by Vessel Form (pdf) (10.9 KB) More Documents & Publications Other Imports by Truck into the U.S. Other Exports by Vessel out of the U.S. CNG Exports by Vessel

  14. LNG Imports by Vessel in ISO Containers into the U.S. | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Vessel in ISO Containers into the U.S. LNG Imports by Vessel in ISO Containers into the U.S. LNG Imports by Vessel in ISO Containers Form (Excel) (41 KB) LNG Imports by Vessel in ISO Containers Form (pdf) (22.77 KB) More Documents & Publications Complete Set of all Reporting Forms LNG Re-Exports by Vessel out of the U.S. LNG Exports by Vessel

  15. Pipeline and Pressure Vessel R&D under the Hydrogen Regional...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Pipeline and Pressure Vessel R&D under the Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure Program In Pennsylvania Pipeline and Pressure Vessel R&D under the Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure ...

  16. Comparison of Alternatives to the 2004 Vacuum Vessel Heat Transfer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    as well as including a small safety-rated pump and HX in parallel to the main circulation pump and HX. The Vacuum Vessel (VV) Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) removes heat...

  17. Stress analysis and evaluation of a rectangular pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezvani, M.A.; Ziada, H.H.; Shurrab, M.S.

    1992-10-01

    This study addresses structural analysis and evaluation of an abnormal rectangular pressure vessel, designed to house equipment for drilling and collecting samples from Hanford radioactive waste storage tanks. It had to be qualified according to ASME boiler and pressure vessel code, Section VIII; however, it had the cover plate bolted along the long face, a configuration not addressed by the code. Finite element method was used to calculate stresses resulting from internal pressure; these stresses were then used to evaluate and qualify the vessel. Fatigue is not a concern; thus, it can be built according to Section VIII, Division I instead of Division 2. Stress analysis was checked against the code. A stayed plate was added to stiffen the long side of the vessel.

  18. Cover Heated, Open Vessels - Steam Tip Sheet #19

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO steam tip sheet on covering heated, open vessels provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  19. 700 bar Type IV H2 Pressure Vessel Cost Projections

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    bar Type IV H2 Pressure Vessel Cost Projections Brian D. James and Cassidy Houchins Department of Energy Physical-Based Hydrogen Storage Workshop: Identifying Potential Pathways for Lower Cost 700 Bar Storage Vessels 24 August 2016 USCAR, Southfield, MI Outline * System design * Cost analysis methodology * Cost projections * Key opportunities for cost reduction * Recent focus areas - Composites - BOP - Winding time 2 * Overview assumptions & results of latest cost analyses * Categorize

  20. Using SA508/533 for the HTGR Vessel Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Demick

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the influence of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) module power rating and normal operating temperatures on the use of SA508/533 material for the HTGR vessel system with emphasis on the calculated times at elevated temperatures approaching or exceeding ASME Code Service Limits (Levels B&C) to which the reactor pressure vessel could be exposed during postulated pressurized and depressurized conduction cooldown events over its design lifetime.

  1. Roadmap for Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    and Development by the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program | Department of Energy Roadmap for Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel Research and Development by the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Roadmap for Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel Research and Development by the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a five year effort that works to

  2. Photoacoustic sample vessel and method of elevated pressure operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Autrey, Tom; Yonker, Clement R.

    2004-05-04

    An improved photoacoustic vessel and method of photoacoustic analysis. The photoacoustic sample vessel comprises an acoustic detector, an acoustic couplant, and an acoustic coupler having a chamber for holding the acoustic couplant and a sample. The acoustic couplant is selected from the group consisting of liquid, solid, and combinations thereof. Passing electromagnetic energy through the sample generates an acoustic signal within the sample, whereby the acoustic signal propagates through the sample to and through the acoustic couplant to the acoustic detector.

  3. D-Zero Central Calorimeter Pressure Vessel and Vacuum Vessel Safety Notes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rucinski, R.; Luther, R.; /Fermilab

    1990-10-25

    The relief valve and relief piping capacity was calculated to be 908 sefm air. This exceeds all relieving conditions. The vessel also has a rupture disc with a 2640 scfm air stamped capacity. In order to significantly decrease the amount of time required to fill the cryostats, it is desired to raise the setpoint of the 'operating' relief valve on the argon storage dewar to 20 psig from its existing 16 psig setting. This additional pressure increases the flow to the cryostats and will overwhelm the relief capacity if the temperature of the modules within these vessels is warm enough. Using some conservative assumptions and simple calculations within this note, the maximum average temperature that the modules within each cryostat can be at prior to filling from the storage dewar with liquid argon is at least 290 K. The average temperature of the module mass for any of the three cryostats can be as high as 290 K prior to filling that particular cryostat. This should not be confused with the average temperature of a single type or location which is useful in protecting the modules-not necessarily the vessel itself. A few modules of each type and at different elevations should be used in an average which would account for the different weights of each module. Note that at 290 K, the actual flow of argon through the relief valve and the rupture disk was under the maximum theoretical flows for each relief device. This means that the bulk temperature could actually have been raised to flow argon through the reliefs at their maximum capacity. Therefore, the temperature of 290 K is a conservative value for the calculated flow rate of 12.3 gpm. Safeguards in addition to and used in conjunction with operating procedures shall be implemented in such a way so that the above temperature limitation is not exceeded and such that it is exclusive of the programmable logic controller (PLC). One suggestion is using a toggle switch for each cryostat mounted in the PLC I/O box which

  4. Navigation and vessel inspection circular No. 2-90. Recommended standards for double hulls to be fitted on new tank vessels or retrofitted on existing tank vessels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-09-21

    The purpose of the Circular is to provide guidance to the marine industry for the construction of new tank vessels, and the retrofitting of existing tank vessels, with double and as required by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990.

  5. Craig Brown | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Bloch, Eric D; Queen, Wendy L; Krishna, Rajamani; Zadrozny, Joseph M.; Brown, Craig M; and Long, Jeffrey R Hydrocarbon Separations in a Metal-Organic Framework with Open Iron(II) ...

  6. Laboratory measurements of resistivity in warm dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Hakel, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Dance, R. J.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Gregori, G.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Li, B.; Makita, M.; Mancini, R. C.; Pasley, J.; Rajeev, P. P.; Riley, D.; Wagenaars, E.; Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C.

    2015-11-06

    Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, numerous studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in warm dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. Furthermore, the inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of warm dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs.

  7. Travis Brown and Kamran Baksh, Final Submission | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Travis Brown and Kamran Baksh, Final Submission Home > Groups > 2014 Geothermal Case Study Challenge CSM's picture Submitted by CSM(5) Member 14 May, 2014 - 21:59 Colorado School...

  8. Laboratory measurements of resistivity in warm dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Hakel, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Dance, R. J.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Gregori, G.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; et al

    2015-11-06

    Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, numerous studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in warm dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. Furthermore, themore » inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of warm dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs.« less

  9. Investigation of vessel exterior air cooling for an HLMC reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    2000-07-01

    The secure transportable autonomous reactor (STAR) concept under development at Argonne National Laboratory provides a small [300-MW(thermal)] reactor module for steam supply that incorporates design features to attain proliferation resistance, heightened passive safety, and improved cost competitiveness through extreme simplification. Examples are the achievement of 100% + natural-circulation heat removal from the low-power-density/low-pressure-drop ultralong lifetime core and utilization of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant enabling elimination of main coolant pumps as well as the need for an intermediate heat transport circuit. It is required to provide a passive means of removing decay heat and effecting reactor cooldown in the event that the normal steam generator heat sink, including its normal shutdown heat removal mode, is postulated to be unavailable. In the present approach, denoted as the reactor exterior cooling system (RECS), passive decay heat removal is provided by cooling the outside of the containment/guard vessel with air. RECS is similar to the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) incorporated into the PRISM design. However, to enhance the heat removal, RECS incorporates fins on the containment vessel exterior to enhance heat transfer to air as well as removable steel venetian conductors that provide a conduction heat transfer path across the reactor vessel-containment vessel gap to enhance heat transfer between the vessels. The objective of the present work is to investigate the effectiveness of air cooling in removing heat from the vessel and limiting the coolant temperature increase following a sudden complete loss of the steam generator heat sink.

  10. Investigation of vessel exterior air cooling for a HLMC reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J. J.; Spencer, B. W.

    2000-01-13

    The Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (STAR) concept under development at Argonne National Laboratory provides a small (300 MWt) reactor module for steam supply that incorporates design features to attain proliferation resistance, heightened passive safety, and improved cost competitiveness through extreme simplification. Examples are the achievement of 100%+ natural circulation heat removal from the low power density/low pressure drop ultra-long lifetime core and utilization of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant enabling elimination of main coolant pumps as well as the need for an intermediate heat transport circuit. It is required to provide a passive means of removing decay heat and effecting reactor cooldown in the event that the normal steam generator heat sink, including its normal shutdown heat removal mode, is postulated to be unavailable. In the present approach, denoted as the Reactor Exterior Cooling System (RECS), passive decay heat removal is provided by cooling the outside of the containment/guard vessel with air. RECS is similar to the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) incorporated into the PRISM design. However, to enhance the heat removal, RECS incorporates fins on the containment vessel exterior to enhance heat transfer to air as well as removable steel venetian conductors that provide a conduction heat transfer path across the reactor vessel-containment vessel gap to enhance heat transfer between the vessels. The objective of the present work is to investigate the effectiveness of air cooling in removing heat from the vessel and limiting the coolant temperature increase following a sudden complete loss of the steam generator heat sink.

  11. THERESA BROWN SHUTE RECOGNIZED AS OE EMPLOYEE OF THE QUARTER FOR EXCELLENCE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    | Department of Energy About Us » THERESA BROWN SHUTE RECOGNIZED AS OE EMPLOYEE OF THE QUARTER FOR EXCELLENCE THERESA BROWN SHUTE RECOGNIZED AS OE EMPLOYEE OF THE QUARTER FOR EXCELLENCE The OE Employee of the Quarter for Excellence Recognition Program profiles inspirational employees in the Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability (OE) who have demonstrated one or more of the following principles in their professionalism: Embodied the values of both the Department and OE;

  12. Taking It from Brown to Green: Renewable Energy on Contaminated Lands |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Taking It from Brown to Green: Renewable Energy on Contaminated Lands Taking It from Brown to Green: Renewable Energy on Contaminated Lands This presentation, presented April 22, 2009, covered renewable energy on contaminated sites. Presenters included Otto Van Geet from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Brian K. Johnson from the New Mexico Energy Minerals and Natural Resources Department, and Pam Swingle from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Taking It

  13. Molten metal containment vessel with rare earth oxysulfide protective coating thereon and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, Oscar H.; Curtis, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    An improved molten metal containment vessel is disclosed in which wetting of the vessel's inner wall surfaces by molten metal is inhibited by coating at least the inner surfaces of the containment vessel with one or more rare earth oxysulfide or rare earth sulfide compounds to inhibit wetting and or adherence by the molten metal to the surfaces of the containment vessel.

  14. Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports byVessel to Mexico (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Thousand Cubic Feet) byVessel to Mexico (Dollars per

  15. Photoacoustic spectroscopy sample array vessel and photoacoustic spectroscopy method for using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amonette, James E.; Autrey, S. Thomas; Foster-Mills, Nancy S.; Green, David

    2005-03-29

    Methods and apparatus for analysis of multiple samples by photoacoustic spectroscopy are disclosed. Particularly, a photoacoustic spectroscopy sample array vessel including a vessel body having multiple sample cells connected thereto is disclosed. At least one acoustic detector is acoustically coupled with the vessel body. Methods for analyzing the multiple samples in the sample array vessels using photoacoustic spectroscopy are provided.

  16. A new parallax measurement for the coldest known brown dwarf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luhman, K. L.; Esplin, T. L.

    2014-11-20

    WISE J085510.83–071442.5 was recently discovered as the coldest known brown dwarf based on four epochs of images from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have improved the accuracy of its parallax measurement by obtaining two additional epochs of Spitzer astrometry. We derive a parallactic distance of 2.31 ± 0.08 pc, which continues to support its rank as the fourth closest known system to the Sun when compared to WISE J104915.57–531906.1 AB (2.02 ± 0.02 pc) and Wolf 359 (2.386 ± 0.012 pc). The new constraint on the absolute magnitude at 4.5 μm indicates an effective temperature of 235-260 K based on four sets of theoretical models. We also show the updated positions of WISE J085510.83–071442.5 in two color-magnitude diagrams. Whereas Faherty and coworkers cited its location in M {sub W2} versus J – W2 as evidence of water clouds, we find that those data can be explained instead by cloudless models that employ non-equilibrium chemistry.

  17. RAMONA-3B application to Browns Ferry ATWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slovik, G.C.; Neymotin, L.Y.; Saha, P.

    1985-01-01

    The Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) is known to be a dominant accident sequence for possible core melt in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). A recent Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) analysis for the Browns Ferry nuclear power plant indicates that ATWS is the second most dominant transient for core melt in BWR/4 with Mark I containment. The most dominant sequence being the failure of long term decay heat removal function of the Residual Heat Removal (RHR) system. Of all the various ATWS scenarios, the Main Steam Isolation Valve (MSIV) closure ATWS sequence was chosen for present analysis because of its relatively high frequency of occurrence and its challenge to the residual heat removal system and containment integrity. The objective of this paper is to discuss four MSIV closure ATWS calculations using the RAMONA-3B code. The paper is a summary of a report being prepared for the USNRC Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) program which should be referred to for details. 10 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Baghouse Slipstream Testing at TXU's Big Brown Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Pavlish; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Jeffery Thompson; Christopher Martin; Mark Musich; Brandon Pavlish; Stanley Miller; Lucinda Hamre

    2007-04-30

    Performing sorbent testing for mercury control at a large scale is a very expensive endeavor and requires months of planning and careful execution. Even with good planning, there are plant limitations on what operating/design parameters can be varied/tested and when. For parameters that cannot be feasibly tested at the full scale (lower/higher gas flow, different bag material, cleaning methods, sorbents, etc.), an alternative approach is used to perform tests on a slipstream unit using flue gas from the plant. The advantage that a slipstream unit provides is the flexibility to test multiple operating and design parameters and other possible technology options without risking major disruption to the operation of the power plant. Additionally, the results generated are expected to simulate full-scale conditions closely, since the flue gas used during the tests comes directly from the plant in question. The Energy & Environmental Research Center developed and constructed a mobile baghouse that allows for cost-effective testing of impacts related to variation in operating and design parameters, as well as other possible mercury control options. Multiple sorbents, air-to-cloth ratios, bag materials, and cleaning frequencies were evaluated while flue gas was extracted from Big Brown when it fired a 70% Texas lignite-30% Powder River Basin (PRB) blend and a 100% PRB coal.

  19. In-Vessel Retention - Recent Efforts and Future Needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. L. Rempe

    2004-10-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. However, it is not clear that the external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) proposed for existing and some advanced reactors would provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1400 MWe) without additional enhancements. This paper summarizes recent efforts to enhance IVR and identifies additional needs to demonstrate that there is sufficient margin for successful IVR in high power reactors.

  20. Design Considerations For Blast Loads In Pressure Vessels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, E. A.; Nickell, Robert E.; Pepin, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), conducts confined detonation experiments utilizing large, spherical, steel pressure vessels to contain the reaction products and hazardous materials from high-explosive (HE) events. Structural design and analysis considerations include: (a) Blast loading phase (i.e., impulsive loading); (b) Dynamic structural response; (c) Fragment (i.e., shrapnel) generation and penetration; (d) Ductile and non-ductile fracture; and (e) Design Criteria to ASME Code Sec. VIII, Div. 3, Impulsively Loaded Vessels. These vessels are designed for one-time-use only, efficiently utilizing the significant plastic energy absorption capability of ductile vessel materials. Alternatively, vessels may be designed for multiple-detonation events, in which case the material response is restricted to elastic or near-elastic range. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 Part 50 provides requirements for commercial nuclear reactor licensing; specifically dealing with accidental combustible gases in containment structures that might cause extreme loadings. The design philosophy contained herein may be applied to extreme loading events postulated to occur in nuclear reactor and non-nuclear systems or containments.

  1. Assessment of Vessel Requirements for the U.S. Offshore Wind Sector |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Vessel Requirements for the U.S. Offshore Wind Sector Assessment of Vessel Requirements for the U.S. Offshore Wind Sector Report that investigates the anticipated demand for various vessel types associated with offshore wind development in the United States through 2030 and assesses related market barriers and mitigating policy options. Assessment of Vessel Requirements for the U.S. Offshore Wind Sector (14.82 MB) Assessment of Vessel Requirements for the U.S. Offshore

  2. LNG Imports by Vessel into the U.S. Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Vessel into the U.S. Form LNG Imports by Vessel into the U.S. Form LNG Imports by Vessel Form (Excel) (41 KB) LNG Imports by Vessel Form (pdf) (14.23 KB) More Documents & Publications LNG Imports by Truck into the U.S. Form LNG Exports by Vessel in ISO Containers out of the U.S. Form LNG Imports by Rail into

  3. Cyclic corrosion crack resistance curves of certain vessel steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panasyuk, V.V.; Fedorova, V.A.; Pusyak, S.A.; Ratych, L.V.; Timofeev, L.V.; Zuezdin, Y.I.

    1985-11-01

    Results are presented of investigations of 15Kh2MFA and 15Kh2NMFA steels. In the first stage of the investigations, the cyclic corrosion crack resistance characteristics were determined with limiting values of the various factors: loading frequency, loading cycle stress ratio, temperature and length of service. An intense flow of ionizing radiation may markedly change the mechanical properties in 30-40 years; this acts on the reactor vessel. The experimental data for strength categories KP-45 and KP-90 of both vessel steels lies in a quite narrow band of spread, which provides a basis for representing it by a single generalized curve, presented here. The result of cyclic corrosion crack resistance tests of disk specimens of 15Kh2MFA and 15Kh2NMFA vessel steels in boric acid controlled reactor water solution in distilled water with the addition of KOH to pH 8 was established.

  4. Report of the terawatt laser pressure vessel committee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodle, M.H.; Beauman, R.; Czajkowski, C.; Dickinson, T.; Lynch, D.; Pogorelsky, I.; Skjaritka, J.

    2000-09-25

    In 1995 the ATF project sent out an RFP for a CO2 Laser System having a TeraWatt output. Eight foreign and US firms responded. The Proposal Evaluation Panel on the second round selected Optoel, a Russian firm based in St. Petersburg, on the basis of the technical criteria and cost. Prior to the award, BNL representatives including the principal scientist, cognizant engineer and a QA representative visited the Optoel facilities to assess the company's capability to do the job. The contract required Optoel to provide a x-ray preionized high pressure amplifier that included: a high pressure cell, x-ray tube, internal optics and a HV pulse forming network for the main discharge and preionizer. The high-pressure cell consists of a stainless steel pressure vessel with various ports and windows that is filled with a gas mixture operating at 10 atmospheres. In accordance with BNL Standard ESH 1.4.1 ''Pressurized Systems For Experimental Use'', the pressure vessel design criteria is required to comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code In 1996 a Preliminary Design Review was held at BNL. The vendor was requested to furnish drawings so that we could confirm that the design met the above criteria. The vendor furnished drawings did not have all dimensions necessary to completely analyze the cell. Never the less, we performed an analysis on as much of the vessel as we could with the available information. The calculations concluded that there were twelve areas of concern that had to be addressed to assure that the pressure vessel complied with the requirements of the ASME code. This information was forwarded to the vendor with the understanding that they would resolve these concerns as they continued with the vessel design and fabrication. The assembled amplifier pressure vessel was later hydro tested to 220 psi (15 Atm) as well as pneumatically to 181 psi (12.5 Atm) at the fabricator's Russian facility and was witnessed by a BNL engineer. The unit was shipped to the

  5. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, C.E.

    1999-02-09

    A method is described for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process. 2 figs.

  6. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E.

    1999-02-09

    A method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

  7. Lightweight cryogenic-compatible pressure vessels for vehicular fuel storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aceves, Salvador; Berry, Gene; Weisberg, Andrew H.

    2004-03-23

    A lightweight, cryogenic-compatible pressure vessel for flexibly storing cryogenic liquid fuels or compressed gas fuels at cryogenic or ambient temperatures. The pressure vessel has an inner pressure container enclosing a fuel storage volume, an outer container surrounding the inner pressure container to form an evacuated space therebetween, and a thermal insulator surrounding the inner pressure container in the evacuated space to inhibit heat transfer. Additionally, vacuum loss from fuel permeation is substantially inhibited in the evacuated space by, for example, lining the container liner with a layer of fuel-impermeable material, capturing the permeated fuel in the evacuated space, or purging the permeated fuel from the evacuated space.

  8. Simulation of Diffusive Lithium Evaporation Onto the NSTX Vessel Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stotler, D. P.; Skinner, C. H.; Blanchard, W. R.; Krstic, P. S.; Kugel, H. W.; Schneider, H.; Zakharov, L. E.

    2010-12-09

    A model for simulating the diffusive evaporation of lithium into a helium filled NSTX vacuum vessel is described and validated against an initial set of deposition experiments. The DEGAS 2 based model consists of a three-dimensional representation of the vacuum vessel, the elastic scattering process, and a kinetic description of the evaporated atoms. Additional assumptions are required to account for deuterium out-gassing during the validation experiments. The model agrees with the data over a range of pressures to within the estimated uncertainties. Suggestions are made for more discriminating experiments that will lead to an improved model.

  9. Conformable pressure vessel for high pressure gas storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Lavender, Curt A.; Newhouse, Norman L.; Yeggy, Brian C.

    2016-01-12

    A non-cylindrical pressure vessel storage tank is disclosed. The storage tank includes an internal structure. The internal structure is coupled to at least one wall of the storage tank. The internal structure shapes and internally supports the storage tank. The pressure vessel storage tank has a conformability of about 0.8 to about 1.0. The internal structure can be, but is not limited to, a Schwarz-P structure, an egg-crate shaped structure, or carbon fiber ligament structure.

  10. Cryogenic Pressure Vessels: Progress and Plans | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Pressure Vessels: Progress and Plans Cryogenic Pressure Vessels: Progress and Plans Presented at the R&D Strategies for Compressed, Cryo-Compressed and Cryo-Sorbent Hydrogen Storage Technologies Workshops on February 14 and 15, 2011. compressed_hydrogen2011_9_aceves.pdf (1.88 MB) More Documents & Publications OEM Perspective on Cryogenic H2 Storage Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage: Performance and Cost Review Proceedings of the 1998 U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program Review: April 28-30, 1998

  11. Spectroscopic, scanning laser OBIC, and I-V/QE characterizations of browned EVA solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, F.J.; Eisgruber, I.L.; Micheels, R.H.

    1996-05-01

    The effects of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) discoloration due to accelerated field or laboratory exposure on the encapsulated silicon (Si) solar cells or EVA/glass laminates were characterized quantitatively by using non-invasive, non-destructive ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry, spectrocolorimetry, spectrofluorometry, scanning laser OBIC (optical beam induced current) spectroscopy, and current-voltage (I-V) and quantum efficiency (QE) measurements. The results show that the yellowness index (YI) measured directly over the AR-coated solar cells under the glass superstrate increased from the range of -80 to -90 to the range of -20 to 15 as the EVA changed from clear to brown. The ratio of two fluorescence emission peak areas generally increased from 1.45 to 5.69 as browning increased, but dropped to 4.21 on a darker EVA. For a solar cell with brown EVA in the central region, small-area grating QE measurements and scanning laser OBIC analysis between the brown and clear EVA regions showed that the quantum efficiency loss at 633 nm was 42%-48% of the loss at 488 nm, due to a reduced decrease of transmittance in browned EVA at the longer wavelengths. The portion of the solar cell under the browned EVA showed a decrease of {approximately}36% in efficiency, as compared to the cell efficiency under clear EVA. Transmittance loss at 633 nm was 38% of the loss at 488 nm for a light yellow-brown EVA/glass laminate that showed a small increase of 10 in the yellowness index.

  12. Sampling and Analysis Plan for PUREX canyon vessel flushing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villalobos, C.N.

    1995-03-01

    A sampling and analysis plan is necessary to provide direction for the sampling and analytical activities determined by the data quality objectives. This document defines the sampling and analysis necessary to support the deactivation of the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) facility vessels that are regulated pursuant to Washington Administrative Code 173-303.

  13. Lightweight pressure vessels and unitized regenerative fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Weisberg, A.H.

    1996-12-31

    High specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) energy storage systems have been designed using lightweight pressure vessels in conjunction with unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). URFCs produce power and electrolytically regenerate their reactants using a single stack of reversible cells. Although a rechargeable energy storage system with such high specific energy has not yet been fabricated, we have made progress towards this goal. A primary fuel cell (FC) test rig with a single cell (0.05 ft{sup 2} active area) has been modified and operated reversibly as a URFC. This URFC uses bifunctional electrodes (oxidation and reduction electrodes reverse roles when switching from charge to discharge, as with a rechargeable battery) and cathode feed electrolysis (water is fed from the oxygen side of the cell). Lightweight pressure vessels with state-of-the-art performance factors (burst pressure * internal volume/tank weight = Pb V/W) have been designed and fabricated. These vessels provide a lightweight means of storing reactant gases required for fuel cells (FCs) or URFCs. The vessels use lightweight bladder liners that act as inflatable mandrels for composite overwrap and provide the permeation barrier for gas storage. The bladders are fabricated using materials that are compatible with humidified gases which may be created by the electrolysis of water and are compatible with elevated temperatures that occur during fast fills.

  14. A data-driven approach for retrieving temperatures and abundances in brown dwarf atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Line, Michael R.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Marley, Mark S.; Sorahana, Satoko

    2014-09-20

    Brown dwarf spectra contain a wealth of information about their molecular abundances, temperature structure, and gravity. We present a new data driven retrieval approach, previously used in planetary atmosphere studies, to extract the molecular abundances and temperature structure from brown dwarf spectra. The approach makes few a priori physical assumptions about the state of the atmosphere. The feasibility of the approach is first demonstrated on a synthetic brown dwarf spectrum. Given typical spectral resolutions, wavelength coverage, and noise, property precisions of tens of percent can be obtained for the molecular abundances and tens to hundreds of K on the temperature profile. The technique is then applied to the well-studied brown dwarf, Gl 570D. From this spectral retrieval, the spectroscopic radius is constrained to be 0.75-0.83 R {sub J}, log (g) to be 5.13-5.46, and T {sub eff} to be between 804 and 849 K. Estimates for the range of abundances and allowed temperature profiles are also derived. The results from our retrieval approach are in agreement with the self-consistent grid modeling results of Saumon et al. This new approach will allow us to address issues of compositional differences between brown dwarfs and possibly their formation environments, disequilibrium chemistry, and missing physics in current grid modeling approaches as well as a many other issues.

  15. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system with directed internal gas flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holmes, Michael Jerome; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2010-02-09

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an inlet adapted to introduce gas into the interior of the vessel, an outlet adapted to withdraw gas from the interior of the vessel, and an axis; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region; and (c) one or more gas flow control partitions disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and adapted to change a direction of gas flow within the vessel.

  16. Ron Ness - bismarck_qermeeting_ness_presentation.pptx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    How The Bakken has Impacted North Dakota's Workforce Opportunities" 1 Million bbls per Day * North Dakota ranks 20 in world * 50 million per day of economic activity * State ...

  17. Localization and proliferation of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane in normal state and regeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyashita, Takenori; Burford, James L.; Hong, Young-Kwon; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa; Mori, Nozomu; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •We newly developed the whole-mount imaging method of the tympanic membrane. •Lymphatic vessel loops were localized around the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. •In regeneration, abundant lymphatic vessels were observed in the pars tensa. •Site-specific lymphatic vessels may play an important role in the tympanic membrane. -- Abstract: We clarified the localization of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane and proliferation of lymphatic vessels during regeneration after perforation of the tympanic membrane by using whole-mount imaging of the tympanic membrane of Prox1 GFP mice. In the pars tensa, lymphatic vessel loops surrounded the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. Apart from these locations, lymphatic vessel loops were not observed in the pars tensa in the normal tympanic membrane. Lymphatic vessel loops surrounding the malleus handle were connected to the lymphatic vessel loops in the pars flaccida and around the tensor tympani muscle. Many lymphatic vessel loops were detected in the pars flaccida. After perforation of the tympanic membrane, abundant lymphatic regeneration was observed in the pars tensa, and these regenerated lymphatic vessels extended from the lymphatic vessels surrounding the malleus at day 7. These results suggest that site-specific lymphatic vessels play an important role in the tympanic membrane.

  18. Navigation and vessel inspection circular No. 2-90, Change 1. CH-1 to NVIC 2-90, recommended standards for double hulls to be fitted on new tank vessels or retrofitted on existing tank vessels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-11-24

    The circular updates Navigation and Vessel Inspection circular (NVIC) 2-90, by clarifying the applicable period for use of the double hull guidelines provided in the NVIC.

  19. File:06HIGBoilerPressureVesselPermit.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    6HIGBoilerPressureVesselPermit.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:06HIGBoilerPressureVesselPermit.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599...

  20. Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility ...

  1. LNG Re-Exports by Vessel out of the U.S. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Re-Exports by Vessel out of the U.S. LNG Re-Exports by Vessel out of the U.S. LNG Re-Exports by Vessel Form (Excel) (40.5 KB) LNG Re-Exports by Vessel Form (pdf) (10.84 KB) More Documents & Publications Other Imports by Truck into the U.S. In-Transit Natural Gas LNG Exports by Rail out of the U.S.

  2. Modeling and measurement of the motion of the DIII-D vacuum vessel during vertical instabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reis, E.; Blevins, R.D.; Jensen, T.H.; Luxon, J.L.; Petersen, P.I.; Strait, E.J.

    1991-11-01

    The motions of the D3-D vacuum vessel during vertical instabilities of elongated plasmas have been measured and studied over the past five years. The currents flowing in the vessel wall and the plasma scrapeoff layer were also measured and correlated to a physics model. These results provide a time history load distribution on the vessel which were input to a dynamic analysis for correlation to the measured motions. The structural model of the vessel using the loads developed from the measured vessel currents showed that the calculated displacement history correlated well with the measured values. The dynamic analysis provides a good estimate of the stresses and the maximum allowable deflection of the vessel. In addition, the vessel motions produce acoustic emissions at 21 Hertz that are sufficiently loud to be felt as well as heard by the D3-D operators. Time history measurements of the sounds were correlated to the vessel displacements. An analytical model of an oscillating sphere provided a reasonable correlation to the amplitude of the measured sounds. The correlation of the theoretical and measured vessel currents, the dynamic measurements and analysis, and the acoustic measurements and analysis show that: (1) The physics model can predict vessel forces for selected values of plasma resistivity. The model also predicts poloidal and toroidal wall currents which agree with measured values; (2) The force-time history from the above model, used in conjunction with an axisymmetric structural model of the vessel, predicts vessel motions which agree well with measured values; (3) The above results, input to a simple acoustic model predicts the magnitude of sounds emitted from the vessel during disruptions which agree with acoustic measurements; (4) Correlation of measured vessel motions with structural analysis shows that a maximum vertical motion of the vessel up to 0.24 in will not overstress the vessel or its supports. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Study Reveals Challenges and Opportunities Related to Vessels for U.S.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Offshore Wind | Department of Energy Study Reveals Challenges and Opportunities Related to Vessels for U.S. Offshore Wind Study Reveals Challenges and Opportunities Related to Vessels for U.S. Offshore Wind October 1, 2013 - 1:30pm Addthis Douglas-Westwood collected data on vessels currently deployed in the international offshore wind industry, like the one pictured here at the London Array in the United Kingdom. Photo by London Array Limited Douglas-Westwood collected data on vessels

  4. A Survey of Pressure Vessel Code Compliance for Superconducting RF Cryomodules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Thomas; Klebaner, Arkadiy; Nicol, Tom; Theilacker, Jay; Hayano, Hitoshi; Kako, Eiji; Nakai, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Akira; Jensch, Kay; Matheisen, Axel; Mammosser, John; /Jefferson Lab

    2011-06-07

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made from niobium and cooled with liquid helium are becoming key components of many particle accelerators. The helium vessels surrounding the RF cavities, portions of the niobium cavities themselves, and also possibly the vacuum vessels containing these assemblies, generally fall under the scope of local and national pressure vessel codes. In the U.S., Department of Energy rules require national laboratories to follow national consensus pressure vessel standards or to show ''a level of safety greater than or equal to'' that of the applicable standard. Thus, while used for its superconducting properties, niobium ends up being treated as a low-temperature pressure vessel material. Niobium material is not a code listed material and therefore requires the designer to understand the mechanical properties for material used in each pressure vessel fabrication; compliance with pressure vessel codes therefore becomes a problem. This report summarizes the approaches that various institutions have taken in order to bring superconducting RF cryomodules into compliance with pressure vessel codes. In Japan, Germany, and the U.S., institutions building superconducting RF cavities integrated in helium vessels or procuring them from vendors have had to deal with pressure vessel requirements being applied to SRF vessels, including the niobium and niobium-titanium components of the vessels. While niobium is not an approved pressure vessel material, data from tests of material samples provide information to set allowable stresses. By means of procedures which include adherence to code welding procedures, maintaining material and fabrication records, and detailed analyses of peak stresses in the vessels, or treatment of the vacuum vessel as the pressure boundary, research laboratories around the world have found methods to demonstrate and document a level of safety equivalent to the applicable pressure vessel codes.

  5. Jam proof closure assembly for lidded pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cioletti, Olisse C.

    1992-01-01

    An expendable closure assembly is provided for use (in multiple units) with a lockable pressure vessel cover along its rim, such as of an autoclave. This assembly is suited to variable compressive contact and locking with the vessel lid sealing gasket. The closure assembly consists of a thick walled sleeve insert for retention in the under bores fabricated in the cover periphery and the sleeve is provided with internal threading only. A snap serves as a retainer on the underside of the sleeve, locking it into an under bore retention channel. Finally, a standard elongate externally threaded bolt is sized for mating cooperation with the so positioned sleeve, whereby the location of the bolt shaft in the cover bore hole determines its compressive contact on the underlying gasket.

  6. The coolability limits of a reactor pressure vessel lower head

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Syri, S.

    1995-09-01

    Configuration II of the ULPU experimental facility is described, and from a comprehensive set of experiments are provided. The facility affords full-scale simulations of the boiling crisis phenomenon on the hemispherical lower head of a reactor pressure vessel submerged in water, and heated internally. Whereas Configuration I experiments (published previously) established the lower limits of coolability under low submergence, pool-boiling conditions, with Configuration II we investigate coolability under conditions more appropriate to practical interest in severe accident management; that is, heat flux shapes (as functions of angular position) representative of a core melt contained by the lower head, full submergence of the reactor pressure vessel, and natural circulation. Critical heat fluxes as a function of the angular position on the lower head are reported and related the observed two-phase flow regimes.

  7. PRESSURIZATION OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS FROM PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    Transportation and storage of plutonium oxide is typically done using a convenience container to hold the oxide powder which is then placed inside a containment vessel. Intermediate containers which act as uncredited confinement barriers may also be used. The containment vessel is subject to an internal pressure due to several sources including; (1) plutonium oxide provides a heat source which raises the temperature of the gas space, (2) helium generation due to alpha decay of the plutonium, (3) hydrogen generation due to radiolysis of the water which has been adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide, and (4) degradation of plastic bags which may be used to bag out the convenience can from a glove box. The contributions of these sources are evaluated in a reasonably conservative manner.

  8. An Overview Of The ITER In-Vessel Coil Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heitzenroeder, P J; Chrzanowski, J H; Dahlgren, F; Hawryluk, R J; Loesser, G D; Neumeyer, C; Mansfield, C; Smith, J P; Schaffer, M; Humphreys, D; Cordier, J J; Campbell, D; Johnson, G A; Martin, A; Rebut, P H; Tao, J O; Fogarty, P J; Nelson, B E

    2009-09-24

    ELM mitigation is of particular importance in ITER in order to prevent rapid erosion or melting of the divertor surface, with the consequent risk of water leaks, increased plasma impurity content and disruptivity. Exploitable "natural" small or no ELM regimes might yet be found which extrapolate to ITER but this cannot be depended upon. Resonant Magnetic Perturbation has been added to pellet pacing as a tool for ITER to mitigate ELMs. Both are required, since neither method is fully developed and much work remains to be done. In addition, in-vessel coils enable vertical stabilization and RWM control. For these reasons, in-vessel coils (IVCs) are being designed for ITER to provide control of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) in addition to providing control of moderately unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) and the vertical stability (VS) of the plasma.

  9. Compositional attribution of non-provenienced Maya polychrome vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, R.L.; Harbottle, G.; Reents, D.J.; Sayre, E.V.; van Zelst, L.

    1983-01-01

    Procedures and a few of the results of the Maya ceramic project are discussed from the perspective of non-provenienced vessel attribution ranging from site specific through a more inferential level to the rather hypothetical. The examples presented serve to illustrate the manner in which compositional and stylistic covariation are viewed in an investigation of Maya Ceramic art. The large data base from neutron activation analysis including archaeologically recovered pottery as well as the stylistically and iconographically elaborate vessels requires continued refinement in our methods of statistical analysis along with gaining a greater understanding of the sources of ceramic compositional variation in the Maya area. The mutually beneficial collaboration between science, art, and archaeology are emphasized.

  10. Lessons Learned From Developing Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel Embrittlement Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John

    2010-08-01

    Materials behaviors caused by neutron irradiation under fission and/or fusion environments can be little understood without practical examination. Easily accessible material information system with large material database using effective computers is necessary for design of nuclear materials and analyses or simulations of the phenomena. The developed Embrittlement Data Base (EDB) at ORNL is this comprehensive collection of data. EDB database contains power reactor pressure vessel surveillance data, the material test reactor data, foreign reactor data (through bilateral agreements authorized by NRC), and the fracture toughness data. The lessons learned from building EDB program and the associated database management activity regarding Material Database Design Methodology, Architecture and the Embedded QA Protocol are described in this report. The development of IAEA International Database on Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials (IDRPVM) and the comparison of EDB database and IAEA IDRPVM database are provided in the report. The recommended database QA protocol and database infrastructure are also stated in the report.

  11. Corrosion Assessment of Candidate Materials for the SHINE Subcritical Assembly Vessel and Components FY14 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawel, Steven J.

    2014-10-01

    Laboratory corrosion testing of candidate alloys—including Zr-4 and Zr-2.5Nb representing the target solution vessel, and 316L, 2304, 304L, and 17-4 PH stainless steels representing process piping and balance-of-plant components—was performed in support of the proposed SHINE process to produce 99Mo from low-enriched uranium. The test solutions used depleted uranyl sulfate in various concentrations and incorporated a range of temperatures, excess sulfuric acid concentrations, nitric acid additions (to simulate radiolysis product generation), and iodine additions. Testing involved static immersion of coupons in solution and in the vapor above the solution, and was extended to include planned-interval tests to examine details associated with stainless steel corrosion in environments containing iodine species. A large number of galvanic tests featuring couples between a stainless steel and a zirconium-based alloy were performed, and limited vibratory horn testing was incorporated to explore potential erosion/corrosion features of compatibility. In all cases, corrosion of the zirconium alloys was observed to be minimal, with corrosion rates based on weight loss calculated to be less than 0.1 mil/year with no change in surface roughness. The resulting passive film appeared to be ZrO2 with variations in thickness that influence apparent coloration (toward light brown for thicker films). Galvanic coupling with various stainless steels in selected exposures had no discernable effect on appearance, surface roughness, or corrosion rate. Erosion/corrosion behavior was the same for zirconium alloys in uranyl sulfate solutions and in sodium sulfate solutions adjusted to a similar pH, suggesting there was no negative effect of uranium resulting from fluid dynamic conditions aggressive to the passive film. Corrosion of the candidate stainless steels was similarly modest across the entire range of exposures. However, some sensitivity to corrosion of the stainless steels was

  12. Plastic instabilities in statically and dynamically loaded spherical vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, Thomas A; Rodriguez, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Significant changes were made in design limits for pressurized vessels in the 2007 version of the ASME Code (Section VIII, Div. 3) and 2008 and 2009 Addenda. There is now a local damage-mechanics based strain-exhaustion limit as well as the well-known global plastic collapse limit. Moreover, Code Case 2564 (Section VIII, Div. 3) has recently been approved to address impulsively loaded vessels. It is the purpose of this paper to investigate the plastic collapse limit as it applies to dynamically loaded spherical vessels. Plastic instabilities that could potentially develop in spherical shells under symmetric loading conditions are examined for a variety of plastic constitutive relations. First, a literature survey of both static and dynamic instabilities associated with spherical shells is presented. Then, a general plastic instability condition for spherical shells subjected to displacement controlled and impulsive loading is given. This instability condition is evaluated for six plastic and visco-plastic constitutive relations. The role of strain-rate sensitivity on the instability point is investigated. Calculations for statically and dynamically loaded spherical shells are presented, illustrating the formation of instabilities as well as the role of imperfections. Conclusions of this work are that there are two fundamental types of instabilities associated with failure of spherical shells. In the case of impulsively loaded vessels, where the pulse duration is short compared to the fundamental period of the structure, one instability type is found not to occur in the absence of static internal pressure. Moreover, it is found that the specific role of strain-rate sensitivity on the instability strain depends on the form of the constitutive relation assumed.

  13. IMPACT OF NUCLEAR MATERIAL DISSOLUTION ON VESSEL CORROSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.; Clifton, B.

    2012-10-01

    Different nuclear materials require different processing conditions. In order to maximize the dissolver vessel lifetime, corrosion testing was conducted for a range of chemistries and temperature used in fuel dissolution. Compositional ranges of elements regularly in the dissolver were evaluated for corrosion of 304L, the material of construction. Corrosion rates of AISI Type 304 stainless steel coupons, both welded and non-welded coupons, were calculated from measured weight losses and post-test concentrations of soluble Fe, Cr and Ni.

  14. Photoacoustic spectroscopy sample array vessels and photoacoustic spectroscopy methods for using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amonette, James E.; Autrey, S. Thomas; Foster-Mills, Nancy S.

    2006-02-14

    Methods and apparatus for simultaneous or sequential, rapid analysis of multiple samples by photoacoustic spectroscopy are disclosed. Particularly, a photoacoustic spectroscopy sample array vessel including a vessel body having multiple sample cells connected thereto is disclosed. At least one acoustic detector is acoustically positioned near the sample cells. Methods for analyzing the multiple samples in the sample array vessels using photoacoustic spectroscopy are provided.

  15. Radioactive material release from a containment vessel during a fire accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensel, S.; Norkus, J.

    2015-02-26

    A methodology is presented to determine the source term for leaks and ruptures of pressurized vessels. The generic methodology is applied to a 9975 Primary Containment Vessel (PCV) which losses containment due to a hypothesized fire accident. The release due to a vessel rupture is approximately two orders of magnitude greater than the release due to a leak.

  16. Major deepwater pipelay vessel starts work in North Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heerema, E.P.

    1998-05-04

    Industry`s deepwater pipelaying capability has received a boost this year with the entry into the world`s fleet of Solitaire, a dynamically positioned pipelay vessel of about 350 m including stinger. The converted bulk carrier, formerly the Trentwood, will arrive on station in the North Sea and begin laying pipe this month on Statoil`s Europipe II project, a 600-km, 42-in. OD gas pipeline from Norway to Germany. Next year, the vessel will install pipe for the Exxon U.S.A.`s Gulf of Mexico South Diana development (East Breaks Block 945) in a water depth of 1,643 m and for Mobil Oil Canada as part of the Sable Island Offshore and Energy Project offshore Nova Scotia. Using the S-lay mode, Solitaire is particularly well-suited for laying large lines economically, including the deepwater projects anticipated for the US Gulf of Mexico. Table 1 presents Solitaire`s technical specifications. The design, construction, pipelaying, and justification for building vessels such as the Solitaire are discussed.

  17. Method of fabricating a prestressed cast iron vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1982-01-01

    A method of fabricating a prestressed cast iron vessel wherein double wall cast iron body segments each have an arcuate inner wall and a spaced apart substantially parallel outer wall with a plurality of radially extending webs interconnecting the inner wall and the outer wall, the bottom surface and the two exposed radial side surfaces of each body segment are machined and eight body segments are formed into a ring. The top surfaces and outer surfaces of the outer walls are machined and keyways are provided across the juncture of adjacent end walls of the body segments. A liner segment complementary in shape to a selected inner wall of one of the body segments is mounted to each of the body segments and again formed into a ring. The liner segments of each ring are welded to form unitary liner rings and thereafter the cast iron body segments are prestressed to complete the ring assembly. Ring assemblies are stacked to form the vessel and adjacent unitary liner rings are welded. A top head covers the top ring assembly to close the vessel and axially extending tendons retain the top and bottom heads in place under pressure.

  18. Corrosion fatigue characterization of reactor pressure vessel steels. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Der Sluys, W.A.

    1982-12-01

    During routine operation, light water reactor (LWR) pressure vessels are subjected to a variety of transients that result in time-varying stresses. Consequently, fatigue and environmentally-assisted fatigue are mechanisms of growth relevant to flaws in these pressure vessels. To provide a better understanding of the resistance of nuclear pressure vessel steels to these flaw growth processes, fracture mechanics data were generated on the rates of fatigue crack growth for SA508-2 and SA533B-1 steels in both room temperature air and 288/sup 0/C water. Areas investigated were: the relationship of crack growth rate to prior loading history; the effects of loading frequency and R ratio (K/sub min//K/sub max/) on crack growth rate as a function of the stress intensity factor range (..delta..K); transient aspects of the fatigue crack growth behavior; the effect of material chemistry (sulphur content) on fatigue crack; and growth rate; water chemistry effects (high-purity water versus simulated pressurized water reactotr (PWR) primary coolant).

  19. Fracture toughness test results of thermal aged reactor vessel materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVan, M.J.; Lowe, A.L. Jr.; Hall, J.B.

    1996-12-31

    Thermal-aged surveillance materials consisting of Sa-533, Grade B, Class 1 plate material; SA-508, Class 2 forging material; and 2 Mn-Mo-Ni/Linde 80 weld metals were removed from two commercial reactor pressure vessels. The material from the first reactor vessel received a thermal exposure of approximately 103,000 hours at 282 C, while the material from the second reactor vessel received a thermal exposure of approximately 93,000 hours at 282 C. Tensile and 1/2 T compact fracture toughness specimens were fabricated from these materials and tested. In addition, to examine the effects of annealing, selected thermal-aged and unaged specimens were annealed at 454 C (850 F) and tested. Varying responses in the fracture toughness properties were observed for all materials after exposure to the thermal-aging temperature. The base metal plate had an observed decrease in J-values after its respective aging exposure, while no significant difference in the J-values were observed for the Linde 80 weld metals. No significant difference was seen in the J-data for the aged/annealed materials, but because of the small number of test specimens available, no conclusion could be determined for the response to annealing.

  20. EIS-0435: Modification of the Groton Generation Station Interconnection Agreement, Brown County, South Dakota

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal for DOE's Western Area Power Administration to modify its Large Generator Connection Agreement for the Groton Generation Station in Brown County, South Dakota. The modification would allow Basin Electric Power Cooperative, which operates the generation station, to produce power above the current operating limit of 50 average megawatts.

  1. Spitzer and z' secondary eclipse observations of the highly irradiated transiting brown dwarf KELT-1b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Fortney, Jonathan; Knutson, Heather; Bruns, Jacob M.; Showman, Adam P.; Eastman, Jason; Pepper, Joshua; Siverd, Robert J.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2014-03-10

    We present secondary eclipse observations of the highly irradiated transiting brown dwarf KELT-1b. These observations represent the first constraints on the atmospheric dynamics of a highly irradiated brown dwarf, the atmospheres of irradiated giant planets at high surface gravity, and the atmospheres of brown dwarfs that are dominated by external, rather than internal, energy. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we measure secondary eclipse depths of 0.195% ± 0.010% at 3.6 μm and 0.200% ± 0.012% at 4.5 μm. We also find tentative evidence for the secondary eclipse in the z' band with a depth of 0.049% ± 0.023%. These measured eclipse depths are most consistent with an atmosphere model in which there is a strong substellar hotspot, implying that heat redistribution in the atmosphere of KELT-1b is low. While models with a more mild hotspot or even with dayside heat redistribution are only marginally disfavored, models with complete heat redistribution are strongly ruled out. The eclipse depths also prefer an atmosphere with no TiO inversion layer, although a model with TiO inversion is permitted in the dayside heat redistribution case, and we consider the possibility of a day-night TiO cold trap in this object. For the first time, we compare the IRAC colors of brown dwarfs and hot Jupiters as a function of effective temperature. Importantly, our measurements reveal that KELT-1b has a [3.6] – [4.5] color of 0.07 ± 0.11, identical to that of isolated brown dwarfs of similarly high temperature. In contrast, hot Jupiters generally show redder [3.6] – [4.5] colors of ∼0.4, with a very large range from ∼0 to ∼1. Evidently, despite being more similar to hot Jupiters than to isolated brown dwarfs in terms of external forcing of the atmosphere by stellar insolation, KELT-1b appears to have an atmosphere most like that of other brown dwarfs. This suggests that surface gravity is very important in controlling the atmospheric systems of substellar mass bodies.

  2. Testing of Vessel Critical to Hanford Tank Waste Processing Set to Begin

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    This Year | Department of Energy Vessel Critical to Hanford Tank Waste Processing Set to Begin This Year Testing of Vessel Critical to Hanford Tank Waste Processing Set to Begin This Year July 28, 2016 - 12:40pm Addthis The 65-ton vessel arrives in Richland. The 65-ton vessel arrives in Richland. RICHLAND, Wash. - A 65-ton vessel critical to determining the safe mixing and processing of radioactive waste at EM's Office of River Protection Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP)

  3. CHARACTERIZING THE BROWN DWARF FORMATION CHANNELS FROM THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND BINARY-STAR DYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thies, Ingo; Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel; Marks, Michael

    2015-02-10

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a key property of stellar populations. There is growing evidence that the classical star-formation mechanism by the direct cloud fragmentation process has difficulties reproducing the observed abundance and binary properties of brown dwarfs and very-low-mass stars. In particular, recent analytical derivations of the stellar IMF exhibit a deficit of brown dwarfs compared to observational data. Here we derive the residual mass function of brown dwarfs as an empirical measure of the brown dwarf deficiency in recent star-formation models with respect to observations and show that it is compatible with the substellar part of the Thies-Kroupa IMF and the mass function obtained by numerical simulations. We conclude that the existing models may be further improved by including a substellar correction term that accounts for additional formation channels like disk or filament fragmentation. The term ''peripheral fragmentation'' is introduced here for such additional formation channels. In addition, we present an updated analytical model of stellar and substellar binarity. The resulting binary fraction and the dynamically evolved companion mass-ratio distribution are in good agreement with observational data on stellar and very-low-mass binaries in the Galactic field, in clusters, and in dynamically unprocessed groups of stars if all stars form as binaries with stellar companions. Cautionary notes are given on the proper analysis of mass functions and the companion mass-ratio distribution and the interpretation of the results. The existence of accretion disks around young brown dwarfs does not imply that these form just like stars in direct fragmentation.

  4. Method and apparatus for detecting irregularities on or in the wall of a vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowling, Michael Keith (Blackborough Cullompton, GB)

    2000-09-12

    A method of detecting irregularities on or in the wall of a vessel by detecting localized spatial temperature differentials on the wall surface, comprising scanning the vessel surface with a thermal imaging camera and recording the position of the or each region for which the thermal image from the camera is indicative of such a temperature differential across the region. The spatial temperature differential may be formed by bacterial growth on the vessel surface; alternatively, it may be the result of defects in the vessel wall such as thin regions or pin holes or cracks. The detection of leaks through the vessel wall may be enhanced by applying a pressure differential or a temperature differential across the vessel wall; the testing for leaks may be performed with the vessel full or empty, and from the inside or the outside.

  5. Upgrade of the DIII-D vacuum vessel protection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollerbach, M.A.; Lee, R.L.; Smith, J.P.; Taylor, P.L.

    1993-10-01

    An upgrade of the General Atomics DIII-D tokamak armor protection system has been completed. The upgrade consisted of armoring the outer wall and the divertor gas baffle with monolithic graphite tiles and cleaning the existing floor, ceiling, and inner wall tiles to remove any deposited impurity layer from the tile surfaces. The new tiles replace the graphite tiles used as local armor for neutral beam shine through, three graphite poloidal back-up limiter bands, and miscellaneous Inconel protection tiles. The total number of tiles increased from 1636 to 3200 and corresponding vessel coverage from 40% to 90%. A new, graphite armored, toroidally continuous, gas baffle between the outer wall and the biased divertor ring was installed in order to accommodate the cryocondensation pump that was installed in parallel with the outer wall tiles. To eliminate a source of copper in the plasma, GRAFOIL gaskets replaced the copper felt metal gaskets previously used as a compliant heat transfer interface between the inertially cooled tiles and the vessel wall. GRAFOIL, an exfoliated, flexible graphite material from Union Carbide, Inc., was used between each tile and the vessel wall and also between each tile and its hold-down hardware. Testing was performed to determine the mechanical compliance, thermal conductance, and vacuum characteristics of the GRAFOIL material. To further decrease the quantity of high Z materials exposed to the plasma, the 1636 existing graphite tiles were identified, removed, and grit blasted to eliminate a thin layer of deposited metals which included nickel, chromium, and molybdenum. Prior to any processing, a selected set of tiles was tested for radioactivity, including tritium contamination. The tiles were grit blasted in a negative-pressure blasting cabinet using 37 {mu}m boron carbide powder as the blast media and dry nitrogen as the propellant.

  6. Dual shell pressure balanced reactor vessel. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertus, R.J.; Fassbender, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Research (OER) has previously provided support for the development of several chemical processes, including supercritical water oxidation, liquefaction, and aqueous hazardous waste destruction, where chemical and phase transformations are conducted at high pressure and temperature. These and many other commercial processes require a pressure vessel capable of operating in a corrosive environment where safety and economy are important requirements. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) engineers have recently developed and patented (U.S. patent 5,167,930 December 1, 1992) a concept for a novel Dual Shell Pressure Balanced Vessel (DSPBV) which could solve a number of these problems. The technology could be immediately useful in continuing commercialization of an R&D 100 award-winning technology, Sludge-to-oil Reactor System (STORS), originally developed through funding by OER. Innotek Corporation is a small business that would be one logical end-user of the DSPBV reactor technology. Innotek is working with several major U.S. engineering firms to evaluate the potential of this technology in the disposal of wastes from sewage treatment plants. PNL entered into a CRADA with Innotek to build a bench-scale demonstration reactor and test the system to advance the economic feasibility of a variety of high pressure chemical processes. Hydrothermal processing of corrosive substances on a large scale can now be made significantly safer and more economical through use of the DSPBV. Hydrothermal chemical reactions such as wet-air oxidation and supercritical water oxidation occur in a highly corrosive environment inside a pressure vessel. Average corrosion rates from 23 to 80 miles per year have been reported by Rice (1994) and Latanision (1993).

  7. Threaded insert for compact cryogenic-capable pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Espinosa-Loza, Francisco; Ross, Timothy O.; Switzer, Vernon A.; Aceves, Salvador M.; Killingsworth, Nicholas J.; Ledesma-Orozco, Elias

    2015-06-16

    An insert for a cryogenic capable pressure vessel for storage of hydrogen or other cryogenic gases at high pressure. The insert provides the interface between a tank and internal and external components of the tank system. The insert can be used with tanks with any or all combinations of cryogenic, high pressure, and highly diffusive fluids. The insert can be threaded into the neck of a tank with an inner liner. The threads withstand the majority of the stress when the fluid inside the tank that is under pressure.

  8. CASL - PWR Reactor Vessel Multi-Physics CFD Model

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    PWR Reactor Vessel Multi-Physics CFD Model Jin Yan*1, Yiban Xu1, Andrew Petrarca1, Zeses Karoutas1, Emre Tatli1, Emilio Baglietto2, Jess Gehin3 1Westinghouse Electric Company LLC 2Massachusetts Institute of Technology 3Oak Ridge National Lab *Correspondence to: yan3j@westinghouse.com A complete 3D SolidWorks CAD model of Watts Bar Unit 1 was constructed based on drawings. A single fuel assembly CAD model including all geometrical details was created based on the Westinghouse V5H 17x17 fuel

  9. Approach for Configuring a Standardized Vessel for Processing Radioactive Waste Slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Minette, Michael J.; Holton, Langdon K.

    2015-09-10

    A standardized vessel design is being considered at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is under construction at Hanford, Washington. The standardized vessel design will be used for storing, blending, and chemical processing of slurries that exhibit a variable process feed including Newtonian to non-Newtonian rheologies over a range of solids loadings. Developing a standardized vessel is advantageous and reduces the testing required to evaluate the performance of the design. The objectives of this paper are to: 1) present a design strategy for developing a standard vessel mixing system design for the pretreatment portion of the waste treatment plant that must process rheologically and physically challenging process streams, 2) identify performance criteria that the design for the standard vessel must satisfy, 3) present parameters that are to be used for assessing the performance criteria, and 4) describe operation of the selected technology. Vessel design performance will be assessed for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian simulants which represent a range of waste types expected during operation. Desired conditions for the vessel operations are the ability to shear the slurry so that flammable gas does not accumulate within the vessel, that settled solids will be mobilized, that contents can be blended, and that contents can be transferred from the vessel. A strategy is presented for adjusting the vessel configuration to ensure that all these conditions are met.

  10. Structural design, analysis, and code evaluation of an odd-shaped pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezvani, M.A.; Ziada, H.H.

    1992-12-01

    This paper is the result of an effort to design, analyze and evaluate a rectangular pressure vessel. Normally pressure vessels are designed in circular or spherical shapes to prevent stress concentrations. In this case, because of operational limitations, the choice of vessels was limited to a rectangular pressure box with a removable cover plate. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is used as a guideline for pressure containments whose width or depth exceeds 15.24 cm (6.0 in.) and where pressures will exceed 103.4 KPa (15.0 lbf/in[sup 2]). This evaluation used Section VIII of this Code, hereafter referred to as the Code. The dimensions and working pressure of the subject vessel fall within the pressure vessel category of the Code. The Code design guidelines and rules do not directly apply to this vessel. Therefore, finite-element methodology was used to analyze the pressure vessel, and the Code then was used in qualifying the vessel to be stamped to the Code. Section VIII, Division 1 of the Code was used for evaluation. This action was justified by selecting a material for which fatigue damage would not be a concern. The stress analysis results were then chocked against the Code, and the thicknesses adjusted to satisfy Code requirements. Although not directly applicable, the Code design formulas for rectangular vessels were also considered and presented in this study.

  11. Structural design, analysis, and code evaluation of an odd-shaped pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezvani, M.A.; Ziada, H.H.

    1992-12-01

    This paper is the result of an effort to design, analyze and evaluate a rectangular pressure vessel. Normally pressure vessels are designed in circular or spherical shapes to prevent stress concentrations. In this case, because of operational limitations, the choice of vessels was limited to a rectangular pressure box with a removable cover plate. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is used as a guideline for pressure containments whose width or depth exceeds 15.24 cm (6.0 in.) and where pressures will exceed 103.4 KPa (15.0 lbf/in{sup 2}). This evaluation used Section VIII of this Code, hereafter referred to as the Code. The dimensions and working pressure of the subject vessel fall within the pressure vessel category of the Code. The Code design guidelines and rules do not directly apply to this vessel. Therefore, finite-element methodology was used to analyze the pressure vessel, and the Code then was used in qualifying the vessel to be stamped to the Code. Section VIII, Division 1 of the Code was used for evaluation. This action was justified by selecting a material for which fatigue damage would not be a concern. The stress analysis results were then chocked against the Code, and the thicknesses adjusted to satisfy Code requirements. Although not directly applicable, the Code design formulas for rectangular vessels were also considered and presented in this study.

  12. Study on underclad cracking in nuclear reactor vessel steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horiya, T.; Takeda, T.; Yamato, K.

    1985-02-01

    Susceptibility to underclad cracking in nuclear reactor vessel steels, such as SA533 Grade B Class 1 and SA508 Class 2, was studied in detail. A convenient simulation test method using simulated HAZ specimens of small size has been developed for quantitative evaluation of susceptibility to underclad cracks. The method can predict precisely the cracking behavior in weldments of steels with relative low crack susceptibility. The effect of chemical compositions on susceptibility to the cracking was examined systematically using the developed simulation test method and the following index was obtained from the test results: U = 20(V) + 7(C) + 4(Mo) + (Cr) + (Cu) - 0.5(Mn) + 1.5 log(X) X = Al . . . Al/2N less than or equal to 1 X = 2N . . . Al/2N > 1 It was confirmed that the new index (U) is useful for the prediction of crack susceptibility of the nuclear vessel steels; i.e., no crack initiation is detected in weldments in the roller bend test for steels having U value below 0.90.

  13. Fatigue of weldments in nuclear pressure vessels and piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booker, M.K.; Booker, B.L.P.; Meieran, H.B.; Heuschkel J.

    1980-03-01

    Current (ASME) Code fatigue design rules for nuclear pressure vessels and piping include no special considerations for weldments other than purely geometric factors. Research programs aimed at nonnuclear applications have found weldments to display fatigue behavior inferior to that of pure base material. Available information on fatigue of weldments relevant to nuclear pressure vessels and piping was reviewed and determined changes in the current design rules appear to be dictated by the available information. Information was obtained and summarized and stored in a computerized data management system to facilitate correlation of facts and development of conclusions. Significant areas where development of additional data would substantially increase the ability to judge the adequacy of the current ASME design rules include: a better understanding of the relative importance of crack initiation and crack propagation to fatigue life; additional fatigue data for prototypic commercial weldments, including cumulative damage; properties of repair welds; significance of reheat cracks; quantitative effect of Code-allowable weld defects; and the effect of variable microstructure across the weld joint. Based on the information that is available, there is no evidence that the ASME Code fatigue design procedures need to be changed at this time. The current ASME design procedures, which form the general basis for fatigue evaluation both in the US and abroad are reviewed. Included is a review of various factors that influence the fatigue of weldments and of service experience with nuclear systems regarding fatigue of weldments. Research programs that may contribute to available information are reviewed.

  14. Electricity Monthly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Lead: Chris Cassar (christopher.cassar@eia.gov) Senior Adviser: Bill Booth Core Team: M. Tyson Brown, Eric Schneiter, Ron Hankey, Dean Fennell, Paul McCardle, Channele Wirman...

  15. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Filter by Author Brown, Ron (1) Chang, Ni-Bin (1) Davila, Eric (1) Dyson, Brian (1) Save ... facility in a fast-growing urban setting Chang, Ni-Bin ; Davila, Eric ; Dyson, Brian ; ...

  16. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    first liftoff out of Sacramento, California, where it is making routine flights over the Sierra Nevada Mountains and coastal California and over the AMF2 on the Ron Brown as it...

  17. Palynostratigraphy of the Erkovtsy field of brown coal (the Zeya-Bureya sedimentary basin)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kezina, T.V.; Litvinenko, N.D.

    2007-08-15

    The Erkovtsy brown coal field in the northwestern Zeya-Bureya sedimentary basin (129-130{sup o}E, 46-47{sup o}N) is structurally confined to southern flank of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Belogor'e depression. The verified stratigraphic scheme of the coalfield sedimentary sequence is substantiated by palynological data on core samples from 18 boreholes sampled in the course of detailed prospecting and by paleobotanical analysis of sections in the Yuzhnyi sector of the coalfield (data of 1998 by M.A. Akhmetiev and S.P. Manchester). Sections of the Erkovtsy, Arkhara-Boguchan, and Raichikha brown-coal mines are correlated. Stratigraphic subdivisions distinguished in the studied sedimentary succession are the middle and upper Tsagayan subformations (the latter incorporating the Kivda Beds), Raichikha, Mukhino, Buzuli, and Sazanka formations.

  18. Dr. Benjamin L. Brown | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Benjamin L. Brown Deputy Director for Science Programs Deputy Director Home Mission & Functions Deputy Director Biography Organization Staff Presentations & Testimony Federal Advisory Committees Committees of Visitors Contact Information Deputy Director for Science Programs U.S. Department of Energy SC-2/Forrestal Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5430 F: (202) 586-4120 E: Email Us U.S. Department of Energy SC-2/Germantown Building 1000 Independence

  19. Methane, carbon monoxide, and ammonia in brown dwarfs and self-luminous giant planets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zahnle, Kevin J.; Marley, Mark S. E-mail: Mark.S.Marley@NASA.gov

    2014-12-10

    We address disequilibrium abundances of some simple molecules in the atmospheres of solar composition brown dwarfs and self-luminous extrasolar giant planets using a kinetics-based one-dimensional atmospheric chemistry model. Our approach is to use the full kinetics model to survey the parameter space with effective temperatures between 500 K and 1100 K. In all of these worlds, equilibrium chemistry favors CH{sub 4} over CO in the parts of the atmosphere that can be seen from Earth, but in most disequilibrium favors CO. The small surface gravity of a planet strongly discriminates against CH{sub 4} when compared to an otherwise comparable brown dwarf. If vertical mixing is like Jupiter's, the transition from methane to CO occurs at 500 K in a planet. Sluggish vertical mixing can raise this to 600 K, but clouds or more vigorous vertical mixing could lower this to 400 K. The comparable thresholds in brown dwarfs are 1100 100 K. Ammonia is also sensitive to gravity, but, unlike CH{sub 4}/CO, the NH{sub 3}/N{sub 2} ratio is insensitive to mixing, which makes NH{sub 3} a potential proxy for gravity. HCN may become interesting in high-gravity brown dwarfs with very strong vertical mixing. Detailed analysis of the CO-CH{sub 4} reaction network reveals that the bottleneck to CO hydrogenation goes through methanol, in partial agreement with previous work. Simple, easy to use quenching relations are derived by fitting to the complete chemistry of the full ensemble of models. These relations are valid for determining CO, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, HCN, and CO{sub 2} abundances in the range of self-luminous worlds we have studied, but may not apply if atmospheres are strongly heated at high altitudes by processes not considered here (e.g., wave breaking).

  20. Thin film application device and method for coating small aperture vacuum vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walters, Dean R; Este, Grantley O

    2015-01-27

    A device and method for coating an inside surface of a vessel is provided. In one embodiment, a coating device comprises a power supply and a diode in electrical communication with the power supply, wherein electrodes comprising the diode reside completely within the vessel. The method comprises reversibly sealing electrodes in a vessel, sputtering elemental metal or metal compound on the surface while maintaining the surface in a controlled atmosphere.

  1. Cryogenic Pressure Vessels for H2 Vehicles Rapidly Refueled by LH2 pump to 700 bar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Vessels for H 2 Vehicles Rapidly Refueled by LH 2 pump to 700 bar Salvador Aceves, Gene Berry, Guillaume Petitpas, Vernon Switzer Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CAMX meeting October 29 th , 2015 LLNL-PRES-678629 * Cryogenic H 2 Onboard Storage * Temperature as a Degree of Freedom in H 2 storage * LLNL Cryocompressed Project History * 350 Bar Test Vehicle Park & Drive Results * Current Project * 700 bar prototype (cryogenic) vessels * Refueling with LH 2 Pump * Test Vessel Cycling

  2. Nuclear reactor having a polyhedral primary shield and removable vessel insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekeroth, D.E.; Orr, R.

    1993-12-07

    A nuclear reactor is provided having a generally cylindrical reactor vessel disposed within an opening in a primary shield. The opening in the primary shield is defined by a plurality of generally planar side walls forming a generally polyhedral-shaped opening. The reactor vessel is supported within the opening in the primary shield by reactor vessel supports which are in communication and aligned with central portions of some of the side walls. The reactor vessel is connected to the central portions of the reactor vessel supports. A thermal insulation polyhedron formed from a plurality of slidably insertable and removable generally planar insulation panels substantially surrounds at least a portion of the reactor vessel and is disposed between the reactor vessel and the side walls of the primary shield. The shape of the insulation polyhedron generally corresponds to the shape of the opening in the primary shield. Reactor monitoring instrumentation may be mounted in the corners of the opening in the primary shield between the side walls and the reactor vessel such that insulation is not disposed between the instrumentation and the reactor vessel. 5 figures.

  3. Technical Forum Participants at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Photo of the Technical Forum Participants at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum, which was held on September 27–29, 2010, in Beijing, China.

  4. LNG Exports by Vessel in ISO Containers out of the U.S. Form | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy in ISO Containers out of the U.S. Form LNG Exports by Vessel in ISO Containers out of the U.S. Form LNG Exports by Vessel in ISO Containers Form (Excel) (41 KB) LNG Exports by Vessel in ISO Containers Form (pdf) (22.11 KB) More Documents & Publications LNG Imports by Vessel into the U.S. Form LNG Exports by Truck out of the U.S. Form LNG Imports by Truck into the U.S. Form

  5. OVERVIEW OF PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR INTERNAL DETONATION (BLAST) LOADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. A. DUFFEY; E. A. RODRIGUEZ

    2001-05-01

    Spherical and cylindrical pressure vessels are often used to completely contain the effects of high explosions. These vessels generally fall into two categories. The first includes vessels designed for multiple use ([1]-[6]). Applications of such multiple-use vessels include testing of explosive components and bomb disposal. Because of the multiple-use requirement, response of the vessel is restricted to the elastic range. The second category consists of vessels designed for one-time use only ([7]-[9]). Vessels in this category are typically used to contain accidental explosions and are designed to efficiently utilize the significant plastic energy absorption capacity of ductile materials. Because these vessels may undergo large permanent plastic deformations, they may not be reusable. Ideally one would design a Containment Vessel according to some National or International Consensus Standard, such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Unfortunately, however, a number of issues preclude direct use of the ASME Code in its present form to the design of Containment Vessels. These issues are described in Section 2, along with a request for guidance from the PVRC as to a suitable path forward for developing appropriate ASME B&PV design guidance for Containment Vessels. Next, a discussion of the nature of impulsive loading as a result of an internal detonation of the high explosive within a Containment Vessel is described in Section 3. Ductile failure criteria utilized for LANL Containment Vessels are described in Section 4. Finally, brittle fracture criteria currently utilized by LANL are presented in Section 5. This memo is concluded with a brief summary of results and an appeal to PVRC to recommend and develop an appropriate path forward (Section 6). This path forward could be of a short-term specialized nature (e.g., Code Case) for specific guidance regarding design of the LANL Containment Vessels; a long-term development of a general design approach

  6. Nuclear reactor having a polyhedral primary shield and removable vessel insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekeroth, Douglas E. (Delmont, PA); Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is provided having a generally cylindrical reactor vessel disposed within an opening in a primary shield. The opening in the primary shield is defined by a plurality of generally planar side walls forming a generally polyhedral-shaped opening. The reactor vessel is supported within the opening in the primary shield by reactor vessel supports which are in communication and aligned with central portions of some of the side walls. The reactor vessel is connected to the central portions of the reactor vessel supports. A thermal insulation polyhedron formed from a plurality of slidably insertable and removable generally planar insulation panels substantially surrounds at least a portion of the reactor vessel and is disposed between the reactor vessel and the side walls of the primary shield. The shape of the insulation polyhedron generally corresponds to the shape of the opening in the primary shield. Reactor monitoring instrumentation may be mounted in the corners of the opening in the primary shield between the side walls and the reactor vessel such that insulation is not disposed between the instrumentation and the reactor vessel.

  7. Low Temperature Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John

    2015-08-01

    The embrittlement trend curve development project for HFIR reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels was carried out with three major tasks. Which are (1) data collection to match that used in HFIR steel embrittlement trend published in 1994 Journal Nuclear Material by Remec et. al, (2) new embrittlement data of A212B steel that are not included in earlier HFIR RPV trend curve, and (3) the adjustment of nil-ductility-transition temperature (NDTT) shift data with the consideration of the irradiation temperature effect. An updated HFIR RPV steel embrittlement trend curve was developed, as described below. NDTT( C) = 23.85 log(x) + 203.3 log (x) + 434.7, with 2- uncertainty of 34.6 C, where parameter x is referred to total dpa. The developed update HFIR RPV embrittlement trend curve has higher embrittlement rate compared to that of the trend curve developed in 1994.

  8. Preliminary Risk Assessment Associated with IGSCC of BWR Vessel Internals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Ware; K. Morton; M. Nitzel; N. Chokshi; T-Y. Chang

    1999-08-01

    BWR core shrouds and other reactor internals important to safety are experiencing intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has followed the problem, and as part of its investigations, contracted with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to conduct a risk assessment. The overall project objective is to assess the potential consequences and risks associated with the failure of IGSCC-susceptible BWR vessel internals, with specific consideration given to potential cascading and common mode effects. The paper presents an overview of the program, discusses the results of a preliminary qualitative assessment, and summarizes a simplified risk assessment that was conducted on sequences resulting from failures of jet pump components of a BWR/4 plant.

  9. Stress and Sealing Performance Analysis of Containment Vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WU, TSU-TE

    2005-05-24

    This paper presents a numerical technique for analyzing the containment vessel subjected to the combined loading of closure-bolt torque and internal pressure. The detailed stress distributions in the O-rings generated by both the torque load and the internal pressure can be evaluated by using this method. Consequently, the sealing performance of the O-rings can be determined. The material of the O-rings can be represented by any available constitutive equation for hyperelastic material. In the numerical calculation of this paper, the form of the Mooney-Rivlin strain energy potential is used. The technique treats both the preloading process of bolt tightening and the application of internal pressure as slow dynamic loads. Consequently, the problem can be evaluated using explicit numerical integration scheme.

  10. THERMAL DESIGN OF THE ITER VACUUM VESSEL COOLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, Juan J; Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Kim, Seokho H

    2010-01-01

    RELAP5-3D models of the ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) have been developed. The design of the cooling system is described in detail, and RELAP5 results are presented. Two parallel pump/heat exchanger trains comprise the design one train is for full-power operation and the other is for emergency operation or operation at decay heat levels. All the components are located inside the Tokamak building (a significant change from the original configurations). The results presented include operation at full power, decay heat operation, and baking operation. The RELAP5-3D results confirm that the design can operate satisfactorily during both normal pulsed power operation and decay heat operation. All the temperatures in the coolant and in the different system components are maintained within acceptable operating limits.

  11. Crystal Plasticity Model of Reactor Pressure Vessel Embrittlement in GRIZZLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Pritam; Biner, Suleyman Bulent; Zhang, Yongfeng; Spencer, Benjamin Whiting

    2015-07-01

    The integrity of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is of utmost importance to ensure safe operation of nuclear reactors under extended lifetime. Microstructure-scale models at various length and time scales, coupled concurrently or through homogenization methods, can play a crucial role in understanding and quantifying irradiation-induced defect production, growth and their influence on mechanical behavior of RPV steels. A multi-scale approach, involving atomistic, meso- and engineering-scale models, is currently being pursued within the GRIZZLY project to understand and quantify irradiation-induced embrittlement of RPV steels. Within this framework, a dislocation-density based crystal plasticity model has been developed in GRIZZLY that captures the effect of irradiation-induced defects on the flow stress behavior and is presented in this report. The present formulation accounts for the interaction between self-interstitial loops and matrix dislocations. The model predictions have been validated with experiments and dislocation dynamics simulation.

  12. Measuring precrack initiation fatigue state in reactor pressure vessel steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Fukuoka, C.

    1993-08-01

    Identification of a precursor whose measurement could lead to damage avoidance or mitigation in a power plant structure, system or component that is expensive to repair or replace would substantially improve the economics of electrical power generation, The accent is identification of measurable microstructural precursors of those macroscopic damages that limit the useful life of metallic, power plant, pressure boundary components that degrade by fatigue, creep, stress corrosion and embrittlement. This report presents the results of a five year research program to develop an inspection technique to predict when fatigue initiation will occur in pressure vessel steels operating at LWR nuclear plant conditions. The report serves two primary objectives. One is to describe an inspection method that appears to predict when fatigue crack initiation will occur. The second is to illustrate the nature and scope of a program required to validate a microstructural precursor program for the engineering materials and service conditions of utility practice.

  13. Vessel network detection using contour evolution and color components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushizima, Daniela; Medeiros, Fatima; Cuadros, Jorge; Martins, Charles

    2011-06-22

    Automated retinal screening relies on vasculature segmentation before the identification of other anatomical structures of the retina. Vasculature extraction can also be input to image quality ranking, neovascularization detection and image registration, among other applications. There is an extensive literature related to this problem, often excluding the inherent heterogeneity of ophthalmic clinical images. The contribution of this paper relies on an algorithm using front propagation to segment the vessel network. The algorithm includes a penalty in the wait queue on the fast marching heap to minimize leakage of the evolving interface. The method requires no manual labeling, a minimum number of parameters and it is capable of segmenting color ocular fundus images in real scenarios, where multi-ethnicity and brightness variations are parts of the problem.

  14. The Disruption of Vessel-Spanning Bubbles with Sloped Fins in Flat-Bottom and 2:1 Elliptical-Bottom Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Buchmiller, William C.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Chun, Jaehun; Russell, Renee L.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Mastor, Michael M.

    2010-09-22

    Radioactive sludge was generated in the K-East Basin and K-West Basin fuel storage pools at the Hanford Site while irradiated uranium metal fuel elements from the N Reactor were being stored and packaged. The fuel has been removed from the K Basins, and currently, the sludge resides in the KW Basin in large underwater Engineered Containers. The first phase to the Sludge Treatment Project being led by CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is to retrieve and load the sludge into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and transport the sludge to T Plant for interim storage. The STSCs will be stored inside T Plant cells that are equipped with secondary containment and leak-detection systems. The sludge is composed of a variety of particulate materials and water, including a fraction of reactive uranium metal particles that are a source of hydrogen gas. If a situation occurs where the reactive uranium metal particles settle out at the bottom of a container, previous studies have shown that a vessel-spanning gas layer above the uranium metal particles can develop and can push the overlying layer of sludge upward. The major concern, in addition to the general concern associated with the retention and release of a flammable gas such as hydrogen, is that if a vessel-spanning bubble (VSB) forms in an STSC, it may drive the overlying sludge material to the vents at the top of the container. Then it may be released from the container into the cell’s secondary containment system at T Plant. A previous study demonstrated that sloped walls on vessels, both cylindrical coned-shaped vessels and rectangular vessels with rounded ends, provided an effective approach for disrupting a VSB by creating a release path for gas as a VSB began to rise. Based on the success of sloped-wall vessels, a similar concept is investigated here where a sloped fin is placed inside the vessel to create a release path for gas. A key potential advantage of using a sloped fin compared to a

  15. Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports byVessel to Mexico (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Thousand Cubic Feet) byVessel to Mexico (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports byVessel to Mexico (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2016 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 4.23

  16. FFTF thermal-hydraulic testing results affecting piping and vessel component design in LMFBR's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stover, R.L.; Beaver, T.R.; Chang, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility completed four years of pre-operational testing in April 1982. This paper describes thermal-hydraulic testing results from this period which impact piping and vessel component design in LMFBRs. Data discussed are piping flow oscillations, piping thermal stratification and vessel upper plenum stratification. Results from testing verified that plant design limits were met.

  17. Creep of A508/533 Pressure Vessel Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Wright

    2014-08-01

    ABSTRACT Evaluation of potential Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels has been carried out as part of the pre-conceptual Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design studies. These design studies have generally focused on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code status of the steels, temperature limits, and allowable stresses. Initially, three candidate materials were identified by this process: conventional light water reactor (LWR) RPV steels A508 and A533, 2¼Cr-1Mo in the annealed condition, and Grade 91 steel. The low strength of 2¼Cr-1Mo at elevated temperature has eliminated this steel from serious consideration as the VHTR RPV candidate material. Discussions with the very few vendors that can potentially produce large forgings for nuclear pressure vessels indicate a strong preference for conventional LWR steels. This preference is based in part on extensive experience with forging these steels for nuclear components. It is also based on the inability to cast large ingots of the Grade 91 steel due to segregation during ingot solidification, thus restricting the possible mass of forging components and increasing the amount of welding required for completion of the RPV. Grade 91 steel is also prone to weld cracking and must be post-weld heat treated to ensure adequate high-temperature strength. There are also questions about the ability to produce, and very importantly, verify the through thickness properties of thick sections of Grade 91 material. The availability of large components, ease of fabrication, and nuclear service experience with the A508 and A533 steels strongly favor their use in the RPV for the VHTR. Lowering the gas outlet temperature for the VHTR to 750°C from 950 to 1000°C, proposed in early concept studies, further strengthens the justification for this material selection. This steel is allowed in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for nuclear service up to 371°C (700°F); certain excursions above that temperature are

  18. Blood Vessel Normalization in the Hamster Oral Cancer Model for Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ana J. Molinari; Romina F. Aromando; Maria E. Itoiz; Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2012-07-01

    Normalization of tumor blood vessels improves drug and oxygen delivery to cancer cells. The aim of this study was to develop a technique to normalize blood vessels in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Tumor-bearing hamsters were treated with thalidomide and were compared with controls. Results: Twenty eight hours after treatment with thalidomide, the blood vessels of premalignant tissue observable in vivo became narrower and less tortuous than those of controls; Evans Blue Dye extravasation in tumor was significantly reduced (indicating a reduction in aberrant tumor vascular hyperpermeability that compromises blood flow), and tumor blood vessel morphology in histological sections, labeled for Factor VIII, revealed a significant reduction in compressive forces. These findings indicated blood vessel normalization with a window of 48 h. Conclusion: The technique developed herein has rendered the hamster oral cancer model amenable to research, with the potential benefit of vascular normalization in head and neck cancer therapy.

  19. Method of design for vertical oil shale retorting vessels and retorting therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-01-03

    A method of designing the gas flow parameters of a vertical shaft oil shale retorting vessel involves determining the proportion of gas introduced in the bottom of the vessel and into intermediate levels in the vessel to provide for lateral distribution of gas across the vessel cross section, providing mixing with the uprising gas, and determining the limiting velocity of the gas through each nozzle. The total quantity of gas necessary for oil shale treatment in the vessel may be determined and the proportion to be injected into each level is then determined based on the velocity relation of the orifice velocity and its feeder manifold gas velocity. A limitation is placed on the velocity of gas issuing from an orifice by the nature of the solid being treated, usually physical tests of gas velocity impinging the solid.

  20. Economic advantages of Division 2 design for vessels per ASME Code Section VIII

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lengsfeld, M.; Holman, R.; Lengsfeld, P.F.

    1995-12-01

    ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section 8, Division 2 has been available since 1968 for the design of pressure equipment. Industry has generally accepted this code for the design of high pressure vessels, high pressure being relative. Some consider high pressure above 3,000 PSIG, others look at high pressure above 1,000 or 1,500 PSIG. There are organizations who tie the use of Division 2 to thickness, meaning vessels in a thickness range above 3 to 4 inches as worthwhile to design to Division 2. In this paper the authors discuss the use of Division 2 strictly as an economic issue. Independent of thickness, if say a 3/4 in. thick vessel is lower in cost designed to Division 2 vs Division 1 why would one not build this vessel using Division 2 as the design basis?

  1. Method for forming a bladder for fluid storage vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, Fred; Myers, Blake; Magnotta, Frank

    2000-01-01

    A lightweight, low permeability liner for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using torispherical or near torispherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film seamed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life.

  2. A DISLOCATION-BASED CLEAVAGE INITIATION MODEL FOR PRESSURE VESSEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, Kristine B; Erickson, Marjorie A; Williams, Paul T; Klasky, Hilda B; Bass, Bennett Richard

    2012-01-01

    Efforts are under way to develop a theoretical, multi-scale model for the prediction of fracture toughness of ferritic steels in the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) region that accounts for temperature, irradiation, strain rate, and material condition (chemistry and heat treatment) effects. This new model is intended to address difficulties associated with existing empirically-derived models of the DBTT region that cannot be extrapolated to conditions for which data are unavailable. Dislocation distribution equations, derived from the theories of Yokobori et al., are incorporated to account for the local stress state prior to and following initiation of a microcrack from a second-phase particle. The new model is the basis for the DISlocation-based FRACture (DISFRAC) computer code being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of this code is to permit fracture safety assessments of ferritic structures with only tensile properties required as input. The primary motivation for the code is to assist in the prediction of radiation effects on nuclear reactor pressure vessels, in parallel with the EURATOM PERFORM 60 project.

  3. Trenton strata in western Illinois Basin, Brown and Schuyler Counties, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pochel, R.M.

    1984-12-01

    Trenton strata in the western Illinois basin are very good prospects for oil exploration. Much drilling has been done in the area but, as yet, no producing wells have been completed. Oil stains and some tars have been found in some samples from most wells. The Trenton in the area of Brown and Schuyler Counties is a fine-grained limestone that underlies the Maquoketa Shale at an average depth of 800 ft (244 m). Because of its position near the edge of the Illinois basin, the stratigraphy varies considerably and inconsistencies are present in most samples viewed.

  4. Mid-infrared followup of cold brown dwarfs: diversity in age, mass and metallicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saumon, Didier; Leggett, Sandy K; Burningham, Ben; Marley, Mark S; Waren, S J; Jones, H R A; Pinfield, D J; Smart, R L

    2009-01-01

    We present new Spitzer IRAC [3.6], [4.5], [5.8] and [8.0] photometry of nine very late-type T dwarfs. Combining this with previously published photometry, we investigate trends with type and color that are useful for both the planning and interpretation of infrared surveys designed to discover the coldest T or Y dwarfs. Brown dwarfs with effective temperature (T{sub eff}) below 700 K emit more than half their flux at wavelengths longer than 3 {micro}m, and the ratio of the mid-infrared flux to the near-infrared flux becomes very sensitive to T{sub eff} at these low temperatures. We confirm that the color H (1.6 {micro}m) - [4.5] is a good indicator of T{sub eff} with a relatively weak dependence on metallicity and gravity. Conversely, the colors H - K (2.2 {micro}m) and [4.5] - [5.8] are sensitive to metallicity and gravity. Thus near- and mid-infrared photometry provide useful indicators of the fundamental properties of brown dwarfs, and if temperature and gravity are known, then mass and age can be reliably determined from evolutionary models. There are twelve dwarfs currently known with H - [4.5] > 3.0, and {approx} 500 < T{sub eff} K {approx}< 800, which we examine in detail. The ages of the dwarfs in the sample range from very young (0.1 - 1.0 Gyr) to relatively old (3 - 12 Gyr). The mass range is possibly as low as 5 Jupiter masses to up to 70 Jupiter masses, i.e. near the hydrogen burning limit. The metallicities also span a large range, from [m/H]= -0.3 to [m/H]= +0.2. The small number of T8 - T9 dwarfs found in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey to date appear to be predominantly young low-mass dwarfs. Accurate mid-infrared photometry of cold brown dwarfs is essentially impossible from the ground, and extensions to the mid-infrared space missions warm-Spitzer and WISE are desirable in order to obtain the vital mid-infrared data for cold brown dwarfs, and to discover more of these rare objects.

  5. STATE OF CALIFORNIA - THE NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN, JR., Governor

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    THE NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN, JR., Governor CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION 1516 Ninth Street, MS 14 Sacramento, California 95814 Main website: www.energy.ca.gov January 12, 2011 United States Department of Energy (DOE) Via e-mail: expartecommunications@hq.doe.gov RE: Ex parte communication of the California Energy Commission Docket No. EERE-2008-BT-STD-0005 To Whom It May Concern, On January 6, 2011, Mike Leaon, Harinder Singh, Ken Rider, and Dennis Beck of the California Energy

  6. Speakers: Adam Sieminski, Deutsche Bank Stephen P. A. Brown, Resources for the Future

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    5: "Energy and the Economy" Speakers: Adam Sieminski, Deutsche Bank Stephen P. A. Brown, Resources for the Future Donald L. Paul, University of Southern California Energy Institute David Sandalow, DOE Christof Rühl, Group Chief Economist, BP [Note: Recorders did not pick up introduction of panel (see biographies for details on the panelists) or introduction of session.] Adam: Microphone. So, we've lost a little bit of time because of all of the sessions running a bit over, but here is

  7. I. V. Khalzov, B. P. Brown, F. Ebrahimi, D. D. Schnack, and C. B. Forest

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation of laminar plasma dynamos in a cylindrical von Kármán flow I. V. Khalzov, B. P. Brown, F. Ebrahimi, D. D. Schnack, and C. B. Forest Citation: Phys. Plasmas 18, 032110 (2011); doi: 10.1063/1.3559472 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3559472 View Table of Contents: http://pop.aip.org/resource/1/PHPAEN/v18/i3 Published by the American Institute of Physics. Additional information on Phys. Plasmas Journal Homepage: http://pop.aip.org/ Journal Information:

  8. I. V. Khalzov, B. P. Brown, N. Katz, and C. B. Forest

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    the Parker instability in a rotating plasma screw pinch I. V. Khalzov, B. P. Brown, N. Katz, and C. B. Forest Citation: Phys. Plasmas 19, 022107 (2012); doi: 10.1063/1.3684240 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3684240 View Table of Contents: http://pop.aip.org/resource/1/PHPAEN/v19/i2 Published by the American Institute of Physics. Additional information on Phys. Plasmas Journal Homepage: http://pop.aip.org/ Journal Information: http://pop.aip.org/about/about_the_journal Top downloads:

  9. Development of advanced manufacturing technologies for low cost hydrogen storage vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick

    2014-12-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defined a need for low-cost gaseous hydrogen storage vessels at 700 bar to support cost goals aimed at 500,000 units per year. Existing filament winding processes produce a pressure vessel that is structurally inefficient, requiring more carbon fiber for manufacturing reasons, than would otherwise be necessary. Carbon fiber is the greatest cost driver in building a hydrogen pressure vessel. The objective of this project is to develop new methods for manufacturing Type IV pressure vessels for hydrogen storage with the purpose of lowering the overall product cost through an innovative hybrid process of optimizing composite usage by combining traditional filament winding (FW) and advanced fiber placement (AFP) techniques. A numbers of vessels were manufactured in this project. The latest vessel design passed all the critical tests on the hybrid design per European Commission (EC) 79-2009 standard except the extreme temperature cycle test. The tests passed include burst test, cycle test, accelerated stress rupture test and drop test. It was discovered the location where AFP and FW overlap for load transfer could be weakened during hydraulic cycling at 85°C. To design a vessel that passed these tests, the in-house modeling software was updated to add capability to start and stop fiber layers to simulate the AFP process. The original in-house software was developed for filament winding only. Alternative fiber was also investigated in this project, but the added mass impacted the vessel cost negatively due to the lower performance from the alternative fiber. Overall the project was a success to show the hybrid design is a viable solution to reduce fiber usage, thus driving down the cost of fuel storage vessels. Based on DOE’s baseline vessel size of 147.3L and 91kg, the 129L vessel (scaled to DOE baseline) in this project shows a 32% composite savings and 20% cost savings when comparing Vessel 15 hybrid design and the Quantum

  10. Brown - leaves

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Oct 14 th * Award decision by Nov 6 th * Presentation of New Program Thurs, Nov 13 th . * Utility opt-in Nov 7 - Dec 5 th * New program launch - April 1, 2015 12 B O N N E V I L L...

  11. Brown - leaves

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    and Opportunities Low Income Energy Efficiency Workgroup November 6, 2014 Sarah F. Moore, Residential Lead Courtney Dale, Residential Weatherization B O N N E V I L L E P O W...

  12. Utilization of reactor pressure vessel surveillance data in support of aging management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mager, T.R.

    1993-12-01

    The majority of pressurized water reactors (PWR) operating in the US have a design basis life of 30 to 40 years. These design basis life estimations were not based on technical studies of material degradation in general but rather on fatigue usage factors for the most part. Recognizing this fact, the subject of operating an existing nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) for longer periods than originally intended has become an important issue worldwide. Radiation embrittlement of the reactor vessel beltline region (the area surrounding the height of the reactor core) is the main concern in extending the operation of the NSSS. Radiation damage, if any, to the reactor pressure vessel material is monitored by a material radiation surveillance program. If the data from the reactor vessel materials surveillance program indicate that the reactor pressure vessel will not meet the rules of the Code of Federal Register (CFR) and various regulatory guides (RG), there are a number of options a utility may take to ensure reactor pressure vessel design life attainment or extension. This paper describes the results from 12 surveillance capsule programs, which encompass four reactor vessel materials and five reactor vessel manufacturers.

  13. Small Modular Nuclear Reactors: Parametric Modeling of Integrated Reactor Vessel Manufacturing Within a Factory Environment- Volume 2

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Small Modular Nuclear Reactors: Parametric Modeling of Integrated Reactor Vessel Manufacturing Within a Factory Environment - Volume 2 August 2013

  14. Small Modular Nuclear Reactors: Parametric Modeling of Integrated Reactor Vessel Manufacturing Within a Factory Environment- Volume 1

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Small Modular Nuclear Reactors: Parametric Modeling of Integrated Reactor Vessel Manufacturing Within a Factory Environment - Volume 1 August 2013

  15. U.S. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 2010 International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27–29, 2010, in Beijing, China.

  16. Analysis of the Three Mile Island submerged demineralizer system vessel burial data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasen, W.G.; Amir, S.J.

    1989-09-01

    The Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) was used during the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor cleanup to remove cesium and strontium from contaminated water. The SDS vessels are 2-ft-in diameter and 4-ft tall stainless steel cylinders containing up to 60 kCi of radioactive cesium and strontium loaded on damp zeolite. The water in the damp zeolite absorbs some of the ionizing radiation and decomposes to hydrogen and oxygen by a process called radiolysis. Gas generation rates approaching 1 L/h (Quinn et al. 1984) have been calculated and measured for some of these loaded vessels. Each of the SDS vessels contains a catalyst bed to recombine the available hydrogen and oxygen back to water. Tests have proven this hydrogen control method to be highly effective, even under very wet (but unsubmerged) conditions. Nineteen SDS vessels, packaged one at a time in a shielded and licensed shipping cask, were shipped to Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell). Collectively, these vessels contain approximately 7,500 kCi of radioactive material. Sixteen vessels were transloaded into concrete overpacks and buried at the Hanford Site. The contents of the other three vessels were vitrified at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Subsequent to placement of the SDS vessels in the burial grounds, DOE Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988) was issued in September 1988. This order requires wastes to be evaluated against 10 CFR 61.55 for radioactivity above greater-than-class C(GTCC) limits. Fourteen of the sixteen vessels buried at the Hanford Site have been determined to be GTCC waste. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Relation between combustion heat and chemical wood composition during white and brown rot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobry, J.; Dziurzynski, A.; Rypacek, V.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of beech and spruce wood were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinus tigrinus and the brown rot fungi Fomitopsis pinicola and Serpula lacrymans (S. lacrimans) for four months. Decomposition (expressed as percent weight loss) and amounts of holocellulose, lignin, humic acids (HU), hymatomelanic acids (HY) and fulvo acids (FU) were determined and expressed in weight percent. Combustion heat of holocellulose and lignin was determined in healthy wood and in specimens where decomposition was greater than 50%. During white rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged even at high decomposition and the relative amounts of holocellulose and lignin remained the same. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased during the initial stages and stabilized at 20%. The content of HU plus HY was negligible even at the highest degree of decomposition. During brown rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged only in the initial stages, it increased continously with increasing rot. Lignin content was unchanged in the initial stages and increased after 30% weight loss. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased continuously, reaching higher values than in white rot decomposition; there were differences between the two species. Biosynthesis of HU plus HY began when weight loss reached 30%; there were differences in absolute and relative amounts between species. 24 references.

  18. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A.

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. A HYBRID SCENARIO FOR THE FORMATION OF BROWN DWARFS AND VERY LOW MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Shantanu; Vorobyov, Eduard I. E-mail: eduard.vorobiev@univie.ac.at

    2012-05-01

    We present a calculation of protostellar disk formation and evolution in which gaseous clumps (essentially, the first Larson cores formed via disk fragmentation) are ejected from the disk during the early stage of evolution. This is a universal process related to the phenomenon of ejection in multiple systems of point masses. However, it occurs in our model entirely due to the interaction of compact, gravitationally bound gaseous clumps and is free from the smoothing-length uncertainty that is characteristic of models using sink particles. Clumps that survive ejection span a mass range of 0.08-0.35 M{sub Sun }, and have ejection velocities 0.8 {+-} 0.35 km s{sup -1}, which are several times greater than the escape speed. We suggest that, upon contraction, these clumps can form substellar or low-mass stellar objects with notable disks, or even close-separation very low mass binaries. In this hybrid scenario, allowing for ejection of clumps rather than finished protostars/proto-brown-dwarfs, disk formation and the low velocity dispersion of low-mass objects are naturally explained, while it is also consistent with the observation of isolated low-mass clumps that are ejection products. We conclude that clump ejection and the formation of isolated low-mass stellar and substellar objects is a common occurrence, with important implications for understanding the initial mass function, the brown dwarf desert, and the formation of stars in all environments and epochs.

  20. DISCOVERY OF A ?250 K BROWN DWARF AT 2 pc FROM THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luhman, K. L.

    2014-05-10

    Through a previous analysis of multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), I identified WISE J085510.83071442.5 as a new high proper motion object. By combining astrometry from WISE and the Spitzer Space Telescope, I have measured a proper motion of 8.1 0.1'' yr{sup 1} and a parallax of 0.454 0.045'' (2.20{sub ?0.20}{sup +0.24} pc) for WISE J085510.83071442.5, giving it the third highest proper motion and the fourth largest parallax of any known star or brown dwarf. It is also the coldest known brown dwarf based on its absolute magnitude at 4.5 ?m and its color in [3.6]-[4.5]. By comparing M {sub 4.5} with the values predicted by theoretical evolutionary models, I estimate an effective temperature of 225-260 K and a mass of 3-10 M {sub Jup} for the age range of 1-10 Gyr that encompasses most nearby stars.

  1. Reactor Pressure Vessel Fracture Analysis Capabilities in Grizzly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Benjamin; Backman, Marie; Chakraborty, Pritam; Hoffman, William

    2015-03-01

    Efforts have been underway to develop fracture mechanics capabilities in the Grizzly code to enable it to be used to perform deterministic fracture assessments of degraded reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). Development in prior years has resulted a capability to calculate -integrals. For this application, these are used to calculate stress intensity factors for cracks to be used in deterministic linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) assessments of fracture in degraded RPVs. The -integral can only be used to evaluate stress intensity factors for axis-aligned flaws because it can only be used to obtain the stress intensity factor for pure Mode I loading. Off-axis flaws will be subjected to mixed-mode loading. For this reason, work has continued to expand the set of fracture mechanics capabilities to permit it to evaluate off-axis flaws. This report documents the following work to enhance Grizzly’s engineering fracture mechanics capabilities for RPVs: • Interaction Integral and -stress: To obtain mixed-mode stress intensity factors, a capability to evaluate interaction integrals for 2D or 3D flaws has been developed. A -stress evaluation capability has been developed to evaluate the constraint at crack tips in 2D or 3D. Initial verification testing of these capabilities is documented here. • Benchmarking for axis-aligned flaws: Grizzly’s capabilities to evaluate stress intensity factors for axis-aligned flaws have been benchmarked against calculations for the same conditions in FAVOR. • Off-axis flaw demonstration: The newly-developed interaction integral capabilities are demon- strated in an application to calculate the mixed-mode stress intensity factors for off-axis flaws. • Other code enhancements: Other enhancements to the thermomechanics capabilities that relate to the solution of the engineering RPV fracture problem are documented here.

  2. Evaluations of the Coolability Through the Inherent In-Vessel Gap Cooling in the LAVA Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, K.H.; Park, R.J.; Kim, J.T.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, H.D.

    2002-07-01

    The analysis of the LAVA (Lower-plenum Arrested Vessel Attack) experimental results focused on gap formation and in-vessel gap cooling characteristics have been performed. In the LAVA experiment, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Fe thermite melt (or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} only) was used as a corium simulant with a 1/8 linear scale mock-up of the reactor vessel lower plenum. The experimental results address the non-adherence of the debris to the lower head vessel and the consequent gap formation in case there was an internal pressure load across the vessel. The thermal behaviors of the lower head vessel during the cooldown period were mainly affected by the heat removal characteristics through this gap, which were mainly determined by the possibilities of the water ingression into the gap. The possibility of heat removal through the gap in the LAVA experiments was confirmed from that the vessel cooled down with the conduction heat flux through the vessel by 70 to 470 kW/m{sup 2}. Also the quantitative evaluations of the in-vessel coolability using gap cooling model based on counter current flow limits (CCFL) have been performed for the LAVA experiments in parallel. It could be inferred from the analysis for the LAVA experiments that the vessel could effectively cooldown via heat removal through the gap cooling even if 2 mm thick gap should form between the interface of the melt and the vessel in the 30 kg of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} melt tests. In the case of large melt mass of 70 kg of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} melt, however, the infinite possibility of heat removal through a small size gap such as 1 to 2 mm thick couldn't be guaranteed due to the difficulties of water ingression through the gap into the lower head vessel bottom induced by the CCFL. Synthesized the experimental results and the analytical evaluations using the CCFL model, it could be found that the coolability through gap cooling was affected mainly by the melt composition and mass and also the gap thickness. (authors)

  3. Application of the ASME code in designing containment vessels for packages used to transport radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raske, D.T.; Wang, Z.

    1992-07-01

    The primary concern governing the design of shipping packages containing radioactive materials is public safety during transport. When these shipments are within the regulatory jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy, the recommended design criterion for the primary containment vessel is either Section III or Section VIII, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, depending on the activity of the contents. The objective of this paper is to discuss the design of a prototypic containment vessel representative of a packaging for the transport of high-level radioactive material.

  4. Vessel V-7 and V-8 repair and characterization of insert material. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domian, H.A.

    1984-05-01

    Pieces of Type SA508-2 steel, specially tempered to produce a high-impact-transition temperature, were welded in the side walls of Intermediate Test Vessels V-7 and V-8. These vessels are to be tested by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the Pressurized-Thermal-Shock (PTS) Project of the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program. A comparable piece of forging taken from the same source and heat treated with the vessels was characterized for its mechanical properties to provide data for use in the PTS tests.

  5. Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    and Feasibility | Department of Energy Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility This Sandia National Laboratories study examines the feasibility of a hydrogen-fueled PEM fuel cell barge to provide electrical power to vessels at anchorage or at berth. The study includes both a determination of the technical feasibility of the idea as well as an analysis of

  6. USING AN ADAPTER TO PERFORM THE CHALFANT-STYLE CONTAINMENT VESSEL PERIODIC MAINTENANCE LEAK RATE TEST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Trapp, D.

    2011-06-03

    Recently the Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems (PT&PS) organization at the Savannah River National Laboratory was asked to develop an adapter for performing the leak-rate test of a Chalfant-style containment vessel. The PT&PS organization collaborated with designers at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant to develop the adapter currently in use for performing the leak-rate testing on the containment vessels. This paper will give the history of leak-rate testing of the Chalfant-style containment vessels, discuss the design concept for the adapter, give an overview of the design, and will present results of the testing done using the adapter.

  7. Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Assessment of High Value Surveillance Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water reactor (LWR) represents the first line of defense against a release of radiation in case of an accident. Thus, regulations that govern the...

  8. Fast neutron fluence of yonggwang nuclear unit 1 reactor pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, C.; Km, B.; Chang, K.; Leeand, S.; Park, J.

    2006-07-01

    The Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 50, Appendix H, requires that the neutron dosimetry be present to monitor the reactor vessel throughout plant life. The Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry System has been installed for Yonggwang Nuclear Unit 1 after complete withdrawal of all six in-vessel surveillance capsules. This system has been installed in the reactor cavity annulus in order to measure the fast neutron spectrum coming out through the reactor pressure vessel. Cycle specific neutron transport calculations were performed to obtain the energy dependent neutron flux throughout the reactor geometry including dosimetry positions. Comparisons between calculations and measurements were performed for the reaction rates of each dosimetry sensors and results show good agreements. (authors)

  9. Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreiber, R.B.; Fero, A.H.; Sejvar, J.

    1997-12-16

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor. 8 figs.

  10. High-pressure Storage Vessels for Hydrogen, Natural Gas andHydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 - 29, 2010, in Beijing, China. ihfpvlynch.pdf (4.21 MB) More Documents & ...

  11. Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreiber, Roger B.; Fero, Arnold H.; Sejvar, James

    1997-01-01

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor.

  12. Effects of irradiation temperature on embrittlement of nuclear pressure vessel steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haggag, F.M.

    1992-12-31

    The effects of neutron irradiation on the steel reactor vessel for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) are being investigated, primarily because the operating temperatures are low [121 to 288{degrees}C (250--550{degrees}F)] compared to those for commercial light-water reactors (LWRs) [{approximately}288{degrees}C (550{degrees}F)]. The need for design data on the reference temperature (RT{sub NDT}) shift necessitated the irradiation at different temperatures of A 533 grade B class 1 plates, A 508 class 3 forging, and welds used for the vessel shell, vessel closure head, and vessel flange. This paper presents regular- and mini-tensile, Automated Ball Indentation (ABI), and Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact test results from five irradiation capsules of this program.

  13. Effects of irradiation temperature on embrittlement of nuclear pressure vessel steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haggag, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of neutron irradiation on the steel reactor vessel for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) are being investigated, primarily because the operating temperatures are low [121 to 288[degrees]C (250--550[degrees]F)] compared to those for commercial light-water reactors (LWRs) [[approximately]288[degrees]C (550[degrees]F)]. The need for design data on the reference temperature (RT[sub NDT]) shift necessitated the irradiation at different temperatures of A 533 grade B class 1 plates, A 508 class 3 forging, and welds used for the vessel shell, vessel closure head, and vessel flange. This paper presents regular- and mini-tensile, Automated Ball Indentation (ABI), and Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact test results from five irradiation capsules of this program.

  14. Scoping Study of Airlift Circulation Technologies for Supplemental Mixing in Pulse Jet Mixed Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Berglin, Eric J.; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Buchmiller, William C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2015-04-07

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a scoping study to investigate supplemental technologies for supplying vertical fluid motion and enhanced mixing in Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vessels designed for high solids processing. The study assumed that the pulse jet mixers adequately mix and shear the bottom portion of a vessel. Given that, the primary function of a supplemental technology should be to provide mixing and shearing in the upper region of a vessel. The objective of the study was to recommend a mixing technology and configuration that could be implemented in the 8-ft test vessel located at Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE). Several mixing technologies, primarily airlift circulator (ALC) systems, were evaluated in the study. This technical report contains a review of ALC technologies, a description of the PNNL testing and accompanying results, and recommended features of an ALC system for further study.

  15. Results of the Triggered TROI Steam Explosion Experiments with a Narrow Interaction Vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J.H.; Park, I.K.; Min, B.T.; Hong, S.W.; Hong, S.H.; Song, J.H.; Kim, H.D.

    2006-07-01

    The effect of the interaction vessel geometry has been studied on the energetics of a steam explosion in the TROI experiment. The interaction vessel was 30 cm in diameter (1-D geometry). Two types of corium composition were used as a melt. One was spontaneously non-explosive 80 : 20 corium (UO{sub 2} : ZrO{sub 2}) and the other was spontaneously explosive 70 : 30 eutectic corium. A test with 80 : 20 corium was carried out without an external triggering. Another test with 80 : 20 corium was also carried out with an external trigger. In addition, two tests with 70 : 30 corium were carried out with an external trigger. The external trigger was applied just before the contact between the melt and the bottom of the interaction vessel. This time was thought to be the triggering time of a spontaneous steam explosion. The external trigger was a chemical explosive of PETN 1.0 g. However, none of these tests led to steam explosions even with an external triggering. Since eutectic corium led to spontaneous or triggered steam explosions in a previous test using a 60 cm wide interaction vessel (3-D geometry), it is quite probable that a geometry effect of the interaction vessel could exist. The reason for no steam explosions in the narrow (1-D) interaction vessel is believed to be a relatively high void fraction in the vessel when compared with the 3-D vessel. Due to the high void fraction, a steam explosion could not propagate to the surroundings of the melt where the water was depleted. (authors)

  16. Marine Fuel Choice for Ocean- Going Vessels within Emissions Control Areas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Marine Fuel Choice for Ocean- Going Vessels within Emissions Control Areas June 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Marine fuel choice for ocean going vessels within emissions control areas i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are

  17. Identification and evaluation of PWR in-vessel severe accident management strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dukelow, J S [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Harrison, D G [Jason Associates, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Morgenstern, M [Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This reports documents work performed the NRC/RES Accident Management Guidance Program to evaluate possible strategies for mitigating the consequences of PWR severe accidents. The selection and evaluation of strategies was limited to the in-vessel phase of the severe accident, i.e., after the initiation of core degradation and prior to RPV failure. A parallel project at BNL has been considering strategies applicable to the ex-vessel phase of PWR severe accidents.

  18. Transient PVT measurements and model predictions for vessel heat transfer. Part II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felver, Todd G.; Paradiso, Nicholas Joseph; Winters, William S., Jr.; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Rice, Steven F.

    2010-07-01

    Part I of this report focused on the acquisition and presentation of transient PVT data sets that can be used to validate gas transfer models. Here in Part II we focus primarily on describing models and validating these models using the data sets. Our models are intended to describe the high speed transport of compressible gases in arbitrary arrangements of vessels, tubing, valving and flow branches. Our models fall into three categories: (1) network flow models in which flow paths are modeled as one-dimensional flow and vessels are modeled as single control volumes, (2) CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) models in which flow in and between vessels is modeled in three dimensions and (3) coupled network/CFD models in which vessels are modeled using CFD and flows between vessels are modeled using a network flow code. In our work we utilized NETFLOW as our network flow code and FUEGO for our CFD code. Since network flow models lack three-dimensional resolution, correlations for heat transfer and tube frictional pressure drop are required to resolve important physics not being captured by the model. Here we describe how vessel heat transfer correlations were improved using the data and present direct model-data comparisons for all tests documented in Part I. Our results show that our network flow models have been substantially improved. The CFD modeling presented here describes the complex nature of vessel heat transfer and for the first time demonstrates that flow and heat transfer in vessels can be modeled directly without the need for correlations.

  19. LWR Pressure-Vessel Surveillance Dosimetry-Improvement Program. Quarterly progress report, April 1982-June 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guthrie, G.L.; McElroy, W.N.

    1983-01-01

    The Light Water Reactor Pressure Vessel Surveillance Dosimetry Improvement Program (LWR-PV-SDIP) has been established by NRC to improve, test, verify, and standardize the physics-dosimetry-metallurgy, damage correlation, and the associated reactor analysis methods, procedures and data that are used to predict the integrated effect of neutron exposure to LWR pressure vessels and their support structures. Research activities by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory are reviewed.

  20. Assessment of Vessel Requirements for the U.S. Offshore Wind Sector

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    © Douglas-Westwood Page 22 Overview of the Vessel-Related Aspects of the Offshore Wind Industry Part 1 Overview of the Vessel-Related Aspects of the Offshore Wind Industry © Douglas-Westwood Page 23 Introduction Only a handful of Western European countries (and to a lesser extent China) have so far developed significant amounts of offshore wind power generating capacities. Understanding the policy frameworks under which offshore wind has developed in these countries provides useful guidance

  1. MICROLENSING DISCOVERY OF A POPULATION OF VERY TIGHT, VERY LOW MASS BINARY BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, J.-Y.; Han, C.; Udalski, A.; Sumi, T.; Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A.; Bennett, D. P.; Dominik, M.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Tsapras, Y.; Bozza, V.; Abe, F.; Furusawa, K.; Itow, Y.; Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H.; Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M.; Chote, P.; Fukui, A.; Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; muFUN Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Consortium; PLANET Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; and others

    2013-05-10

    Although many models have been proposed, the physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of low-mass brown dwarfs (BDs) are poorly understood. The multiplicity properties and minimum mass of the BD mass function provide critical empirical diagnostics of these mechanisms. We present the discovery via gravitational microlensing of two very low mass, very tight binary systems. These binaries have directly and precisely measured total system masses of 0.025 M{sub Sun} and 0.034 M{sub Sun }, and projected separations of 0.31 AU and 0.19 AU, making them the lowest-mass and tightest field BD binaries known. The discovery of a population of such binaries indicates that BD binaries can robustly form at least down to masses of {approx}0.02 M{sub Sun }. Future microlensing surveys will measure a mass-selected sample of BD binary systems, which can then be directly compared to similar samples of stellar binaries.

  2. Annual radiological environmental operating report: Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, 1992. Operations Services/Technical Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report describes the environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant (BFN) in 1992. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas not influenced by plant operations. Station locations are selected after careful consideration of the weather patterns and projected radiation doses to the various areas around the plant. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. Results from stations near the plant are compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts of plant operations. Small amounts of Co-60 and Cs-134 were found in sediment samples downstream from the plant. This activity in stream sediment would result in no measurable increase over background in the dose to the general public.

  3. In-Vessel Retention of Molten Core Debris in the Westinghouse AP1000 Advanced Passive PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scobel, James H.; Conway, L.E.; Theofanous, T.G.

    2002-07-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of molten core debris via external reactor vessel cooling is the hallmark of the severe accident management strategies in the AP600 passive PWR. The vessel is submerged in water to cool its external surface via nucleate boiling heat transfer. An engineered flow path through the reactor vessel insulation provides cooling water to the vessel surface and vents steam to promote IVR. For the 600 MWe passive plant, the predicted heat load from molten debris to the lower head wall has a large margin to the critical heat flux on the external surface of the vessel, which is the upper limit of the cooling capability. Up-rating the power of the passive plant from 600 to 1000 MWe (AP1000) significantly increases the heat loading from the molten debris to the reactor vessel lower head in the postulated bounding severe accident sequence. To maintain a large margin to the coolability limit for the AP1000, design features and severe accident management (SAM) strategies to increase the critical heat flux on the external surface of the vessel wall need to be implemented. A test program at the ULPU facility at University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) has been initiated to investigate design features and SAM strategies that can enhance the critical heat flux. Results from ULPU Configuration IV demonstrate that with small changes to the ex-vessel design and SAM strategies, the peak critical heat flux in the AP1000 can be increased at least 30% over the peak critical heat flux predicted for the AP600 configuration. The design and SAM strategy changes investigated in ULPU Configuration IV can be implemented in the AP1000 design and will allow the passive plant to maintain the margin to critical heat flux for IVR, even at the higher power level. Continued testing for IVR phenomena is being performed at UCSB to optimize the AP1000 design and to ensure that vessel failure in a severe accident is physically unreasonable. (authors)

  4. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/ brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Brown, Daren W.; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Floudas, Dimitris; Held, Benjamin; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E.; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan D.; Blanchette, Robert; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-03-14

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32percent of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white rot/brown rot classification paradigm we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically-informed Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs, but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay.

  5. In-service Inspection Ultrasonic Testing of Reactor Pressure Vessel Welds for Assessing Flaw Density and Size Distribution per 10 CFR 50.61a, Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Edmund J.; Anderson, Michael T.; Norris, Wallace

    2012-09-17

    by the flaw density and size distribution values used in the PTS technical basis. Under a contract with the NRC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been working on a program to assess the ability of current inservice inspection (ISI)-ultrasonic testing (UT) techniques, as qualified through ASME Code, Appendix VIII, Supplements 4 and 6, to detect small fabrication or inservice-induced flaws located in RPV welds and adjacent base materials. As part of this effort, the investigators have pursued an evaluation, based on the available information, of the capability of UT to provide flaw density/distribution inputs for making RPV weld assessments in accordance with §50.61a. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of data from the 1993 Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Unit 3, Spirit of Appendix VIII reactor vessel examination, a comparison of the flaw density/distribution from this data with the distribution in §50.61a, possible reasons for differences, and plans and recommendations for further work in this area.

  6. Ex-Vessel Core Melt Modeling Comparison between MELTSPREAD-CORQUENCH and MELCOR 2.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robb, Kevin R.; Farmer, Mitchell; Francis, Matthew W.

    2014-03-01

    System-level code analyses by both United States and international researchers predict major core melting, bottom head failure, and corium-concrete interaction for Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 (1F1). Although system codes such as MELCOR and MAAP are capable of capturing a wide range of accident phenomena, they currently do not contain detailed models for evaluating some ex-vessel core melt behavior. However, specialized codes containing more detailed modeling are available for melt spreading such as MELTSPREAD as well as long-term molten corium-concrete interaction (MCCI) and debris coolability such as CORQUENCH. In a preceding study, Enhanced Ex-Vessel Analysis for Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1: Melt Spreading and Core-Concrete Interaction Analyses with MELTSPREAD and CORQUENCH, the MELTSPREAD-CORQUENCH codes predicted the 1F1 core melt readily cooled in contrast to predictions by MELCOR. The user community has taken notice and is in the process of updating their systems codes; specifically MAAP and MELCOR, to improve and reduce conservatism in their ex-vessel core melt models. This report investigates why the MELCOR v2.1 code, compared to the MELTSPREAD and CORQUENCH 3.03 codes, yield differing predictions of ex-vessel melt progression. To accomplish this, the differences in the treatment of the ex-vessel melt with respect to melt spreading and long-term coolability are examined. The differences in modeling approaches are summarized, and a comparison of example code predictions is provided.

  7. Structural integrity assessment of type 201LN stainless steel cryogenic pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana, M.D.; Zawierucha, R.

    1995-12-01

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Committee approved the Code Case 2123 in 1992 which allows the use of Type 201LN stainless steel in the construction of ASME Section VIII, Division 1 and Division 2 pressure vessels for -320{degrees}F applications. Type 201LN stainless steel is a nitrogen strengthened modified version of ASTM A240, Type 201 stainless steel with a restricted chemistry. The Code allowable design stresses for Type 201LN for Division 1 vessels are approximately 27% higher than Type 304 stainless steel and equal to that of the 5 Ni and 9 Ni steels. This paper discusses the important features of the Code Case 2123 and the structural integrity assessment of Type 201LN stainless steel cryogenic vessels. Tensile, Charpy-V-notch and fracture properties have been obtained on several heats of this steel including weldments. A linear-elastic fracture mechanics analysis has been conducted to assess the expected fracture mode and the fracture-critical crack sizes. The results have been compared with Type 304 stainless steel, 5 Ni and 9 Ni steel vessels.

  8. Metallography and microstructure interpretation of some archaeological tin bronze vessels from Iran

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oudbashi, Omid; Davami, Parviz

    2014-11-15

    Archaeological excavations in western Iran have recently revealed a significant Luristan Bronzes collection from Sangtarashan archaeological site. The site and its bronze collection are dated to Iron Age II/III of western Iran (10th–7th century BC) according to archaeological research. Alloy composition, microstructure and manufacturing technique of some sheet metal vessels are determined to reveal metallurgical processes in western Iran in the first millennium BC. Experimental analyses were carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy–Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Optical Microscopy/Metallography methods. The results allowed reconstructing the manufacturing process of bronze vessels in Luristan. It proved that the samples have been manufactured with a binary copper–tin alloy with a variable tin content that may relates to the application of an uncontrolled procedure to make bronze alloy (e.g. co-smelting or cementation). The presence of elongated copper sulphide inclusions showed probable use of copper sulphide ores for metal production and smelting. Based on metallographic studies, a cycle of cold working and annealing was used to shape the bronze vessels. - Highlights: • Sangtarashan vessels are made by variable Cu-Sn alloys with some impurities. • Various compositions occurred due to applying uncontrolled smelting methods. • The microstructure represents thermo-mechanical process to shape bronze vessels. • In one case, the annealing didn’t remove the eutectoid remaining from casting. • The characteristics of the bronzes are similar to other Iron Age Luristan Bronzes.

  9. In-Vessel Retention of Molten Corium: Lessons Learned and Outstanding Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.L. Rempe; K.Y. Suh; F. B. Cheung; S. B. Kim

    2008-03-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Advanced 600 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designed by Westinghouse (AP600), which relied upon External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) for IVR, resulted in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing Light Water Reactors (LWRs). However, it is not clear that the ERVC proposed for the AP600 could provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1500 MWe) without additional enhancements. This paper reviews efforts made and results reported regarding the enhancement of IVR in LWRs. Where appropriate, the paper identifies what additional data or analyses are needed to demonstrate that there is sufficient margin for successful IVR in high power thermal reactors.

  10. Motion correction for passive radiation imaging of small vessels in ship-to-ship inspections

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Ziock, Klaus -Peter; Boehnen, Chris Bensing; Ernst, Joseph M.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Hayward, Jason P.; Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Paquit, Vincent C.; Patlolla, Dilip Reddy; Trombino, David

    2015-09-05

    Passive radiation detection remains one of the most acceptable means of ascertaining the presence of illicit nuclear materials. In maritime applications it is most effective against small to moderately sized vessels, where attenuation in the target vessel is of less concern. Unfortunately, imaging methods that can remove source confusion, localize a source, and avoid other systematic detection issues cannot be easily applied in ship-to-ship inspections because relative motion of the vessels blurs the results over many pixels, significantly reducing system sensitivity. This is particularly true for the smaller watercraft, where passive inspections are most valuable. We have developed a combinedmore » gamma-ray, stereo visible-light imaging system that addresses this problem. Data from the stereo imager are used to track the relative location and orientation of the target vessel in the field of view of a coded-aperture gamma-ray imager. Using this information, short-exposure gamma-ray images are projected onto the target vessel using simple tomographic back-projection techniques, revealing the location of any sources within the target. Here,the complex autonomous tracking and image reconstruction system runs in real time on a 48-core workstation that deploys with the system.« less

  11. Neutron and Gamma Fluxes and dpa Rates for HFIR Vessel Beltline Region (Present and Upgrade Designs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blakeman, E.D.

    2001-01-11

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is currently undergoing an upgrading program, a part of which is to increase the diameters of two of the four radiation beam tubes (HB-2 and HB-4). This change will cause increased neutron and gamma radiation dose rates at and near locations where the tubes penetrate the vessel wall. Consequently, the rate of radiation damage to the reactor vessel wall at those locations will also increase. This report summarizes calculations of the neutron and gamma flux (particles/cm{sup 2}/s) and the dpa rate (displacements/atom/s) in iron at critical locations in the vessel wall. The calculated dpa rate values have been recently incorporated into statistical damage evaluation codes used in the assessment of radiation induced embrittlement. Calculations were performed using models based on the discrete ordinates methodology and utilizing ORNL two-dimensional and three-dimensional discrete ordinates codes. Models for present and proposed beam tube designs are shown and their results are compared. Results show that for HB-2, the dpa rate in the vessel wall where the tube penetrates the vessel will be increased by {approximately}10 by the proposed enlargement. For HB-4, a smaller increase of {approximately}2.6 is calculated.

  12. Field Testing of Activated Carbon Injection Options for Mercury Control at TXU's Big Brown Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Christopher Martin; Mark Musich; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-01-07

    The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of using activated carbon injection (ACI) options to effectively reduce mercury emissions from Texas electric generation plants in which a blend of lignite and subbituminous coal is fired. Field testing of ACI options was performed on one-quarter of Unit 2 at TXU's Big Brown Steam Electric Station. Unit 2 has a design output of 600 MW and burns a blend of 70% Texas Gulf Coast lignite and 30% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal. Big Brown employs a COHPAC configuration, i.e., high air-to-cloth baghouses following cold-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), for particulate control. When sorbent injection is added between the ESP and the baghouse, the combined technology is referred to as TOXECON{trademark} and is patented by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. Key benefits of the TOXECON configuration include better mass transfer characteristics of a fabric filter compared to an ESP for mercury capture and contamination of only a small percentage of the fly ash with AC. The field testing consisted of a baseline sampling period, a parametric screening of three sorbent injection options, and a month long test with a single mercury control technology. During the baseline sampling, native mercury removal was observed to be less than 10%. Parametric testing was conducted for three sorbent injection options: injection of standard AC alone; injection of an EERC sorbent enhancement additive, SEA4, with ACI; and injection of an EERC enhanced AC. Injection rates were determined for all of the options to achieve the minimum target of 55% mercury removal as well as for higher removals approaching 90%. Some of the higher injection rates were not sustainable because of increased differential pressure across the test baghouse module. After completion of the parametric testing, a month long test was conducted using the enhanced AC at a nominal rate of 1.5 lb/Macf. During the

  13. Detailed Analysis of a Late-Phase Core-Melt Progression for the Evaluation of In-vessel Corium Retention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. L. Rempe; R. J. Park; S. B. Kim; K. Y. Suh; F. B.Cheung

    2006-12-01

    Detailed analyses of a late-phase melt progression in the advanced power reactor (APR)1400 were completed to identify the melt and the thermal-hydraulic states of the in-vessel materials in the reactor vessel lower plenum at the time of reactor vessel failure to evaluate the candidate strategies for an in-vessel corium retention (IVR). Initiating events considered included high-pressure transients of a total loss of feed water (LOFW) and a station blackout (SBO) and low-pressure transients of a 0.0009-m2 small, 0.0093-m2 medium, and 0.0465-m2 large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) without safety injection. Best-estimate simulations for these low-probability events with conservative accident progression assumptions that lead to reactor vessel failure were performed by using the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.3 computer code. The SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.3 results have shown that the pressurizer surge line failed before the reactor vessel failure, which results in a rapid decrease of the in-vessel pressure and a delay of the reactor vessel failure time of ~40 min in the high-pressure sequences of the total LOFW and the SBO transients. In all the sequences, ~80 to 90% of the core material was melted and relocated to the lower plenum of the reactor vessel at the time of reactor vessel failure. The maximum value of the volumetric heat source in the corium pool was estimated as 1.9 to 3.7 MW/m3. The corium temperature was ~2800 to 3400 K at the time of reactor vessel failure. The highest volumetric heat source sequence is predicted for the 0.0465-m2 large-break LOCA without safety injection in the APR1400, because this sequence leads to an early reactor vessel failure.

  14. In-Vessel Coil Material Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2013-01-01

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design for construction of this large tokamak fusion experiment. One of the design issues is ensuring proper control of the fusion plasma. In-vessel magnet coils may be needed for plasma control, especially the control of edge localized modes (ELMs) and plasma vertical stabilization (VS). These coils will be lifetime components that reside inside the ITER vacuum vessel behind the blanket modules. As such, their reliability is an important design issue since access will be time consuming if any type of repair were necessary. The following chapters give the research results and estimates of failure rates for the coil conductor and jacket materials to be used for the in-vessel coils. Copper and CuCrZr conductors, and stainless steel and Inconel jackets are examined.

  15. Regulatory strategies for reducing emissions from marine vessels in California waters. Final report, 1990-1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-10-04

    This report assesses the uncontrolled emission of sulfur oxides (SOx) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from marine vessels operating in California Coastal waters. A variety of control techniques are evaluated for reducing emission from marine vessels with recommendations of the most effect controls and strategies such as use of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. A regulatory framework reflecting a partnership of uniform statewide emissions standards and fuel specifications, and local district monitoring and enforcement are discussed. A draft regulation is presented which would require the use of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel for all commercial marine activities in California Coast waters and NOx control ranging from 25% to 90% reduction depending on the date the vessel is placed in service.

  16. Progress in understanding the mechanical behavior of pressure-vessel materials at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Brinkman, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Progress during the 1970's on the production of high-temperature mechanical properties data for pressure vessel materials was reviewed. The direction of the research was toward satisfying new data requirements to implement advances in high-temperature inelastic design methods. To meet these needs, servo-controlled testing machines and high-resolution extensometry were developed to gain more information on the essential behavioral features of high-temperature alloys. The similarities and differences in the mechanical response of various pressure vessel materials were identified. High-temperature pressure vessel materials that have received the most attention included Type 304 stainless steel, Type 316 stainless steel, 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, alloy 800H, and Hastelloy X.

  17. DIII-D in-vessel port cover and shutter assembly for the phase contrast interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelps, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The entire outer wall of the DIII-D vacuum vessel interion is covered with a regular array of graphite tiles. Certain of the diagnostic ports through the outer vessel wall contain equipment which is shielded from the plasma by installing port covers designed to withstand energy deposition. If the diagnostic contained in the port must communicate with the vessel volume, a shutter assembly is usually provided. In the ports at 285 degrees, R+1 and R-1, interferometer mirrors have been installed to provide a means for transmitting a large diameter CO-2 laser beam through the edge of the plasma. To protect the mirrors and other hardware contained in these ports, a special protective plate and shutter arrangement has been designed. This report describes the details of design, fabrication, and installation of these protective covers and shutters.

  18. Reactor Pressure Vessel Temperature Analysis for Prismatic and Pebble-Bed VHTR Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. D. Gougar; C. B. Davis

    2006-04-01

    Analyses were performed to determine maximum temperatures in the reactor pressure vessel for two potential Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs during normal operation and during a depressurized conduction cooldown accident. The purpose of the analyses was to aid in the determination of appropriate reactor vessel materials for the VHTR. The designs evaluated utilized both prismatic and pebble-bed cores that generated 600 MW of thermal power. Calculations were performed for fluid outlet temperatures of 900 and 950 °C, corresponding to the expected range for the VHTR. The analyses were performed using the RELAP5-3D and PEBBED-THERMIX computer codes. Results of the calculations were compared with preliminary temperature limits derived from the ASME pressure vessel code.

  19. Reactor pressure vessel head vents and methods of using the same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gels, John L; Keck, David J; Deaver, Gerald A

    2014-10-28

    Internal head vents are usable in nuclear reactors and include piping inside of the reactor pressure vessel with a vent in the reactor upper head. Piping extends downward from the upper head and passes outside of the reactor to permit the gas to escape or be forcibly vented outside of the reactor without external piping on the upper head. The piping may include upper and lowers section that removably mate where the upper head joins to the reactor pressure vessel. The removable mating may include a compressible bellows and corresponding funnel. The piping is fabricated of nuclear-reactor-safe materials, including carbon steel, stainless steel, and/or a Ni--Cr--Fe alloy. Methods install an internal head vent in a nuclear reactor by securing piping to an internal surface of an upper head of the nuclear reactor and/or securing piping to an internal surface of a reactor pressure vessel.

  20. Uncertainty quantification of a containment vessel dynamic response subjected to high-explosive detonation impulse loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, E. A.; Pepin, J. E.; Thacker, B. H.; Riha, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in cooperation with Southwest Research Institute, has been developing capabilities to provide reliability-based structural evaluation techniques for performing weapon component and system reliability assessments. The development and applications of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) is an important ingredient in the overall weapon reliability assessments. Focus, herein, is placed on the uncertainty quantification associated with the structural response of a containment vessel for high-explosive (HE) experiments. The probabilistic dynamic response of the vessel is evaluated through the coupling of the probabilistic code NESSUS with the non-linear structural dynamics code, DYNA-3D. The probabilistic model includes variations in geometry and mechanical properties, such as Young's Modulus, yield strength, and material flow characteristics. Finally, the probability of exceeding a specified strain limit, which is related to vessel failure, is determined.

  1. Automated identification of retinal vessels using a multiscale directional contrast quantification (MDCQ) strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen, Yi; Zhang, Xinyuan; Wang, Ningli E-mail: puj@upmc.edu; Gu, Suicheng; Meng, Xin; Zheng, Bin; Pu, Jiantao E-mail: puj@upmc.edu

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: A novel algorithm is presented to automatically identify the retinal vessels depicted in color fundus photographs. Methods: The proposed algorithm quantifies the contrast of each pixel in retinal images at multiple scales and fuses the resulting consequent contrast images in a progressive manner by leveraging their spatial difference and continuity. The multiscale strategy is to deal with the variety of retinal vessels in width, intensity, resolution, and orientation; and the progressive fusion is to combine consequent images and meanwhile avoid a sudden fusion of image noise and/or artifacts in space. To quantitatively assess the performance of the algorithm, we tested it on three publicly available databases, namely, DRIVE, STARE, and HRF. The agreement between the computer results and the manual delineation in these databases were quantified by computing their overlapping in both area and length (centerline). The measures include sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Results: For the DRIVE database, the sensitivities in identifying vessels in area and length were around 90% and 70%, respectively, the accuracy in pixel classification was around 99%, and the precisions in terms of both area and length were around 94%. For the STARE database, the sensitivities in identifying vessels were around 90% in area and 70% in length, and the accuracy in pixel classification was around 97%. For the HRF database, the sensitivities in identifying vessels were around 92% in area and 83% in length for the healthy subgroup, around 92% in area and 75% in length for the glaucomatous subgroup, around 91% in area and 73% in length for the diabetic retinopathy subgroup. For all three subgroups, the accuracy was around 98%. Conclusions: The experimental results demonstrate that the developed algorithm is capable of identifying retinal vessels depicted in color fundus photographs in a relatively reliable manner.

  2. Scaled Testing to Evaluate Pulse Jet Mixer Performance in Waste Treatment Plant Mixing Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fort, James A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

    2010-03-07

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being designed and built to pre-treat and vitrify the waste in Hanfords 177 underground waste storage tanks. Numerous process vessels will hold waste at various stages in the WTP. These vessels have pulse jet mixer (PJM) systems. A test program was developed to evaluate the adequacy of mixing system designs in the solids-containing vessels in the WTP. The program focused mainly on non-cohesive solids behavior. Specifically, the program addressed the effectiveness of the mixing systems to suspend settled solids off the vessel bottom, and distribute the solids vertically. Experiments were conducted at three scales using various particulate simulants. A range of solids loadings and operational parameters were evaluated, including jet velocity, pulse volume, and duty cycle. In place of actual PJMs, the tests used direct injection from tubes with suction at the top of the tank fluid. This gave better control over the discharge duration and duty cycle and simplified the facility requirements. The mixing system configurations represented in testing varied from 4 to 12 PJMs with various jet nozzle sizes. In this way the results collected could be applied to the broad range of WTP vessels with varying geometrical configurations and planned operating conditions. Data for just-suspended velocity, solids cloud height, and solids concentration vertical profile were collected, analyzed, and correlated. The correlations were successfully benchmarked against previous large-scale test results, then applied to the WTP vessels using reasonable assumptions of anticipated waste properties to evaluate adequacy of the existing mixing system designs.

  3. Modular Inspection System for a Complete IN-Service Examination of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel, Including Beltline Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David H. Bothell

    2000-04-30

    Final Report for a DOE Phase II Contract Describing the design and fabrication of a reactor inspection modular rover prototype for reactor vessel inspection.

  4. Senior Obama Administration Officials to Join Governor Brown, Mayor Garcetti, Other Leaders in L.A. for Climate Task Force Meeting

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Thursday, February 13th, senior Obama Administration officials will join California Governor Jerry Brown, Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti and state, local and tribal leaders from across the country for a media availability at Los Angeles City Hall

  5. Protective interior wall and attach8ing means for a fusion reactor vacuum vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, Richard D.; Upham, Gerald A.; Anderson, Paul M.

    1988-01-01

    An array of connected plates mounted on the inside wall of the vacuum vessel of a magnetic confinement reactor in order to provide a protective surface for energy deposition inside the vessel. All fasteners are concealed and protected beneath the plates, while the plates themselves share common mounting points. The entire array is installed with torqued nuts on threaded studs; provision also exists for thermal expansion by mounting each plate with two of its four mounts captured in an oversize grooved spool. A spool-washer mounting hardware allows one edge of a protective plate to be torqued while the other side remains loose, by simply inverting the spool-washer hardware.

  6. PI3K/Akt is involved in brown adipogenesis mediated by growth differentiation factor-5 in association with activation of the Smad pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Iezaki, Takashi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Takumi; Odaka, Yoshiaki; Ozaki, Kakeru; Yoneda, Yukio

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Akt is preferentially phosphorylated in BAT and sWAT of aP2-GDF5 mice. • PI3K/Akt signaling is involved in GDF5-induced brown adipogenesis. • PI3K/Akt signaling regulates GDF5-induced Smad5 phosphorylation. - Abstract: We have previously demonstrated promotion by growth differentiation factor-5 (GDF5) of brown adipogenesis for systemic energy expenditure through a mechanism relevant to activating the bone morphological protein (BMP) receptor/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) pathway. Here, we show the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in brown adipogenesis mediated by GDF5. Overexpression of GDF5 in cells expressing adipocyte protein-2 markedly accelerated the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt in white and brown adipose tissues. In brown adipose tissue from heterozygous GDF5{sup Rgsc451} mutant mice expressing a dominant-negative (DN) GDF5 under obesogenic conditions, the basal phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt was significantly attenuated. Exposure to GDF5 not only promoted the phosphorylation of both Smad1/5/8 and Akt in cultured brown pre-adipocytes, but also up-regulated Pgc1a and uncoupling protein-1 expression in a manner sensitive to the PI3K/Akt inhibitor Ly294002 as well as retroviral infection with DN-Akt. GDF5 drastically promoted BMP-responsive luciferase reporter activity in a Ly294002-sensitive fashion. Both Ly294002 and DN-Akt markedly inhibited phosphorylation of Smad5 in the nuclei of brown pre-adipocytes. These results suggest that PI3K/Akt signals play a role in the GDF5-mediated brown adipogenesis through a mechanism related to activation of the Smad pathway.

  7. Azimuthally sensitive hanbury brown-twiss interferometry in Au + Au collisions sqrt S sub NN = 200 GeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, J.; Adler, C.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellwied, R.; Berger, J.; Bezverkhny, B.I.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Billmeier, A.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, C.O.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Boucham, A.; Brandin, A.; Bravar, A.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Cebra, D.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, Y.; Chernenko, S.P.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford, H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dubey, A.K.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Efimov, L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Faine, V.; Faivre, J.; Fatemi, R.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flierl, D.; Foley, K.J.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Gans, J.; Gaudichet, L.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Grachov, O.; Grebenyuk, O.; Gronstal, S.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Gupta, A.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Hardtke, D.; Harris, J.W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horsley, M.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, L.S.; Hughes, E.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Janik, M.; Jiang, H.; Johnson, I.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.; Klein, S.R.; Klyachko, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kollegger, T.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A.I.; Kumar, A.; Kunde, G.J.; Kunz, C.L.; Kutuev, R.Kh.; Kuznetsov, A.A.; Lamont, M.A.C.; et al.

    2004-06-30

    We present the results of a systematic study of the shape of the pion distribution in coordinate space at freeze-out in Au+Au collisions at RHIC using two-pion Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) interferometry. Oscillations of the extracted HBT radii vs. emission angle indicate sources elongated perpendicular to the reaction plane. The results indicate that the pressure and expansion time of the collision system are not sufficient to completely quench its initial shape.

  8. Effects of water hardness on the toxicity of manganese to developing brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Garrison, T.D.; Hockett, J.R.; Brinkman, S.F.; Davies, P.H.; McIntyre, M.W.

    1997-10-01

    Manganese is a common constituent of point and nonpoint discharges from mining and smelting activities. Available data indicate that Mn is acutely toxic at relatively high aqueous concentrations, when compared with trace metals, and its toxicity is affected by water hardness. Little information is available regarding the chronic toxicity of manganese. Early-life-stage (ELS) tests were conducted to determine the toxicity of manganese to brown trout (Salmo trutta) and to evaluate the extent to which water hardness (ranging from 30 to 450 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}) affects the chronic toxicity of Mn. Water hardness of significantly affected Mn chronic toxicity, with toxicity decreasing with increasing hardness. Decreased survival was the predominant effect noted in the 30-mg/L hardness experiment, while significant effects on growth (as measured by changes in body weight) were observed in both the 150- and 450-mg/L hardness experiments. Twenty-five percent inhibition concentration (IC25) values, based on the combined endpoints (i.e., survival and body weight), were 4.67, 5.59, and 8.68 mg Mn/L (based on measured Mn concentration) at hardness levels of approximately 30, 150, and 450 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}, respectively.

  9. Enhanced light absorption by mixed source black and brown carbon particles in UK winter

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison C.; Gorkowski, Kyle; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Williams, Leah R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Massoli, Paola; Fortner, Edward C.; Chhabra, Puneet S.; et al

    2015-09-30

    We report that black carbon (BC) and light-absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon, BrC) play key roles in warming the atmosphere, but the magnitude of their effects remains highly uncertain. Theoretical modelling and laboratory experiments demonstrate that coatings on BC can enhance BC’s light absorption, therefore many climate models simply assume enhanced BC absorption by a factor of ~1.5. However, recent field observations show negligible absorption enhancement, implying models may overestimate BC’s warming. Here we report direct evidence of substantial field-measured BC absorption enhancement, with the magnitude strongly depending on BC coating amount. Increases in BC coating result from a combinationmore » of changing sources and photochemical aging processes. When the influence of BrC is accounted for, observationally constrained model calculations of the BC absorption enhancement can be reconciled with the observations. In conclusion, we find that the influence of coatings on BC absorption should be treated as a source and regionally specific parameter in climate models.« less

  10. NEW BROWN DWARF COMPANIONS TO YOUNG STARS IN SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janson, Markus; Jayawardhana, Ray; Bonavita, Mariangela; Girard, Julien H.; Lafreniere, David; Gizis, John; Brandeker, Alexis

    2012-10-10

    We present the discoveries of three faint companions to young stars in the Scorpius-Centaurus region, imaged with the NICI instrument on Gemini South. We have confirmed all three companions through common proper motion tests. Follow-up spectroscopy has confirmed two of them, HIP 65423 B and HIP 65517 B, to be brown dwarfs, while the third, HIP 72099 B, is more likely a very low mass star just above the hydrogen burning limit. The detection of wide companions in the mass range of {approx}40-100 M{sub jup} complements previous work in the same region, reporting detections of similarly wide companions with lower masses, in the range of {approx}10-30 M{sub jup}. Such low masses near the deuterium burning limit have raised the question of whether those objects formed like planets or stars. The existence of intermediate objects as reported here could represent a bridge between lower-mass companions and stellar companions, but in any case demonstrate that mass alone may not provide a clear-cut distinction for the formation of low-mass companions to stars.

  11. Characterization of novel sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Sattler, Scott E.; Saballos, Ana; Xin, Zhanguo; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Pedersen, Jeffrey F.

    2014-09-02

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin concentration. Putative bmr mutants isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population were characterized and classified based on their leaf midrib phenotype and allelism tests with the previously described sorghum bmr mutants bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12. These tests resulted in the identification of additional alleles of bmr2, bmr6,and bmr12, and, in addition, six bmr mutants were identified that were not allelic tomore » these previously described loci. Further allelism testing among these six bmr mutants showed that they represented four novel bmr loci. Based on this study, the number of bmr loci uncovered in sorghum has doubled. The impact of these lines on agronomic traits and lignocellulosic composition was assessed in a 2-yr field study. Most of the identified bmr lines showed reduced lignin concentration of their biomass relative to wild-type (WT). Effects of the six new bmr mutants on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials were determined, but the amount of glucose released from the stover was similar to WT in all cases. Like bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, these mutants may affect monolignol biosynthesis and may be useful for bioenergy and forage improvement when stacked together or in combination with the three previously described bmr alleles.« less

  12. Enhanced light absorption by mixed source black and brown carbon particles in UK winter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison C.; Gorkowski, Kyle; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Williams, Leah R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Massoli, Paola; Fortner, Edward C.; Chhabra, Puneet S.; Brooks, William A.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; China, Swarup; Sharma, Noopur; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Xu, Lu; Ng, Nga L.; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James D.; Lee, James D.; Fleming, Zoë L.; Mohr, Claudia; Zotter, Peter; Szidat, Sönke; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2015-09-30

    We report that black carbon (BC) and light-absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon, BrC) play key roles in warming the atmosphere, but the magnitude of their effects remains highly uncertain. Theoretical modelling and laboratory experiments demonstrate that coatings on BC can enhance BC’s light absorption, therefore many climate models simply assume enhanced BC absorption by a factor of ~1.5. However, recent field observations show negligible absorption enhancement, implying models may overestimate BC’s warming. Here we report direct evidence of substantial field-measured BC absorption enhancement, with the magnitude strongly depending on BC coating amount. Increases in BC coating result from a combination of changing sources and photochemical aging processes. When the influence of BrC is accounted for, observationally constrained model calculations of the BC absorption enhancement can be reconciled with the observations. In conclusion, we find that the influence of coatings on BC absorption should be treated as a source and regionally specific parameter in climate models.

  13. Spitzer IRAC mid-infrared photometry of 500-750 brown dwarf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saumon, Didier; Leggett, Sandy K; Albert, Loic; Artigau, Etienne; Burningham, Ben; Delfosse, Xavier; Delorme, Philippe; Forveille, Thierry; Lucas, Philip W; Marley, Mark S; Pinfield, David J; Reyle, Celine; Smart, Richard L; Warren, Stephen J

    2010-10-26

    Mid-infrared data, including Spitzer warm-IRAC [3.6] and [4.5] photometry, is critical for understanding the cold population of brown dwarfs now being found, objects which have more in common with planets than stars. As effective temperature (T{sub eff}) drops from 800K to 400K, the fraction of flux emitted beyond 3 {mu}m increases rapidly, from about 40% to > 75%. This rapid increase makes a color like H-[4.5] a very sensitive temperature indicator, and it can be combined with a gravity- and metallicity-sensitive color like H-K to constrain all three of these fundamental properties, which in turn gives us mass and age for these slowly cooling objects. Determination of mid-infrared color trends also allows better exploitation of the WISE mission by the community. We use new Spitzer Cycle 6 IRAC photometry, together with published data, to present trends of color with type for L0 to T10 dwarfs. We also use the atmospheric and evolutionary models of Saumon and Marley to investigate the masses and ages of 13 very late-type T dwarfs, which have H-[4.5] > 3.2 and T{sub eff} {approx} 500K to 750K.

  14. Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Argentina (Dollars

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) Argentina (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Argentina (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2016 -- -- -- 4.16 -- 4.71 -- 4.51

  15. Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Brazil (Dollars

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) Brazil (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Brazil (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2016 -- 3.54 3.83 -- -- -- -- 5.29

  16. Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Dominican Republic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Dominican Republic (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Dominican Republic (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2016 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 5.4

  17. Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to India (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Thousand Cubic Feet) India (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to India (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2016 -- -- 3.98 -- -- 4.77 -- 5.11

  18. Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Jordan (Dollars

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) Jordan (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Jordan (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2016 5.8

  19. Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Portugal (Dollars

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) Portugal (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Portugal (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2016 -- -- -- 3.58

  20. Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to United Arab

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Emirates (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) United Arab Emirates (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to United Arab Emirates (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2016 -- -- 4.18 -- -- -- -- --

  1. Lens correction for the implementation of cylindrical vessels in a spectrophotometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spear, J.D.; Russo, R.E. ); Andrews, J.E.; Grant, P.M. )

    1992-10-01

    A simple optical correction system for allowing cylindrical vials to be used as sample vessels in a spectrophotometer is described. Light within the spectrophotometer enters and exits the liquid samples through the curved glass wall of the vials. Absorption spectra can be obtained conveniently without the need for solution transfer into standard rectangular spectrophotometer cuvettes.

  2. Simulation test of aerosol generation from vessels in the pre-treatment system of fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujine, Sachio; Kitamura, Koichiro; Kihara, Takehiro

    1997-08-01

    Aerosol concentration and droplet size are measured in off-gas of vessel under various conditions by changing off-gas flow rate, stirring air flow rate, salts concentration and temperature of nitrate solution. Aerosols are also measured under evaporation and air-lift operation. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to China (Million...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    China (Million Cubic Feet) Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to China (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 0 0 0 0 1,127 0 0 0 ...

  4. Design criteria for prestressed concrete reactor vessels for high-temperature reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elter, C.; Becker, G.

    1982-11-01

    For the design and construction of prestressed concrete reactor vessels, data on loading, construction materials, and safety factors are required. A description is given of the design conditions according to the current state of technology in the Federal Republic of Germany. Special consideration is given to the allowable stresses and an appropriate proposal for such stresses is suggested.

  5. Scaling Theory for Pulsed Jet Mixed Vessels, Sparging, and Cyclic Feed Transport Systems for Slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhn, William L.; Rector, David R.; Rassat, Scot D.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Minette, Michael J.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Josephson, Gary B.; Wells, Beric E.; Berglin, Eric J.

    2013-09-27

    This document is a previously unpublished work based on a draft report prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) in 2012. Work on the report stopped when WTP’s approach to testing changed. PNNL is issuing a modified version of the document a year later to preserve and disseminate the valuable technical work that was completed. This document establishes technical bases for evaluating the mixing performance of Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) pretreatment process tanks based on data from less-than-full-scale testing, relative to specified mixing requirements. The technical bases include the fluid mechanics affecting mixing for specified vessel configurations, operating parameters, and simulant properties. They address scaling vessel physical performance, simulant physical performance, and “scaling down” the operating conditions at full scale to define test conditions at reduced scale and “scaling up” the test results at reduced scale to predict the performance at full scale. Essentially, this document addresses the following questions: • Why and how can the mixing behaviors in a smaller vessel represent those in a larger vessel? • What information is needed to address the first question? • How should the information be used to predict mixing performance in WTP? The design of Large Scale Integrated Testing (LSIT) is being addressed in other, complementary documents.

  6. An investigation of RVACS (reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system) design improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tzanos, C.P.; Tessier, J.H.; Pedersen, D.R. )

    1989-11-01

    One of the main safety features of the current liquid-metal reactor (LMR) designs is the utilization of decay heat removal systems that remove heat by natural convection. In the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS), decay heat is removed by naturally circulating air in the gap between the guard vessel and a baffle wall surrounding the guard vessel. The objective of this work was to determine the impact of a number of design parameters on the performance of the RVACS of a pool LMR. These parameters were (a) the stack height, (b) the size of the airflow gap, (c) the system pressure loss, (d) fins on the guard vessel or the baffle wall, and (e) roughness (in the form of repeated ribs) on the airflow channel walls. Reactor designs ranging from 400 to 3,500 MW(thermal) were considered. From the RVACS design parameters considered in this analysis, an optimized ribbed configuration gave the best improvement in RVACS performance. For a 3,500-MW(thermal) LMR, the peak sodium and cladding temperatures were reduced by 52 K.

  7. Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Argentina (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Argentina (Million Cubic Feet) Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Argentina (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2016 0 0 0 6,310 0 8,161 0 2,190

  8. Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Barbados (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Barbados (Million Cubic Feet) Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Barbados (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2016 0 2 2 3 1 2 8 11

  9. Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Brazil (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Brazil (Million Cubic Feet) Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Brazil (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2016 0 1,993 3,270 0 0 0 0 3,933

  10. Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Chile (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Chile (Million Cubic Feet) Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Chile (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2016 0 0 0 0 6,230 4,643 6,074 9,518

  11. Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Dominican Republic (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Dominican Republic (Million Cubic Feet) Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Dominican Republic (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2016 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,945

  12. Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to India (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    India (Million Cubic Feet) Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to India (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2016 0 0 2,844 0 0 3,617 0 3,701

  13. Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Kuwait (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Kuwait (Million Cubic Feet) Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Kuwait (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2016 0 0 0 0 3,610 0 0 0

  14. Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Mexico (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mexico (Million Cubic Feet) Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Mexico (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2016 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,686

  15. Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Portugal (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Portugal (Million Cubic Feet) Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Portugal (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2016 0 0 0 3,70

  16. Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to United Arab Emirates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Cubic Feet) United Arab Emirates (Million Cubic Feet) Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to United Arab Emirates (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2016 0 0 3,391

  17. ITER vacuum vessel fabrication plan and cost study (D 68) for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    ITER Task No. 8, Vacuum Vessel Fabrication Plan and Cost Study (D68), was initiated to assess ITER vacuum vessel fabrication, assembly, and cost. The industrial team of Raytheon Engineers & Constructors and Chicago Bridge & Iron (Raytheon/CB&I) reviewed the current vessel basis and prepared a manufacturing plan, assembly plan, and cost estimate commensurate with the present design. The guidance for the Raytheon/CB&I assessment activities was prepared by the ITER Garching Work Site. This guidance provided in the form of work descriptions, sketches, drawings, and costing guidelines for each of the presently identified vacuum vessel Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) elements was compiled in ITER Garching Joint Work Site Memo (Draft No. 9 - G 15 MD 01 94-17-05 W 1). A copy of this document is provided as Appendix 1 to this report. Additional information and clarifications required for the Raytheon/CB&I assessments were coordinated through the US Home Team (USHT) and its technical representative. Design details considered essential to the Task 8 assessments but not available from the ITER Joint Central Team (JCT) were generated by Raytheon/CB&I and documented accordingly.

  18. Fabrication Flaw Density and Distribution in the Repairs of Reactor Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuster, George J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Simonen, Fredric A.

    2006-02-15

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a generalized flaw size and density distribution for the population of U.S. reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The purpose of the generalized flaw distribution is to predict vessel specific flaw rates for use in probabilistic fracture mechanics calculations that estimate vessel failure probability. Considerable progress has been made on the construction of an engineering data base of fabrication flaws in U.S. nuclear RPVs. The fabrication processes and product forms used to construct U.S. RPVs are represented in the data base. A validation methodology has been developed for characterizing the flaws for size, shape, orientation, and composition. The relevance of construction records has been established for describing fabrication processes and product forms. The fabrication flaws were detected in material removed from cancelled nuclear power plants using high sensitivity nondestructive ultrasonic testing, and validated by other nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, and complemented by destructive testing. This paper describes research that has generated data on welding flaws, which indicated that the largest flaws occur in weld repairs. Recent research results confirm that repair flaws are complex in composition and may include cracks on the repair ends. Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for nuclear power plant components requires radiographic examinations (RT) of welds and requires repairs for RT indications that exceed code acceptable sizes. PNNL has previously obtained the complete construction records for two RPVs. Analysis of these records show a significant change in repair frequency.

  19. MAGNESIUM MONO POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of magnesium mono potassium phosphate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Magnesium mono potassium phosphate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout (pH of about 12.4). A less alkaline material ({<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere. Fresh and cured properties were measured for: (1) commercially blended magnesium mono potassium phosphate packaged grouts, (2) commercially available binders blended with inert fillers at SRNL, (3) grouts prepared from technical grade MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and inert fillers (quartz sands, Class F fly ash), and (4) Ceramicrete{reg_sign} magnesium mono potassium phosphate-based grouts prepared at Argonne National Laboratory. Boric acid was evaluated as a set retarder in the magnesium mono potassium phosphate mixes.

  20. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-01-10

    Four bounding accidents postulated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing a hydrogen explosion, and a fire breaching filter vessel and enclosure. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  1. Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Ex-Vessel Prediction: Core Concrete Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robb, Kevin R; Farmer, Mitchell; Francis, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    Lower head failure and corium concrete interaction were predicted to occur at Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 (1F1) by several different system-level code analyses, including MELCOR v2.1 and MAAP5. Although these codes capture a wide range of accident phenomena, they do not contain detailed models for ex-vessel core melt behavior. However, specialized codes exist for analysis of ex-vessel melt spreading (e.g., MELTSPREAD) and long-term debris coolability (e.g., CORQUENCH). On this basis, an analysis was carried out to further evaluate ex-vessel behavior for 1F1 using MELTSPREAD and CORQUENCH. Best-estimate melt pour conditions predicted by MELCOR v2.1 and MAAP5 were used as input. MELTSPREAD was then used to predict the spatially dependent melt conditions and extent of spreading during relocation from the vessel. The results of the MELTSPREAD analysis are reported in a companion paper. This information was used as input for the long-term debris coolability analysis with CORQUENCH.

  2. V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF ASME SECTION X CODE RULES FOR HIGH PRESSURE COMPOSITE HYDROGEN PRESSURE VESSELS WITH NON-LOAD SHARING LINERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawls, G.; Newhouse, N.; Rana, M.; Shelley, B.; Gorman, M.

    2010-04-13

    The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Project Team on Hydrogen Tanks was formed in 2004 to develop Code rules to address the various needs that had been identified for the design and construction of up to 15000 psi hydrogen storage vessel. One of these needs was the development of Code rules for high pressure composite vessels with non-load sharing liners for stationary applications. In 2009, ASME approved new Appendix 8, for Section X Code which contains the rules for these vessels. These vessels are designated as Class III vessels with design pressure ranging from 20.7 MPa (3,000 ps)i to 103.4 MPa (15,000 psi) and maximum allowable outside liner diameter of 2.54 m (100 inches). The maximum design life of these vessels is limited to 20 years. Design, fabrication, and examination requirements have been specified, included Acoustic Emission testing at time of manufacture. The Code rules include the design qualification testing of prototype vessels. Qualification includes proof, expansion, burst, cyclic fatigue, creep, flaw, permeability, torque, penetration, and environmental testing.

  4. REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL TEMPERATURE ANALYSIS OF CANDIDATE VERY HIGH TEMPERATURE REACTOR DESIGNS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hans D. Gougar; Cliff B. Davis; George Hayner; Kevan Weaver

    2006-10-01

    Analyses were performed to determine maximum temperatures in the reactor pressure vessel for two potential Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs during normal operation and during a depressurized conduction cooldown accident. The purpose of the analyses was to aid in the determination of appropriate reactor vessel materials for the VHTR. The designs evaluated utilized both prismatic and pebble-bed cores that generated 600 MW of thermal power. Calculations were performed for fluid outlet temperatures of 900 and 950 °C, corresponding to the expected range for the VHTR. The analyses were performed using the RELAP5-3D and PEBBED-THERMIX computer codes. Results of the calculations were compared with preliminary temperature limits derived from the ASME pressure vessel code. Because PEBBED-THERMIX has not been extensively validated, confirmatory calculations were also performed with RELAP5-3D for the pebble-bed design. During normal operation, the predicted axial profiles in reactor vessel temperature were similar with both codes and the predicted maximum values were within 2 °C. The trends of the calculated vessel temperatures were similar during the depressurized conduction cooldown accident. The maximum value predicted with RELAP5-3D during the depressurized conduction cooldown accident was about 40 °C higher than that predicted with PEBBED. This agreement is considered reasonable based on the expected uncertainty in either calculation. The differences between the PEBBED and RELAP5-3D calculations were not large enough to affect conclusions concerning comparisons between calculated and allowed maximum temperatures during normal operation and the depressurized conduction cooldown accident.

  5. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, V.; Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C.; Cascio, W.E.; Phillips, P.M.; Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C.; Andrews, D.; Miller, D.; Doerfler, D.L.; Kodavanti, U.P.

    2013-12-15

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased ?{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. Ozone metabolic effects

  6. DETERMINATION OF LIQUID FILM THICKNESS FOLLOWING DRAINING OF CONTACTORS, VESSELS, AND PIPES IN THE MCU PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-06-06

    The Department of Energy (DOE) identified the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) process as the preferred technology to remove cesium from radioactive waste solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As a result, Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) in the SRS tank farm to process liquid waste for an interim period until the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) begins operations. Both the solvent and the strip effluent streams could contain high concentrations of cesium which must be removed from the contactors, process tanks, and piping prior to performing contactor maintenance. When these vessels are drained, thin films or drops will remain on the equipment walls. Following draining, the vessels will be flushed with water and drained to remove the flush water. The draining reduces the cesium concentration in the vessels by reducing the volume of cesium-containing material. The flushing, and subsequent draining, reduces the cesium in the vessels by diluting the cesium that remains in the film or drops on the vessel walls. MCU personnel requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers conduct a literature search to identify models to calculate the thickness of the liquid films remaining in the contactors, process tanks, and piping following draining of salt solution, solvent, and strip solution. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The predicted film thickness of the strip effluent is 0.010 mm on vertical walls, 0.57 mm on horizontal walls and 0.081 mm in horizontal pipes. (2) The predicted film thickness of the salt solution is 0.015 mm on vertical walls, 0.74 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.106 mm in horizontal pipes. (3) The predicted film thickness of the solvent is 0.022 mm on vertical walls, 0.91 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.13 mm in horizontal pipes. (4) The calculated film volume following draining is: (a) Salt solution receipt tank--1.6 gallons; (b) Salt solution feed

  7. In-vessel Retention Strategy for High Power Reactors - K-INERI Final Report (includes SBLB Test Results for Task 3 on External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) Boiling Data and CHF Enhancement Correlations)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. B. Cheung; J. Yang; M. B. Dizon; J. Rempe

    2005-01-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Westinghouse Advanced 600 MWe PWR (AP600), which relied upon External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) for IVR, resulted in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing LWRs. However, it is not clear that currently proposed external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) without additional enhancements could provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1500 MWe). Hence, a collaborative, three-year, U.S. - Korean International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project was completed in which the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Seoul National University (SNU), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) investigated the performance of ERVC and an in-vessel core catcher (IVCC) to determine if IVR is feasible for reactors up to 1500 MWe.

  8. Nuclear factor-?B is a common upstream signal for growth differentiation factor-5 expression in brown adipocytes exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines and palmitate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Iezaki, Takashi; Ozaki, Kakeru; Yoneda, Yukio

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: GDF5 expression is up-regulated by IL-1?, TNF-? and palmitate in brown pre-adipocytes. NF-?B stimulates promoter activity and expression of GDF5 in brown pre-adipocytes. Recruitment of NF-?B to the GDF5 promoter is facilitated in BAT from ob/ob mice. An NF-?B inhibitor prevents upregulation of GDF5 expression in brown pre-adipocytes. - Abstract: We have previously demonstrated that genetic and acquired obesity similarly led to drastic upregulation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), rather than white adipose tissue, of expression of both mRNA and corresponding protein for the bone morphogenic protein/growth differentiation factor (GDF) member GDF5 capable of promoting brown adipogenesis. In this study, we evaluated expression profiles of GDF5 in cultured murine brown pre-adipocytes exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines and free fatty acids (FFAs), which are all shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Both interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were effective in up-regulating GDF5 expression in a concentration-dependent manner, while similar upregulation was seen in cells exposed to the saturated FFA palmitate, but not to the unsaturated FFA oleate. In silico analysis revealed existence of the putative nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) binding site in the 5?-flanking region of mouse GDF5, whereas introduction of NF-?B subunits drastically facilitated both promoter activity and expression of GDF5 in brown pre-adipocytes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed significant facilitation of the recruitment of NF-?B to the GDF5 promoter in lysed extracts of BAT from leptin-deficient ob/ob obese mice. Upregulation o GDF5 expression was invariably inhibited by an NF-?B inhibitor in cultured brown pre-adipocytes exposed to IL-1?, TNF-? and palmitate. These results suggest that obesity leads to upregulation of GDF5 expression responsible for the promotion of brown adipogenesis through a mechanism relevant to activation of the

  9. A statistical analysis of seeds and other high-contrast exoplanet surveys: massive planets or low-mass brown dwarfs?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Spiegel, David S.; McElwain, Michael W.; Grady, C. A.; Turner, Edwin L.; Mede, Kyle; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Brandner, W.; Feldt, M.; Wisniewski, John P.; Abe, L.; Biller, B.; Carson, J.; Currie, T.; Egner, S.; Golota, T.; Guyon, O.; Goto, M.; Hashimoto, J.; and others

    2014-10-20

    We conduct a statistical analysis of a combined sample of direct imaging data, totalling nearly 250 stars. The stars cover a wide range of ages and spectral types, and include five detections (? And b, two ?60 M {sub J} brown dwarf companions in the Pleiades, PZ Tel B, and CD35 2722B). For some analyses we add a currently unpublished set of SEEDS observations, including the detections GJ 504b and GJ 758B. We conduct a uniform, Bayesian analysis of all stellar ages using both membership in a kinematic moving group and activity/rotation age indicators. We then present a new statistical method for computing the likelihood of a substellar distribution function. By performing most of the integrals analytically, we achieve an enormous speedup over brute-force Monte Carlo. We use this method to place upper limits on the maximum semimajor axis of the distribution function derived from radial-velocity planets, finding model-dependent values of ?30-100 AU. Finally, we model the entire substellar sample, from massive brown dwarfs to a theoretically motivated cutoff at ?5 M {sub J}, with a single power-law distribution. We find that p(M, a)?M {sup 0.65} {sup } {sup 0.60} a {sup 0.85} {sup } {sup 0.39} (1? errors) provides an adequate fit to our data, with 1.0%-3.1% (68% confidence) of stars hosting 5-70 M {sub J} companions between 10 and 100 AU. This suggests that many of the directly imaged exoplanets known, including most (if not all) of the low-mass companions in our sample, formed by fragmentation in a cloud or disk, and represent the low-mass tail of the brown dwarfs.

  10. Analysis of In-Vessel Late Phase Melt Progression Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, R.J.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, H.D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong, P.O.Box 105, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    High-pressure in-vessel melt progressions of the KSNP (Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant) have been analyzed using the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.3 computer code. The total loss of feed water (LOFW) to the steam generators with/without intentional RCS depressurization using the safety depressurization system (SDS) and the station blackout (SBO) have been simulated from transient initiation to reactor vessel failure. The SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.3 results have shown that the pressure boundary of the reactor coolant system did not fail before reactor vessel failure in the high-pressure sequences of the LOFW and the SBO transients of the KSNP. In all the high-pressure transients, approximately 20-30 % of the core material was melted and relocated to the lower plenum of the reactor vessel at the time of reactor vessel failure. Intentional RCS depressurization using the SDS for the total LOFW delays reactor vessel failure for approximately 5 hours by actuation of the safety injection tanks. At the time of reactor vessel failure, approximately 50-60 % of the fuel rod cladding was oxidized for the total LOFW and the SBO transients of the KSNP. (authors)

  11. Severe Accident Sequence Analysis Program: Anticipated transient without scram simulations for Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant Unit 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dallman, R J; Gottula, R C; Holcomb, E E; Jouse, W C; Wagoner, S R; Wheatley, P D

    1987-05-01

    An analysis of five anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The five detailed deterministic simulations of postulated ATWS sequences were initiated from a main steamline isolation valve (MSIV) closure. The subject of the analysis was the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant Unit 1, a boiling water reactor (BWR) of the BWR/4 product line with a Mark I containment. The simulations yielded insights to the possible consequences resulting from a MSIV closure ATWS. An evaluation of the effects of plant safety systems and operator actions on accident progression and mitigation is presented.

  12. 1,"Browns Ferry","Nuclear","Tennessee Valley Authority",3309.4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Alabama" ,"Plant","Primary energy source","Operating company","Net summer capacity (MW)" 1,"Browns Ferry","Nuclear","Tennessee Valley Authority",3309.4 2,"James H Miller Jr","Coal","Alabama Power Co",2725.9 3,"Barry","Coal","Alabama Power Co",2574.5 4,"E C Gaston","Coal","Alabama Power Co",1878 5,"H Allen Franklin Combined

  13. I. V. Khalzov, B. P. Brown, E. J. Kaplan, N. Katz, C. Paz-Soldan et al.

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Resistive and ferritic-wall plasma dynamos in a sphere I. V. Khalzov, B. P. Brown, E. J. Kaplan, N. Katz, C. Paz-Soldan et al. Citation: Phys. Plasmas 19, 104501 (2012); doi: 10.1063/1.4757219 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4757219 View Table of Contents: http://pop.aip.org/resource/1/PHPAEN/v19/i10 Published by the American Institute of Physics. Additional information on Phys. Plasmas Journal Homepage: http://pop.aip.org/ Journal Information: http://pop.aip.org/about/about_the_journal

  14. Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, A.; Boardman, C.E.

    1995-04-11

    A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo`s structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated. 5 figures.

  15. Calculational criticality analyses of 10- and 20-MW UF[sub 6] freezer/sublimer vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, W.C.

    1993-02-01

    Calculational criticality analyses have been performed for 10- and 20-MW UF[sub 6] freezer/sublimer vessels. The freezer/sublimers have been analyzed over a range of conditions that encompass normal operation and abnormal conditions. The effects of HF moderation of the UF[sub 6] in each vessel have been considered for uranium enriched between 2 and 5 wt % [sup 235]U. The results indicate that the nuclearly safe enrichments originally established for the operation of a 10-MW freezer/sublimer, based on a hydrogen-to-uranium moderation ratio of 0.33, are acceptable. If strict moderation control can be demonstrated for hydrogen-to-uranium moderation ratios that are less than 0.33, then the enrichment limits for the 10-MW freezer/sublimer may be increased slightly. The calculations performed also allow safe enrichment limits to be established for a 20-NM freezer/sublimer under moderation control.

  16. Calculational criticality analyses of 10- and 20-MW UF{sub 6} freezer/sublimer vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, W.C.

    1993-02-01

    Calculational criticality analyses have been performed for 10- and 20-MW UF{sub 6} freezer/sublimer vessels. The freezer/sublimers have been analyzed over a range of conditions that encompass normal operation and abnormal conditions. The effects of HF moderation of the UF{sub 6} in each vessel have been considered for uranium enriched between 2 and 5 wt % {sup 235}U. The results indicate that the nuclearly safe enrichments originally established for the operation of a 10-MW freezer/sublimer, based on a hydrogen-to-uranium moderation ratio of 0.33, are acceptable. If strict moderation control can be demonstrated for hydrogen-to-uranium moderation ratios that are less than 0.33, then the enrichment limits for the 10-MW freezer/sublimer may be increased slightly. The calculations performed also allow safe enrichment limits to be established for a 20-NM freezer/sublimer under moderation control.

  17. Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo's structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated.

  18. Prestressed-concrete pressure vessels and their applicability to advanced-energy-system concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, D.J

    1983-01-01

    Prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) are, in essence, spaced steel structures since their strength is derived from a multitude of steel elements made up of deformed reinforcing bars and prestressing tendons which are present in sufficient quantities to carry tension loads imposed on the vessel. Other major components of a PCPV include the concrete, liner and cooling system, and insulation. PCPVs exhibit a number of advantages which make them ideally suited for application to advanced energy concepts: fabricability in virtually any size and shape using available technology, improved safety, reduced capital costs, and a history of proven performance. PCPVs have many applications to both nuclear- and non-nuclear-based energy systems concepts. Several of these concepts will be discussed as well as the research and development activities conducted at ORNL in support of PCPV development.

  19. Measurement of Fatigue Crack Growth Relationships in Hydrogen Gas for Pressure Swing Adsorber Vessel Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somerday, Brian P.; Barney, Monica

    2014-12-04

    We measured the hydrogen-assisted fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) for SA516 Grade 70 steel as a function of stress-intensity factor range (ΔK) and load-cycle frequency to provide life-prediction data relevant to pressure swing adsorber (PSA) vessels. For ΔK values up to 18.5 MPa m1/2, the baseline da/dN versus ΔK relationship measured at 1Hz in 2.8 MPa hydrogen gas represents an upper bound with respect to crack growth rates measured at lower frequency. However, at higher ΔK values, we found that the baseline da/dN data had to be corrected to account for modestly higher crack growth rates at the lower frequencies relevant to PSA vessel operation.

  20. A Program for Risk Assessment Associated with IGSCC of BWR Vessel Internals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. G. Ware; D. K. Morton; J. D. Page; M. E. Nitzel; S. A. Eide; T. -Y. Chang

    1999-08-01

    A program is being carried out for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), to conduct an independent risk assessment of the consequences of failures initiated by intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of the reactor vessel internals of boiling water reactor (BWR) plants. The overall project objective is to assess the potential consequences and risks associated with the failure of IGSCC-susceptible BWR vessel internals, both singly and in combination with the failures of others, with specific consideration given to potential cascading and common mode effects on system performance. This paper presents a description of the overall program that is underway to modify an existing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of the BWR/4 plant to include IGSCC-initiated failures, subsequently to complete a quantitative PRA.

  1. A wall-crawling robot for reactor vessel inspection in advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spelt, P.F.; Crane, C.; Feng, L.; Abidi, M.; Tosunoglu, S.

    1994-06-01

    A consortium of four universities and the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has designed a prototype wall-crawling robot to perform weld inspection in advanced nuclear reactors. Design efforts for the reactor vessel inspection robot (RVIR) concentrated on the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor because it presents the most demanding environment in which such a robot must operate. The RVIR consists of a chassis containing two sets of suction cups that can alternately grasp the side of the vessel being inspected, providing both locomotion and steering functions. Sensors include three CCD cameras and a weld inspection device based on new shear-wave technology. The restrictions of the inspection environment presented major challenges to the team. These challenges were met in the prototype, which has been tested in a non-radiation, room-temperature mockup of the robot work environment and shown to perform as expected.

  2. Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Harris, Aaron P

    2013-01-01

    A barge-mounted hydrogen-fueled proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system has the potential to reduce emissions and fossil fuel use of maritime vessels in and around ports. This study determines the technical feasibility of this concept and examines specific options on the U.S. West Coast for deployment practicality and potential for commercialization.The conceptual design of the system is found to be straightforward and technically feasible in several configurations corresponding to various power levels and run times.The most technically viable and commercially attractive deployment options were found to be powering container ships at berth at the Port of Tacoma and/or Seattle, powering tugs at anchorage near the Port of Oakland, and powering refrigerated containers on-board Hawaiian inter-island transport barges. Other attractive demonstration options were found at the Port of Seattle, the Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, the California Maritime Academy, and an excursion vessel on the Ohio River.

  3. Measurement of Fatigue Crack Growth Relationships in Hydrogen Gas for Pressure Swing Adsorber Vessel Steels

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Somerday, Brian P.; Barney, Monica

    2014-12-04

    We measured the hydrogen-assisted fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) for SA516 Grade 70 steel as a function of stress-intensity factor range (ΔK) and load-cycle frequency to provide life-prediction data relevant to pressure swing adsorber (PSA) vessels. For ΔK values up to 18.5 MPa m1/2, the baseline da/dN versus ΔK relationship measured at 1Hz in 2.8 MPa hydrogen gas represents an upper bound with respect to crack growth rates measured at lower frequency. However, at higher ΔK values, we found that the baseline da/dN data had to be corrected to account for modestly higher crack growth rates at the lower frequenciesmore » relevant to PSA vessel operation.« less

  4. RELAP5 Model of the Vacuum Vessel Primary Heat Transfer System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, Juan J; Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Kim, Seokho H

    2010-07-01

    This report describes the RELAP5 models that have been developed for the Vacuum Vessel (VV) Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS). The models are intended to be used to examine the transient performance of the VV PHTS, and evaluate control schemes necessary to maintain parameters within acceptable limits during transients. Some preliminary results are presented to show the maturity of the models and to examine general VV PHTS transient behavior. The models can be used as a starting point to develop transient modeling capability in several directions including control system modeling, safety evaluations, etc, and are not intended to represent the final VV PHTS design. Preliminary calculations using the models indicate that during normal pulsed operation, heat exchanger control may not be necessary, and that temperatures within the vacuum vessel during decay heat operation remain low.

  5. USING A CONTAINMENT VESSEL LIFTING APPARATUS FOR REMOTE OPERATIONS OF SHIPPING PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftin, Bradley; Koenig, Richard

    2013-08-08

    The 9977 and the 9975 shipping packages are used in various nuclear facilities within the Department of Energy. These shipping packages are often loaded in designated areas with designs using overhead cranes or A-frames with lifting winches. However, there are cases where loading operations must be performed in remote locations where these facility infrastructures do not exist. For these locations, a lifting apparatus has been designed to lift the containment vessels partially out of the package for unloading operations to take place. Additionally, the apparatus allows for loading and closure of the containment vessel and subsequent pre-shipment testing. This paper will address the design of the apparatus and the challenges associated with the design, and it will describe the use of the apparatus.

  6. Weld Repair of a Stamped Pressure Vessel in a Radiologically Controlled Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannell, Gary L.; Huth, Ralph J.; Hallum, Randall T.

    2013-08-26

    In September 2012 an ASME B&PVC Section VIII stamped pressure vessel located at the DOE Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) developed a through-wall leak. The vessel, a steam/brine heat exchanger, operated in a radiologically controlled zone (by the CH2MHill PRC or CHPRC), had been in service for approximately 17 years. The heat exchanger is part of a single train evaporator process and its failure caused the entire system to be shut down, significantly impacting facility operations. This paper describes the activities associated with failure characterization, technical decision making/planning for repair by welding, logistical challenges associated with performing work in a radiologically controlled zone, performing the repair, and administrative considerations related to ASME code requirements.

  7. Development of design criteria for a high pressure vessel construction code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mraz, G.J.

    1987-05-01

    Out of concern for public safety, most legal jurisdictions now require unfired pressure vessel construction to comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Because the present two divisions of Section VIII of that Code are not well suited for high pressure design, a new division is needed. The currently anticipated main design criteria of the proposed division are full plastic flow or full overstrain pressure, stress intensity in the bore, fatigue, and fracture mechanics. The rules are expected to allow better utilization of high strength steels already included in the present Section VIII. At the same time materials of even higher strength are introduced. The benefits of compressive prestress are recognized. Construction methods allowing it's achievement, such as autofrettage, shrink fitting and wire winding are included. Reasons for selection of the criteria are given.

  8. Use of Polycarbonate Vacuum Vessels in High-Temperature Fusion-Plasma Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Berlinger, A. Brooks, H. Feder, J. Gumbas, T. Franckowiak and S.A. Cohen

    2012-09-27

    Magnetic fusion energy (MFE) research requires ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions, primarily to reduce plasma contamination by impurities. For radiofrequency (RF)-heated plasmas, a great benefit may accrue from a non-conducting vacuum vessel, allowing external RF antennas which avoids the complications and cost of internal antennas and high-voltage high-current feedthroughs. In this paper we describe these and other criteria, e.g., safety, availability, design flexibility, structural integrity, access, outgassing, transparency, and fabrication techniques that led to the selection and use of 25.4-cm OD, 1.6-cm wall polycarbonate pipe as the main vacuum vessel for an MFE research device whose plasmas are expected to reach keV energies for durations exceeding 0.1 s

  9. Design Analysis and Manufacturing Studies for ITER In-Vessel Coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalish, M.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Neumeyer, C.; Titus, P.; Zhai, Y.; Zatz, I.; Messineo, M.; Gomez, M.; Hause, C.; Daly, E.; Martin, A.; Wu, Y.; Jin, J.; Long, F.; Song, Y.; Wang, Z.; Yun, Zan; Hsiao, J.; Pillsbury, J. R.; Bohm, T.; Sawan, M.; Jiang, NFN

    2014-07-01

    ITER is incorporating two types of In Vessel Coils (IVCs): ELM Coils to mitigate Edge Localized Modes and VS Coils to provide Vertical Stabilization of the plasma. Strong coupling with the plasma is required so that the ELM and VS Coils can meet their performance requirements. Accordingly, the IVCs are in close proximity to the plasma, mounted just behind the Blanket Shield Modules. This location results in a radiation and temperature environment that is severe necessitating new solutions for material selection as well as challenging analysis and design solutions. Fitting the coil systems in between the blanket shield modules and the vacuum vessel leads to difficult integration with diagnostic cabling and cooling water manifolds.

  10. D-Zero Central Calorimeter Technical Appendix to Cryogenic Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulholland, G.T.; Rucinski, R.A.; /Fermilab

    1990-11-19

    DO (D Zero) is a large Liquid Argon (LAr) HEP Calorimeter designed to function in the laboratories P-Pbar collider at the DO section of the Tevatron accelerator. It contains 5,000 gls. of LAr in the CC cryostat, and 3,000 gls. in each of two, a north and south, EC cryostats. These low pressure vessels are filled with detector modules built of stainless steel, copper and depleted uranium. The LAr functions as the ionization medium, and the spatial and temporal of the collection of the charge of the electrons produced signals the passsage of charged particles. The collection of these charges in 4 pi is related to the energy of the particles, and their measurement is called calorimetry. The contained LAr (T=90K) is isolated from the ambient temperatures in specially designed, vacuum and superinsulated, vessels (cryostats) provided with liquid nitrogen, heat of vaporization, cooling.

  11. Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Barbados (Dollars

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) Barbados (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Barbados (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2016 -- 10.00 15.19 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00

  12. Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Kuwait (Dollars

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) No chart available. Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Kuwait (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2016 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 10/31/2016 Next Release Date: 11/30/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Country

  13. Analysis of the ANL Test Method for 6CVS Containment Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trapp, D.; Crow, G.

    2011-06-06

    In the fall of 2010, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) contracted with vendors to design and build 6CVS containment vessels as part of their effort to ship Fuel Derived Mixed Fission Product material. The 6CVS design is based on the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) design for 9975 and 9977 six inch diameter containment vessels. The main difference between the designs is that the 6CVS credits the inner O-ring seal as the containment boundary while the SRNL design credits the outer O-ring seal. Since the leak test must be done with the inner O-ring in place, the containment vessel does not have a pathway for getting the helium into the vessel during the leak test. The leak testing contractor was not able to get acceptable leak rates with the specified O-ring, but they were able to pass the leak test with a slightly larger O-ring. ANL asked the SRNL to duplicate the leak test vendor's method to determine the cause of the high leak rates. The SRNL testing showed that the helium leak indications were caused by residual helium left within the 6CVS Closure Assembly by the leak test technique, and by helium permeation through the Viton O-ring seals. After SRNL completed their tests, the leak testing contractor was able to measure acceptable leak rates by using the slightly larger O-ring size, by purging helium from the lid threads, and by being very quick in getting the bell jar under a full vacuum. This paper describes the leak test vendor's test technique, and other techniques that could be have been used to successfully leak test the 6CVS's.

  14. Pipeline and Pressure Vessel R&D under the Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure Program In Pennsylvania

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    and Pressure Vessel R&D under the Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure Program In Pennsylvania Kevin L. Klug, Ph.D. 25 September 2007 DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Meeting, Aiken, SC Acknowledgments * This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FC36-04GO14229 * Partners - Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) - HyPerComp Engineering Inc. (HEI) - American Society Of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) - Pipeline Working Group (PWG) Program

  15. Creep behavior of a nuclear pressure vessel under severe accident conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beghini, M.; Bertini, L.; Vitale, E.

    1996-12-31

    The results of a study on the creep behavior of the vessel lower head under severe accident conditions are reported. An experimental program aimed at the evaluation of the creep properties of A533grB steel at high temperature (800--1,100 C) and under biaxial loading is summarized and the main results reported. A Finite Element simulation of the lower head under severe accident conditions allows to show the effect of the main parameters affecting the time to rupture.

  16. Pressure vessel sliding support unit and system using the sliding support unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Breach, Michael R.; Keck, David J.; Deaver, Gerald A.

    2013-01-15

    Provided is a sliding support and a system using the sliding support unit. The sliding support unit may include a fulcrum capture configured to attach to a support flange, a fulcrum support configured to attach to the fulcrum capture, and a baseplate block configured to support the fulcrum support. The system using the sliding support unit may include a pressure vessel, a pedestal bracket, and a plurality of sliding support units.

  17. Application of Negligible Creep Criteria to Candidate Materials for HTGR Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jetter, Robert I; Sham, Sam; Swindeman, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    Two of the proposed High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) under consideration for a demonstration plant have the design object of avoiding creep effects in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during normal operation. This work addresses the criteria for negligible creep in Subsection NH, Division 1 of the ASME B&PV (Boiler and Pressure Vessel) Code, Section III, other international design codes and some currently suggested criteria modifications and their impact on permissible operating temperatures for various reactor pressure vessel materials. The goal of negligible creep could have different interpretations depending upon what failure modes are considered and associated criteria for avoiding the effects of creep. It is shown that for the materials of this study, consideration of localized damage due to cycling of peak stresses results in a lower temperature for negligible creep than consideration of the temperature at which the allowable stress is governed by creep properties. In assessing the effect of localized cyclic stresses it is also shown that consideration of cyclic softening is an important effect that results in a higher estimated temperature for the onset of significant creep effects than would be the case if the material were cyclically hardening. There are other considerations for the selection of vessel material besides avoiding creep effects. Of interest for this review are (1) the material s allowable stress level and impact on wall thickness (the goal being to minimize required wall thickness) and (2) ASME Code approval (inclusion as a permitted material in the relevant Section and Subsection of interest) to expedite regulatory review and approval. The application of negligible creep criteria to two of the candidate materials, SA533 and Mod 9Cr-1Mo (also referred to as Grade 91), and to a potential alternate, normalized and tempered 2 Cr-1Mo, is illustrated and the relative advantages and disadvantages of the materials are discussed.

  18. Creep rupture failure of reactor pressure vessel lower head during severe accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, V.N.

    1986-09-12

    A creep rupture analysis of a reactor pressure vessel lower head subjected to high temperature and pressure during a severe accident is presented herein. Preliminary results show that creep rupture failure will take place at temperatures of approximately 1000/sup 0/K. These temperatures are significantly lower than the melting temperatures of steel (1700 to 1800/sup 0/K) when the system pressure is high (6.8 to 13.8 MPa).

  19. Use of miniature and standard specimens to evaluate effects of irradiation temperature on pressure vessel steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haggag, F.M.; Nanstad, R.K. ); Byrne, S.T. )

    1991-01-01

    The effects of neutron irradiation on the steel reactor vessel for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) are being investigated, primarily because the operating temperatures are low (121 to 210{degrees}C (250--410{degrees}F)) compared to those for commercial light-water reactors (LWRs) ({approximately}288{degrees}C (550{degrees}F)). The need for design data on the reference temperature shift necessitated the irradiation at different temperatures of A 533 grade B class 1 plate. A 508 class 3 forging, and welds used for the vessel shell, vessel closure head, the vessel flange. This paper presents results from the first four irradiation capsules of this program. The four capsules were irradiated in the University of Buffalo Reactor to an effective fast fluence of 1 {times}10{sup 18} neutron/cm{sup 2} (0.68 {times} 10{sup 18} neutron/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV)) at temperatures of 288, 204, 163, and 121{degrees}C (550, 400, 325, and 250{degrees}F), respectively. The yield and ultimate strengths of both steel plate materials of the MHTGR Program increased with decreasing irradiation temperature. Similarly, the 41-J Charpy V-notch (CVN) transition temperature shift increased with decreasing irradiation temperature (in agreement with the increase in yield strength). The miniature tensile and automated ball indentation (ABI) test results (yield strength and flow properties) were in good agreement with those from standard tensile specimens. The miniature tensile and ABI test results were also used in a model that utilizes the changes in yield strength to estimate the CVN ductile-to-brittle transition temperature shift due to irradiation. The model predictions were compared with CVN test results obtained here and in earlier work. 5 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. In-Vessel Torsional Ultrasonic Wave-Based Level Measurement System - Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search In-Vessel Torsional Ultrasonic Wave-Based Level Measurement System Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary At Three Mile Island in 1979, a partial meltdown of the core was caused by a sudden, undetected loss of reactor coolant water. In the past, a reactor's high temperature and pressure environment has complicated the implementation of level

  1. Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3-0501 Unlimited Release Printed February 2013 Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility Joseph W. Pratt and Aaron P. Harris Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security

  2. Two-Phase Natural Circulation Flow in AP-1000 In-Vessel Retention-Related ULPU-V Facility Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, T.N.; Tu, J.P.; Theofanous, T.G.

    2004-07-01

    This paper is concerned with two-phase flow regimes and characteristics of coolant natural circulation around a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in in-vessel retention (IVR) scenarios when the external vessel flooding is applied to arrest a hypothetical core melt accident. We focus on the AP1000 advanced plant design, and factors of potential importance to the coolant flow and the limit of coolability in IVR. This paper presents a synthesis of experimental results obtained in the ULPU-V facility, which simulates the AP1000 reactor geometry. We provide an analysis and interpretation of the ULPU-V observations, and discuss their relevant to the IVR performance. (authors)

  3. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF REACTOR VESSELS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiersma, B.; Serrato, M.; Langton, C.

    2010-11-10

    The R- and P-reactor vessels at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D). D&D activities will consist primarily of physically isolating and stabilizing the reactor vessel by filling it with a grout material. The reactor vessels contain aluminum alloy materials, which pose a concern in that aluminum corrodes rapidly when it comes in contact with the alkaline grout. A product of the corrosion reaction is hydrogen gas and therefore potential flammability issues were assessed. A model was developed to calculate the hydrogen generation rate as the reactor is being filled with the grout material. Three options existed for the type of grout material for D&D of the reactor vessels. The grout formulation options included ceramicrete (pH 6-8), a calcium aluminate sulfate (CAS) based cement (pH 10), or Portland cement grout (pH 12.4). Corrosion data for aluminum in concrete were utilized as input for the model. The calculations considered such factors as the surface area of the aluminum components, the open cross-sectional area of the reactor vessel, the rate at which the grout is added to the reactor vessel, and temperature. Given the hydrogen generation rate, the hydrogen concentration in the vapor space of the reactor vessel above the grout was calculated. This concentration was compared to the lower flammability limit for hydrogen. The assessment concluded that either ceramicrete or the CAS grout may be used to safely grout the P-reactor vessel. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Portland cement grout, on the other hand, for the same range of process parameters did not provide a margin of safety against the accumulation of flammable gas in the reactor vessel during grouting operations in the P-reactor vessel. Therefore, it was recommended that this grout not be utilized for this task. On the other hand, the R-reactor vessel

  4. THE BROWN DWARF KINEMATICS PROJECT (BDKP). III. PARALLAXES FOR 70 ULTRACOOL DWARFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Shara, Michael M.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Walter, Frederick M.; Van der Bliek, Nicole; Vrba, Frederick J.; Anglada-Escude, Guillem

    2012-06-10

    We report parallax measurements for 70 ultracool dwarfs (UCDs) including 11 late-M, 32 L, and 27 T dwarfs. In this sample, 14 M and L dwarfs exhibit low surface gravity features, 6 are close binary systems, and 2 are metal-poor subdwarfs. We combined our new measurements with 114 previously published UCD parallaxes and optical-mid-IR photometry to examine trends in spectral-type/absolute magnitude, and color-color diagrams. We report new polynomial relations between spectral type and M{sub JHK}. Including resolved L/T transition binaries in the relations, we find no reason to differentiate between a 'bright' (unresolved binary) and a 'faint' (single source) sample across the L/T boundary. Isolating early T dwarfs, we find that the brightening of T0-T4 sources is prominent in M{sub J} where there is a [1.2-1.4] mag difference. A similar yet dampened brightening of [0.3-0.5] mag happens at M{sub H} and a plateau or dimming of [-0.2 to -0.3] mag is seen in M{sub K} . Comparison with evolutionary models that vary gravity, metallicity, and cloud thickness verifies that for L into T dwarfs, decreasing cloud thickness reproduces brown dwarf near-IR color-magnitude diagrams. However we find that a near constant temperature of 1200 {+-}100 K along a narrow spectral subtype of T0-T4 is required to account for the brightening and color-magnitude diagram of the L-dwarf/T-dwarf transition. There is a significant population of both L and T dwarfs which are red or potentially 'ultra-cloudy' compared to the models, many of which are known to be young indicating a correlation between enhanced photospheric dust and youth. For the low surface gravity or young companion L dwarfs we find that 8 out of 10 are at least [0.2-1.0] mag underluminous in M{sub JH} and/or M{sub K} compared to equivalent spectral type objects. We speculate that this is a consequence of increased dust opacity and conclude that low surface gravity L dwarfs require a completely new spectral-type/absolute magnitude

  5. Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubble, D.H.; Ulrich, K.H.

    1998-09-22

    A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag. 10 figs.

  6. Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubble, D.H.; Ulrich, K.H.

    1998-04-21

    A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag. 10 figs.

  7. Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubble, David H.; Ulrich, Klaus H.

    1998-01-01

    A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag.

  8. HFIR (High Flux Isotope Reactor) pressure vessel and structural components materials surveillance program: Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheverton, R.D.; McGinty, D.M.; McWherter, J.R.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1987-10-01

    Extending the life of the HFIR vessel by the proposed 10 effective full-power years is contingent upon a continuation of the materials surveillance program and the application of hydrostatic proof testing. As a part of the surveillance program, Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimens of shell, weld and nozzle materials are installed adjacent to the inner surface of the vessel and are removed periodically for testing to determine the radiation-induced increase in the nil-ductility transition temperature. Hydro testing is conducted to prove that a critical combination of flaw size, stress and fracture toughness does not exist. Information from the materials surveillance program is used in a fracture mechanics analysis to confirm that the hydro-test pressure being applied is appropriate for the desired life extension of the vessel. This report specifies (1) the number, type, location and schedule for removal-testing of the CVN specimens for the continuing materials surveillance program, and (2) the procedures and test conditions for the hydro test.

  9. Fabrication Flaw Density and Distribution In Repairs to Reactor Pressure Vessel and Piping Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GJ Schuster, FA Simonen, SR Doctor

    2008-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a generalized fabrication flaw distribution for the population of nuclear reactor pressure vessels and for piping welds in U.S. operating reactors. The purpose of the generalized flaw distribution is to predict component-specific flaw densities. The estimates of fabrication flaws are intended for use in fracture mechanics structural integrity assessments. Structural integrity assessments, such as estimating the frequency of loss-of-coolant accidents, are performed by computer codes that require, as input, accurate estimates of flaw densities. Welds from four different reactor pressure vessels and a collection of archived pipes have been studied to develop empirical estimates of fabrication flaw densities. This report describes the fabrication flaw distribution and characterization in the repair weld metal of vessels and piping. This work indicates that large flaws occur in these repairs. These results show that repair flaws are complex in composition and sometimes include cracks on the ends of the repair cavities. Parametric analysis using an exponential fit is performed on the data. The relevance of construction records is established for describing fabrication processes and product forms. An analysis of these records shows there was a significant change in repair frequency over the years when these components were fabricated. A description of repair flaw morphology is provided with a discussion of fracture mechanics significance. Fabrication flaws in repairs are characterized using optimized-access, high-sensitivity nondestructive ultrasonic testing. Flaw characterizations are then validated by other nondestructive evaluation techniques and complemented by destructive testing.

  10. A Multiscale Modeling Approach to Analyze Filament-Wound Composite Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2013-07-22

    A multiscale modeling approach to analyze filament-wound composite pressure vessels is developed in this article. The approach, which extends the Nguyen et al. model [J. Comp. Mater. 43 (2009) 217] developed for discontinuous fiber composites to continuous fiber ones, spans three modeling scales. The microscale considers the unidirectional elastic fibers embedded in an elastic-plastic matrix obeying the Ramberg-Osgood relation and J2 deformation theory of plasticity. The mesoscale behavior representing the composite lamina is obtained through an incremental Mori-Tanaka type model and the Eshelby equivalent inclusion method [Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A241 (1957) 376]. The implementation of the micro-meso constitutive relations in the ABAQUS finite element package (via user subroutines) allows the analysis of a filament-wound composite pressure vessel (macroscale) to be performed. Failure of the composite lamina is predicted by a criterion that accounts for the strengths of the fibers and of the matrix as well as of their interface. The developed approach is demonstrated in the analysis of a filament-wound pressure vessel to study the effect of the lamina thickness on the burst pressure. The predictions are favorably compared to the numerical and experimental results by Lifshitz and Dayan [Comp. Struct. 32 (1995) 313].

  11. Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Initial Assessment of Thermal Annealing Needs and Challenges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The most life-limiting structural component in light-water reactors (LWR) is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) because replacement of the RPV is not considered a viable option at this time. LWR...

  12. Structural integrity assessment of carbon and low-alloy steel pressure vessels using a simplified fracture mechanics procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana, M.D. . Research and Development Dept.)

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes a simplified fracture analysis procedure which was developed by Pellini to quantify fracture critical-crack sizes and crack-arrest temperatures of carbon and low-alloy steel pressure vessels. Fracture analysis diagrams have been developed using the simplified analysis procedure for various grades of carbon and low-alloy steels used in the construction of ASME, Section VIII, Division 1 pressure vessels. Structural integrity assessments have been conducted from the analysis diagrams.

  13. Experimental Study on Flow Optimization in Upper Plenum of Reactor Vessel for a Compact Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Kenji; Kamide, Hideki; Itoh, Masami; Sekine, Tadashi

    2005-11-15

    An innovative sodium-cooled fast reactor has been investigated in a feasibility study of fast breeder reactor cycle systems in Japan. A compact reactor vessel and a column-type upper inner structure with a radial slit for an arm of a fuel-handling machine (FHM) are adopted. Dipped plates are set in the reactor vessel below the free surface to prevent gas entrainment. We performed a one-tenth-scaled model water experiment for the upper plenum of the reactor vessel. Gas entrainment was not observed in the experiment under the same velocity condition as the reactor. Three vortex cavitations were observed near the hot-leg inlet. A vertical rib on the reactor vessel wall was set to restrict the rotating flow near the hot leg. The vortex cavitation between the reactor vessel wall and the hot leg was suppressed by the rib under the same cavitation factor condition as in the reactor. The cylindrical plug was installed through the hole in the dipped plates for the FHM to reduce the flow toward the free surface. It was effective when the plug was submerged into the middle height in the upper plenum. This combination of two components had a possibility to optimize the flow in the compact reactor vessel.

  14. Hmelo, Bin Hu, Alamgir Karim, Martyn McLachlan, and Ron Jones...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Interactions with "nontraditional" users Interactions with "nontraditional" users Next-generation capabilities Suggestions for workshopssymposia gg p y p ...

  15. Ron Ness will provide comments on the workforce needs of Bakken...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    needs of Bakken and North Dakota's energy industry and the tremendous growth in jobs over the past few years. He will focus on the Empower North Dakota initiatives on ...

  16. Genome Data from DOOR: a Database for prOkaryotic OpeRons

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    DOOR provides an Organism View for browsing, a gene search tool, an operon search tool, and the operon prediction interface.[Text taken and edited from http://csbl1.bmb.uga.edu/OperonDB/tutorial.php

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF RADIOACTIVITY IN THE REACTOR VESSEL OF THE HEAVY WATER COMPONENT TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinson, Dennis

    2010-06-01

    The Heavy Water Component Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility is a pressurized heavy water reactor that was used to test candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. The reactor operated at nominal power of 50 MW{sub th}. The reactor coolant loop operated at 1200 psig and 250 C. Two isolated test loop were designed into the reactor to provide special test conditions. Fig. 1 shows a cut-away view of the reactor. The two loops are contained in four inch diameter stainless steel piping. The HWCTR was operated for only a short duration, from March 1962 to December 1964 in order to test the viability of test fuel elements and other reactor components for use in a heavy water power reactor. The reactor achieved 13,882 MWd of total power while testing 36 different fuel assemblies. In the course of operation, HWCTR experienced the cladding failures of 10 separate test fuel assemblies. In each case, the cladding was breached with some release of fuel core material into the isolated test loop, causing fission product and actinide contamination in the main coolant loop and the liquid and boiling test loops. Despite the contribution of the contamination from the failed fuel, the primary source of radioactivity in the HWCTR vessel and internals is the activation products in the thermal shields, and to a lesser degree, activation products in the reactor vessel walls and liner. A detailed facility characterization report of the HWCTR facility was completed in 1996. Many of the inputs and assumptions in the 1996 characterization report were derived from the HWCTR decommissioning plan published in 1975. The current paper provides an updated assessment of the radioisotopic characteristics of the HWCTR vessel and internals to support decommissioning activities on the facility.

  18. Initial Probabilistic Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel Fracture with Grizzly and Raven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Benjamin; Hoffman, William; Sen, Sonat; Rabiti, Cristian; Dickson, Terry; Bass, Richard

    2015-10-01

    The Grizzly code is being developed with the goal of creating a general tool that can be applied to study a variety of degradation mechanisms in nuclear power plant components. The first application of Grizzly has been to study fracture in embrittled reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). Grizzly can be used to model the thermal/mechanical response of an RPV under transient conditions that would be observed in a pressurized thermal shock (PTS) scenario. The global response of the vessel provides boundary conditions for local models of the material in the vicinity of a flaw. Fracture domain integrals are computed to obtain stress intensity factors, which can in turn be used to assess whether a fracture would initiate at a pre-existing flaw. These capabilities have been demonstrated previously. A typical RPV is likely to contain a large population of pre-existing flaws introduced during the manufacturing process. This flaw population is characterized stastistically through probability density functions of the flaw distributions. The use of probabilistic techniques is necessary to assess the likelihood of crack initiation during a transient event. This report documents initial work to perform probabilistic analysis of RPV fracture during a PTS event using a combination of the RAVEN risk analysis code and Grizzly. This work is limited in scope, considering only a single flaw with deterministic geometry, but with uncertainty introduced in the parameters that influence fracture toughness. These results are benchmarked against equivalent models run in the FAVOR code. When fully developed, the RAVEN/Grizzly methodology for modeling probabilistic fracture in RPVs will provide a general capability that can be used to consider a wider variety of vessel and flaw conditions that are difficult to consider with current tools. In addition, this will provide access to advanced probabilistic techniques provided by RAVEN, including adaptive sampling and parallelism, which can dramatically

  19. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Novel Steel/Concrete Composite Vessel for Stationary Storage of High-Pressure Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jy-An John; Ren, Fei

    2012-09-01

    A novel, low-cost, high-pressure, steel/concrete composite vessel (SCCV) technology for stationary storage of compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored by DOE s Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program. The SCCV technology uses commodity materials including structural steels and concretes for achieving cost, durability and safety requirements. In particular, the hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength low-alloy steels, a major safety and durability issue for current industry-standard pressure vessel technology, is mitigated through the use of a unique layered steel shell structure. This report presents the cost analysis results of the novel SCCV technology. A high-fidelity cost analysis tool is developed, based on a detailed, bottom-up approach which takes into account the material and labor costs involved in each of the vessel manufacturing steps. A thorough cost study is performed to understand the SCCV cost as a function of the key vessel design parameters, including hydrogen pressure, vessel dimensions, and load-carrying ratio. The major conclusions include: The SCCV technology can meet the technical/cost targets set forth by DOE s FCT Program for FY2015 and FY2020 for all three pressure levels (i.e., 160, 430 and 860 bar) relevant to the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. Further vessel cost reduction can benefit from the development of advanced vessel fabrication technologies such as the highly automated friction stir welding (FSW). The ORNL-patented multi-layer, multi-pass FSW can not only reduce the amount of labor needed for assembling and welding the layered steel vessel, but also make it possible to use even higher strength steels for further cost reductions and improvement of vessel structural integrity. It is noted the cost analysis results demonstrate the significant cost advantage attainable by the SCCV technology for different pressure levels when compared to the

  20. A CAUTIONARY TALE: MARVELS BROWN DWARF CANDIDATE REVEALS ITSELF TO BE A VERY LONG PERIOD, HIGHLY ECCENTRIC SPECTROSCOPIC STELLAR BINARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mack, Claude E. III; Stassun, Keivan G.; De Lee, Nathan; Ge, Jian; Fleming, Scott W.; Deshpande, Rohit; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Wisniewski, John P.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Eastman, Jason; Beatty, Thomas G.; Ghezzi, Luan; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I.; Femenia, Bruno; Mata Sanchez, Daniel; Ferreira, Leticia; Porto de Mello, Gustavo; Crepp, Justin R.; Agol, Eric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; and others

    2013-05-15

    We report the discovery of a highly eccentric, double-lined spectroscopic binary star system (TYC 3010-1494-1), comprising two solar-type stars that we had initially identified as a single star with a brown dwarf companion. At the moderate resolving power of the MARVELS spectrograph and the spectrographs used for subsequent radial-velocity (RV) measurements (R {approx}< 30, 000), this particular stellar binary mimics a single-lined binary with an RV signal that would be induced by a brown dwarf companion (Msin i {approx} 50 M{sub Jup}) to a solar-type primary. At least three properties of this system allow it to masquerade as a single star with a very-low-mass companion: its large eccentricity (e {approx} 0.8), its relatively long period (P {approx} 238 days), and the approximately perpendicular orientation of the semi-major axis with respect to the line of sight ({omega} {approx} 189 Degree-Sign ). As a result of these properties, for {approx}95% of the orbit the two sets of stellar spectral lines are completely blended, and the RV measurements based on centroiding on the apparently single-lined spectrum is very well fit by an orbit solution indicative of a brown dwarf companion on a more circular orbit (e {approx} 0.3). Only during the {approx}5% of the orbit near periastron passage does the true, double-lined nature and large RV amplitude of {approx}15 km s{sup -1} reveal itself. The discovery of this binary system is an important lesson for RV surveys searching for substellar companions; at a given resolution and observing cadence, a survey will be susceptible to these kinds of astrophysical false positives for a range of orbital parameters. Finally, for surveys like MARVELS that lack the resolution for a useful line bisector analysis, it is imperative to monitor the peak of the cross-correlation function for suspicious changes in width or shape, so that such false positives can be flagged during the candidate vetting process.

  1. Computerized Mathematical Models of Spray Washout of Airborne Contaminants (Radioactivity) in Containment Vessels.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-05-23

    Version 01 Distribution is restricted to the United States Only. SPIRT predicts the washout of airborne contaminants in containment vessels under postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. SPIRT calculates iodine removal constants (lambdas) for post-LOCA containment spray systems. It evaluates the effect of the spectrum of drop sizes emitted by the spray nozzles, the effect of drop coalescence, and the precise solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation. STEAM-67 routines are included for calculating the properties ofmore » steam and water according to the 1967 ASME Steam Tables.« less

  2. Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davin, J.

    1992-12-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell. 6 figs.

  3. Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davin, James

    1992-01-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell.

  4. Supplementary neutron-flux calculations for the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maudlin, P.J.; Maerker, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculation using the MORSE code was performed to validate a procedure previously adopted in the ORNL discrete ordinate analysis of measurements made in the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Facility. The results of these flux calculations agree, within statistical undertainties of about 5%, with those obtained from a discrete ordinate analysis employing the same procedure. This study therefore concludes that the procedure for combining several one- and two-dimensional discrete ordinate calculations into a three-dimensional flux is sufficiently accurate that it does not account for the existing discrepancies observed between calculations and measurements in this facility.

  5. Review of the Palisades pressure vessel accumulated fluence estimate and of the least squares methodology employed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, P.J.

    1998-05-01

    This report provides a review of the Palisades submittal to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission requesting endorsement of their accumulated neutron fluence estimates based on a least squares adjustment methodology. This review highlights some minor issues in the applied methodology and provides some recommendations for future work. The overall conclusion is that the Palisades fluence estimation methodology provides a reasonable approach to a {open_quotes}best estimate{close_quotes} of the accumulated pressure vessel neutron fluence and is consistent with the state-of-the-art analysis as detailed in community consensus ASTM standards.

  6. Alternatives to Double Hull Tank Vessel Design, Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Report to the Congress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-24

    The report required by section 4115(e) of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. The report concludes that, at present, there are no equivalent designs to the double hull tanker for the prevention of oil outflow due to groundings, which are the most prevalent type of serious vessel accident in U.S. waters. The report does not recommend any changes to the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 to allow alternatives to double hull design, but does recommend that the Coast Guard continue to evaluate novel tanker designs and associated technologies.

  7. Welding and brazing qualifications (supplement to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    This standard supplements the requirements of the 1980 edition of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section IX. When this standard is invoked or referenced, the applicable subsections of Section IX of the Code are also invoked or referenced. The paragraph numbers in this standard apply only to the 1980 edition of Section IX and its addenda. The user of this standard is responsible for obtaining and applying the edition and revision of this standard that supplement the edition and addenda of Section IX that are in legal effect at the time of use.

  8. Welding and brazing qualifications (supplement to ASME boiler and pressure vessel code, Section IX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This standard supplements the requirements of the 1977 edition of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section IX. When this standard is invoked or referenced, the applicable subsections of Section IX of the Code are also invoked or referenced. The paragraph numbers apply only to the 1977 edition of Section IX and its addenda. The user of this standard is responsible for obtaining and applying the edition and revision of this standard that supplement the edition and Addenda of Section IX that are in legal effect at the time of use.

  9. Evaluation and prediction of neutron embrittlement in reactor pressure vessel materials. Final report. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawthorne, J.R.; Menke, B.H.; Loss, F.J.; Watson, H.E.; Hiser, A.L.; Gray, R.A.

    1982-12-01

    This study evaluates the effects of fast neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of eight nuclear reactor vessel materials. The materials include submerged arc weldments, three plates, and one forging. The materials are in the unirradiated and irradiated conditions with regard to tensile, Charpy impact, and static and dynamic fracture toughness properties. Correlations between impact and fracture toughness parameters are developed from the experimental results. The observed shifts in transition temperature and the drop in upper-shelf energy are compared with predictions developed from the Regulatory Guide 1.99.1 trend curves.

  10. Fatigue crack growth rates in pressure vessel and piping steels in LWR environments: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cullen, W.H.

    1987-03-01

    The measurement of fatigue crack growth rates for pressure vessel and piping steels in high-temperature, pressurized water has been carried out using compact fracture specimens. Over the last ten years, the programs sponsored by the NRC and carried out at the Naval Research Laboratory and Materials Engineering Associates have provided data for over three hundred tests of these specimens, which have been published in a series of NUREG topical reports and annual reports. This is the final report in this series and describes briefly the significant findings of the program, reports on the most recent data which have been acquired, and indicates some directions for future research in this area.

  11. Cleavage Fracture Modeling of Pressure Vessels under Transient Thermo-Mechanical Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Xudong; Dodds, Robert; Yin, Shengjun; Bass, Bennett Richard

    2008-02-01

    The next generation of fracture assessment procedures for nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) will combine nonlinear analyses of crack-front response with stochastic treatments of crack size, shape, orientation, location, material properties and thermal-pressure transients. The projected computational demands needed to support stochastic approaches with detailed 3-D, nonlinear stress analyses of vessels containing defects appear well beyond current and near-term capabilities. In the interim, 2-D models become appealing to approximate certain classes of critical flaws in RPVs, and have computational demands within reach for stochastic frameworks. The present work focuses on the capability of 2-D models to provide values for the Weibull stress fracture parameter with accuracy comparable to those from very detailed 3-D models. Weibull stress approaches provide one route to connect nonlinear vessel response with fracture toughness values measured using small laboratory specimens. The embedded axial flaw located in the RPV wall near the cladding-vessel interface emerges from current linear-elastic, stochastic investigations as a critical contributor to the conditional probability of initiation. Three different types of 2-D models reflecting this configuration are subjected to a thermal-pressure transient characteristic of a critical pressurized thermal shock event. The plane-strain, 2-D models include: the modified boundary layer (MBL) model, the middle tension (M(T)) model, and the 2-D RPV model. The 2-D MBL model provides a high quality estimate for the Weibull stress but only in crack-front regions with a positive T-stress. For crack-front locations with low constraint (T-stress < 0), the M(T) specimen provides very accurate Weibull stress values but only for pressure load acting alone on the RPV. For RPVs under a combined thermal-pressure transient, Weibull stresses computed from the 2-D RPV model demonstrate close agreement with those computed from the

  12. Are green lots worth more than brown lots? An economic incentive for erosion control on residential developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herzog, M.; Harbor, J.; McClintock, K.; Law, J.; Bennett, K.

    2000-03-01

    Construction sites are major contributors to nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. However, a lack of personnel to enforce erosion control regulations and limited voluntary compliance means that few developers apply effective erosion control. New approaches are needed to increase erosion control on construction sites if this source of NPS pollution is to be significantly reduced. This study tests whether an economic advantage exists for developers who use vegetative cover for erosion control, independent of advantages gained in addressing environmental or regulatory concerns. Improving residential lot appearance from muddy brown to green grass may increase the appeal of the lot to buyers. A market survey shows that homebuyers and realtors perceive vegetated lots to be worth more than unvegetated lots, and this increased value exceeds the cost of seeding. Thus, developers can now be encouraged to invest in vegetative cover because of the potentially high return on the investment.

  13. Early anisotropic hydrodynamics and thermalization and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss puzzles in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Florkowski, Wojciech

    2010-08-15

    We address the problem of whether the early thermalization and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) puzzles in relativistic heavy-ion collisions may be solved by the assumption that the early dynamics of the produced matter is locally anisotropic. The hybrid model describing the purely transverse hydrodynamic evolution followed by the perfect-fluid hydrodynamic stage is constructed. The transition from the transverse to perfect-fluid hydrodynamics is described by the Landau matching conditions applied at a fixed proper time {tau}{sub tr}. The global fit to the RHIC data reproduces the soft hadronic observables (the pion, kaon, and the proton spectra, the pion and kaon elliptic flow, and the pion HBT radii) with the accuracy of about 20%. These results indicate that the assumption of the very fast thermalization may be relaxed. In addition, the presented model suggests that a large part of the inconsistencies between the theoretical and experimental HBT results may be removed.

  14. WISEP J004701.06+680352.1: AN INTERMEDIATE SURFACE GRAVITY, DUSTY BROWN DWARF IN THE AB DOR MOVING GROUP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gizis, John E.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Liu, Michael C.; Harris, Hugh C.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2015-02-01

    We present spectroscopy, astrometry, and photometry of the brown dwarf WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 (W0047+68), an unusually red field L dwarf at a distance of 12.2 ± 0.4 pc. The three-dimensional space motion identifies it as a member of the AB Dor Moving Group, an identification supported by our classification of W0047+68 as intermediate surface gravity (INT-G) using the Allers and Liu near-infrared classification system. This moving group membership implies near-solar metallicity, age ∼100-125 Myr, M ≈ 0.018 M {sub ☉}, and log g ≈ 4.5; the thick condensate clouds needed to explain the infrared spectrum are, therefore, a result of surface gravity that is lower than that of ordinary field brown dwarfs. From the observed luminosity and evolutionary model radius, we find T {sub eff} ≈ 1300 K, a temperature normally associated with early T dwarfs. Thick clouds are also used to explain the spectral properties of directly imaged giant planets, and we discuss the successes and challenges for such substellar models in matching the observed optical and infrared spectra. W0047+68 shows that cloud thickness is more sensitive to intermediate surface gravity than in most models. We also present a trigonometric parallax of the dusty L6 dwarf 2MASS J21481628+4003593. It lies at 8.060 ± 0.036 parsecs; its astrometry is consistent with the view that it is older and metal-rich.

  15. Control of contamination of radon-daughters in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jillings, Chris; Collaboration: DEAP Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    DEAP-3600 is a 3600kg single-phase liquid-argon dark matter detector under construction at SNOLAB with a sensitivity of 10{sup ?46}cm{sup 2} for a 100 GeV WIMP. The argon is held an an acrylic vessel coated with wavelength-shifting 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB). Acrylic was chosen because it is optically transparent at the shifted wavelength of 420 nm; an effective neutron shield; and physically strong. With perfect cleaning of the acrylic surface before data taking the irreducible background is that from bulk {sup 210}Pb activity that is near the surface. To achieve a background rate of 0.01 events in the 1000-kg fiducial volume per year of exposure, the allowed limit of Pb-210 in the bulk acrylic is 31 mBq/tonne (= 1.2 10{sup ?20}g/g). We discuss how pure acrylic was procured and manufactured into a complete vessel paying particular attention to exposure to radon during all processes. In particular field work at the acrylic panel manufacturer, RPT Asia, and acrylic monomer supplier, Thai MMA Co. Ltd, in Thailand is described. The increased diffusion of radon during annealing the acrylic at 90C as well as techniques to mitigate against this are described.

  16. Update to Risk-Informed Pressurized Water Reactor Vessel 10 to 20 Year Inspection Interval Extension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palm, Nathan A.; Bishop, Bruce A.; Boggess, Cheryl L.

    2006-07-01

    The Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group (formerly the Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG)) methodology for extending the inservice inspection interval for welds in pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor pressure vessel (RPV) was introduced as ICONE12-49429. The paper presented a risk informed basis for extending the interval between inspections from the current interval of 10 years to 20 years. In the paper presented at ICONE-12, results of pilot studies on typical Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) designs of PWR vessels showed that the change in risk associated with the proposed inspection interval extension was within the guidelines specified in the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.174 for an acceptably small change in risk. Since the methodology was originally presented, the evaluation has been updated to incorporate the latest changes in the NRC Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) Risk Reevaluation Program and expanded to include the Babcock and Wilcox NSSS RPV design. The results of these evaluations demonstrate that the proposed RPV inspection interval extension remains a viable option for the industry. The updates to the methodology and input, pilot plant evaluations, results, process for demonstrating applicability of the pilot plant analysis to non-pilot lead plants and lessons learned from the evaluations performed are summarized in this paper. (authors)

  17. In-vessel coolability and retention of a core melt. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Liu, C.; Additon, S.; Angelini, S.; Kymaelaeinen, O.; Salmassi, T.

    1996-10-01

    The efficacy of external flooding of a reactor vessel as a severe accident management strategy is assessed for an AP600-like reactor design. The overall approach is based on the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and the assessment includes consideration of bounding scenarios and sensitivity studies, as well as arbitrary parametric evaluations that allow the delineation of the failure boundaries. Quantification of the input parameters is carried out for an AP600-like design, and the results of the assessment demonstrate that lower head failure is physically unreasonable. Use of this conclusion for any specific application is subject to verifying the required reliability of the depressurization and cavity-flooding systems, and to showing the appropriateness (in relation to the database presented here, or by further testing as necessary) of the thermal insulation design and of the external surface properties of the lower head, including any applicable coatings. The AP600 is particularly favorable to in-vessel retention. Some ideas to enhance the assessment basis as well as performance in this respect, for applications to larger and/or higher power density reactors are also provided.

  18. Structural characterization of nanoscale intermetallic precipitates in highly neutron irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprouster, D. J.; Sinsheimer, J.; Dooryhee, E.; Ghose, S.; Wells, P.; Stan, T.; Almirall, N.; Odette, G. R.; Ecker, L. E.

    2015-10-21

    Here, massive, thick-walled pressure vessels are permanent nuclear reactor structures that are exposed to a damaging flux of neutrons from the adjacent core. The neutrons cause embrittlement of the vessel steel that increases with dose (fluence or service time), as manifested by an increasing temperature transition from ductile-to-brittle fracture. Moreover, extending reactor life requires demonstrating that large safety margins against brittle fracture are maintained at the higher neutron fluence associated with 60 to 80 years of service. Here synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction and small angle x-ray scattering measurements are used to characterize a new class of highly embrittling nm-scale Mn-Ni-Si precipitates that develop in the irradiated steels at high fluence. Furthermore, these precipitates can lead to severe embrittlement that is not accounted for in current regulatory models. Application of the complementarity techniques has, for the very first time, successfully characterized the crystal structures of the nanoprecipitates, while also yielding self-consistent compositions, volume fractions and size distributions.

  19. Structural characterization of nanoscale intermetallic precipitates in highly neutron irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Sprouster, D. J.; Sinsheimer, J.; Dooryhee, E.; Ghose, S.; Wells, P.; Stan, T.; Almirall, N.; Odette, G. R.; Ecker, L. E.

    2015-10-21

    Here, massive, thick-walled pressure vessels are permanent nuclear reactor structures that are exposed to a damaging flux of neutrons from the adjacent core. The neutrons cause embrittlement of the vessel steel that increases with dose (fluence or service time), as manifested by an increasing temperature transition from ductile-to-brittle fracture. Moreover, extending reactor life requires demonstrating that large safety margins against brittle fracture are maintained at the higher neutron fluence associated with 60 to 80 years of service. Here synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction and small angle x-ray scattering measurements are used to characterize a new class of highly embrittling nm-scale Mn-Ni-Si precipitatesmore » that develop in the irradiated steels at high fluence. Furthermore, these precipitates can lead to severe embrittlement that is not accounted for in current regulatory models. Application of the complementarity techniques has, for the very first time, successfully characterized the crystal structures of the nanoprecipitates, while also yielding self-consistent compositions, volume fractions and size distributions.« less

  20. Generic BWR-4 degraded core in-vessel study. Status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    Original intent of this project was to produce a phenomenological study of the in-vessel degradation which occurs during the TQUX and TQUV sequences for a generic BWR-4 from the initiation of the FSAR Chapter 15 operational transient through core debris bed formation to the failure of the primary pressure boundary. Bounding calculations were to be performed for the two high pressure and low pressure non-LOCA scenarios to assess the uncertainties in the current state of knowledge regarding the source terms for containment integrity studies. Source terms as such were defined in terms of hydrogen generation, unreacted metal, and coolant inventroy, and in terms of the form, sequencing and mode of dispersal through the primary vessel boundary. Fission product release was not to be considered as part of this study. Premature termination of the project, however, led to the dicontinuation of work on an as is basis. Work on the in-core phase from the point of scram to core debris bed formation was largely completed. A preliminary scoping calculation on the debris bed phase had been initiated. This report documents the status of the study at termination.

  1. Improved mechanical properties of A 508 class 3 steel for nuclear pressure vessel through steelmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J.T.; Kwon, H.K.; Kim, K.C.; Kim, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    The present work is concerned with the steelmaking practices which improve the mechanical properties of the A 508 class 3 steel for reactor pressure vessel. Three kinds of steelmaking practices were applied to manufacture the forged heavy wall shell for reactor pressure vessel, that is, the vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD), modified VCD containing aluminum and silicon-killing. The segregation of the chemical elements through the thickness was quite small so that the variations of the tensile properties at room temperature were small and the anisotropy of the impact properties was hardly observed regardless of the steelmaking practices. The Charpy V-notch impact properties and the reference nil-ductile transition temperature by drop weight test were significantly improved by the modified VCD and silicon-killing as compared with those of the steel by VCD. Moreover, the plane strain fracture toughness values of the materials by modified VCD and silicon-killing practices was much higher than those of the steel by VCD. These were resulted from the fining of austenite grain size. It was observed that the grain size was below 20 {micro}m (ASTM No. 8.5) when using the modified VCD and silicon-killing, compared to 50 {micro}m (ASTM No. 7.0) when using VCD.

  2. Example calculations illustrating methods for analyzing ductile flaw stability in nuclear pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkle, J.G.; Johnson, R.E.

    1983-05-01

    This report contains example calculations of ductile flaw instability stresses for hypothetical flaws in nuclear pressure vessels. For comparison, three different methods of estimating upper shelf toughness as a function of Charpy impact energy were used, namely: a power law R-curve correlation, the Rolfe-Novak correlation and the Paris J/sub 50/ correlation. All three methods were used in LEFM calculations including a plastic zone size correction, and gave similar results, with the Paris J/sub 50/ method being the most conservative at low Charpy upper shelf energy levels. Safety factors based on the tearing modulus ratio T/sub mat//T/sub appl/ can exceed those based on load by considerable amounts and use of them at this time is not recommended. The use of resistance curve data obtained from actual vessel material test specimens is recommended over the use of correlations. Furthermore, evaluation of a recently proposed modified crack extension adjustment procedure for R-curve data, which is not overconservative, is recommended.

  3. Neutron damage in reactor pressure-vessel steel examined with positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cumblidge, S.E.; Motta, A.T.; Catchen, G.L.

    1997-11-01

    The authors have used positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy to study the development of damage and annealing behavior of neutron-irradiated reactor pressure-vessel steels. They irradiated samples of ASTM A508 nuclear reactor pressure-vessel steel to fast neutron fluences of up to 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}, and they examined these samples using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) to study the effects of neutron damage in the steels on positron lifetimes. Non-irradiated samples show two positron lifetimes: a 110 ps component corresponding to annihilations in the bulk material, and a 165 ps lifetime corresponding to annihilations in dislocation defects. The irradiated samples show an additional lifetime component of 300 ps in the PAl spectra and an increase in the proportion of annihilations with a 165 ps lifetime, suggesting that vacancies and vacancy clusters are present in the material after room temperature irradiation. The samples were then annealed to temperatures ranging from 210 C to 450 C. The positron lifetimes introduced by neutron damage disappear after annealing the samples at 280 C.

  4. The criteria of fracture in the case of the leak of pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habil; Ziliukas, A.

    1997-04-01

    In order to forecast the break of the high pressure vessels and the network of pipes in a nuclear reactor, according to the concept of leak before break of pressure vessels, it is necessary to analyze the conditions of project, production, and mounting quality as well as of exploitation. It is also necessary to evaluate the process of break by the help of the fracture criteria. In the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant of, in Lithuania, the most important objects of investigation are: the highest pressure pipes, made of Japanese steel 19MN5 and having an anticorrosive austenitic: coal inside, the pipes of distribution, which arc made of 08X1810T steel. The steel of the network of pipes has a quality of plasticity: therefore the only criteria of fragile is impossible to apply to. The process of break would be best described by the universal criteria of elastic - plastic fracture. For this purpose the author offers the criterion of the double parameter.

  5. Response of a water-filled spherical vessel to an internal explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, M.W.; Wilson, T.L.

    1997-06-01

    Many problems of interest to the defense community involve fluid-structure interaction (FSI). Such problems include underwater blast loading of structures, bubble dynamics and jetting around structures, and hydrodynamic ram events. These problems may involve gas, fluid, and solid dynamics, nonlinear material behavior, cavitation, reaction kinetics, material failure, and nonlinearity that is due to varying geometry and contact conditions within a structure or between structures. Here, the authors model the response of a water-filled, thick-walled, spherical steel vessel to an internal explosion of 30 grams of C-4 with FSI2D--a two-dimensional coupled finite element and finite volume hydrodynamics code. The gas phase detonation products were modeled with a Becker-Kistiakowsky-Wilson high-explosive equation of state. Predictions from a fully coupled model were compared to experimental results in the form of strain gauge traces. Agreement was reasonably good. Additionally, the calculation was run in an uncoupled mode to understand the importance of fluid-structure interaction in this problem. The uncoupled model results in an accumulation of nonphysical energy in the vessel.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FOR THE ISOTOPIC EXCHANGE OF A 1600 LITER TITANIUM HYDRIDE STORAGE VESSEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.

    2010-12-14

    Titanium is used as a low pressure tritium storage material. The absorption/desorption rates and temperature rise during air passivation have been reported previously for a 4400 gram prototype titanium hydride storage vessel (HSV). A desorption limit of roughly 0.25 Q/M was obtained when heating to 700 C which represents a significant residual tritium process vessel inventory. To prepare an HSV for disposal, batchwise isotopic exchange has been proposed to reduce the tritium content to acceptable levels. A prototype HSV was loaded with deuterium and exchanged with protium to determine the effectiveness of a batch-wise isotopic exchange process. A total of seven exchange cycles were performed. Gas samples were taken nominally at the beginning, middle, and end of each desorption cycle. Sample analyses showed the isotopic exchange process does not follow the standard dilution model commonly reported. Samples taken at the start of the desorption process were lower in deuterium (the gas to be removed) than those taken later in the desorption cycle. The results are explained in terms of incomplete mixing of the exchange gas in the low pressure hydride.

  7. Life assessment of a C-1/2Mo petroleum refinery pressure vessel operating in the creep regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.G.; Osage, D.A.; Buchheim, G.M.; Dobis, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    A comprehensive fitness-for-service assessment was conducted to evaluate a C-1/2Mo pressure vessel which has operated at temperatures in the creep range for almost 45 years. An initial damage assessment based on elastic stress analysis results indicated that this vessel was approaching its predicted failure life and thus there was little potential for increasing the operating temperature. Creep tests were conducted on samples removed from high stress regions of the vessel according to the MPC Omega Program protocol. The creep test results indicated that the material possesses creep strength superior to average new material and therefore has substantial remaining life. A nonlinear finite element analysis incorporating the MPC Project Omega creep law was performed to assess creep and fatigue damage. The results of this assessment indicated that future operation at increased temperatures was indeed feasible.

  8. Irradiation effects in low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steels (Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program Series 4 and 5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, R.G.; McGowan, J.J.; Menke, B.H.; Nanstad, R.K.; Thoms, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    Multiple testing is done at two laboratories of typical nuclear pressure vessel materials (both irradiated and unirradiated) and statistical analyses of the test results. Multiple tests are conducted at each of several test temperatures for each material, standard deviations are determined, and results from the two laboratories are compared. The Fourth Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Irradiation Series, almost completed, was aimed at elastic-plastic and fully plastic fracture toughness of low-copper weldments (current practice welds). A typical nuclear pressure vessel plate steel was included for statistical purposes. The Fifth HSST Irradiation Series, now in progress, is aimed at determining the shape of the K/sub IR/ curve after significant radiation-induced shift of the transition temperatures. This series includes irradiated test specimens of thicknesses up to 100 mm and weldment compositions typical of early nuclear power reactor pressure vessel welds.

  9. A guide for the ASME code for austenitic stainless steel containment vessels for high-level radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raske, D.T.

    1995-06-01

    The design and fabrication criteria recommended by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for high-level radioactive materials containment vessels used in packaging is found in Section III, Division 1, Subsection NB of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This Code provides material, design, fabrication, examination, and testing specifications for nuclear power plant components. However, many of the requirements listed in the Code are not applicable to containment vessels made from austenitic stainless steel with austenitic or ferritic steel bolting. Most packaging designers, engineers, and fabricators are intimidated by the sheer volume of requirements contained in the Code; consequently, the Code is not always followed and many requirements that do apply are often overlooked during preparation of the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that constitutes the basis to evaluate the packaging for certification.

  10. ADDITIONAL STRESS AND FRACTURE MECHANICS ANALYSES OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL NOZZLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, Matthew; Yin, Shengjun; Stevens, Gary; Sommerville, Daniel; Palm, Nathan; Heinecke, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In past years, the authors have undertaken various studies of nozzles in both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) adjacent to the core beltline region. Those studies described stress and fracture mechanics analyses performed to assess various RPV nozzle geometries, which were selected based on their proximity to the core beltline region, i.e., those nozzle configurations that are located close enough to the core region such that they may receive sufficient fluence prior to end-of-life (EOL) to require evaluation of embrittlement as part of the RPV analyses associated with pressure-temperature (P-T) limits. In this paper, additional stress and fracture analyses are summarized that were performed for additional PWR nozzles with the following objectives: To expand the population of PWR nozzle configurations evaluated, which was limited in the previous work to just two nozzles (one inlet and one outlet nozzle). To model and understand differences in stress results obtained for an internal pressure load case using a two-dimensional (2-D) axi-symmetric finite element model (FEM) vs. a three-dimensional (3-D) FEM for these PWR nozzles. In particular, the ovalization (stress concentration) effect of two intersecting cylinders, which is typical of RPV nozzle configurations, was investigated. To investigate the applicability of previously recommended linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) hand solutions for calculating the Mode I stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack for pressure loading for these PWR nozzles. These analyses were performed to further expand earlier work completed to support potential revision and refinement of Title 10 to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 50, Appendix G, Fracture Toughness Requirements, and are intended to supplement similar evaluation of nozzles presented at the 2008, 2009, and 2011 Pressure Vessels and Piping (PVP

  11. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL SHIPPING PACKAGINGS AND METAL TO METAL SEALS FOUND IN THE CLOSURES OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS INCORPORATING CONE SEAL CLOSURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Allen Smith, A

    2007-06-06

    The containment vessels for the Model 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging employ a cone-seal closure. The possibility of a metal-to-metal seal forming between the mating conical surfaces, independent of the elastomer seals, has been raised. It was postulated that such an occurrence would compromise the containment vessel hydrostatic and leakage tests. The possibility of formation of such a seal has been investigated by testing and by structural and statistical analyses. The results of the testing and the statistical analysis demonstrate and procedural changes ensure that hydrostatic proof and annual leakage testing can be accomplished to the appropriate standards.

  12. Improvement of the mechanical reliability of monolithic refractory linings for coal gasification process vessels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, R.A.

    1981-09-01

    Eighteen heat-up tests were run on nine standard and experimental dual component monolithic refractory concrete linings. These tests were run with a five foot diameter by 14-ft high Pressure Vessel/Test Furnace designed to accommodate a 12-inch thick by 5-ft high refractory lining, heat the hot face to 2000/sup 0/F and expose the lining to air or steam pressures up to 150 psig. Results obtained from standard type linings in the test facility indicated that lining degradation duplicated that observed in field installations. The lining performance was significantly improved due to information gained from a systematic study of the cracking that occurred in the linings; the analysis of the lining strains, shell stresses and acoustic emission results; and the stress analyses performed on the standard and experimental lining designs with the finite element analysis computer programs, REFSAM and RESGAP.

  13. Fundamental underwater cutting method experiment as a dismantling tool for a commercial atomic reactor vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamasaki, M.; Murao, Y.; Tateiwa, F.

    1982-10-01

    A new underwater cutting technique applying underwater dismantling to commercial atomic reactor vessels has been developed. This technique involves gas cutting the mild steel underwater after removing the stainless steel cladding by arc gouging. The arc gouging is achieved by blowing out metal--which is melted by an arc between a mild steel electrode wire and the stainless steel--by jetting water from a rear water nozzle. The fuel gas employed for preheating for the gas cutting was a mixed gas of propane and 30% methylacetylene. The test piece used was made of 300-mm-thick mild steel with 8-mm-thick stainless steel cladding. The fundamental cutting experiment was carried out successfully under a cutting speed condition of 15 cm/min at a water depth of 20 cm. This apparatus is easy to handle, compact, and cheap.

  14. On re-setting the fatigue clock on older semisubmersible vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wade, B.G.

    1994-12-31

    The fatigue strength of a generic submersible, enhanced to a FPF, was determined using 1980 design regulations and compared with 1993 guidelines. The fatigue clock on this older semisubmersible was reset using advances in the fatigue assessment of weld imperfections that were not available at the time this vessel was originally designed. An inspection strategy of critical weld details was established based upon recently available crack growth data and more up-to-date fracture mechanics methods. Examples of this data include crack growth rate and threshold stress intensity factor data. Fracture mechanics analyses were performed that recognized the importance of weld imperfection shape and its evolution throughout life. Recent 3-D finite element analyses of semi-elliptical cracks located at weld toes show that crack shape and proximity of the crack front to the weld toe can significantly affect crack life.

  15. Assemblies and methods for mitigating effects of reactor pressure vessel expansion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C.; Gou, Perng-Fei; Chu, Cherk Lam; Oliver, Robert P.

    1999-01-01

    Support assemblies for allowing RPV radial expansion while simultaneously limiting horizontal, vertical, and azimuthal movement of the RPV within a nuclear reactor are described. In one embodiment, the support assembly includes a support block and a guide block. The support block includes a first portion and a second portion, and the first portion is rigidly coupled to the RPV adjacent the first portion. The guide block is rigidly coupled to a reactor pressure vessel support structure and includes a channel sized to receive the second portion of the support block. The second portion of the support block is positioned in the guide block channel to movably couple the guide block to the support block.

  16. Effect of compression on individual pressure vessel nickel/hydrogen components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manzo, M.A.; Perez-Davis, M.E.

    1988-08-01

    Compression tests were performed on representative Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV) Nickel/Hydrogen cell components in an effort to better understand the effects of force on component compression and the interactions of components under compression. It appears that the separator is the most easily compressed of all of the stack components. It will typically partially compress before any of the other components begin to compress. The compression characteristics of the cell components in assembly differed considerably from what would be predicted based on individual compression characteristics. Component interactions played a significant role in the stack response to compression. The results of the compression tests were factored into the design and selection of Belleville washers added to the cell stack to accommodate nickel electrode expansion while keeping the pressure on the stack within a reasonable range of the original preset.

  17. Assemblies and methods for mitigating effects of reactor pressure vessel expansion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Gou, P.F.; Chu, C.L.; Oliver, R.P.

    1999-07-27

    Support assemblies for allowing RPV radial expansion while simultaneously limiting horizontal, vertical, and azimuthal movement of the RPV within a nuclear reactor are described. In one embodiment, the support assembly includes a support block and a guide block. The support block includes a first portion and a second portion, and the first portion is rigidly coupled to the RPV adjacent the first portion. The guide block is rigidly coupled to a reactor pressure vessel support structure and includes a channel sized to receive the second portion of the support block. The second portion of the support block is positioned in the guide block channel to movably couple the guide block to the support block. 6 figs.

  18. COMMIX-1A three-dimensional in-vessel simulation of the FFTF thermal hydraulics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanka, S.P.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.

    1982-01-01

    Three-dimensional in-vessel simulation of the FFTF thermal hydraulics has been performed with the COMMIX-1A computer code. The COMMIX-1A code employs the porous media formulation in which the concept of volume porosity, surface permeability, distributed resistance, and distributed heat source is used to model the internal structures. The governing equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are solved as a boundary-value problem in space and as an initial-value problem in time. In the present report the calculated results for the study-state reactor full-power operation are presented, and are compared with experimental measurements, where applicable. Based on the COMMIX calculations, thermal stratification is observed in the upper plenum, together with eddy-type recirculation. Comparison of measured flow rates and temperaturs at selected locations has been satisfactory.

  19. Tensile properties of irradiated nuclear grade pressure vessel welds for the third HSST irradiation series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGowan, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    The Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of neutron irradiation on the fracture toughness of nuclear pressure vessel materials. Four welds of A 508 class 2 steel were examined in this Third HSST Irradiation Series. The welds were fabricated according to ''early'' (pre-1972) light-water reactor weld practice (i.e., copper-coated electrodes). As part of this study, tensile properties were measured after irradiation to 2 to 10 x 10/sup 22/ neutrons/m/sup 2/ (E > 1 MeV) at temperatures between 250 and 290/sup 0/C. Strength properties of all four welds increased with exposure to irradiation. Yield strength was more sensitive to irradiation than was ultimate strength. Tensile ductility was not affected significantly by exposure to irradiation.

  20. EVALUATION OF TROQUE VS CLOSURE BOLT PRELOAD FOR A TYPICAL CONTAINMENT VESSEL UNDER SERVICE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.

    2010-02-16

    Radioactive material package containment vessels typically employ bolted closures of various configurations. Closure bolts must retain the lid of a package and must maintain required seal loads, while subjected to internal pressure, impact loads and vibration. The need for insuring that the specified preload is achieved in closure bolts for radioactive materials packagings has been a continual subject of concern for both designers and regulatory reviewers. The extensive literature on threaded fasteners provides sound guidance on design and torque specification for closure bolts. The literature also shows the uncertainty associated with use of torque to establish preload is typically between 10 and 35%. These studies have been performed under controlled, laboratory conditions. The ability to insure required preload in normal service is, consequently, an important question. The study described here investigated the relationship between indicated torque and resulting bolt load for a typical radioactive materials package closure using methods available under normal service conditions.

  1. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2803)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. K. Wright; R. N. Wright

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production, with an outlet gas temperature in the range of 750°C, and a design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic, or pebble bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. This technology development plan details the additional research and development (R&D) required to design and license the NGNP RPV, assuming that A 508/A 533 is the material of construction. The majority of additional information that is required is related to long-term aging behavior at NGNP vessel temperatures, which are somewhat above those commonly encountered in the existing database from LWR experience. Additional data are also required for the anticipated NGNP environment. An assessment of required R&D for a Grade 91 vessel has been retained from the first revision of the R&D plan in Appendix B in somewhat less detail. Considerably more development is required for this steel compared to A 508/A 533 including additional irradiation testing for expected NGNP operating temperatures, high-temperature mechanical properties, and extensive studies of long-term microstructural stability.

  2. Effects of swirl-flow on flame propagation in a constant-volume vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, P.; Watanabe, Kazunori; Obara, Tetsuro; Yoshihashi, Teruo; Ohyagi, Shigeharu

    1999-07-01

    Flame propagation in a closed vessel is one of the fundamental topics in the combustion science and technology. This problem has been studied mostly for application to engine combustion because the combustion processes in a premixed spark ignition engine are well simulated by those processes in a constant-volume combustion chamber. One of the most important objective to study this phenomena is to elucidate the combustion phenomena to increase the thermal efficiency of engine by enhancing the combustion process. In real engines, a number of technical methods such as swirl, tumble, squish and jet flows ere developed to shorten a burning time. All of these methods make use of flows in the combustion chamber. The fundamental problem is then to elucidate a mechanism of reduction of the burning time by the flows and their turbulence. In the present work, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of swirl-flow on the flame propagation in a disc-shaped constant-volume vessel of 100 mm in diameter and 30 mm in depth. Figure A-1 shows a schematic of the apparatus. Gaseous mixtures used were methane diluted with air at an atmospheric pressure, and their equivalence ratios were varied as a parameter. Ignition timing was varied to change the velocity of swirling flow before the flame propagation. As results, a burning time was found to be decreased as the swirling flow increased and a maximum pressure was increased as the velocity increased as a total heat loss decreased. Flame front structures were clearly observed by the instantaneous schlieren photography.

  3. Advanced Models of LWR Pressure Vessel Embrittlement for Low Flux-HighFluence Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odette, G. Robert; Yamamoto, Takuya

    2013-06-17

    Neutron embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is an unresolved issue for light water reactor life extension, especially since transition temperature shifts (TTS) must be predicted for high 80-year fluence levels up to approximately 1,020 n/cm{sup 2}, far beyond the current surveillance database. Unfortunately, TTS may accelerate at high fluence, and may be further amplified by the formation of late blooming phases that result in severe embrittlement even in low-copper (Cu) steels. Embrittlement by this mechanism is a potentially significant degradation phenomenon that is not predicted by current regulatory models. This project will focus on accurately predicting transition temperature shifts at high fluence using advanced physically based, empirically validated and calibrated models. A major challenge is to develop models that can adjust test reactor data to account for flux effects. Since transition temperature shifts depend on synergistic combinations of many variables, flux-effects cannot be treated in isolation. The best current models systematically and significantly under-predict transition temperature at high fluence, although predominantly for irradiations at much higher flux than actual RPV service. This project will integrate surveillance, test reactor and mechanism data with advanced models to address a number of outstanding RPV embrittlement issues. The effort will include developing new databases and preliminary models of flux effects for irradiation conditions ranging from very low (e.g., boiling water reactor) to high (e.g., accelerated test reactor). The team will also develop a database and physical models to help predict the conditions for the formation of Mn-Ni-Si late blooming phases and to guide future efforts to fully resolve this issue. Researchers will carry out other tasks on a best-effort basis, including prediction of transition temperature shift attenuation through the vessel wall, remediation of embrittlement by annealing

  4. Hydrogen Gas Retention and Release from WTP Vessels: Summary of Preliminary Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Wells, Beric E.; Bao, Jie; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Buchmiller, William C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Chun, Jaehun; Karri, Naveen K.; Li, Huidong; Tran, Diana N.

    2015-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently being designed and constructed to pretreat and vitrify a large portion of the waste in the 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. A number of technical issues related to the design of the pretreatment facility (PTF) of the WTP have been identified. These issues must be resolved prior to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) reaching a decision to proceed with engineering, procurement, and construction activities for the PTF. One of the issues is Technical Issue T1 - Hydrogen Gas Release from Vessels (hereafter referred to as T1). The focus of T1 is identifying controls for hydrogen release and completing any testing required to close the technical issue. In advance of selecting specific controls for hydrogen gas safety, a number of preliminary technical studies were initiated to support anticipated future testing and to improve the understanding of hydrogen gas generation, retention, and release within PTF vessels. These activities supported the development of a plan defining an overall strategy and approach for addressing T1 and achieving technical endpoints identified for T1. Preliminary studies also supported the development of a test plan for conducting testing and analysis to support closing T1. Both of these plans were developed in advance of selecting specific controls, and in the course of working on T1 it was decided that the testing and analysis identified in the test plan were not immediately needed. However, planning activities and preliminary studies led to significant technical progress in a number of areas. This report summarizes the progress to date from the preliminary technical studies. The technical results in this report should not be used for WTP design or safety and hazards analyses and technical results are marked with the following statement: “Preliminary Technical Results for Planning – Not to be used for WTP Design

  5. Navigation and vessel inspection circular No. 10-94. Guidance for determination and documentation of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) phase-out schedule for existing single hull vessels carrying oil in bulk. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-22

    The purpose of this Circular is to provide guidance regarding the determination and documentation of phase-out dates for single hull vessels subject to chapter 37 of Title 46, U.S. Code, constructed or adapted to carry or that carry oil in bulk as cargo or cargo residue and operating on waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

  6. BANYAN. V. A SYSTEMATIC ALL-SKY SURVEY FOR NEW VERY LATE-TYPE LOW-MASS STARS AND BROWN DWARFS IN NEARBY YOUNG MOVING GROUPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gagn, Jonathan; Lafrenire, David; Doyon, Ren; Malo, Lison; Artigau, tienne

    2015-01-10

    We present the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS) catalog, consisting of 228 new late-type (M4-L6) candidate members of nearby young moving groups (YMGs) with an expected false-positive rate of ?13%. This sample includes 79 new candidate young brown dwarfs and 22 planetary-mass objects. These candidates were identified through the first systematic all-sky survey for late-type low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in YMGs. We cross-matched the Two Micron All Sky Survey and AllWISE catalogs outside of the galactic plane to build a sample of 98,970 potential ?M5 dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and calculated their proper motions with typical precisions of 5-15 mas yr{sup 1}. We selected highly probable candidate members of several YMGs from this sample using the Bayesian Analysis for Nearby Young AssociatioNsII tool (BANYANII). We used the most probable statistical distances inferred from BANYANII to estimate the spectral type and mass of these candidate YMG members. We used this unique sample to show tentative signs of mass segregation in the AB Doradus moving group and the Tucana-Horologium and Columba associations. The BASS sample has already been successful in identifying several new young brown dwarfs in earlier publications, and will be of great interest in studying the initial mass function of YMGs and for the search of exoplanets by direct imaging; the input sample of potential close-by ?M5 dwarfs will be useful to study the kinematics of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs and search for new proper motion pairs.

  7. In-Vessel Retention Technology Development and Use for Advanced PWR Designs in the USA and Korea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.G. Theofanous; S.J. Oh; J.H. Scobel

    2004-05-18

    In-Vessel Retention (IVR) of molten core debris by means of external reactor vessel flooding is a cornerstone of severe accident management for Westinghouse's AP600 (advanced passive light water reactor) design. The case for its effectiveness (made in previous work by the PI) has been thoroughly documented, reviewed as part of the licensing certification, and accepted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A successful IVR would terminate a severe accident, passively, with the core in a stable, coolable configuration (within the lower head), thus avoiding the largely uncertain accident evolution with the molten debris on the containment floor. This passive plant design has been upgraded by Westinghouse to the AP1000, a 1000 MWe plant very similar to the AP600. The severe accident management approach is very similar too, including In-Vessel Retention as the cornerstone feature, and initial evaluations indicated that this would be feasible at the higher power as well. A similar strategy is adopted in Korea for the APR1400 plant. The overall goal of this project is to provide experimental data and develop the necessary basic understanding so as to allow the robust extension of the AP600 In-Vessel Retention strategy for severe accident management to higher power reactors, and in particular, to the AP1000 advanced passive design.

  8. Miniaturized reaction vessel system, method for performing site-specific biochemical reactions and affinity fractionation for use in DNA sequencing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich; Lysov, Yuri Petrovich; Dubley, Svetlana A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for fractionating and sequencing DNA via affinity interaction is provided comprising contacting cleaved DNA to a first array of oligonucleotide molecules to facilitate hybridization between said cleaved DNA and the molecules; extracting the hybridized DNA from the molecules; contacting said extracted hybridized DNA with a second array of oligonucleotide molecules, wherein the oligonucleotide molecules in the second array have specified base sequences that are complementary to said extracted hybridized DNA; and attaching labeled DNA to the second array of oligonucleotide molecules, wherein the labeled re-hybridized DNA have sequences that are complementary to the oligomers. The invention further provides a method for performing multi-step conversions of the chemical structure of compounds comprising supplying an array of polyacrylamide vessels separated by hydrophobic surfaces; immobilizing a plurality of reactants, such as enzymes, in the vessels so that each vessel contains one reactant; contacting the compounds to each of the vessels in a predetermined sequence and for a sufficient time to convert the compounds to a desired state; and isolating the converted compounds from said array.

  9. In-Vessel Retention Modeling Capabilities of SCDAP/RELAP5-3D{sup C}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knudson, D.L.; Rempe, J.L.

    2002-07-01

    Molten core materials may relocate to the lower head of a reactor vessel in the latter stages of a severe accident. Under such circumstances, in-vessel retention (IVR) of the molten materials is a vital step in mitigating potential severe accident consequences. Whether IVR occurs depends on the interactions of a number of complex processes including heat transfer inside the accumulated molten pool, heat transfer from the molten pool to the reactor vessel (and to overlying fluids), and heat transfer from exterior vessel surfaces. SCDAP/RELAP5-3D{sup C} has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to facilitate simulation of the processes affecting the potential for IVR, as well as processes involved in a wide variety of other reactor transients. In this paper, current capabilities of SCDAP/RELAP5-3D{sup C} relative to IVR modeling are described and results from typical applications are provided. In addition, anticipated developments to enhance IVR simulation with SCDAP/RELAP5-3D{sup C} are outlined. (authors)

  10. BLENDED CALCIUM ALUMINATE-CALCIUM SULFATE CEMENT-BASED GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-03-10

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout which has a pH greater than 12.4. In addition, blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement compositions can be formulated such that the primary cementitious phase is a stable crystalline material. A less alkaline material (pH {<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts [Wiersma, 2009a and b, Wiersma, 2010, and Serrato and Langton, 2010]. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere [Griffin, 2010, Stefanko, 2009 and Wiersma, 2009 and 2010, Bobbitt, 2010, respectively]. Radiolysis calculations are also provided in a separate document [Reyes-Jimenez, 2010].

  11. Effect of fins and repeated-rib roughness on the performance characteristics of a reactor vessel air cooling system for LMFBR shutdown heat removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, F.B.; Chawla, T.C.; Pedersen, D.R.; Tessier, J.H.; Webb, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of a totally passive cooling system for shutdown heat removal that rejects heat from the reactor vessel by radiation to the guard vessel and from the guard vessel to a circulating air stream driven by natural convection is a key feature of the US Department of Energy's liquid-metal reactor advanced design study concepts. General Electric refers to the system as the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) and Rockwell International as the Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (RACS). The circulating air stream is contained in the annular passage formed with guard vessel wall and the duct wall surrounding the guard vessel. Specifically, the RVACS/RACS is designed to assure adequate cooling of the reactor vessel under abnormal operational conditions associated with loss of heat removal through the normal heat transport path via the steam generator system or the DRACS, if available. To enhance the heat transfer, longitudinal radial fins or repeated ribs can be attached to the duct wall and/or the guard vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to summarize the status of the analytical work on the development of an optimum design configuration for the RVACS/RACS.

  12. A preliminary assessment of the effects of heat flux distribution and penetration on the creep rupture of a reactor vessel lower head

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.Y.; Bentz, J.; Simpson, R.; Witt, R.

    1997-02-01

    The objective of the Lower Head Failure (LHF) Experiment Program is to experimentally investigate and characterize the failure of the reactor vessel lower head due to thermal and pressure loads under severe accident conditions. The experiment is performed using 1/5-scale models of a typical PWR pressure vessel. Experiments are performed for various internal pressure and imposed heat flux distributions with and without instrumentation guide tube penetrations. The experimental program is complemented by a modest modeling program based on the application of vessel creep rupture codes developed in the TMI Vessel Investigation Project. The first three experiments under the LHF program investigated the creep rupture of simulated reactor pressure vessels without penetrations. The heat flux distributions for the three experiments are uniform (LHF-1), center-peaked (LHF-2), and side-peaked (LHF-3), respectively. For all the experiments, appreciable vessel deformation was observed to initiate at vessel wall temperatures above 900K and the vessel typically failed at approximately 1000K. The size of failure was always observed to be smaller than the heated region. For experiments with non-uniform heat flux distributions, failure typically occurs in the region of peak temperature. A brief discussion of the effect of penetration is also presented.

  13. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2803)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. K. Wright; R. N. Wright

    2008-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic, or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program is responsible for performing research and development on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. Studies of potential Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels have been carried out as part of the pre-conceptual design studies. These design studies generally focus on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code status of the steels, temperature limits, and allowable stresses. Three realistic candidate materials have been identified by this process: conventional light water reactor RPV steels A508/533, 2¼Cr-1Mo in the annealed condition, and modified 9Cr 1Mo ferritic martenistic steel. Based on superior strength and higher temperature limits, the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel has been identified by the majority of design engineers as the preferred choice for the RPV. All of the vendors have

  14. COMPUTER SIMULATIONS TO ADDRESS PU-FE EUTECTICISSUE IN 3013 STORAGE VESSEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, N; Allen Smith, A

    2007-03-06

    On November 22, 2005, the Manager of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in Richland, WA issued an Occurrence Report involving a potential Pu-Fe eutectic failure mechanism for the stainless steel (SS) 3013 cans containing plutonium (Pu) metal. Four additional reports addressed nuclear safety concerns about the integrity of stainless steel containers holding plutonium during fire scenarios. The reports expressed a belief that the probability and consequences of container failure due to the formation of a plutonium-iron eutectic alloy had been overlooked. Simplified thermal model to address the Pu-Fe eutectic concerns using axisymmetric model similar to the models used in the 9975 SARP were performed. The model uses Rocky Flats configuration with 2 stacked Pu buttons inside a 3013 assembly. The assembly has an outer can, an inner can, and a convenience can, all stainless steel. The boundary conditions are similar to the regulatory 30 minutes HAC fire analyses. Computer simulations of the HAC fire transients lasting 4 hours of burn time show that the interface between the primary containment vessel and the Pu metal in the 9975 package will not reach Pu-Fe eutectic temperature of 400 C.

  15. Behaviour of tritium in the vacuum vessel of JT-60U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, K.; Miya, N.; Ikeda, Y.; Torikai, Y.; Saito, M.; Alimov, V.

    2015-03-15

    The disassembly of the JT-60U torus started in 2010 after 18 years of deuterium plasma operations. The vessel is made of Inconel 625. Therefore, it was very important to study the hydrogen isotope (particularly tritium) behavior in Inconel 625 from the viewpoint of the clearance procedure. Inconel 625 specimen was exposed to the D{sub 2} (92.8 %) - T{sub 2} (7.2 %) gas mixture at 573 K for 5 hours. The tritium release from the specimen at 298 K was controlled for about 1 year. After that a part of tritium remaining in the specimen was released by heating up to 1073 K. Other part of tritium trapped in the specimen was measured by chemical etching method. Most of the chemical form of the released tritium was HTO. The contaminated specimen by tritium was released continuously the diffusible tritium under the ambient condition. In the tritium release experiment, the amount of desorbed tritium was about 99% during 1 year. It was considered that the tritium in Inconel 625 was released easily.

  16. Lessons Learned Following the Successful Decommissioning of a Reaction Vessel Containing Lime Sludge and Technetium-99

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, P. M.; Watson, D. D.; Hylko, J. M.

    2002-02-25

    This paper documents how WESKEM, LLC utilized available source term information, integrated safety management, and associated project controls to safely decommission a reaction vessel and repackage sludge containing various Resource Conservation and Recovery Act constituents and technetium-99 (Tc-99). The decommissioning activities were segmented into five separate stages, allowing the project team to control work related decisions based on their knowledge, experience, expertise, and field observations. The information and experience gained from each previous stage and rehearsals contributed to modifying subsequent entries, further emphasizing the importance of developing hold points and incorporating lessons learned. The hold points and lessons learned, such as performing detailed personal protective equipment (PPE) inspections during sizing and repackaging operations, and using foam-type piping insulation to prevent workers from cutting or puncturing their PPE on sharp edge s or small shards generated during sizing operations, minimized direct contact with the Tc-99. To prevent the spread of contamination, the decommissioning activities were performed inside a containment enclosure connected to negative air machines. After performing over 235 individual entries totaling over 285 project hours, only one first aid was recorded during this five-stage project.

  17. Microvascular anastomoses in irradiated vessels: A comparison between the Unilink system and sutures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragnarsson, R.; Berggren, A.; Klintenberg, C.; Ostrup, L. )

    1990-03-01

    A new mechanical device (the Unilink system) was compared to conventional suture anastomoses in irradiated microvessels. Twenty rabbits received a single radiation dose of 20 Gy from a 7-MeV electron source through an anterior neck field. One and 6 months following irradiation, the carotid arteries and facial veins were divided and anastomosed on one side with the Unilink system and on the other side with suture technique. At sacrifice 4 weeks postoperatively, all vessels were evaluated for patency and histologic changes associated with radiation and anastomotic trauma. Histology disclosed severe radiation changes. Also, intimal hyperplasia was consistently found at the anastomotic sites in the arteries, while it was totally absent in the venous anastomoses. Occlusive thrombosis was found in two arteries, one anastomosed with the Unilink system and one sutured. Two other arteries, one from each group, had subtotal occlusions at the anastomotic site. No occlusions occurred in any of the venous anastomoses. The overall patency in this study was 97.5 percent, with no difference between the two techniques.

  18. Infrared tomography for diagnostic imaging of port wine stain blood vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, D.

    1994-11-15

    The objective of this work is the development of Infrared Tomography (IRT) for detecting and characterizing subsurface chromophores in human skin. Characterization of cutaneous chromophores is crucial for advances in the laser treatment of pigmented lesions (e.g., port wine stain birthmarks and tatoos). Infrared tomography (IRT) uses a fast infrared focal plane array (IR-FPA) to detect temperature rises in a substrate induced by pulsed radiation. A pulsed laser is used to produce transient heating of an object. The temperature rise, due to the optical absorption of the pulsed laser light, creates an increase in infrared emission which is measured by the IR-FPA. Although the application of IRT to image subsurface cracks due to metal fatigue is a topic of great interest in the aircraft industry, the application to image subsurface chromophores in biological materials is novel. We present an image recovery method based on a constrained conjugate gradient algorithm that has obtained the first ever high quality images of port wine blood vessels.

  19. Stress-intensity-factor influence coefficients for semielliptical inner-surface flaws in clad pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeney, J.A.; Bryson, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    A problem of particular interest in pressure vessel technology is the calculation of accurate stress-intensity factors for semielliptical surface cracks in cylinders. Computing costs for direct solution techniques can be prohibitive when applied to three-dimensional (3-D) geometries with time-varying boundary conditions such as those associated with pressurized thermal shock. An alternative superposition technique requires the calculation of a set of influence coefficients for a given 3-D crack model that can be superimposed to obtain mode-I stress-intensity factors. This paper presents stress-intensity-factor influence coefficients (SIFICs) for axially and circumferentially oriented finite-length semielliptical inner-surface flaws with aspect ratios (total crack length (2c) to crack depth (a)) of 2, 6, and 10 for clad cylinders having an internal radius to wall thickness (t) ratio of 10. SIFICs are computed for flaw depths in the range of 0.01 {le} a/t {le} 0.5 and two cladding thicknesses. The incorporate of this SIFIC data base in fracture mechanics codes will facilitate the generation of fracture mechanics solutions for a wide range of flaw geometries as may be required in structural integrity assessments of pressurized-water and boiling-water reactors.

  20. Modeling and Analysis of Alternative Concept of ITER Vacuum Vessel Primary Heat Transfer System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, Juan J; Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Dell'Orco, Giovanni; Curd, Warren; Kim, Seokho H

    2010-01-01

    A RELAP5-3D model of the ITER (Latin for the way ) vacuum vessel (VV) primary heat transfer system has been developed to evaluate a proposed design change that relocates the heat exchangers (HXs) from the exterior of the tokamak building to the interior. This alternative design protects the HXs from external hazards such as wind, tornado, and aircraft crash. The proposed design integrates the VV HXs into a VV pressure suppression system (VVPSS) tank that contains water to condense vapour in case of a leak into the plasma chamber. The proposal is to also use this water as the ultimate sink when removing decay heat from the VV system. The RELAP5-3D model has been run under normal operating and abnormal (decay heat) conditions. Results indicate that this alternative design is feasible, with no effects on the VVPSS tank under normal operation and with tank temperature and pressure increasing under decay heat conditions resulting in a requirement to remove steam generated if the VVPSS tank low pressure must be maintained.