National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for traditional load duration

  1. PULSE DURATION LENGTHENER

    DOEpatents

    Aiken, W.R.

    1958-02-01

    This patent pertains to pulse modifying apparatus and, more particularly, describes a device to provide a rise time and time base expander for signal pulses having a very short duration. The basic element of the device is a vacuum tube comprising a charged particie beam, grid control means, an accelerating electrode, a drift tube, and a collector electrode. As the short duration input pulse modulates the particle beam through the grid control means, the voltage between the drift tube and accelerating electrode is caused to vary, whereby the output signal from the collector is a pulse having longer rise time, expanded duration and proportionate characteristics of the original pulse. The invention is particuiarly useful where subsequent pulse circultry does not have the frequency bandwidth to handle the short duration pulse without distorting it.

  2. Heat storage duration

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Both the amount and duration of heat storage in massive elements of a passive building are investigated. Data taken for one full winter in the Balcomb solar home are analyzed with the aid of sub-system simulation models. Heat storage duration is tallied into one-day intervals. Heat storage location is discussed and related to overall energy flows. The results are interpreted and conclusions drawn.

  3. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

    1994-07-26

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

  4. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, John P.; McCollor, Don P.; Selle, Stanley J.

    1994-01-01

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

  5. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  6. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  7. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  8. Commercial Building Loads Providing Ancillary Services in PJM

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Jason; Kiliccote, Sila; Boch, Jim; Chen, Jonathan; Nawy, Robert

    2014-06-27

    The adoption of low carbon energy technologies such as variable renewable energy and electric vehicles, coupled with the efficacy of energy efficiency to reduce traditional base load has increased the uncertainty inherent in the net load shape. Handling this variability with slower, traditional resources leads to inefficient system dispatch, and in some cases may compromise reliability. Grid operators are looking to future energy technologies, such as automated demand response (DR), to provide capacity-based reliability services as the need for these services increase. While DR resources are expected to have the flexibility characteristics operators are looking for, demonstrations are necessary to build confidence in their capabilities. Additionally, building owners are uncertain of the monetary value and operational burden of providing these services. To address this, the present study demonstrates the ability of demand response resources providing two ancillary services in the PJM territory, synchronous reserve and regulation, using an OpenADR 2.0b signaling architecture. The loads under control include HVAC and lighting at a big box retail store and variable frequency fan loads. The study examines performance characteristics of the resource: the speed of response, communications latencies in the architecture, and accuracy of response. It also examines the frequency and duration of events and the value in the marketplace which can be used to examine if the opportunity is sufficient to entice building owners to participate.

  9. JACEE long duration balloon flights

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, T.; Iwai, J.; Lord, J.J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, R.J. ); Dake, S.; Oda, H. ); Miyamura, O. ); Fuki, M. ); Jones, W.V. ); Gregory, J.; Hayashi, T.; Takahashi, U. ); Tominaga,

    1989-01-01

    JACEE balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors are used to observe the spectra and interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei in the energy range 1-100A TeV. Experience with long duration mid-latitude balloon flights and characteristics of the detector system that make it ideal for planned Antarctic balloon flights are discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  10. ARM - Traditional Knowledge

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    HomeroomTraditional Knowledge Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Traditional Knowledge An elder from Nauru is interviewed for the TWP kiosks. An elder from Nauru is interviewed for the TWP kiosks. Traditional knowledge can be defined as a cumulative body of knowledge and

  11. LOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-10-01

    A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

  12. LOADED WAVEGUIDES

    DOEpatents

    Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

    1958-06-24

    >Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

  13. HLW Glass Waste Loadings

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of ... (JHCM) technology Factors affecting waste loadings Waste loading requirements ...

  14. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Saritas, Emine U.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  15. Statistical analysis of random duration times

    SciTech Connect

    Engelhardt, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    This report presents basic statistical methods for analyzing data obtained by observing random time durations. It gives nonparametric estimates of the cumulative distribution function, reliability function and cumulative hazard function. These results can be applied with either complete or censored data. Several models which are commonly used with time data are discussed, and methods for model checking and goodness-of-fit tests are discussed. Maximum likelihood estimates and confidence limits are given for the various models considered. Some results for situations where repeated durations such as repairable systems are also discussed.

  16. An unorthodox X-Class Long-Duration Confined Flare

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Rui; Gou, Tingyu; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Kai; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Wang, Haimin

    2014-07-20

    We report the observation of an X-class long-duration flare which is clearly confined. It appears as a compact-loop flare in the traditional EUV passbands (171 and 195 ), but in the passbands sensitive to flare plasmas (94 and 131 ), it exhibits a cusp-shaped structure above an arcade of loops like other long-duration events. Inspecting images in a running difference approach, we find that the seemingly diffuse, quasi-static cusp-shaped structure consists of multiple nested loops that repeatedly rise upward and disappear approaching the cusp edge. Over the gradual phase, we detect numerous episodes of loop rising, each lasting minutes. A differential emission measure analysis reveals that the temperature is highest at the top of the arcade and becomes cooler at higher altitudes within the cusp-shaped structure, contrary to typical long-duration flares. With a nonlinear force-free model, our analysis shows that the event mainly involves two adjacent sheared arcades separated by a T-type hyperbolic flux tube (HFT). One of the arcades harbors a magnetic flux rope, which is identified with a filament that survives the flare owing to the strong confining field. We conclude that a new emergence of magnetic flux in the other arcade triggers the flare, while the preexisting HFT and flux rope dictate the structure and dynamics of the flare loops and ribbons during the long-lasting decay phase, and that a quasi-separatrix layer high above the HFT could account for the cusp-shaped structure.

  17. Long Duration Performance of High Temperature Irradiation Resistant Thermocouples

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, Joy L; Knudson, D. L.; Condie, K. G.; Wilkins, S. C.

    2007-05-01

    Many advanced nuclear reactor designs require new fuel, cladding, and structural materials. Data are needed to characterize the performance of these new materials in high temperature, radiation conditions. However, traditional methods for measuring temperature inpile degrade at temperatures above 1100 ºC. To address this instrumentation need, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed and evaluated the performance of a high temperature irradiation-resistant thermocouple that contains alloys of molybdenum and niobium. To verify the performance of INL’s recommended thermocouple design, a series of high temperature (from 1200 to 1800 ºC) long duration (up to six months) tests has been initiated. This paper summarizes results from the tests that have been completed. Data are presented from 4000 hour tests conducted at 1200 and 1400 ºC that demonstrate the stability of this thermocouple (less than 2% drift). In addition, post test metallographic examinations are discussed which confirm the compatibility of thermocouple materials throughout these long duration, high temperature tests.

  18. Short-Duration Simulations from Measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Enghauser, Michael

    2014-08-01

    A method is presented that ascribes proper statistical variability to simulations that are derived from longer-duration measurements. This method is applicable to simulations of either real-value or integer-value data. An example is presented that demonstrates the applicability of this technique to the synthesis of gamma-ray spectra.

  19. ON THE DURATION OF BLAZAR SYNCHROTRON FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Eichmann, B.; Schlickeiser, R.; Rhode, W.

    2012-01-10

    A semi-analytical model is presented that describes the temporal development of a blazar synchrotron flare for the case of a broadband synchrotron power spectrum. We examine three different injection scenarios and present its influence on the synchrotron flare. An accurate approximation of the half-life of a synchrotron flare is analytically computed and we give some illustrative examples of the time evolution of the emergent synchrotron intensity by using a numerical integration method. The synchrotron flare starts at all photon energies right after the injection of ultrarelativistic electrons into the spherical emission volume of radius R and its duration exceeds the light travel time 2R/c in the low energy regime. Furthermore, the flare duration extends by the period of injection of relativistic electrons into the emission knot. However, the energetic and spatial distribution of these injected electrons has no significant influence on the flare duration. We obtain a temporal behavior that agrees most favorably with the observations of PKS 2155-304 on 2006 July 29-30 and it differs considerably from the results that were recently achieved by using a monochromatic approximation of the synchrotron power.

  20. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, Carl W.; Nodine, Robert N.; Wallace, Steven Allen

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  1. Long Duration Backlighter Experiments at Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Reighard, A; Glendinning, S; Young, P; Hsing, W; Foord, M; Schneider, M; Lu, K; Dittrich, T; Wallace, R; Sorce, C

    2008-05-01

    We have successfully demonstrated a 7.5 ns-duration pinhole-apertured backlighter at the Omega laser facility. Pinhole-apertured point-projection backlighting for 8 ns will be useful for imaging evolving features in experiments at the National Ignition Facility. The backlighter consisted of a 20 {micro}m diameter pinhole in a 75 {micro}m thick Ta substrate separated from a Zn emitter (9 keV) by a 400 {micro}m thick high-density carbon piece. The carbon prevented the shock from the laser-driven surface from reaching the substrate before 8 ns and helped minimize x-ray ablation of the pinhole substrate. Grid wires in x-ray framing camera images of a gold grid have a source-limited resolution significantly smaller than the pinhole diameter due to the high aspect ratio of the pinhole, but do not become much smaller at late times.

  2. Load Model Data Tool

    SciTech Connect

    David Chassin, Pavel Etingov

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to be provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.

  3. Load Model Data Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to bemore » provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.« less

  4. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  5. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  6. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Lawrence M.; Strum, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  7. Cable load sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Beus, Michael J.; McCoy, William G.

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the magnitude of a load on a cable as the cable is employed to support the load includes a beam structure clamped to the cable so that a length of the cable lies along the beam structure. A spacer associated with the beam structure forces a slight curvature in a portion of the length of cable under a cable "no-load" condition so that the portion of the length of cable is spaced from the beam structure to define a cable curved portion. A strain gauge circuit including strain gauges is secured to the beam structure by welding. As the cable is employed to support a load the load causes the cable curved portion to exert a force normal to the cable through the spacer and on the beam structure to deform the beam structure as the cable curved portion attempts to straighten under the load. As this deformation takes place, the resistance of the strain gauges is set to a value proportional to the magnitude of the normal strain on the beam structure during such deformation. The magnitude of the normal strain is manipulated in a control device to generate a value equal to the magnitude or weight of the load supported by the cable.

  8. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  9. A loaded thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.R.; Swift, G.W.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements and analysis of the performance of a thermoacoustic engine driving a dissipative load are presented. The effect of the load can be explained qualitatively using a simple low-amplitude approximation and quantitatively by invoking a more accurate low-amplitude numerical solution. The heater power {ital @};DQ and hot-end temperature {ital T}{sub {ital H}} are found to be simple functions of the load impedance and the unloaded values of {ital @};DQ and {ital T}{sub {ital H}}. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital Acoustical} {ital Society} {ital of} {ital America}.

  10. IT and Building Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Rutberg, Michael; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-09-30

    The article discusses available technologies for reducing IT energy consumption and the commensurate cooling load in commercial buildings. This article addresses the energy savings and market potential of these strategies as well.

  11. LOADING MACHINE FOR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Simon, S.L.

    1959-07-01

    An apparatus is described for loading or charging slugs of fissionable material into a nuclear reactor. The apparatus of the invention is a "muzzle loading" type comprising a delivery tube or muzzle designed to be brought into alignment with any one of a plurality of fuel channels. The delivery tube is located within the pressure shell and it is also disposed within shielding barriers while the fuel cantridges or slugs are forced through the delivery tube by an externally driven flexible ram.

  12. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  13. Method for exciting inductive-resistive loads with high and controllable direct current

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Jr., Homer M.

    1976-01-01

    Apparatus and method for transmitting dc power to a load circuit by applying a dc voltage from a standard waveform synthesizer to duration modulate a bipolar rectangular wave generator. As the amplitude of the dc voltage increases, the widths of the rectangular wave generator output pulses increase, and as the amplitude of the dc voltage decreases, the widths of the rectangular wave generator output pulses decrease. Thus, the waveform synthesizer selectively changes the durations of the rectangular wave generator bipolar output pulses so as to produce a rectangular wave ac carrier that is duration modulated in accordance with and in direct proportion to the voltage amplitude from the synthesizer. Thereupon, by transferring the carrier to the load circuit through an amplifier and a rectifier, the load current also corresponds directly to the voltage amplitude from the synthesizer. To this end, the rectified wave at less than 100% duty factor, amounts to a doubled frequency direct voltage pulse train for applying a direct current to the load, while the current ripple is minimized by a high L/R in the load circuit. In one embodiment, a power transmitting power amplifier means having a dc power supply is matched to the load circuit through a transformer for current magnification without sacrificing load current duration capability, while negative voltage and current feedback are provided in order to insure good output fidelity.

  14. Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

    2007-11-30

    This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

  15. Specific heat loading in Nd:glass lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Krupke, W.F.

    1985-08-07

    The specific thermal load parameter, chi, for xenon flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass gain media is written as a function of neodymium concentration, pump pulse duration, and energy extraction efficiency. The currently available data on radiative and nonradiative decay probabilities of several commercial Nd:glasses are used to calculate and graph specific thermal load parameter values. By factoring these results into performance scaling relationships for zig-zag and disk lasers, specific Nd:glasses can be selected for optimized laser performance.

  16. A "Plug-n-Play" Air Delivery System for Low-Load Homes and Evaluation...

    Energy Saver

    A "Plug-n-Play" Air Delivery System for Low-Load Homes and Evaluation of a Residential Thermal Comfort Rating Method Traditional air distribution system. Graphic courtesy of ...

  17. 16 USC 799 License duration, conditions, revocation, alteration...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    9 License duration, conditions, revocation, alteration, or surrender Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: 16 USC 799...

  18. ALPHA ATTENUATION DUE TO DUST LOADING

    SciTech Connect

    Dailey, A; Dennis Hadlock, D

    2007-08-09

    Previous studies had been done in order to show the attenuation of alpha particles in filter media. These studies provided an accurate correction for this attenuation, but there had not yet been a study with sufficient results to properly correct for attenuation due to dust loading on the filters. At the Savannah River Site, filter samples are corrected for attenuation due to dust loading at 20%. Depending on the facility the filter comes from and the duration of the sampling period, the proper correction factor may vary. The objective of this study was to determine self-absorption curves for each of three counting instruments. Prior work indicated significant decreases in alpha count rate (as much as 38%) due to dust loading, especially on filters from facilities where sampling takes place over long intervals. The alpha count rate decreased because of a decrease in the energy of the alpha. The study performed resulted in a set of alpha absorption curves for each of three detectors. This study also took into account the affects of the geometry differences in the different counting equipment used.

  19. LOADING AND UNLOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1960-08-16

    A device for loading and unloading fuel rods into and from a reactor tank through an access hole includes parallel links carrying a gripper. These links enable the gripper to go through the access hole and then to be moved laterally from the axis of the access hole to the various locations of the fuel rods in the reactor tank.

  20. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    DOEpatents

    Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Leland, Robert W.

    1996-12-24

    A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

  1. HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Development of a Production Intent Cam-based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit

    SciTech Connect

    Weall, Adam J; Szybist, James P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith; Moore, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion

  2. HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities Using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Developments of a Production Intent Cam-Based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit

    SciTech Connect

    Weall, Adam J; Szybist, James P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith; Moore, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion

  3. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 2009 | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    LAUNCH TOOL Name: Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 2009 Focus Area: Propane Topics: Policy Impacts Website: www.eia.govrenewablealternativetransportvehicles...

  4. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  5. Measuring alignment of loading fixture

    DOEpatents

    Scavone, Donald W. (Saratoga Springs, NY)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

  6. Wind Energy Management System EMS Integration Project: Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-01-01

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind and solar power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation), and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind/solar forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. To improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators’ forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter

  7. Overview of High Power Vacuum Dry RF Load Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2015-08-27

    A specific feature of RF linacs based on the pulsed traveling wave (TW) mode of operation is that only a portion of the RF energy is used for the beam acceleration. The residual RF energy has to be terminated into an RF load. Higher accelerating gradients require higher RF sources and RF loads, which can stably terminate the residual RF power. RF feeders (from the RF source though the accelerating section to the load) are vacuumed to transmit multi-megawatt high power RF. This overview will outline vacuumed RF loads only. A common method to terminate multi-MW RF power is to use circulated water (or other liquid) as an absorbing medium. A solid dielectric interface (a high quality ceramic) is required to separate vacuum and liquid RF absorber mediums. Using such RF load approaches in TW linacs is troubling because there is a fragile ceramic window barrier and a failure could become catastrophic for linac vacuum and RF systems. Traditional loads comprising of a ceramic disk have limited peak and average power handling capability and are therefore not suitable for high gradient TW linacs. This overview will focus on ''vacuum dry'' or ''all-metal'' loads that do not employ any dielectric interface between vacuum and absorber. The first prototype is an original design of RF loads for the Stanford Two-Mile Accelerator.

  8. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOEpatents

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  9. Shot loading trainer analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.K.

    1995-02-15

    This document presents the results from the analysis of the shot loading trainer (SLT). This device will be used to test the procedure for installing shot into the annulus of the Project W-320 shipping container. To ensure that the shot is installed uniformly around the container, vibrators will be used to settle the shot. The SLT was analyzed to ensure that it would not jeopardize worker safety during operation. The results from the static analysis of the SLT under deadweight and vibrator operating loads show that the stresses in the SLT are below code allowables. The results from the modal analysis show that the natural frequencies of the SLT are far below the operating frequencies of the vibrators, provided the SLT is mounted on pneumatic tires. The SLT was also analyzed for wind, seismic, deadweight, and moving/transporting loads. Analysis of the SLT is in accordance with SDC-4.1 for safety class 3 structures (DOE-RL 1993) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (AISC 1989).

  10. Electrical Load Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Electricity consumer demand response and load control are playing an increasingly important role in the development of a smart grid. Smart grid load management technologies such as Grid FriendlyTM controls and real-time pricing are making their way into the conventional model of grid planning and operations. However, the behavior of load both affects, and is affected by load control strategies that are designed to support electric grid planning and operations. This chapter discussed the natural behavior of electric loads, how it interacts with various load control and demand response strategies, what the consequences are for new grid operation concepts and the computing issues these new technologies raise.

  11. commercial load | OpenEI Community

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: applicationzip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data...

  12. residential load | OpenEI Community

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: applicationzip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data...

  13. load profile | OpenEI Community

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: applicationzip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data...

  14. Long Duration Testing of Type C Thermocouples at 1500 C

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Darrell L. Knudson; J. E. Daw; S. C. Wilkins

    2008-04-01

    Experience with Type C thermocouples operating for long periods in the 1400 to 1600 C temperature range indicate that significant decalibration occurs, often leading to expensive downtime and material waste. As part of an effort to understand the mechanisms causing drift in these thermocouples, the Idaho National Laboratory conducted a long duration test at 1500 C containing eight Type C thermocouples. As report in this document, results from this long duration test were adversely affected due to oxygen ingress. Nevertheless, results provide key insights about the impact of precipitate formation on thermoelectric response. Post-test examinations indicate that thermocouple signal was not adversely impacted by the precipitates detected after 1,000 hours of heating at 1,500 C and suggest that the signal would not have been adversely impacted by these precipitates for longer durations (if oxygen ingress had not occurred in this test).

  15. Wind Energy Management System Integration Project Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-09-01

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation) and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. In order to improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively, by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators’ forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter unique

  16. A Tradition of Sustainability | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    A Tradition of Sustainability A Tradition of Sustainability September 15, 2010 - 10:00am Addthis Paul Lester Paul Lester Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Evansville, Wis., has a rich tradition of wind energy dating back to the 1800s. The city's first manufacturer - Baker Manufacturing Company - built windmills for farm pumps. When Evansville decided to build a new high school, planners continued this heritage by installing a wind turbine to provide the campus power. The

  17. Passive solar in China: traditional and new

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.; Balcomb, S.A.

    1986-04-01

    The authors' observations of a tradition of passive solar architecture in northern China are described. Tendencies for modern buildings to depart from this tradition are noted. Major passive solar research programs are discussed and experimental buildings are illustrated. It is concluded that the Chinese could realize a major advantage by combining their strong tradition of passive solar architecture with modern insulation methods and improved glazing systems.

  18. Variable loading roller

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.

  19. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  20. Plug Loads Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings tomore » investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.« less

  1. Variable loading roller

    DOEpatents

    Williams, D.M.

    1988-01-21

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

  2. Nevada Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Traditional...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Properties Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Nevada Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Traditional Cultural Properties...

  3. Building America Expert Meeting: Transitioning Traditional HVAC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Review and validate the general business models for traditional HVAC companies and whole house energy upgrade companies Review preliminary findings on the differences between the ...

  4. Duration Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of a duration test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  5. Load Control System Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, Daniel

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  6. Multi-State Load Models for Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-11-01

    Recent work in the field of distribution system analysis has shown that the traditional method of peak load analysis is not adequate for the analysis of emerging distribution system technologies. Voltage optimization, demand response, electric vehicle charging, and energy storage are examples of technologies with characteristics having daily, seasonal, and/or annual variations. In addition to the seasonal variations, emerging technologies such as demand response and plug in electric vehicle charging have the potential to send control signals to the end use loads which will affect how they consume energy. In order to support time-series analysis over different time frames and to incorporate potential control signal inputs it is necessary to develop detailed end use load models which accurately represent the load under various conditions, and not just during the peak load period. This paper will build on previous work on detail end use load modeling in order to outline the method of general multi-state load models for distribution system analysis.

  7. A General Investigation of Optimized Atmospheric Sample Duration

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Miley, Harry S.

    2012-11-28

    ABSTRACT The International Monitoring System (IMS) consists of up to 80 aerosol and xenon monitoring systems spaced around the world that have collection systems sensitive enough to detect nuclear releases from underground nuclear tests at great distances (CTBT 1996; CTBTO 2011). Although a few of the IMS radionuclide stations are closer together than 1,000 km (such as the stations in Kuwait and Iran), many of them are 2,000 km or more apart. In the absence of a scientific basis for optimizing the duration of atmospheric sampling, historically scientists used a integration times from 24 hours to 14 days for radionuclides (Thomas et al. 1977). This was entirely adequate in the past because the sources of signals were far away and large, meaning that they were smeared over many days by the time they had travelled 10,000 km. The Fukushima event pointed out the unacceptable delay time (72 hours) between the start of sample acquisition and final data being shipped. A scientific basis for selecting a sample duration time is needed. This report considers plume migration of a nondecaying tracer using archived atmospheric data for 2011 in the HYSPLIT (Draxler and Hess 1998; HYSPLIT 2011) transport model. We present two related results: the temporal duration of the majority of the plume as a function of distance and the behavior of the maximum plume concentration as a function of sample collection duration and distance. The modeled plume behavior can then be combined with external information about sampler design to optimize sample durations in a sampling network.

  8. Dynamic load test of Arquin-designed CMU wall.

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Richard Pearson

    2010-02-01

    The Arquin Corporation has developed a new method of constructing CMU (concrete masonry unit) walls. This new method uses polymer spacers connected to steel wires that serve as reinforcing as well as a means of accurately placing the spacers so that the concrete block can be dry stacked. The hollows of the concrete block are then filled with grout. As part of a New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program (NMSBA), Sandia National Laboratories conducted a series of tests that dynamically loaded wall segments to compare the performance of walls constructed using the Arquin method to a more traditional method of constructing CMU walls. A total of four walls were built, two with traditional methods and two with the Arquin method. Two of the walls, one traditional and one Arquin, had every third cell filled with grout. The remaining two walls, one traditional and one Arquin, had every cell filled with grout. The walls were dynamically loaded with explosive forces. No significant difference was noted between the performance of the walls constructed by the Arquin method when compared to the walls constructed by the traditional method.

  9. Determination of station blackout frequency-duration relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Griggs, D.P.; Riggs, B.K.; Balakrishna, S.

    1986-01-01

    Station blackout is the loss of all alternating current (ac) power to the essential and nonessential electrical buses in a nuclear power plant. This generally involves the loss of redundant off-site power sources and the failure of two or more emergency diesel generators (EDGs). The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has proposed requiring all commercial reactors to have the capability of coping with a station blackout of a specified duration. The NRC has also proposed 4 or 8 h as acceptable durations, depending on plant susceptibility to the occurrence of station blackout events. Analyses were performed to determine expected station blackout frequencies representative of a majority of domestic nuclear power plants. A methodology based on that developed by the NRC was used. Representative industry data for loss of off-site power (LOOP) events and EDG reliability were used in the analyses.

  10. High Current Density, Long Duration Cycling of Soluble Organic Active

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Species for Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research 15, 2016, Research Highlights High Current Density, Long Duration Cycling of Soluble Organic Active Species for Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries Chemical structures of phenothiazine derivatives investigated and cycling performance of the most soluble derivative (MEEPT): (a) Charge-discharge curves; (b) capacities and efficiencies as a function of cycle number. Scientific Achievement We simultaneously

  11. Inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    An inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus. The use of a segmented electrode where each segment is attached to an inductive element permits high energy, high efficiency, long-pulsed laser outputs to be obtained. The present apparatus has been demonstrated with rare-gas halide lasing media. Orders of magnitude increase in pulse repetition frequency are obtained in lasing devices that do not utilize gas flow.

  12. Inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sze, R.C.

    1983-09-01

    An inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus. The use of a segmented electrode where each segment is attached to an inductive element permits high-energy, high-efficiency, long pulsed laser outputs to be obtained. The apparatus has been demonstrated with rare gas halide lasing media. Orders of magnitude increase in pulse repetition frequency are obtained in lasing devices that do not utilize gas flow.

  13. Duration Test Report for the Viryd CS8 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roadman, J.; Murphy, M.; van Dam, J.

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a duration noise test that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted on the Viryd CS8 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with Clause 9.4 of the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind turbines - Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed. 2.0:2006-03. NREL researchers evaluated the turbine based on structural integrity and material degradation, quality of environmental protection, and dynamic behavior.

  14. Refrigeration Recovery for Experiment Hall High Target Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni, Errol Yuksek, Jonathan Creel

    2010-04-01

    The Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab (JLab) is a 3000 W hydrogen target scheduled for the summer of 2010 and running for two years until the planned shut-down for 12GeV. The End Station Refrigerator (ESR) supports the three experiment halls, two of which may normally have a hydrogen target. The refrigerator for the ESR is a CTI/Helix 1500 W 4.5-K refrigerator nominally capable of supporting a 1250 W target load at 12 bar and 15-K (plus 1100 W of 4.5-K refrigeration). As such, this refrigerator is not capable of supporting the Qweak experiment target load in its present condition. Additionally, since the installation of an ambient air vaporizer for a single use, two week run duration of a high target load in the summer of 2003 there has been a consistent usage of the Central Helium Liquefier’s (CHL’s) 3 bar 4.5-K helium, supplied via an existing transfer-line to the ESR, for other high target loads. By the fall of 2004, it was apparent that this continued use of CHL’s supercritical helium was routinely being sought by the hall experimenters. As such, a method of refrigeration recovery was proposed to reduce the support required of CHL for these high target loads, including the anticipated Qweak experiment, while utilizing the recovered CHL refrigeration from the target to increase ESR’s 12 bar 15-K capacity.

  15. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  16. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, Stephen R.

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  17. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Turbine Loads Database - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ...

  18. High-Power Rf Load

    DOEpatents

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Vlieks, Arnold E.

    1998-09-01

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  19. Libra: Scalable Load Balance Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2009-09-16

    Libra is a tool for scalable analysis of load balance data from all processes in a parallel application. Libra contains an instrumentation module that collects model data from parallel applications and a parallel compression mechanism that uses distributed wavelet transforms to gather load balance model data in a scalable fashion. Data is output to files, and these files can be viewed in a GUI tool by Libra users. The GUI tool associates particular load balancemore » data with regions for code, emabling users to view the load balance properties of distributed "slices" of their application code.« less

  20. Non-traditional ion beam analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, B.L.; Knapp, J.A.; Banks, J.C.; Barbour, J.C.; Walsh, D.S.

    1993-02-01

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), elastic recoil detection (ERD), proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) are among the most commonly used, or traditional, ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques. In this review, several adaptations of these IBA techniques are described where either the approach used in the analysis or the application area is clearly non-traditional or unusual. These analyses and/or applications are summarized in this paper.

  1. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

    1998-03-03

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

  2. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, Todd A.; White, James P.

    1998-01-01

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

  3. Engine combustion control at low loads via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2014-10-07

    A compression ignition (diesel) engine uses two or more fuel charges during a combustion cycle, with the fuel charges having two or more reactivities (e.g., different cetane numbers), in order to control the timing and duration of combustion. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot). At low load and no load (idling) conditions, the aforementioned results are attained by restricting airflow to the combustion chamber during the intake stroke (as by throttling the incoming air at or prior to the combustion chamber's intake port) so that the cylinder air pressure is below ambient pressure at the start of the compression stroke.

  4. Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Laughner, T; Morris, K

    2009-01-01

    As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

  5. Plastic instabilities in statically and dynamically loaded spherical vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, Thomas A; Rodriguez, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Significant changes were made in design limits for pressurized vessels in the 2007 version of the ASME Code (Section VIII, Div. 3) and 2008 and 2009 Addenda. There is now a local damage-mechanics based strain-exhaustion limit as well as the well-known global plastic collapse limit. Moreover, Code Case 2564 (Section VIII, Div. 3) has recently been approved to address impulsively loaded vessels. It is the purpose of this paper to investigate the plastic collapse limit as it applies to dynamically loaded spherical vessels. Plastic instabilities that could potentially develop in spherical shells under symmetric loading conditions are examined for a variety of plastic constitutive relations. First, a literature survey of both static and dynamic instabilities associated with spherical shells is presented. Then, a general plastic instability condition for spherical shells subjected to displacement controlled and impulsive loading is given. This instability condition is evaluated for six plastic and visco-plastic constitutive relations. The role of strain-rate sensitivity on the instability point is investigated. Calculations for statically and dynamically loaded spherical shells are presented, illustrating the formation of instabilities as well as the role of imperfections. Conclusions of this work are that there are two fundamental types of instabilities associated with failure of spherical shells. In the case of impulsively loaded vessels, where the pulse duration is short compared to the fundamental period of the structure, one instability type is found not to occur in the absence of static internal pressure. Moreover, it is found that the specific role of strain-rate sensitivity on the instability strain depends on the form of the constitutive relation assumed.

  6. Calculation of voltage harmonic distortion caused by small non-linear loads

    SciTech Connect

    Hegazy, Y.G.; Salama, M.M.A.

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents an accurate method to evaluate the harmonic distortion in distribution systems. This method overcomes most of the drawbacks of the traditional methods. The main idea of the proposed method is to represent the harmonic effects of small non-linear loads by an equivalent large load. A case study is presented in the paper to illustrate the proposed method. The total harmonic distortion factor is evaluated at different busses of a distribution system using the proposed method. The results are then compared to those obtained using the traditional methods.

  7. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: “Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations”, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  8. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOEpatents

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1995-08-22

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  9. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  10. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOEpatents

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1997-11-25

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  11. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOEpatents

    Hainfeld, James F.

    1997-11-25

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure's contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host's species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes.

  12. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOEpatents

    Hainfeld, James F.

    1995-08-22

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure's contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host's species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes.

  13. Duration Test Report for the Ventera VT10 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2013-06-01

    This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small wind turbines. Five turbines were tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as a part of round one of this project. Duration testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality. Test results will provide manufacturers with reports that can be used to fulfill part of the requirements for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment included a grid-connected Ventera Energy Corporation VT10 wind turbine mounted on an 18.3-m (60-ft) self-supporting lattice tower manufactured by Rohn.

  14. Duration Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, I.; Hur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. Three turbines where selected for testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of round two of the Small Wind Turbine Independent Testing project. Duration testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines. Other tests include power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification.

  15. Structural assessment of accident loads

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    Structural assessments were made for specific accident loads for specific catch, receiver, and storage tanks. The evaluation herein represents level-of-effort order-of-magnitude estimates of limiting loads that would lead to collapse or rupture of the tank and unmitigated loss of confinement for the waste. Structural capacities were established using failure criteria. Compliance with codes such as ACI, ASCE, ASME, RCRA, UBC, WAC, and DOE Orders was `NOT` maintained. Normal code practice is to prevent failure with margins consistent with expected variations in loads and strengths and confidence in analysis techniques. The evaluation herein represent estimates of code limits without code load factors or code strength reduction factors, and loading beyond such a limit is considered as an onset of some failure mode. The exact nature of the failure mode and its relation to a safe condition is a judgment of the analyst. Consequently, these `RESULTS SHALL NOT BE USED TO ESTABLISH OPERATING OR SAFETY LOAD LIMITS FOR THESE TANKS`.

  16. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

  17. A system architecture for long duration free floating flight for military applications

    SciTech Connect

    Epley, L.E. )

    1990-08-31

    Accessibility is today's space frontier. Our need for wide-band global communications, earth imaging an sensing, atmospheric measurements and military reconnaissance is endless but growing dependence on space-based systems raises concerns about potential vulnerability. Military commanders want space assets more accessible and under direct local control. As a result, a robust and low cost access to space-like capability has become a national priority. Buoyant vehicles, free floating in the middle stratosphere could provide the kind of cost effective access to space-like capability needed for a verity of missions. These vehicles are inexpensive, invisible and easily launched. Developments in payload electronics, atmospheric wind modeling and materials combined with ever-improving communications and navigation infrastructure are making balloon-borne concepts more attractive. The fundamental question is whether a free floating balloon, used in a pseudo-satellite role, has value in a military system. Flight tests are ongoing under NASA sponsorship. Following these tests NASA intends to use the vehicles for research in the Antarctic. The concept is being reviewed by other agencies interested in stratospheric research. We believe that LDFFF systems have applications in areas of communications, surveillance and other traditional satellite missions. Dialogue with the broader community of space users is needed to expand the applications. This report reviews the status of the recent flight tests and presents an overview of the concept of Long Duration Free Floating Flight for military applications. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  18. building load | OpenEI Community

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    building load Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 13:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI building load...

  19. load data | OpenEI Community

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    load data Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 12:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI building load building...

  20. electric load data | OpenEI Community

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    electric load data Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 12:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI building load...

  1. building load data | OpenEI Community

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    building load data Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 12:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI building load...

  2. The effects of load drop, uniform load and concentrated loads on waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Marusich, R.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-06

    This document provides the supporting calculations performed by others specifically for the TWRS FSAR and more detailed summaries of the important references issued in the past regarding the effects of various loads.

  3. The effects of load drop, uniform load and concentrated loads on waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Marusich, R.M.

    1996-09-27

    This document provides the supporting calculations performed by others specifically for the TWRS FSAR and more detailed summaries of the important references issued in the past regarding the effects of various loads.

  4. Determining Electric Motor Load and Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    To compare the operating costs of an existing standard motor with an appropriately-sized energy-efficient replacement, you need to determine operating hours, efficiency improvement values, and load. Part-load is a term used to describe the actual load served by the motor as compared to the rated full-load capability of the motor. Motor part-loads may be estimated through using input power, amperage, or speed measurements. This fact sheet briefly discusses several load estimation techniques.

  5. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOEpatents

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  6. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael B.; Epstein, Jonathan S.; Lloyd, W. Randolph

    1994-01-01

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed crosshead, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame.

  7. Microfabricated Optical Compressive Load Sensors (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microfabricated Optical Compressive Load Sensors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microfabricated Optical Compressive Load Sensors Authors: Cole, G D ; Lin, K L ; ...

  8. Commercial Miscellaneous Electric Loads Report: Energy Consumption...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Commercial Miscellaneous Electric Loads Report: Energy Consumption Characterization and Savings Potential in 2008 by Building Type Commercial Miscellaneous Electric Loads Report: ...

  9. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    controls on the load-side is growing. Driven by improved and widely available communications systems, load participation is becoming easier and more reliable; and there...

  10. How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescent...

    Energy Saver

    Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional ... The table below compares a 60 watt (W) traditional ... *Based on 2 hrsday of usage, an electricity rate of 11 ...

  11. DOE SEE Action, "Behavior Change Strategies in Traditional Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    SEE Action, "Behavior Change Strategies in Traditional Energy Efficiency Programs" Webinar DOE SEE Action, "Behavior Change Strategies in Traditional Energy Efficiency Programs"...

  12. How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescent...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescents How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescents November 5, 2014 - 11:39pm Addthis By...

  13. Dynamic load balance scheme for the DSMC algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jin; Geng, Xiangren; Jiang, Dingwu; Chen, Jianqiang

    2014-12-09

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) algorithm, devised by Bird, has been used over a wide range of various rarified flow problems in the past 40 years. While the DSMC is suitable for the parallel implementation on powerful multi-processor architecture, it also introduces a large load imbalance across the processor array, even for small examples. The load imposed on a processor by a DSMC calculation is determined to a large extent by the total of simulator particles upon it. Since most flows are impulsively started with initial distribution of particles which is surely quite different from the steady state, the total of simulator particles will change dramatically. The load balance based upon an initial distribution of particles will break down as the steady state of flow is reached. The load imbalance and huge computational cost of DSMC has limited its application to rarefied or simple transitional flows. In this paper, by taking advantage of METIS, a software for partitioning unstructured graphs, and taking the total of simulator particles in each cell as a weight information, the repartitioning based upon the principle that each processor handles approximately the equal total of simulator particles has been achieved. The computation must pause several times to renew the total of simulator particles in each processor and repartition the whole domain again. Thus the load balance across the processors array holds in the duration of computation. The parallel efficiency can be improved effectively. The benchmark solution of a cylinder submerged in hypersonic flow has been simulated numerically. Besides, hypersonic flow past around a complex wing-body configuration has also been simulated. The results have displayed that, for both of cases, the computational time can be reduced by about 50%.

  14. Long Duration Directional Drives for Star Formation and Photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, J. O.; Martinez, D. A.; Pound, M. W.; Heeter, R. F.; Villette, B.; Casner, A.; Mancini, R. C.

    2015-06-18

    This research will; confirm the possibility of studying the structure and evolution of star-forming regions of molecular clouds in the laboratory; test the cometary model for the formation of the pillar structures in molecular clouds; assess the effect of magnetic fields on the evolution of structures in molecular clouds; and develop and demonstrate a new, long-duration (60-100 ns), directional source of x-ray radiation that can be used for the study of deeply nonlinear hydrodynamics, hydrodynamic instabilities that occur in the presence of directional radiation, shock-driven and radiatively-driven collapse of dense cores, and photoionization. Due to the iconic status of the pillars of the Eagle Nebula, this research will bring popular attention to plasma physics, HED laboratory physics, and fundamental science at NIF and other experimental facilities. The result will be to both to bring new perspectives to the studies of hydrodynamics in inertial confinement fusion and HED scenarios in general, and to promote interest in the STEM disciplines.

  15. Short-duration radio bursts with apparent extragalactic dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Saint-Hilaire, P.; Benz, A. O.; Monstein, C.

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of the longest yet undertaken search for apparently extragalactic radio bursts at the Bleien Radio Observatory covering 21,000 hr (898 days). The data were searched for events of less than 50 ms FWHM duration showing a ?{sup 2} drift in the spectrogram characteristic of the delay of radio waves in plasma. We have found five cases suggesting dispersion measures between 350 and 400 cm{sup 3} pc while searching in the range of 75-2000 cm{sup 3} pc. Four of the five events occurred between 10:27 and 11:24 a.m. local civil time. The only exception occurred at night with the full Moon in the beam. It was an event that poorly fits plasma dispersion, but had the characteristics of a solar Type III burst. However, we were not able to confirm that it was a lunar reflection. All events were observed with a log-periodic dipole within 6800 hr, but none with a more directional horn antenna observing the rest of the time. These properties suggest a terrestrial origin of the 'peryton' type reported before. However, the cause of these events remains ambiguous.

  16. Load Leveling Battery System Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1994-10-12

    SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer's monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer's peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer's side of themore » meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer's load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.« less

  17. Method for loading resin beds

    DOEpatents

    Notz, Karl J.; Rainey, Robert H.; Greene, Charles W.; Shockley, William E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H.sup.+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145.degree.-200.degree. C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145.degree. C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO.sub.3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate.

  18. Material behavior under complex loading

    SciTech Connect

    Breuer, H.J.; Raule, G.; Rodig, M.

    1984-09-01

    Studies of material behavior under complex loading form a bridge between standard material testing methods and the stress analysis calculations for reactor components at high temperatures. The aim of these studies is to determine the influence of typical load change sequences on material properties, to derive the equations required for stress analyses, to carry out tests under multiaxial conditions, and to investigate the structural deformation mechanisms of creep buckling and ratcheting. The present state of the investigations within the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor materials program is described, with emphasis on the experimental apparatus, the scope of the program, and the initial results obtained.

  19. Characterization of Engine Control Authority on HCCI Combustion as the High Load Limit is Approached

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith; Moore, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on characterizing the authority of the available engine controls as the high load limit of HCCI combustion is approached. The experimental work is performed on a boosted single-cylinder research engine equipped with direct injection (DI) fueling, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) valve train to enable the negative valve overlap (NVO) breathing strategy. Valve lift and duration are held constant while phasing is varied in an effort to make the results as relevant as possible to production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) systems on multi-cylinder engines. Results presented include engine loads from 350 to 650 kPa IMEPnet and manifold pressure from 98 to 190 kPaa at 2000 rpm. It is found that in order to increase engine load to 650 kPa IMEPnet, it is necessary to increase manifold pressure and external EGR while reducing the NVO duration. Both NVO duration and fuel injection timing are effective means of controlling combustion phasing, with NVO duration being a coarse control and fuel injection timing being a fine control. NOX emissions are low throughout the study, with emissions below 0.1 g/kW-h at all boosted HCCI conditions, while good combustion efficiency is maintained (>96.5%). Net indicated thermal efficiency increases with load up to 600 kPa IMEPnet, where a peak efficiency of 41% is achieved. Results of independent parametric investigations are presented on the effect of external EGR, intake effect of manifold pressure, and the effect of NVO duration. It is found that increasing EGR at a constant manifold pressure and increasing manifold pressure at a constant EGR rate both have the effect of retarding combustion phasing. It is also found that combustion

  20. PRB rail loadings shatter record

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2008-09-15

    Rail transport of coal in the Powder River Basin has expanded, with a record 2,197 trains loaded in a month. Arch Coal's Thunder basin mining complex has expanded by literally bridging the joint line railway. The dry fork mine has also celebrated its safety achievements. 4 photos.

  1. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

  2. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  3. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  4. Program Offers New Spin on Traditional Marketing | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Program Offers New Spin on Traditional Marketing Program Offers New Spin on Traditional Marketing A photo of several boys in matching T-shirts dancing on a paved surface. ...

  5. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  6. Commercial Miscellaneous Electric Loads Report: Energy Consumption

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Characterization and Savings Potential in 2008 by Building Type | Department of Energy Commercial Miscellaneous Electric Loads Report: Energy Consumption Characterization and Savings Potential in 2008 by Building Type Commercial Miscellaneous Electric Loads Report: Energy Consumption Characterization and Savings Potential in 2008 by Building Type Commercial miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are generally defined as all electric loads except those related to main systems for heating,

  7. A "Plug-n-Play" Air Delivery System for Low-Load Homes and Evaluation of a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Residential Thermal Comfort Rating Method | Department of Energy A "Plug-n-Play" Air Delivery System for Low-Load Homes and Evaluation of a Residential Thermal Comfort Rating Method A "Plug-n-Play" Air Delivery System for Low-Load Homes and Evaluation of a Residential Thermal Comfort Rating Method Traditional air distribution system. Graphic courtesy of IBACOS, Inc. Traditional air distribution system. Graphic courtesy of IBACOS, Inc. "Plug-n-Play" air delivery

  8. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOEpatents

    Wiencek, Thomas C.; Domagala, Robert F.; Thresh, Henry R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  9. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.; Steffen, J.M.

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inerted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  10. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Brown, William F.; Steffen, Jim M.

    1985-01-01

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  11. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  12. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  13. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOEpatents

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  14. APS high heat load monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  15. A Methodology to Analyze the Impact of 30-Minute Wind Scheduling on Load-Following Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Diao, Ruisheng; Makarov, Yuri V.; Samaan, Nader A.; Kujala, Ben

    2014-12-24

    This paper proposes a new and systematic approach to investigating the impact of wind transfer between balancing authorities (BAs) with half-hour scheduling on load following requirements, which was traditionally scheduled on an hourly basis. The analysis is conducted for a few BAs in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. that are described as source BAs (sending renewables) and sink BAs (receiving renewables). The main hypothesis is that if the source BA could schedule interchange for wind on a half-hourly basis, it would make the schedule follow its net load more closely. The scheduling change in the source BA is matched by adding the corresponding component to the net load in the sink BA. The load-following requirements are calculated as: (a) by the difference between the net load and modified schedule in the source BA, and (b) the difference between modified net load and unchanged hourly schedule in the sink BA. Results are presented as hourly upward and downward load following requirements in the source and sink BA, and compared with the results obtained with all generators scheduled on an hourly basis. Thus, the proposed method can effectively help utilities better understand the impact of 30-minute scheduling and make better business decisions.

  16. High payload six-axis load sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jansen, John F.; Lind, Randall F.

    2003-01-01

    A repairable high-payload six-axis load sensor includes a table, a base, and at least three shear-pin load transducers removably mounted between the table and the base. Removable mounting permits easy replacement of damaged shear pins. Preferably, the shear-pin load transducers are responsive to shear forces imparted along the two axes perpendicular to an axis of minimum sensitivity characteristic of the transducer. Responsive to an applied shear force, each shear-pin load transducer can produce an electrical signal proportional to the reaction force. The load sensor can further include a structure for receiving the proportional electrical signals and computing the applied load corresponding to the proportional electrical signals. The computed load can be expressed in terms of a three-dimensional XYZ Cartesian coordinate system.

  17. Method for loading shape memory polymer gripper mechanisms (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Method for loading shape memory polymer gripper mechanisms Title: Method for loading shape memory polymer gripper mechanisms A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, ...

  18. Apparatus for loading shape memory gripper mechanisms (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Apparatus for loading shape memory gripper mechanisms Title: Apparatus for loading shape memory gripper mechanisms A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, such as an ...

  19. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    SciTech Connect

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. )

    1991-11-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

  20. Bulk Modulus Capacitor Load Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, C.E.

    1990-04-01

    Measurement of forces present at various locations within the SSC Model Dipole collared coil assembly is of great practical interest to development engineers. Of particular interest are the forces between coils at the parting plane and forces that exist between coils and pole pieces. It is also desired to observe these forces under the various conditions that a magnet will experience such as: during the collaring process, post-collaring, under the influence of cryogens, and during field excitation. A twenty eight thousandths of an inch thick capacitor load cell which utilizes the hydrostatic condition of a stressed plastic dielectric has been designed. These cells are currently being installed on SSC Model Dipoles. The theory, development, and application of these cells will be discussed.

  1. High voltage load resistor array

    DOEpatents

    Lehmann, Monty Ray

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  2. peak_load_2010.xls

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2. Noncoincident Peak Load, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 1990-2010 Actual, 2011-2015 Projected (Megawatts) Interconnection NERC Regional Assesment Area 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 FRCC 27,266 28,818 30,601 32,823 32,904 34,524 35,444 35,375 38,730 37,493 37,194 39,062 40,696 40,475 42,383 46,396 45,751 46,676 44,836 NPCC 44,116 46,594 43,658 46,706 47,581 47,705 45,094 49,269 49,566 52,855

  3. Determinants of contract duration: further evidence from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kozhevnikova, M.; Lange, I.

    2009-05-15

    Transactions cost theory predicts that the availability of alternatives is one of the determinants of contract duration. Over the last 20 years, the coal market has seen many regulatory changes that have generally increased the number of alternatives in the process of procuring coal. In this paper data from long-term coal contracts for electricity generation signed before 1999 are used to estimate the effect of increasing alternatives on contract duration. Empirical results tend to match transactions cost theory that increased alternatives reduces contract duration.

  4. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  5. Inverter Load Rejection Over-Voltage Testing: SolarCity CRADA Task 1a Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, A.; Hoke, A.; Chakraborty, S.; Chebahtah, J.; Wang, T.; Zimmerly, B.

    2015-02-01

    Various interconnection challenges exist when connecting distributed PV into the electrical distribution grid in terms of safety, reliability, and stability of electric power systems. One of the urgent areas for additional research - as identified by inverter manufacturers, installers, and utilities - is the potential for transient over-voltage from PV inverters. In one stage of a cooperative tests were repeated a total of seven times. The maximum over-voltage measured in any test did not exceed 200% of nominal, and typical over-voltage levels were significantly lower. The total voltage duration and the maximum continuous time above each threshold are presented here, as well as the time to disconnect for each test. Finally, we present a brief investigation into the effect of DC input voltage as well as a series of no-load tests. This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient over-voltages created by several commercial PV inverters during load-rejection conditions. For this work, a test plan that is currently under development by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Through a cooperative research and development agreement, NREL is working with SolarCity to address two specific types of transient overvoltage: load rejection overvoltage (LRO) and ground fault overvoltage (GFO). Additional partners in this effort include the Hawaiian Electric Companies, Northern Plains Power Technologies, and the Electric Power Research Institute.

  6. The effects of pulse duration on ablation pressure driven by laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Lei; Li, Xiao-Ya Zhu, Wen-Jun; Wang, Jia-Xiang; Tang, Chang-Jian

    2015-03-28

    The effects of laser pulse duration on the ablation pressure induced by laser radiation are investigated using Al target. Numerical simulation results using one dimensional radiation hydro code for laser intensities from 5×10{sup 12}W/cm{sup 2} to 5×10{sup 13}W/cm{sup 2} and pulse durations from 0.5 ns to 20 ns are presented. These results suggest that the laser intensity scaling law of ablation pressure differs for different pulse durations. And the theoretical analysis shows that the effects of laser pulse duration on ablation pressure are mainly caused by two regimes: the unsteady-state flow and the radiative energy loss to vacuum.

  7. A Tradition of Welcoming Foreign Scientists and Engineers

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Tradition National Security Science Latest Issue:April 2016 past issues All Issues » submit A Tradition of Welcoming Foreign Scientists and Engineers Nuclear scientists, including future Nobel laureates, fleeing fascist persecution found a new home at Los Alamos during World War II, where they made a huge contribution to U.S. nuclear weapons research. July 1, 2015 A Tradition of Welcoming Foreign Scientists and Engineers Legendary Nobel Prize-winning physicist Hans Bethe with Enrico Fermi,

  8. Building America Expert Meeting: Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    to Whole House Performance Contractors | Department of Energy Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors Building America Expert Meeting: Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors IBACOS held an Expert Meeting on the topic of Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors on March 29, 2011 in San Francisco, CA. The major objectives of the meeting were to: Review and validate the

  9. Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Paul A.

    2007-09-12

    This technical bulletin documents measured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spaces in nine buildings across five institutions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain data on the actual peak loads in laboratories, which can be used to rightsize the design of HVAC systems in new laboratories. While any given laboratory may have unique loads and other design considerations, these results may be used as a 'sanity check' for design assumptions.

  10. Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Standardization of Daytime Minimum Load Approach and Data Needs Next Steps 4 Distribution System 5 Planning Criteria for the Distribution System The distribution system shall be ...

  11. explicit representation of uncertainty in system load

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    system load - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & ... Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear ...

  12. Decades of Wind Turbine Load Simulation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Decades of Wind Turbine Load Simulation Matthew Barone , Joshua Paquette , Brian ... was used to simulate ninety-six years of operation of a five megawatt wind turbine. ...

  13. Active Load Control Techniques for Wind Turbines

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Active Load Control Techniques for Wind Turbines Scott J. Johnson and C. P. "Case" van Dam Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering University of California One ...

  14. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Brendan; O'Malley, Mark; Ma, Ookie; Cappers, Peter; Corbus, Dave; Kiliccote, Sila; Onar, Omer; Starke, Michael; Steinberg, Dan

    2011-10-25

    Developing load participation in ancillary services to the electric grid. Challenges: coordination among multiple entities, targeted R&D for market conditions and regulatory and policy environments.

  15. History of Load Participation in ERCOT

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Mark

    2011-10-25

    Presentation on demand integration by ERCOT for a DOE Workshop. Covers history of load participation in ERCOT from 2002 to present.

  16. Combi Systems for Low Load homes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Context Technical Approach * A condensing water heater and hydronic air handler will used to provide space and water heating loads in almost 300 weatherized homes. * System ...

  17. Building Technologies Office Load Control Strategies

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    BTO researches and implements load control strategies, which support the Sustainable and Holistic IntegratioN of Energy storage and Solar PV (SHINES) FOA.

  18. Adjustable Speed Drive Part-Load Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... the system effciency is the product of the VFD effciency, the motor effciency at its load point, and the driven equipment effciency (system VFD x Motor x Equipment ). ...

  19. EPIC Residential and Commercial Plug Loads Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    EPIC Residential and Commercial Plug Loads Research Felix Villanueva, EIT Energy ... California Energy Commission Questions? Felix Villanueva felix.villanueva@energy.ca.gov

  20. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  1. Characteristics and Performance of Existing Load Disaggregation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    has the potential to provide an alternative solution to high-priced traditional ... using the Residential Building Stock Assessment (RBSA) owner-occupied test bed operated ...

  2. Strategies for Controlling Plug Loads. A Tool for Reducing Plug Loads in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Torcellini, Paul; Bonnema, Eric; Sheppy, Michael; Pless, Shanti

    2015-09-01

    Plug loads are often not considered as part of the energy savings measures in Commercial Buildings; however, they can account for up to 50% of the energy used in the building. These loads are numerous and often scattered throughout a building. Some of these loads are purchased by the owner and some designed into the building or the tenant finishes for a space. This document provides a strategy and a tool for minimizing these loads.

  3. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, S.R.

    1990-03-20

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials. 2 figs.

  4. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Steven R.

    1990-01-01

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials.

  5. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  6. An Evaluation of the HVAC Load Potential for Providing Load Balancing Service

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning

    2012-09-30

    This paper investigates the potential of providing aggregated intra-hour load balancing services using heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A direct-load control algorithm is presented. A temperature-priority-list method is used to dispatch the HVAC loads optimally to maintain consumer-desired indoor temperatures and load diversity. Realistic intra-hour load balancing signals were used to evaluate the operational characteristics of the HVAC load under different outdoor temperature profiles and different indoor temperature settings. The number of HVAC units needed is also investigated. Modeling results suggest that the number of HVACs needed to provide a {+-}1-MW load balancing service 24 hours a day varies significantly with baseline settings, high and low temperature settings, and the outdoor temperatures. The results demonstrate that the intra-hour load balancing service provided by HVAC loads meet the performance requirements and can become a major source of revenue for load-serving entities where the smart grid infrastructure enables direct load control over the HAVC loads.

  7. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  8. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: New Traditions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    New Traditions, Vancouver, Washington Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: New Traditions, Vancouver, Washington Case study of New Tradition Homes who worked with ...

  9. Variability of Load and Net Load in Case of Large Scale Distributed Wind Power

    SciTech Connect

    Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Rawn, B.; Dobschinski, J.; Meibom, P.; Lannoye, E.; Aigner, T.; Wan, Y. H.; Milligan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Large scale wind power production and its variability is one of the major inputs to wind integration studies. This paper analyses measured data from large scale wind power production. Comparisons of variability are made across several variables: time scale (10-60 minute ramp rates), number of wind farms, and simulated vs. modeled data. Ramp rates for Wind power production, Load (total system load) and Net load (load minus wind power production) demonstrate how wind power increases the net load variability. Wind power will also change the timing of daily ramps.

  10. Identification of earthquakes that generate tsunamis in Java and Nusa Tenggara using rupture duration analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pribadi, S.; Puspito, N. T.; Yudistira, T.; Afnimar,; Ibrahim, G.; Laksono, B. I.; Adnan, Z.

    2014-09-25

    Java and Nusa Tenggara are the tectonically active of Sunda arc. This study discuss the rupture duration as a manifestation of the power of earthquake-generated tsunami. We use the teleseismic (30 - 90) body waves with high-frequency energy Seismometer is from IRIS network as amount 206 broadband units. We applied the Butterworth high bandpass (1 - 2 Hz) filtered. The arrival and travel times started from wave phase of P - PP which based on Jeffrey Bullens table with TauP program. The results are that the June 2, 1994 Banyuwangi and the July 17, 2006 Pangandaran earthquakes identified as tsunami earthquakes with long rupture duration (To > 100 second), medium magnitude (7.6 < Mw < 7.9) and located near the trench. The others are 4 tsunamigenic earthquakes and 3 inland earthquakes with short rupture duration start from To > 50 second which depend on its magnitude. Those events are located far from the trench.

  11. Investigation of redshift- and duration-dependent clustering of gamma-ray bursts

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ukwatta, T. N.; Woźniak, P. R.

    2015-11-05

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are detectable out to very large distances and as such are potentially powerful cosmological probes. Historically, the angular distribution of GRBs provided important information about their origin and physical properties. As a general population, GRBs are distributed isotropically across the sky. However, there are published reports that once binned by duration or redshift, GRBs display significant clustering. We have studied the redshift- and duration-dependent clustering of GRBs using proximity measures and kernel density estimation. Utilizing bursts detected by Burst and Transient Source Experiment, Fermi/gamma-ray burst monitor, and Swift/Burst Alert Telescope, we found marginal evidence for clustering inmore » very short duration GRBs lasting less than 100 ms. As a result, our analysis provides little evidence for significant redshift-dependent clustering of GRBs.« less

  12. Investigation of redshift- and duration-dependent clustering of gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Ukwatta, T. N.; Woźniak, P. R.

    2015-11-05

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are detectable out to very large distances and as such are potentially powerful cosmological probes. Historically, the angular distribution of GRBs provided important information about their origin and physical properties. As a general population, GRBs are distributed isotropically across the sky. However, there are published reports that once binned by duration or redshift, GRBs display significant clustering. We have studied the redshift- and duration-dependent clustering of GRBs using proximity measures and kernel density estimation. Utilizing bursts detected by Burst and Transient Source Experiment, Fermi/gamma-ray burst monitor, and Swift/Burst Alert Telescope, we found marginal evidence for clustering in very short duration GRBs lasting less than 100 ms. As a result, our analysis provides little evidence for significant redshift-dependent clustering of GRBs.

  13. A SIZE-DURATION TREND FOR GAMMA-RAY BURST PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect

    Barnacka, Anna; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: abarnacka@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) show a bimodal distribution of durations, separated at a duration of ?2s. Observations have confirmed the association of long GRBs with the collapse of massive stars. The origin of short GRBs is still being explored. We examine constraints on the size of emission regions in short and long GRBs detected by Fermi/GBM. We find that the transverse extent of emission regions during the prompt phase, R, and the burst duration, T {sub 90}, are consistent with the relation R ? c T {sub 90}, for both long and short GRBs. We find the characteristic transverse extent for the prompt emission region to be ?2 10{sup 10}cm and ?4 10{sup 11}cm for short and long GRBs, respectively.

  14. COSMOLOGICAL TIME DILATION IN DURATIONS OF SWIFT LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fu-Wen; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain ObservatoryChinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Shao, Lang [Department of Space Science and AstronomyHebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China)

    2013-11-20

    Cosmological time dilation is a fundamental phenomenon in an expanding universe, which stresses that both the duration and wavelength of the emitted light from a distant object at the redshift z will be dilated by a factor of 1 + z at the observer. By using a sample of 139 Swift long gamma-ray bursts with known redshift (z ? 8.2), we measure the observed duration (T {sub 90}) in the observed energy range between 140/(1 + z)keV and 350/(1 + z)keV, corresponding to a fixed energy range of 140-350keV in the rest frame. We obtain a significant correlation between the duration and the factor 1 + z, i.e., T {sub 90} = 10.5(1 + z){sup 0.94} {sup } {sup 0.26}, which is consistent with that expected from the cosmological time dilation effect.

  15. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  16. Method and apparatus for producing durationally short ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulses

    DOEpatents

    MacGowan, Brian J.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Trebes, James E.

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for producing ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulses of short duration (32). An ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulse of long duration (12) is progressively refracted, across the surface of an opaque barrier (28), by a streaming plasma (22) that is produced by illuminating a solid target (16, 18) with a pulse of conventional line focused high power laser radiation (20). The short pulse of ultraviolet or X-ray laser radiation (32), which may be amplified to high power (40, 42), is separated out by passage through a slit aperture (30) in the opaque barrier (28).

  17. Method and apparatus for producing durationally short ultraviolet or x-ray laser pulses

    DOEpatents

    MacGowan, B.J.; Matthews, D.L.; Trebes, J.E.

    1987-05-05

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for producing ultraviolet or x- ray laser pulses of short duration. An ultraviolet or x-ray laser pulse of long duration is progressively refracted, across the surface of an opaque barrier, by a streaming plasma that is produced by illuminating a solid target with a pulse of conventional line focused high power laser radiation. The short pulse of ultraviolet or x-ray laser radiation, which may be amplified to high power, is separated out by passage through a slit aperture in the opaque barrier.

  18. The Importance of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Adaptation Planning

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Adaptation Forum is hosting a webinar to focus on the importance and role of traditional ecological knowledge in adaptation planning at the local, regional, and national level.

  19. Intermediate-scale Fire Performance of Composite Panels under Varying Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Alexander; Jernigan, Dann A.; Dodd, Amanda B.

    2015-04-01

    New aircraft are being designed with increasing quantities of composite materials used in their construction. Different from the more traditional metals, composites have a higher propensity to burn. This presents a challenge to transportation safety analyses, as the aircraft structure now represents an additional fuel source involved in the fire scenario. Most of the historical fire testing of composite materials is aime d at studying kinetics, flammability or yield strength under fire conditions. Most of this testing is small - scale. Heterogeneous reactions are often length - scale dependent, and this is thought to be particularly true for composites which exhibit signific ant microscopic dynamics that can affect macro - scale behavior. We have designed a series of tests to evaluate composite materials under various structural loading conditions with a consistent thermal condition. We have measured mass - loss , heat flux, and temperature throughout the experiments. Several types of panels have been tested, including simple composite panels, and sandwich panels. The main objective of the testing was to understand the importance of the structural loading on a composite to its b ehavior in response to fire - like conditions. During flaming combustion at early times, there are some features of the panel decomposition that are unique to the type of loading imposed on the panels. At load levels tested, fiber reaction rates at later t imes appear to be independent of the initial structural loading.

  20. Characteristics and Performance of Existing Load Disaggregation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Sullivan, Greg P.; Butner, Ryan S.; Hao, He; Baechler, Michael C.

    2015-04-10

    Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) or non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is an analytic approach to disaggregate building loads based on a single metering point. This advanced load monitoring and disaggregation technique has the potential to provide an alternative solution to high-priced traditional sub-metering and enable innovative approaches for energy conservation, energy efficiency, and demand response. However, since the inception of the concept in the 1980’s, evaluations of these technologies have focused on reporting performance accuracy without investigating sources of inaccuracies or fully understanding and articulating the meaning of the metrics used to quantify performance. As a result, the market for, as well as, advances in these technologies have been slowly maturing.To improve the market for these NILM technologies, there has to be confidence that the deployment will lead to benefits. In reality, every end-user and application that this technology may enable does not require the highest levels of performance accuracy to produce benefits. Also, there are other important characteristics that need to be considered, which may affect the appeal of NILM products to certain market targets (i.e. residential and commercial building consumers) and the suitability for particular applications. These characteristics include the following: 1) ease of use, the level of expertise/bandwidth required to properly use the product; 2) ease of installation, the level of expertise required to install along with hardware needs that impact product cost; and 3) ability to inform decisions and actions, whether the energy outputs received by end-users (e.g. third party applications, residential users, building operators, etc.) empower decisions and actions to be taken at time frames required for certain applications. Therefore, stakeholders, researchers, and other interested parties should be kept abreast of the evolving capabilities, uses, and characteristics

  1. How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescents |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Electricity & Fuel » Lighting » How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescents How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescents By replacing your home's five most frequently used light fixtures or bulbs with models that have earned the ENERGY STAR, you can save $75 each year. By replacing your home's five most frequently used light fixtures or bulbs with models that have earned the ENERGY STAR, you can save $75 each

  2. Passive load control for large wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwill, Thomas D.

    2010-05-01

    Wind energy research activities at Sandia National Laboratories focus on developing large rotors that are lighter and more cost-effective than those designed with current technologies. Because gravity scales as the cube of the blade length, gravity loads become a constraining design factor for very large blades. Efforts to passively reduce turbulent loading has shown significant potential to reduce blade weight and capture more energy. Research in passive load reduction for wind turbines began at Sandia in the late 1990's and has moved from analytical studies to blade applications. This paper discusses the test results of two Sandia prototype research blades that incorporate load reduction techniques. The TX-100 is a 9-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling with the use of off-axis carbon in the skin. The STAR blade is a 27-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling by sweeping the blade in a geometric fashion.

  3. Radiation load to the SNAP CCD

    SciTech Connect

    N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov

    2003-08-14

    Results of an express Monte Carlo analysis with the MARS14 code of radiation load to the CCD optical detectors in the Supernova Acceleration Project (SNAP) mission presented for realistic radiation environment over the satellite orbit.

  4. Radiopure Metal-Loaded Liquid Scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Rosero, Richard; Yeh, Minfang

    2015-03-18

    Metal-loaded liquid scintillator plays a key role in particle and nuclear physics experiments. The applications of metal ions in various neutrino experiments and the purification methods for different scintillator components are discussed in this paper.

  5. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J.; Owens, William J.

    1985-01-01

    A high density peg which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  6. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-01-29

    A high density peg is disclosed which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 4 figs.

  7. Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening

    Energy Saver

    be exceeded under emergency conditions - Voltage levels cannot be kept within required ... anymore 40-50MW Jump in Load Corresponding drop in PV 24 Need to Assess Impacts on System ...

  8. Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... In Hawaii the distribution system we talk about a lot of utilities have different voltage ... PM the load demands start to drop because PV starts to come up and then start to drop. ...

  9. Determining Electric Motor Load and Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fig- ure 2 shows that power factor tends to drop off sooner, but less steeply than ... Never operate over- loaded when voltage is below nominal or when cooling is impaired by ...

  10. Web Login Service - Loading Session State...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Login Service - Loading Session State... Since your browser does not support JavaScript, you must press the Continue button once to proceed. Continue Insert your footer text here....

  11. Statoil's offshore submerged turret loading system

    SciTech Connect

    Brevik, K. ); Smedal, S. )

    1993-01-01

    Statoil, the Norwegian state oil company, and Marine Consulting Group (MCG), with support from Norwegian research institutes, are jointly developing a new offshore shuttle tanker loading concept called the Submerged Turret Loading (STL) system. The STL comprises a spread-moored buoy and export line riser configured such that, when not in use, the buoy remains submerged. For shuttle tanker loading, the vessel moves over the buoy and pulls it into a compartment in the bottom of its hull. Mooring loads are then transferred into the vessel's hull; and the export riser is connected to the shuttle's tankage within the chamber, below waterline. Principal features of the innovative new system that allows operations in seastates well beyond present-system limits, increases safety and reduces pollution potential are outlined here.

  12. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy

  13. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    SciTech Connect

    Lesieutre, Bernard; Bravo, Richard; Yinger, Robert; Chassin, Dave; Huang, Henry; Lu, Ning; Hiskens, Ian; Venkataramanan, Giri

    2012-03-31

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  14. Economic impacts of irrigation load management controls

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.C. )

    1988-01-01

    Irrigators subject to load management controls experience electric power interruptions during periods of peak power demand. The resulting interruptions in irrigation pumping may result in moisture stress-induced crop yield reductions. The results of analysis show a great sensitivity of irrigator incomes to such yield losses. The sensitivity is of such a magnitude that rural electric cooperatives (RECs) would have to offer load management incentives of at least five times their monthly demand charges for irrigators under typical conditions (not oversized irrigation pumps) to remain under load control when irrigated crops are experiencing yield-reducing moisture stress. Incentives of this magnitude cannot be economically justified by most RECs. Thus, provision for the voluntary withdrawal of irrigators from load control is an essential feature of most workable and effective irrigation laod management programs.

  15. Customer Load Eligibility Guidelines (CLEG), April 2015

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    3.2. Mixed Residential and Commercial Uses (50% Rule). Load related to commercial enterprises metered through a bona fide residence is eligible for REP benefits as long as the...

  16. S-Band Loads for SLAC Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, A.; Decker, F.-J.; LeClair, R.; /INTA Technologies, Santa Clara

    2012-08-28

    The S-Band loads on the current SLAC linac RF system were designed, in some cases, 40+ years ago to terminate 2-3 MW peak power into a thin layer of coated Kanthal material as the high power absorber [1]. The technology of the load design was based on a flame-sprayed Kanthal wire method onto a base material. During SLAC linac upgrades, the 24 MW peak klystrons were replaced by 5045 klystrons with 65+ MW peak output power. Additionally, SLED cavities were introduced and as a result, the peak power in the current RF setup has increased up to 240 MW peak. The problem of reliable RF peak power termination and RF load lifetime required a careful study and adequate solution. Results of our studies and three designs of S-Band RF load for the present SLAC RF linac system is discussed. These designs are based on the use of low conductivity materials.

  17. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOEpatents

    Buescher, Jr., Brent J.; Lloyd, W. Randolph; Ward, Michael B.; Epstein, Jonathan S.

    1997-01-01

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen.

  18. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOEpatents

    Buescher, B.J. Jr.; Lloyd, W.R.; Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.

    1997-02-04

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: (a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; (b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; (c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and (d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen. 6 figs.

  19. Bioenergy Impacts … Self-Loading Trailer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    FDC Enterprises, which partnered with Kelderman Manufacturing to develop a self- loading trailer. Biofuels company Abengoa purchased the self-loading trailer to streamline the movement of corn plant residues to its biorefinery, where they are converted into biofuel. Biorefineries are cutting their costs by using more efficient harvesting equipment BIOENERGY To learn more, visit bioenergy.energy.gov. BIOENERGY TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE Photo courtesy of Dave Jordan, MacDon Industries Ltd.

  20. Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Minimum Daytime Load Calculation and Screening Page 1 of 30 Kristen Ardani, Dora Nakfuji, Anthony Hong, and Babak Enayati Page 1 of 30 [Speaker: Kristen Ardani] Cover Slide: Thank you everyone for joining us today for our DG interconnection collaborative informational webinar. Today we are going to talk about minimum day time load calculation and screening procedures and their role in the distributed PV interconnection process. We're going to hear from Babak Enayati of the Massachusetts

  1. Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain rate Contact Eric Loomis (505) 665-3196 Email Dynamic materials experiments over a wide range of strain rates are essential to studying constitutive relations (e.g., plasticity), damage (e.g., spall), equations of state, phase transitions and kinetics, and novel materials. The Trident laser facility supplies unique,

  2. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Oyague, F.

    2011-11-01

    This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

  3. Forest products: Fiber loading for paper manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-29

    Fact sheet on manufacturing filler during paper manufacturing written for the NICE3 Program. With its new fiber loading process, Voith Sulzer, Inc., is greatly improving the efficiency of paper production and recycling. Fiber loading produces precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) filler in the pulp recycling process at costs below conventional means. Fiber loading allows papermakers to use as much filler, like PCC, as possible because it costs 80% less than fiber. In addition, increased filler and fines retention due to fiber loading reduces the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions, deinking sludge, and other waste while substantially lowering energy costs. Currently, the most efficient way to produce PCC as filler is to make it in a satellite plant adjacent to a paper mill. Satellite plants exist near large scale paper mills (producing 700 tons per day) because the demand at large mills justifies building a costly ($15 million, average) satellite plant. This new fiber loading process combines the PCC manufacturing technology used in a satellite plant with the pulp processing operations of a paper mill. It is 33% less expensive to augment an existing paper mill with fiber loading technology than to build a satellite plant for the same purpose. This technology is applicable to the manufacturing of all printing and writing paper, regardless of the size or capacity of the paper mill.

  4. End-use load control for power system dynamic stability enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, J.E.; Winiarski, D.W.; Donnelly, M.K.

    1997-02-01

    Faced with the prospect of increasing utilization of the transmission and distribution infrastructure without significant upgrade, the domestic electric power utility industry is investing heavily in technologies to improve network dynamic performance through a program loosely referred to as Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS). Devices exploiting recent advances in power electronics are being installed in the power system to offset the need to construct new transmission lines. These devices collectively represent investment potential of several billion dollars over the next decade. A similar development, designed to curtail the peak loads and thus defer new transmission, distribution, and generation investment, falls under a category of technologies referred to as demand side management (DSM). A subset of broader conservation measures, DSM acts directly on the load to reduce peak consumption. DSM techniques include direct load control, in which a utility has the ability to curtail specific loads as conditions warrant. A novel approach has been conceived by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to combine the objectives of FACTS and the technologies inherent in DSM to provide a distributed power system dynamic controller. This technology has the potential to dramatically offset major investments in FACTS devices by using direct load control to achieve dynamic stability objectives. The potential value of distributed versus centralized grid modulation has been examined by simulating the western power grid under extreme loading conditions. In these simulations, a scenario is analyzed in which active grid stabilization enables power imports into the southern California region to be increased several hundred megawatts beyond present limitations. Modeling results show distributed load control is up to 30 percent more effective than traditional centralized control schemes in achieving grid stability.

  5. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs

  6. Load cell having strain gauges of arbitrary location

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry

    2007-03-13

    A load cell utilizes a plurality of strain gauges mounted upon the load cell body such that there are six independent load-strain relations. Load is determined by applying the inverse of a load-strain sensitivity matrix to a measured strain vector. The sensitivity matrix is determined by performing a multivariate regression technique on a set of known loads correlated to the resulting strains. Temperature compensation is achieved by configuring the strain gauges as co-located orthogonal pairs.

  7. Comparison of Different Load Road Implementation Strategies on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Different Load Road Implementation Strategies on Fuel Economy of USPS Step Vans Comparison of Different Load Road Implementation Strategies on Fuel Economy of USPS Step Vans An ...

  8. Impact of Higher Fidelity Models on Active Aerodynamic Load Control...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation of active aerodynamic load control technology is provided here. Turbine component fatigue damage calculations require time-series load histories at the turbine...

  9. DOE Seeking Information on Miscellaneous Electrical Loads Research...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Miscellaneous Electrical Loads Research and Development Topics DOE Seeking Information on Miscellaneous Electrical Loads Research and Development Topics September 13, 2016 - 4:15pm ...

  10. Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops Load ...

  11. Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load Homes Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load Homes This presentation was given at the...

  12. Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by...

  13. Water Energy Load Profiling (WELP) Tool | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Load Profiling (WELP) Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Water Energy Load Profiling (WELP) Tool AgencyCompany Organization: California Public...

  14. Optimized scalar promotion with load and splat SIMD instructions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optimized scalar promotion with load and splat SIMD instructions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optimized scalar promotion with load and splat SIMD instructions ...

  15. CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: James Braun, Purdue ...

  16. Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams, and results ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The report summarizes the load flow model construction, simulation, and validation and describes the general capabilities of an information query system designed to access load ...

  17. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and ...

  18. PROJECT PROFILE: Dynamic Building Load Control to Facilitate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Dynamic Building Load Control to Facilitate High Penetration of Solar Photovoltaic Generation (SuNLaMP) PROJECT PROFILE: Dynamic Building Load Control to Facilitate High ...

  19. Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management for larger...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management for larger waste packages. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management...

  20. DOE Awards Contract for WIPP Mobile Loading Unit Services | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    WIPP Mobile Loading Unit Services DOE Awards Contract for WIPP Mobile Loading Unit ... awarded a competitive small business contract to Celeritex, LLC, (a Joint Venture ...

  1. CoolCab Truck Thermal Load Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Truck Thermal Load Reduction CoolCab Truck Thermal Load Reduction 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May ...

  2. Electric Drive Vehicle Climate Control Load Reduction | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Climate Control Load Reduction Electric Drive Vehicle Climate Control Load Reduction 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review ...

  3. Bacman LowLoad GEPP | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Home Bacman LowLoad GEPP General Information Name Bacman LowLoad GEPP Facility Power Plant Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Coordinates 11.152427744569,...

  4. Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load limit Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load limit Explores the effect of compression ratio and piston ...

  5. Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading Ahead of Schedule | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Blog Home Field Offices Welcome to the NNSA Production Office NPO News Releases Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading Ahead of Schedule Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading...

  6. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience In this study, we examine the ...

  7. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOEpatents

    Perez, Richard

    2005-05-03

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.

  8. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2015-05-01

    With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment - thus facing penalties in system efficiency, comfort, and cost. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of multifamily buildings and single-family homes market needs. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services on hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data. CARB compiled and analyzed these data to see what the thermal load ranges are in various multifamily apartments and attached single-family home types (duplex and townhouse). In total, design loads from 941 dwellings from SWA's recent multifamily and attached single-family work across the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic were analyzed. Information on the dwelling characteristics, design loads, and the specifications of installed mechanical equipment were analyzed to determine any trends that exist within the dataset.

  9. A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.

  10. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  11. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-07

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  12. Wind Turbine Generator System Duration Test Report for the Mariah Power Windspire Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Huskey, A.; Bowen, A.; Jager, D.

    2010-05-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of the first round of this project. Duration testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines. Other tests include power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality tests. NWTC testing results provide manufacturers with reports that may be used to meet part of small wind turbine certification requirements. This duration test report focuses on the Mariah Power Windspire wind turbine.

  13. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOEpatents

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Ford, Justin R.; Spires, Shannon V.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-10-27

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  14. New method developed for LPG offshore loading

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    An innovative concept for refrigerated LPG offshore loading has been developed by TOTAL and Enterprise D'Equipments Mecaniques at Hydrauliques. Known as CHAGAL, the system integrates with the catenary anchor leg mooring offshore loading system commonly used for crude oil. CHAGAL provides a suitable answer to short-term development schemes of LPG trade. It can be adapted for possible extrapolation to cryogenic temperatures of LNG and it opens a new way to the development of offshore liquefaction projects for which the offloading of production is still an unsolved key problem.

  15. Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Starke, Michael R; Alkadi, Nasr E; Letto, Daryl; Johnson, Brandon; Dowling, Kevin; George, Raoule; Khan, Saqib

    2013-01-01

    Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.

  16. LOADED WAVE GUIDES FOR LINEAR ACCELERATORS

    DOEpatents

    Walkinshaw, W.; Mullett, L.B.

    1959-12-01

    A periodically loaded waveguide having substantially coaxially arranged elements which provide an axial field for the acceleration of electrons is described. Radiofrequency energy will flow in the space between the inner wall of an outer guide and the peripheries of equally spaced irises or washes arranged coaxially with each other and with the outer guide, where the loading due to the geometry of the irises is such as to reduce the phase velocity of the r-f energy flowing in the guide from a value greater than that of light to the velocity of light or less.

  17. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOEpatents

    Lentine, Anthony L; Ford, Justin R; Spires, Shannon V; Goldsmith, Steven Y

    2015-11-05

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  18. net_energy_load_2006.xls

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 (Thousands of Megawatthours and 2006 Base Year) Net Energy For Load (Annual) Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 2006 3,911,914 230,115 222,748 294,319 926,279 1,011,173 201,521 305,672 720,087 Projected Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC

  19. Fuel cell stack compressive loading system

    DOEpatents

    Fahle, Ronald W.; Reiser, Carl A.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel cell module comprising a stack of fuel cells with reactant gas manifolds sealed against the external surfaces of the stack includes a constraint system for providing a compressive load on the stack wherein the constraint system maintains the stack at a constant height (after thermal expansion) and allows the compressive load to decrease with time as a result of the creep characteristics of the stack. Relative motion between the manifold sealing edges and the stack surface is virtually eliminated by this constraint system; however it can only be used with a stack having considerable resiliency and appropriate thermal expansion and creep characteristics.

  20. Radioactivities of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) materials: Baggage and bonanzas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.R.; Hurley, D.L.

    1991-08-01

    Radioactivities in materials onboard the returned Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite have been studied by a variety of techniques. Among the most powerful is low-background Ge-semiconductor detector gamma-ray spectrometry, illustrated here by results obtained at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Low Bakground Facilities, in a multi-laboratory collaboration coordinated by Dr. Thomas Parnell's team at the Marshall Spacecraft Center, Huntsville, Alabama.

  1. Elevated Temperature Primary Load Design Method Using Pseudo Elastic-Perfectly Plastic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Peter; Sham, Sam; Jetter, Robert I

    2012-01-01

    A new primary load design method for elevated temperature service has been developed. Codification of the procedure in an ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III Code Case is being pursued. The proposed primary load design method is intended to provide the same margins on creep rupture, yielding and creep deformation for a component or structure that are implicit in the allowable stress data. It provides a methodology that does not require stress classification and is also applicable to a full range of temperature above and below the creep regime. Use of elastic-perfectly plastic analysis based on allowable stress with corrections for constraint, steady state stress and creep ductility is described. This approach is intended to ensure that traditional primary stresses are the basis for design, taking into account ductility limits to stress re-distribution and multiaxial rupture criteria.

  2. Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Traditional Cultural Properties (NPS, 1998)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This National Park Service bulletin is meant to assist federal agencies, State Historic Preservation Officers, local governments, Indian tribes, and other historic preservation practitioners in determining whether properties thought to have traditional cultural significance are eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places.

  3. Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Traditional Cultural Properties

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This National Park Service bulletin is meant to assist federal agencies, State Historic Preservation Officers, local governments, Indian tribes, and other historic preservation practitioners in determining whether properties thought to have traditional cultural significance are eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places.

  4. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  5. An unconventional method for load balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Y.; McCoy, R.A.; Marr, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    A new method of load balancing is introduced based on the idea of dynamically relocating virtual processes corresponding to computations on an abstract system with a larger number of processors. The algorithm introduced preserves the locality of nearest neighbor interactions and has been tested on simulated data and a molecular dynamics code.

  6. An unconventional method for load balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Y.; McCoy, R.A.; Marr, R.B.; Peierls, R.F.

    1995-08-01

    A new method of load balancing is introduced based on the idea of dynamically relocating virtual processes corresponding to computations on an abstract system with a large number of processors. The algorithm introduced preserves the locality of nearest neighbor interactions and has been tested on simulated data and a molecular dynamics code.

  7. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop was held October 25-26, 2011, in Washington, DC. This U.S. Department of Energy workshop was attended by members of the electric power industry, researchers, and policy makers. The results of the workshop informed the Demand Response and Energy Storage Study.

  8. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop was held October 25-26, 2011, in Washington, DC. This U.S. Department of Energy workshop was attended by members of the electric power industry, researchers, and policy makers. The results of the workshop informed the Demand Response and Energy Storage Study.

  9. Appliance Commitment for Household Load Scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Pengwei; Lu, Ning

    2011-06-30

    This paper presents a novel appliance commitment algorithm that schedules thermostatically-controlled household loads based on price and consumption forecasts considering users comfort settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum payment or maximum comfort. The formulation of an appliance commitment problem was described in the paper using an electrical water heater load as an example. The thermal dynamics of heating and coasting of the water heater load was modeled by physical models; random hot water consumption was modeled with statistical methods. The models were used to predict the appliance operation over the scheduling time horizon. User comfort was transformed to a set of linear constraints. Then, a novel linear, sequential, optimization process was used to solve the appliance commitment problem. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm is fast, robust, and flexible. The algorithm can be used in home/building energy-management systems to help household owners or building managers to automatically create optimal load operation schedules based on different cost and comfort settings and compare cost/benefits among schedules.

  10. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.

    1985-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  11. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  12. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    1995-01-01

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications.

  13. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2015-05-19

    Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment must be right-sized to ensure energy performance and comfort. With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment that creates system efficiency, comfort, and cost penalties. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment that is oversized or inefficient and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of the needs of the multifamily building and attached single-family (duplex and townhouse) home market. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services for hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data that describe multifamily and attached single-family home characteristics. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) compiled and analyzed these data to outline the characteristics of low-load dwellings such as the heating and cooling design loads.

  14. Right-Sizing Laboratory Equipment Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Frenze, David; Greenberg, Steve; Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2005-11-29

    Laboratory equipment such as autoclaves, glass washers, refrigerators, and computers account for a significant portion of the energy use in laboratories. However, because of the general lack of measured equipment load data for laboratories, designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' rated data, or design assumptions from prior projects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequently overestimated. This results in oversized HVAC systems, increased initial construction costs, and increased energy use due to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. This best-practice guide first presents the problem of over-sizing in typical practice, and then describes how best-practice strategies obtain better estimates of equipment loads and right-size HVAC systems, saving initial construction costs as well as life-cycle energy costs. This guide is one in a series created by the Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs21') program, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Geared towards architects, engineers, and facilities managers, these guides provide information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  15. 1995 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-12-01

    The study establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. The study presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, and serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts.

  16. Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

    2004-06-01

    This study describes the results of a low-cost approach used to measure reported load reductions from a residential electric water heater (EWH) load control program operated as part of PJM Interconnection's Demand Response small customer pilot program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted this independent review of the engineering estimates for EWH load control reported by a Curtailment Service Provider (CSP) at PJM's request. LBNL employed low-cost measurement and verification (M&V) approaches that utilized existing interval metering equipment to monitor results for a series of load control tests. The CSP collected hourly load data for two substations and several hundred households over a six-week period in October and November 2003. During this time period, the CSP operated its electric water heater load control program during pre-specified test periods in the morning, afternoon and early evening. LBNL then analyzed substation and premise-level data from these tests in order to verify the diversified demand reductions claimed by the CSP for customers participating in the EWH load control program. We found that the observed load reductions for the premise-level data aggregated over all households in the two participating electric cooperatives were, respectively, 40 percent-60 percent less and 3 percent less-10 percent higher than the estimated diversified demand reduction values assumed by the CSP, depending on whether observed or normalized results are considered. We also analyzed sub-station level data and found that the observed load reductions during the test periods were significantly lower than expected, although confounding influences and operational problems signifiogram during pre-specified test periods in the morning, afternoon and early evening. LBNL then analyzed substation and premise-level data from these tests in order to verify the diversified demand reductions claimed by the CSP for customers participating in the EWH load control

  17. 2003 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. The forecasted annual energy electricity retail load plus contract obligations are subtracted from the sum of the projected annual energy capability of existing resources and contract purchases to determine whether BPA and/or the region will be surplus or deficit. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Deficits occur when resources are less than loads. Energy deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions

  18. Elimination of metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products increases ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Papanek, Beth A.; Biswas, Ranjita; Rydzak, Thomas; Guss, Adam M.

    2015-09-12

    Clostridium thermocellum has the natural ability to convert cellulose to ethanol, making it a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. To further improve its CBP capabilities, we study a mutant strain of C. thermocellum that was constructed (strain AG553; C. thermocellum Δhpt ΔhydG Δldh Δpfl Δpta-ack) to increase flux to ethanol by removing side product formation. Strain AG553 showed a two- to threefold increase in ethanol yield relative to the wild type on all substrates tested. On defined medium, strain AG553 exceeded 70% of theoretical ethanol yield on lower loadings of the model crystalline cellulosemore » Avicel, effectively eliminating formate, acetate, and lactate production and reducing H2 production by fivefold. On 5 g/L Avicel, strain AG553 reached an ethanol yield of 63.5% of the theoretical maximum compared with 19.9% by the wild type, and it showed similar yields on pretreated switchgrass and poplar. The elimination of organic acid production suggested that the strain might be capable of growth under higher substrate loadings in the absence of pH control. Final ethanol titer peaked at 73.4 mM in mutant AG553 on 20 g/L Avicel, at which point the pH decreased to a level that does not allow growth of C. thermocellum, likely due to CO2 accumulation. In comparison, the maximum titer of wild type C. thermocellum was 14.1 mM ethanol on 10 g/L Avicel. In conclusion, with the elimination of the metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products other than ethanol, AG553 is the best ethanol-yielding CBP strain to date and will serve as a platform strain for further metabolic engineering for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.« less

  19. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOEpatents

    Perez, Richard

    2003-04-01

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  20. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to

  1. Traditional vs. Wev style guides: How do they differ?

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, J.; Forsythe, C.; Grose, E.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes a study in which Web style guides were characterized, compared to traditional human-computer interface (HCI) style guides, and evaluated against findings from HCI reviews of web pages and applications. Findings showed little consistency among the 21 Web style guides assessed, with 75% of recommendations appearing in only one style guide. While there was some overlap, only 20% of Web-relevant recommendations from traditional style guides were found in Web style guides. Web style guides emphasized common look and feel, information display, and navigation issues, with little mention of many issues prominent in traditional style guides such as help, message boxes, and data entry. This difference is reinforced by other results showing that Web style guides address Web information-only pages with much greater success than web-based control enabling features, like buttons and entry fields. It is concluded that while the WWW represents a unique graphical user interface (GUI) environment, development of Web style guides has been less rigorous, with issues associated with web-based control enabling features neglected.

  2. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... respond immediately to stop the frequency drop, returning the system frequency to 60 Hz ... and provide frequency support or voltage support for a short duration (minutes to hours). ...

  3. 1996 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Containment Unidirectional Resource Loading System (CURLS) | Argonne

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Containment Unidirectional Resource Loading System (CURLS) Technology available for licensing: CURLS is a "tunnel" that installs in an existing glove port along with various co-designed resource cartridges that allow easy and rapid changeover of resources without losing containment. Allows for easy and rapid glovebox resource changes, while maintaining containment Can be mounted in existing glove ports, offering an array of fail-safe cartridges for all resource

  5. Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zenitani, Seiji

    2015-04-15

    Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ?50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.

  6. APPARATUS FOR LOADING AND UNLOADING A MACHINE

    DOEpatents

    Payne, J.H. Jr.

    1962-07-17

    An arrangement for loading and unloading a nuclear reactor is described. Depleted fuel elements are removed from the reactor through one of a small number of holes in a shielding plug that is rotatably mounted in an eccentric annular plug rotatably mounted in the top of the reactor. The fuel elements removed are stored in a plurality of openings in a rotatable magazine or storage means rotatably mounted over the plugs. (AEC)

  7. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    BOWEN, W.W.

    1999-11-08

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This document reflects the 1 Oct 1999 baseline.

  8. Isorropia Partitioning and Load Balancing Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2006-09-01

    Isorropia is a partitioning and load balancing package which interfaces with the Zoltan library. Isorropia can accept input objects such as matrices and matrix-graphs, and repartition/redistribute them into a better data distribution on parallel computers. Isorropia is primarily an interface package, utilizing graph and hypergraph partitioning algorithms that are in the Zoltan library which is a third-party library to Tilinos.

  9. Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening" Dora Nakafuji and Anthony Hong, Hawaiian Electric Co. Babak Enayati, DG Techincal Standards Review Group April 30, 2014 2 Speakers Babak Enayati Chair of Massachusetts DG Technical Standards Review Group Dora Nakafuji Director of Renewable Energy Planning Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) Kristen Ardani Solar Analyst, (today's moderator) NREL Anthony Hong Director of Distribution Planning Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) Standardization of

  10. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    GANTT, D.A.

    2000-01-12

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FETF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This revision reflects the 19 Oct 1999 baseline.

  11. Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative (DGIC) "Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening" Dora Nakafuji and Anthony Hong, Hawaiian Electric Co. Babak Enayati, DG Techincal Standards Review Group April 30, 2014 2 Speakers Babak Enayati Chair of Massachusetts DG Technical Standards Review Group Dora Nakafuji Director of Renewable Energy Planning Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) Kristen Ardani Solar Analyst, (today's moderator) NREL Anthony Hong Director of

  12. Residential equipment part load curves for use in DOE-2

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Hugh; Huang, Y.J.; Parker, D.

    1999-02-01

    DOE-2 (DOE2 90) includes several correlation curves that predict the energy use of systems underpart load conditions. DOE-2 simulates systems on an hour-by-hour basis, so the correlations are intended to predict part load energy use (and efficiency) as a function of the part load ratio (PLR) for each hour, where PLR = Hourly Load/Available Capacity. Generally residential and small commercial HVAC equipment meets the load at off-design conditions by cycling on and off. Therefore, the part load correlations must predict the degradation due to this on and off operation over an hourly interval.

  13. Methods for Analyzing Electric Load Shape and its Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Philip

    2010-05-12

    Current methods of summarizing and analyzing electric load shape are discussed briefly and compared. Simple rules of thumb for graphical display of load shapes are suggested. We propose a set of parameters that quantitatively describe the load shape in many buildings. Using the example of a linear regression model to predict load shape from time and temperature, we show how quantities such as the load?s sensitivity to outdoor temperature, and the effectiveness of demand response (DR), can be quantified. Examples are presented using real building data.

  14. Integration of Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Ma, Jian; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Loutan, Clyde; Guttromson, Ross T.

    2010-04-20

    In this paper, a new approach to evaluate the uncertainty ranges for the required generation performance envelope, including the balancing capacity, ramping capability and ramp duration is presented. The approach includes three stages: statistical and actual data acquisition, statistical analysis of retrospective information, and prediction of future grid balancing requirements for specified time horizons and confidence intervals. Assessment of the capacity and ramping requirements is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm based on a histogram analysis incorporating all sources of uncertainty and parameters of a continuous (wind forecast and load forecast errors) and discrete (forced generator outages and failures to start up) nature. Preliminary simulations using California Independent System Operator (CAISO) real life data have shown the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.

  15. ZnO nanorod growth by plasma-enhanced vapor phase transport with different growth durations

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chang-Yong; Oh, Hee-bong; Ryu, Hyukhyun; Yun, Jondo; Lee, Won-Jae

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the structural properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by plasma-enhanced vapor phase transport (PEVPT) were investigated. Plasma-treated oxygen gas was used as the oxygen source for the ZnO growth. The structural properties of ZnO nanostructures grown for different durations were measured by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The authors comprehensively analyzed the growth of the ZnO nanostructures with different growth durations both with and without the use of plasma-treated oxygen gas. It was found that PEVPT has a significant influence on the growth of the ZnO nanorods. PEVPT with plasma-treated oxygen gas facilitated the generation of nucleation sites, and the resulting ZnO nanorod structures were more vertical than those prepared by conventional VPT without plasma-treated oxygen gas. As a result, the ZnO nanostructures grown using PEVPT showed improved structural properties compared to those prepared by the conventional VPT method.

  16. 3D printed cellular solid outperforms traditional stochastic foam in long-term mechanical response

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Maiti, A.; Small, W.; Lewicki, J.; Weisgraber, T. H.; Duoss, E. B.; Chinn, S. C.; Pearson, M. A.; Spadaccini, C. M.; Maxwell, R. S.; Wilson, T. S.

    2016-04-27

    3D printing of polymeric foams by direct-ink-write is a recent technological breakthrough that enables the creation of versatile compressible solids with programmable microstructure, customizable shapes, and tunable mechanical response including negative elastic modulus. However, in many applications the success of these 3D printed materials as a viable replacement for traditional stochastic foams critically depends on their mechanical performance and micro-architectural stability while deployed under long-term mechanical strain. To predict the long-term performance of the two types of foams we employed multi-year-long accelerated aging studies under compressive strain followed by a time-temperature-superposition analysis using a minimum-arc-length-based algorithm. The resulting master curvesmore » predict superior long-term performance of the 3D printed foam in terms of two different metrics, i.e., compression set and load retention. To gain deeper understanding, we imaged the microstructure of both foams using X-ray computed tomography, and performed finite-element analysis of the mechanical response within these microstructures. As a result, this indicates a wider stress variation in the stochastic foam with points of more extreme local stress as compared to the 3D printed material, which might explain the latter’s improved long-term stability and mechanical performance.« less

  17. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    GEUTHER J; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER D

    2009-08-24

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described.

  18. Development of high-voltage pulse-slicer unit with variable pulse duration for pulse radiolysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyay, J.; Sharma, M. L.; Navathe, C. P.; Toley, M. A.; Shinde, S. J.; Nadkarni, S. A.; Sarkar, S. K.

    2012-02-15

    A high-voltage pulse-slicer unit with variable pulse duration has been developed and integrated with a 7 MeV linear electron accelerator (LINAC) for pulse radiolysis investigation. The pulse-slicer unit provides switching voltage from 1 kV to 10 kV with rise time better than 5 ns. Two MOSFET based 10 kV switches were configured in differential mode to get variable duration pulses. The high-voltage pulse has been applied to the deflecting plates of the LINAC for slicing of electron beam of 2 {mu}s duration. The duration of the electron beam has been varied from 30 ns to 2 {mu}s with the optimized pulse amplitude of 7 kV to get corresponding radiation doses from 6 Gy to 167 Gy.

  19. Transmission Reliability "Load as a Resource" Peer Review Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    "Load as a Resource" Peer Review Materials Now Available Transmission Reliability "Load as a Resource" Peer Review Materials Now Available September 25, 2014 - 11:43am Addthis OE's...

  20. Resolved: "error while loading shared libraries: libalpslli.so...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    "error while loading shared libraries: libalpslli.so.0" with serial codes on login nodes Resolved: "error while loading shared libraries: libalpslli.so.0" with serial codes on...

  1. Uk'e koley - No Footprint: Chickaloon Village Traditional Council

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Chickaloon Village Traditional Council Nay'dini'aa Na'  Nay'dini'aa Na' meaning: a log across the river  Our Tribe has long been devoted to being a good steward to the environment, understanding that it is our responsibility to take care of the land that has been loaned to us for the short time we are here.  Historically harvested resources include salmon, moose, caribou, beluga whale, grizzly and black bear, dall sheep, beaver and numerous other animals and plants for food, medicine,

  2. California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentcalifornia-customer-load-reductions-d Language: English Policies: Regulations Regulations: MandatesTargets This report details the...

  3. SMART BRIDGE: A tool for estimating the military load classification...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; 99 MATHEMATICS, COMPUTERS, INFORMATION SCIENCE, MANAGEMENT, LAW, MISCELLANEOUS; BRIDGES; STATIC LOADS; EXPERT ...

  4. Building America: Optimized Low-Load Comfort Solutions | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Optimized Low-Load Comfort Solutions Building America: Optimized Low-Load Comfort Solutions These Building America projects focus on high efficiency comfort systems for homes with low thermal loads, including optimal efficiency, and managed air flow and RH control at all part load conditions. This page provides a brief description of the teams, areas of focus, and key team members. Learn more about Building America's world-class research. Team Lead: IBACOS-Pittsburgh, PA Industry

  5. Pore Surface Engineering with Controlled Loadings of Functional...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Pore Surface Engineering with Controlled Loadings of Functional Groups via Click Chemistry in Highly Stable Metal-Organic Frameworks...

  6. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G.

    1998-09-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report.

  7. DIELECTRIC-LOADED WAVE-GUIDES

    DOEpatents

    Robertson-Shersby-Harvie, R.B.; Mullett, L.B.

    1957-04-23

    This patent presents a particular arrangement for delectric loading of a wave-guide carrying an electromagnetic wave in the E or TM mode of at least the second order, to reduce the power dissipated as the result of conduction loss in the wave-guide walls. To achieve this desirabie result, the effective dielectric constants in the radial direction of adjacent coaxial tubular regions bounded approximateiy by successive nodai surfaces within the electromagnetic field are of two different values alternating in the radial direction, the intermost and outermost regions being of the lower value, and the dielectric constants between nodes are uniform.

  8. PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION AS THE DOMINANT RADIATION MECHANISM IN LONG-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzati, Davide; Morsony, Brian J.; Margutti, Raffaella; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2013-03-10

    We present the results of a set of numerical simulations of long-duration gamma-ray burst jets associated with massive, compact stellar progenitors. The simulations extend to large radii and allow us to locate the region in which the peak frequency of the advected radiation is set before the radiation is released at the photosphere. Light curves and spectra are calculated for different viewing angles as well as different progenitor structures and jet properties. We find that the radiation released at the photosphere of matter-dominated jets is able to reproduce the observed Amati and energy-Lorentz factor correlations. Our simulations also predict a correlation between the burst energy and the radiative efficiency of the prompt phase, consistent with observations.

  9. Reducing Duration of Refueling Outage by Optimizing Core Design and Shuffling Sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Wakker, P.H.; Verhagen, F.C.M.; Bloois, J.T. van; Sutton, W.R. III

    2005-07-15

    Reducing the duration of refueling outage is possible by optimizing the core design and the shuffling sequence. For both options software tools have been developed that have been applied to the three most recent cycles of the Borssele plant in the Netherlands. Applicability of the shuffling sequence optimization to boiling water reactors has been demonstrated by a comparison to a recent shuffle plan used in the Hatch plant located in the United States. Their uses have shown that both core design and shuffling sequence optimization can be exploited to reduce the time needed for reloading a core with an in-core shuffling scheme. Ex-core shuffling schemes for pressurized water reactors can still have substantial benefit from a core design using a minimized number of insert shuffles.

  10. Wind Turbine Generator System Duration Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    van Dam, J.; Baker, D.; Jager, D.

    2010-05-01

    This test is being conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, four turbines are being tested at the NWTC as a part of this project. Duration testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality tests. The results of the testing provide manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes a grid connected ARE 442 wind turbine mounted on a 30.5 meter (100 ft) lattice tower manufactured by Abundant Renewable Energy. The system was installed by the NWTC Site Operations group with guidance and assistance from Abundant Renewable Energy.

  11. Aerodynamic force measurement on a large-scale model in a short duration test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tanno, H.; Kodera, M.; Komuro, T.; Sato, K.; Takahasi, M.; Itoh, K.

    2005-03-01

    A force measurement technique has been developed for large-scale aerodynamic models with a short test time. The technique is based on direct acceleration measurements, with miniature accelerometers mounted on a test model suspended by wires. Measuring acceleration at two different locations, the technique can eliminate oscillations from natural vibration of the model. The technique was used for drag force measurements on a 3 m long supersonic combustor model in the HIEST free-piston driven shock tunnel. A time resolution of 350 {mu}s is guaranteed during measurements, whose resolution is enough for ms order test time in HIEST. To evaluate measurement reliability and accuracy, measured values were compared with results from a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical simulation. The difference between measured values and numerical simulation values was less than 5%. We conclude that this measurement technique is sufficiently reliable for measuring aerodynamic force within test durations of 1 ms.

  12. A new population of ultra-long duration gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Levan, A. J.; Brown, G. C.; Tunnicliffe, R. L.; Tanvir, N. R.; Starling, R. L. C.; Wiersema, K.; Page, K. L.; Wynn, G. A.; O'Brien, P. T.; Perley, D. A.; Schulze, S.; Chornock, R.; Malesani, D.; Watson, D.; Berger, E.; Hjorth, J.; Cenko, S. B.; Fruchter, A. S.; Jakobsson, P.; Bersier, D.; and others

    2014-01-20

    We present comprehensive multiwavelength observations of three gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with durations of several thousand seconds. We demonstrate that these events are extragalactic transients; in particular, we resolve the long-standing conundrum of the distance of GRB 101225A (the 'Christmas-day burst'), finding it to have a redshift z = 0.847 and showing that two apparently similar events (GRB 111209A and GRB 121027A) lie at z = 0.677 and z = 1.773, respectively. The systems show extremely unusual X-ray and optical light curves, very different from classical GRBs, with long-lasting, highly variable X-ray emission and optical light curves that exhibit little correlation with the behavior seen in the X-ray. Their host galaxies are faint, compact, and highly star-forming dwarf galaxies, typical of 'blue compact galaxies'. We propose that these bursts are the prototypes of a hitherto largely unrecognized population of ultra-long GRBs, which while observationally difficult to detect may be astrophysically relatively common. The long durations may naturally be explained by the engine-driven explosions of stars of much larger radii than normally considered for GRB progenitors, which are thought to have compact Wolf-Rayet progenitor stars. However, we cannot unambiguously identify supernova signatures within their light curves or spectra. We also consider the alternative possibility that they arise from the tidal disruption of stars by massive black holes and conclude that the associated timescales are only consistent with the disruption of compact stars (e.g., white dwarfs) by black holes of relatively low mass (<10{sup 5} M {sub ?}).

  13. TRADITIONAL METALLURGY, NANOTECHNOLOGIES AND STRUCTURAL MATERIALS: A SORBY AWARD LECTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Louthan, M

    2007-07-17

    Traditional metallurgical processes are among the many ''old fashion'' practices that use nanoparticles to control the behavior of materials. Many of these practices were developed long before microscopy could resolve nanoscale features, yet the practitioners learned to manipulate and control microstructural elements that they could neither see nor identify. Furthermore, these early practitioners used that control to modify microstructures and develop desired material properties. Centuries old colored glass, ancient high strength steels and medieval organ pipes derived many of their desirable features through control of nanoparticles in their microstructures. Henry Sorby was among the first to recognize that the properties of rocks, minerals, metals and organic materials were controlled by microstructure. However, Mr. Sorby was accused of the folly of trying to study mountains with a microscope. Although he could not resolve nanoscale microstructural features, Mr. Sorby's observations revolutionized the study of materials. The importance of nanoscale microstructural elements should be emphasized, however, because the present foundation for structural materials was built by manipulating those features. That foundation currently supports several multibillion dollar industries but is not generally considered when the nanomaterials revolution is discussed. This lecture demonstrates that using nanotechnologies to control the behavior of metallic materials is almost as old as the practice of metallurgy and that many of the emergent nanomaterials technologists are walking along pathways previously paved by traditional metallurgists.

  14. Erosion products of plasma facing materials formed under ITER-like transient load and deuterium retention in them

    SciTech Connect

    Putrik, A. B. Klimov, N. S.; Gasparyan, Yu. M. Efimov, V. S.; Barsuk, V. A.; Podkovyrov, V. L. Zhitlukhin, A. M. Yarochevskaya, A. D.; Kovalenko, D. V.

    2015-12-15

    Erosion of the plasma-facing materials in particular evaporation of the materials in a fusion reactor under intense transient events is one of the problems of the ITER. The current experimental data are insufficient to predict the properties of the erosion products, a significant part of which will be formed during transient events (edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions). The paper concerns the experimental investigation of the graphite and tungsten erosion products deposited under pulsed plasma load at the QSPA-T: heat load on the target was 2.6 MJ/m{sup 2} with 0.5 ms pulse duration. The designed diagnostics for measuring the deposition rate made it possible to determine that the deposition of eroded material occurs during discharge, and the deposition rate is in the range (0.1–100) × 10{sup 19} at/(cm{sup 2} s), which is much higher than that for stationary processes. It is found that the relative atomic concentrations D/C and D/(W + C) in the erosion products deposited during the pulse process are on the same level as for the stationary processes. An exposure of erosion products to photonic energy densities typical of those expected at mitigated disruptions in the ITER (pulse duration of 0.5–1 ms, integral energy density of radiation of 0.1–0.5 MJ/m2) significantly decreases the concentration of trapped deuterium.

  15. SAPHIRE 8 Volume 7 - Data Loading

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood; C. L. Smith; S. R. Prescott

    2011-03-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE Version 8 is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This report is intended to assist the user to enter PRA data into the SAPHIRE program using the built-in MAR-D ASCII-text file data transfer process. Towards this end, a small sample database is constructed and utilized for demonstration. Where applicable, the discussion includes how the data processes for loading the sample database relate to the actual processes used to load a larger PRA models. The procedures described herein were developed for use with SAPHIRE Version 8. The guidance specified in this document will allow a user to have sufficient knowledge to both understand the data format used by SAPHIRE and to carry out the transfer of data between different PRA projects.

  16. Low reflectance high power RF load

    DOEpatents

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M.

    2016-02-02

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  17. Analyzing Design Heating Loads in Superinsulated Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Lois

    2015-06-01

    Super-insulated homes offer many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. During the winter of 2013/2014, CARB monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for super insulated homes.

  18. Adjustable electronic load-alarm relay

    DOEpatents

    Mason, Charles H.; Sitton, Roy S.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is an improved electronic alarm relay for monitoring the current drawn by an AC motor or other electrical load. The circuit is designed to measure the load with high accuracy and to have excellent alarm repeatability. Chattering and arcing of the relay contacts are minimal. The operator can adjust the set point easily and can re-set both the high and the low alarm points by means of one simple adjustment. The relay includes means for generating a signal voltage proportional to the motor current. In a preferred form of the invention a first operational amplifier is provided to generate a first constant reference voltage which is higher than a preselected value of the signal voltage. A second operational amplifier is provided to generate a second constant reference voltage which is lower than the aforementioned preselected value of the signal voltage. A circuit comprising a first resistor serially connected to a second resistor is connected across the outputs of the first and second amplifiers, and the junction of the two resistors is connected to the inverting terminal of the second amplifier. Means are provided to compare the aforementioned signal voltage with both the first and second reference voltages and to actuate an alarm if the signal voltage is higher than the first reference voltage or lower than the second reference voltage.

  19. Analyzing Design Heating Loads in Superinsulated Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Lois

    2015-06-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with the EcoVillage cohousing community in Ithaca, New York, on the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience neighborhood. This communityscale project consists of 40 housing units—15 apartments and 25 single-family residences. Units range in size from 450 ft2 to 1,664 ft2 and cost from $80,000 for a studio apartment to $235,000 for a three- or four-bedroom single-family home. For the research component of this project, CARB analyzed current heating system sizing methods for superinsulated homes in cold climates to determine if changes in building load calculation methodology should be recommended. Actual heating energy use was monitored and compared to results from the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s Manual J8 (MJ8) and the Passive House Planning Package software. Results from that research indicate that MJ8 significantly oversizes heating systems for superinsulated homes and that thermal inertia and internal gains should be considered for more accurate load calculations.

  20. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, G.R.

    1983-11-29

    A dc switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load is provided. The regulator basic circuit is a bridge arrangement of diodes and transistors. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. A dc power supply is connected to the input of the bridge and the output is connected to the load. A servo controller is provided to control the switching rate of the transistors to maintain a desired current to the load. The regulator may be operated in three stages or modes: (1) for current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned on and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned off, and load current flywheels through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays off, allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load.

  1. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, George R.

    1986-01-01

    A power supply for driving an inductive load current from a dc power supply hrough a regulator circuit including a bridge arrangement of diodes and switching transistors controlled by a servo controller which regulates switching in response to the load current to maintain a selected load current. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. The regulator may be operated in three "stages" or modes: (1) For current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned "on" and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned "off", and load current "flywheels" through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays "off", allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load. The three operating states are controlled automatically by the controller.

  2. An Overview of Non-traditional Nuclear Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Geelhood, Bruce D.; Wogman, Ned A.

    2005-01-01

    In view of the terrorist threats to the United States, the country needs to consider new vectors and weapons related to nuclear and radiological threats against our homeland. The traditional threat vectors, missiles and bombers, have expanded to include threats arriving through the flow of commerce. The new commerce-related vectors include: sea cargo, truck cargo, rail cargo, and passenger transport. The types of weapons have also expanded beyond nuclear warheads to include radiation dispersal devices (RDD) or ''dirty'' bombs. The consequences of these nuclear and radiological threats are considered. The defense against undesirable materials entering our borders is considered. The radiation and other signatures or potential nuclear and radiological threats are examined along with potential sensors to discover undesirable items in the flow of commerce. Techniques to improve detection are considered. A strategy of primary and secondary screening is proposed to rapidly clear most cargo and carefully examine suspect cargo.

  3. Using electronic dialogue to augment traditional classroom instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    This paper demonstrates how an electronic dialogue with a panel of human factors experts was used effectively as an augmentation to traditional classroom instruction. Nine students spent a one and one- half hour class session using a variety of commercial electronic mail software packages available on their own desk-tops (not in a university computer lab) to engage in discussion with remotely distributed instructors on topics generated by the students themselves. Ninety eight messages were exchanged, with about 60% having technical content. Interaction content and style were analyzed, and a survey was distributed to participants to evaluate the session. Process observations by this author augmented these data. Strengths and weaknesses of using technology not specifically designed for this function are discussed.

  4. Nuclear forensics of a non-traditional sample: Neptunium

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Doyle, Jamie L.; Schwartz, Daniel; Tandon, Lav

    2016-05-16

    Recent nuclear forensics cases have focused primarily on plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) materials. By definition however, nuclear forensics can apply to any diverted nuclear material. This includes neptunium (Np), an internationally safeguarded material like Pu and U, that could offer a nuclear security concern if significant quantities were found outside of regulatory control. This case study couples scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with quantitative analysis using newly developed specialized software, to evaluate a non-traditional nuclear forensic sample of Np. Here, the results of the morphological analyses were compared with another Np sample of known pedigree, as well as other traditionalmore » actinide materials in order to determine potential processing and point-of-origin.« less

  5. Load determination for long cable bolt support using computer aided bolt load estimation (CABLE) program

    SciTech Connect

    Bawden, W.F.; Moosavi, M.; Hyett, A.J.

    1996-12-01

    In this paper a numerical formulation is presented for determination of the axial load along a cable bolt for a prescribed distribution of rock mass displacement. Results using the program CABLE indicate that during excavation, the load distribution that develops along an untensioned fully grouted cable bolt depends on three main factors: (i) the properties of the cable itself, (ii) the shear force that develops due to bond at the cable-grout interface (i.e. bond stiffness), and (iii) the distribution of rock mass displacement along the cable bolt length. in general, the effect of low modulus rock and mining induced stress decreases in reducing bond strength as determined from short embedment length tests, is reflected in the development of axial loads significantly less than the ultimate tensile capacity even for long cable bolts. However, the load distribution is also dependent on the deformation distribution in the reinforced rock mass. Higher cable bolt loads will be developed for a rock mass that behaves as a discontinuum, with deformation concentrated on a few fractures, than for one which behaves as a continuum, either due to a total lack of fractures or a very high fracture density. This result suggests that the stiffness of a fully grouted cable bolt is not simply a characteristic of the bolt and grout used, but also of the deformation behavior of the ground. In other words, the same combination of bolt and grout will be stiffer if the rock behaves as a discontinuum than if it behaves as a continuum. This paper also explains the laboratory test program used to determine the constitutive behavior of the Garford bulb and Nutcase cables bolts. Details of the test setup as well as the obtained results are summarized and discussed.

  6. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect

    van Dam, C.P.; Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J.

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  7. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOEpatents

    Lembke, John R.

    1989-04-18

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are dowelled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector.

  8. Fracture of surface cracks loaded in bending

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Y.J.; Reuter, W.G.

    1997-12-31

    Theoretical background of the constraint effect in brittle fracture of solids is reviewed. Fracture test data from D6-aC, a high strength steel, using three-point-bend (SE(B)) specimens and surface cracked plate (SC(B)) specimens under bending are presented. It is shown that the SE(B) data has an elevated fracture toughness for increasing a/W, i.e., a crack geometry with a larger T/K corresponds to a higher K{sub c} which is consistent with the theoretical prediction. The fundamental fracture properties, i.e., the critical strain and the critical distance, determined from the SE(B) test data are then applied to the interpretation and prediction of the SC(B) test data. Reasonable agreement is achieved for the crack growth initiation site and the load.

  9. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOEpatents

    Lembke, J.R.

    1988-03-15

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are dowelled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector. 3 figs.

  10. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOEpatents

    Lembke, J.R.

    1989-04-18

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are doweled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector. 3 figs.

  11. net_energy_load_2003.xls

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3 and Projected 2004 through 2008 (Thousands of Megawatthours and 2003 Base Year) Net Energy For Load (Annual) Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990 2,886,496 442,507 142,502 221,099 197,326 127,102 250,681 485,205 252,037 209,789 558,248 1991 2,941,669 450,586 146,903 228,588 205,880 129,826 253,701 501,794 257,434 211,568 555,389 1992 2,942,910 450,853 147,464

  12. net_energy_load_2004.xls

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 and Projected 2005 through 2009 (Thousands of Megawatthours and 2004 Base Year) Net Energy For Load (Annual) Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990 2,886,496 442,507 142,502 221,099 197,326 127,102 250,681 485,205 252,037 209,789 558,248 1991 2,941,669 450,586 146,903 228,588 205,880 129,826 253,701 501,794 257,434 211,568 555,389 1992 2,942,910 450,853

  13. net_energy_load_2005.xls

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 (Thousands of Megawatthours and 2005 Base Year) Net Energy For Load (Annual) Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 2005 3,900,461 226,544 216,633 303,607 1,005,226 962,054 201,548 299,225 685,624 Projected Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) In 2005 for 2006 3,926,389 232,561 220,006 301,893 992,742

  14. net_energy_load_2010.xls

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 1990-2010 Actual, 2011-2015 Projected (Thousands of Megawatthours) Interconnection NERC Regional Assesment Area 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 FRCC 142,502 146,903 147,464 153,468 159,861 169,021 173,377 175,557 188,384 188,598 196,561 200,134 211,116 NPCC 250,681 253,701 252,256 257,447 259,947 261,235 263,125 264,464 268,309 277,902 281,518 282,670

  15. Intensity, duration, and frequency of precipitation extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Shih-Chieh; Ganguly, Auroop R

    2011-01-01

    Recent research on the projection of precipitation extremes has either focused on conceptual physical mechanisms that generate heavy precipitation or rigorous statistical methods that extrapolate tail behavior. However, informing both climate prediction and impact assessment requires concurrent physically and statistically oriented analysis. A combined examination of climate model simulations and observation-based reanalysis data sets suggests more intense and frequent precipitation extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios. Utilization of statistical extreme value theory and resampling-based uncertainty quantification combined with consideration of the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship reveals consistently intensifying trends for precipitation extremes at a global-average scale. However, regional and decadal analyses reveal specific discrepancies in the physical mechanisms governing precipitation extremes, as well as their statistical trends, especially in the tropics. The intensifying trend of precipitation extremes has quantifiable impacts on intensity-duration-frequency curves, which in turn have direct implications for hydraulic engineering design and water-resources management. The larger uncertainties at regional and decadal scales suggest the need for caution during regional-scale adaptation or preparedness decisions. Future research needs to explore the possibility of uncertainty reduction through higher resolution global climate models, statistical or dynamical downscaling, as well as improved understanding of precipitation extremes processes.

  16. Efficient block processing of long duration biotelemetric brain data for health care monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Soumya, I.; Zia Ur Rahman, M.; Rama Koti Reddy, D. V.; Lay-Ekuakille, A.

    2015-03-15

    In real time clinical environment, the brain signals which doctor need to analyze are usually very long. Such a scenario can be made simple by partitioning the input signal into several blocks and applying signal conditioning. This paper presents various block based adaptive filter structures for obtaining high resolution electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, which estimate the deterministic components of the EEG signal by removing noise. To process these long duration signals, we propose Time domain Block Least Mean Square (TDBLMS) algorithm for brain signal enhancement. In order to improve filtering capability, we introduce normalization in the weight update recursion of TDBLMS, which results TD-B-normalized-least mean square (LMS). To increase accuracy and resolution in the proposed noise cancelers, we implement the time domain cancelers in frequency domain which results frequency domain TDBLMS and FD-B-Normalized-LMS. Finally, we have applied these algorithms on real EEG signals obtained from human using Emotive Epoc EEG recorder and compared their performance with the conventional LMS algorithm. The results show that the performance of the block based algorithms is superior to the LMS counter-parts in terms of signal to noise ratio, convergence rate, excess mean square error, misadjustment, and coherence.

  17. Compact femtosecond electron diffractometer with 100 keV electron bunches approaching the single-electron pulse duration limit

    SciTech Connect

    Waldecker, Lutz Bertoni, Roman; Ernstorfer, Ralph

    2015-01-28

    We present the design and implementation of a highly compact femtosecond electron diffractometer working at electron energies up to 100 keV. We use a multi-body particle tracing code to simulate electron bunch propagation through the setup and to calculate pulse durations at the sample position. Our simulations show that electron bunches containing few thousands of electrons per bunch are only weakly broadened by space-charge effects and their pulse duration is thus close to the one of a single-electron wavepacket. With our compact setup, we can create electron bunches containing up to 5000 electrons with a pulse duration below 100 fs on the sample. We use the diffractometer to track the energy transfer from photoexcited electrons to the lattice in a thin film of titanium. This process takes place on the timescale of few-hundred femtoseconds and a fully equilibrated state is reached within 1 ps.

  18. Load Participation in Ancillary Services System from An Operator Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawski, Don; Petri, Mark C.

    2011-10-25

    Ancillary services as defined by FERC (Order 888) distinguished by response time, duration, frequency. Met when DR has capability to balance supply and demand; and LMP payment to DR is cost effective.

  19. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: New Traditions,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Vancouver, Washington | Department of Energy New Traditions, Vancouver, Washington Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: New Traditions, Vancouver, Washington Case study of New Tradition Homes who worked with Building America partner WSU Energy Extension to design HERS-65 homes with ducts in conditioned space, site grading and drain piping, and high-efficiency HVAC. New Tradition Homes: Landover Commons - Vancouver, WA (653.77 KB) More Documents & Publications Low-Cost

  20. Optical based tactile shear and normal load sensor

    DOEpatents

    Salisbury, Curt Michael

    2015-06-09

    Various technologies described herein pertain to a tactile sensor that senses normal load and/or shear load. The tactile sensor includes a first layer and an optically transparent layer bonded together. At least a portion of the first layer is made of optically reflective material. The optically transparent layer is made of resilient material (e.g., clear silicone rubber). The tactile sensor includes light emitter/light detector pair(s), which respectively detect either normal load or shear load. Light emitter(s) emit light that traverses through the optically transparent layer and reflects off optically reflective material of the first layer, and light detector(s) detect and measure intensity of reflected light. When a normal load is applied, the optically transparent layer compresses, causing a change in reflected light intensity. When shear load is applied, a boundary between optically reflective material and optically absorptive material is laterally displaced, causing a change in reflected light intensity.

  1. CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Review | Department of Energy Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: James Braun, Purdue University View the Presentation CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer Review (2.39 MB) More Documents & Publications CBEI: FDD for Advanced RTUs - 2015 Peer Review Control and Diagnostics for Rooftop Units - 2014 BTO Peer Review CBEI: Coordinating

  2. BTO Investigates Miscellaneous Electric Loads | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Investigates Miscellaneous Electric Loads BTO Investigates Miscellaneous Electric Loads The U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Office (BTO) is interested in identifying pathways that will reduce energy consumption from Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs). After hosting a panel discussion at the 2016 BTO Peer Review, the Emerging Technologies Program hosted a workshop on June 3, 2016 in San Francisco, California, to discuss applied research and development (R&D) solutions that

  3. Strategy Guideline. Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2011-06-01

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  4. Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2011-06-01

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  5. Extracting Operating Modes from Building Electrical Load Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, S.; Polese, L. G.; Rader, E.; Sheppy, M.; Smith, J.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical techniques for characterizing electrical energy use now play a key role in reducing electricity consumption, particularly miscellaneous electrical loads, in buildings. Identifying device operating modes (mode extraction) creates a better understanding of both device and system behaviors. Using clustering to extract operating modes from electrical load data can provide valuable insights into device behavior and identify opportunities for energy savings. We present a fast and effective heuristic clustering method to identify and extract operating modes in electrical load data.

  6. DOE Seeking Information on Miscellaneous Electrical Loads Research and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Development Topics | Department of Energy Miscellaneous Electrical Loads Research and Development Topics DOE Seeking Information on Miscellaneous Electrical Loads Research and Development Topics September 13, 2016 - 4:15pm Addthis The Building Technologies Office (BTO) has issued a Request for Information (RFI) on research and development (R&D) topics and approaches as well as the associated metrics and targets to reduce the energy consumption of miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) in

  7. LDRD final report : mesoscale modeling of dynamic loading of heterogeneous

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    materials. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect LDRD final report : mesoscale modeling of dynamic loading of heterogeneous materials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LDRD final report : mesoscale modeling of dynamic loading of heterogeneous materials. Material response to dynamic loading is often dominated by microstructure (grain structure, porosity, inclusions, defects). An example critically important to Sandia's mission is dynamic strength of polycrystalline metals where

  8. Hanford Apatite Treatability Test Report Errata: Apatite Mass Loading

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Calculation (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Hanford Apatite Treatability Test Report Errata: Apatite Mass Loading Calculation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hanford Apatite Treatability Test Report Errata: Apatite Mass Loading Calculation The objective of this errata report is to document an error in the apatite loading (i.e., treatment capacity) estimate reported in previous apatite treatability test reports and provide additional calculation details for

  9. Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Ancillary Services To Enhance Grid Reliability | Department of Energy Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing Ancillary Services To Enhance Grid Reliability Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing Ancillary Services To Enhance Grid Reliability Project demonstrates and promotes the use of responsive load to provide ancillary services; helps ISOsand grid operators understand the resource and how best to apply it. Technical Assistance to

  10. FFTF & Advance Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    WITHERSPOON, W.V.

    2001-10-25

    This document is the annual update of the FFTF and Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule for FY 2002 using current project direction and authorized funding levels

  11. SE Idaho Load Service Update - June 10, 2015

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    SE-Idaho-Load-Service-Update---June-10,-2015 Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Doing Business Expand Doing Business Customer Involvement Expand...

  12. HVAC Loads in High-Performance Homes (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.; Fang, X.; Winkler, J.

    2010-06-27

    This presentation was delivered at the ASHRAE 2010 Annual Summer Conference on June 27, 2010, and addresses humidity and AC loads in energy efficient houses.

  13. Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER ...

  14. Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation Presentation given at the 16th ...

  15. SMART BRIDGE: A Tool for Estimating the Military Load

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    D. SMART BRIDGE: A Tool for Estimating the Military Load Classification of Bridges Charles ... consideration in planning and executing military deployments is determining the routes ...

  16. NUCLEAR REACTORS; PIPES; SEISMIC EFFECTS; SUPPORTS; DYNAMIC LOADS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Limit analysis of pipe clamps Flanders, H.E. Jr. 22 GENERAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS; PIPES; SEISMIC EFFECTS; SUPPORTS; DYNAMIC LOADS; HEAT TRANSFER; HYDRAULICS; REACTOR SAFETY;...

  17. Comverge contribution to load participation of ancillary services

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaji, Wendell

    2011-10-25

    Presents Comverge demand response program summary. Discusses advantages of residential aggregation and real-time load management. Compares residential and commercial.

  18. Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Load Expansion with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions This poster will describe preliminary emission results of gasolinediesel RCCI in a ...

  19. DOE Workshop. Load Participation in Capacity and Ancillary Services Market

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, Terry

    2011-10-26

    Presents profile of PJM demand-side resources. PJM provides 24% of generation, 27% of load, and 19% of transmission assets in Eastern Interconnection. Includes case studies.

  20. scriptEnv - loading modules before starting a script

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    scriptEnv - loading modules before starting a script scriptEnv - loading modules before starting a script In some cases a script needs to load modules before the script can be executed, but it can often be inconvenient or impossible to provide wrapper scripts which load the needed modules. CGI scripts on the gpweb resources or in the NERSC portal environment which require the genepool-specific python/perl/R or databases configuration modules are a strong example of this. NERSC provides the

  1. Optimized scalar promotion with load and splat SIMD instructions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Search Title: Optimized scalar promotion with load and splat SIMD instructions Mechanisms for optimizing scalar code executed on a single instruction multiple data (SIMD) engine ...

  2. Method for controlling vapor emissions during loading of tankers

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, T.K.

    1992-06-30

    This patent describes a method for loading crude oil into a tank of a tanker ship having a built-in crude oil loading manifold. It comprises generating and compressing foam at a point remote from the tank; supplying the foam through the crude oil loading manifold onto the bottom of the tank in an amount sufficient to form a layer of the foam having a thickness adequate to provide a barrier which will substantially prevent the passage of hydrocarbon vapors therethrough, the foam expanding while flowing through the manifold and into the tank; and supplying crude oil through the crude oil loading manifold into the tank beneath the layer of foam.

  3. Beam Loading by Distributed Injection of Electrons in a Plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Beam Loading by Distributed Injection of Electrons in a Plasma Wakefield ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  4. Montana Total Maximum Daily Load Development Projects Wiki |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Wiki Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Total Maximum Daily Load Development Projects Wiki Abstract Provides information on...

  5. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air...

  6. Development of a Stiffness-Based Chemistry Load Balancing Scheme...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of a Stiffness-Based Chemistry Load Balancing Scheme, and Optimization of IO and Communication, to Enable Massively Parallel High-Fidelity Internal Combustion Engine Simulations...

  7. Improving Efficiency and Load Range of Boosted HCCI using Partial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fuel Stratification with Conventional Gasoline Improving Efficiency and Load Range of Boosted HCCI using Partial Fuel Stratification with Conventional Gasoline Explores the ...

  8. Building America Case Study: Advanced Boiler Load Monitoring...

    Energy Saver

    Boiler Load Monitoring Controllers Chicago, Illinois PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: ... Most of Chicago's older multifamily housing stock is heated by centrally metered steam or ...

  9. DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE GALAXIES HOSTING SHORT-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, W.; Berger, E.; Chornock, R.; Margutti, R.; Czekala, I.; Zauderer, B. A.; Laskar, T.; Servillat, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Levan, A. J.; Tunnicliffe, R. L. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Fox, D. B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Perley, D. A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Room 232, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cenko, S. B. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Persson, S. E.; Monson, A. J.; Kelson, D. D.; Birk, C.; Murphy, D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Anglada, G. [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, Universitaet Goettingen, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2013-05-20

    We present observations of the afterglows and host galaxies of three short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs): 100625A, 101219A, and 110112A. We find that GRB 100625A occurred in a z = 0.452 early-type galaxy with a stellar mass of Almost-Equal-To 4.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} and a stellar population age of Almost-Equal-To 0.7 Gyr, and GRB 101219A originated in a star-forming galaxy at z = 0.718 with a stellar mass of Almost-Equal-To 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, a star formation rate of Almost-Equal-To 16 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and a stellar population age of Almost-Equal-To 50 Myr. We also report the discovery of the optical afterglow of GRB 110112A, which lacks a coincident host galaxy to i {approx}> 26 mag, and we cannot conclusively identify any field galaxy as a possible host. From afterglow modeling, the bursts have inferred circumburst densities of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -4}-1 cm{sup -3} and isotropic-equivalent gamma-ray and kinetic energies of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 50}-10{sup 51} erg. These three events highlight the diversity of galactic environments that host short GRBs. To quantify this diversity, we use the sample of 36 Swift short GRBs with robust associations to an environment ({approx}1/2 of 68 short bursts detected by Swift to 2012 May) and classify bursts originating from four types of environments: late-type ( Almost-Equal-To 50%), early-type ( Almost-Equal-To 15%), inconclusive ( Almost-Equal-To 20%), and ''host-less'' (lacking a coincident host galaxy to limits of {approx}> 26 mag; Almost-Equal-To 15%). To find likely ranges for the true late- and early-type fractions, we assign each of the host-less bursts to either the late- or early-type category using probabilistic arguments and consider the scenario that all hosts in the inconclusive category are early-type galaxies to set an upper bound on the early-type fraction. We calculate most likely ranges for the late- and early-type fractions of Almost-Equal-To 60

  10. Apparatus for loading shape memory gripper mechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Benett, William J.; Schumann, Daniel L.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Fitch, Joseph P.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, such as an embolic coil, into a shape memory polymer (SMP) gripping/release mechanism. The apparatus enables the application of uniform pressure to secure a grip by the SMP mechanism on the deposit material via differential pressure between, for example, vacuum within the SMP mechanism and hydrostatic water pressure on the exterior of the SMP mechanism. The SMP tubing material of the mechanism is heated to above the glass transformation temperature (Tg) while reshaping, and subsequently cooled to below Tg to freeze the shape. The heating and/or cooling may, for example, be provided by the same water applied for pressurization or the heating can be applied by optical fibers packaged to the SMP mechanism for directing a laser beam, for example, thereunto. At a point of use, the deposit material is released from the SMP mechanism by reheating the SMP material to above the temperature Tg whereby it returns to its initial shape. The reheating of the SM material may be carried out by injecting heated fluid (water) through an associated catheter or by optical fibers and an associated beam of laser light, for example.

  11. How loads affect coiled tubing life

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, E.J. Inc., AK )

    1992-01-01

    Fatigue testing was performed on 1-3/4-in OD, 0.125 in. wall thickness (WT) coiled tubing using a standard coiled tubing unit (CTU) as shown in this paper. Testing was conducted under Prudhoe Bay, Alaska oil well, conditions to determine the effects of axial load, internal pressure and bending stress on the longevity, or usable running footage, that can be expected with larger diameter tubing. The CTU was rigged up in a standard configuration with injector head 50 ft off the ground, the worst case for bending on most currently available North Slope units. Internal pressure was supplied by a small triplex pump and the end of tubing was closed off with a fishing neck and bull plug. Weight, for the first four tests, was suspended from the coiled tubing by a special clamp. The tubing was cycled up and over the guide arch until a loss of internal coiled tubing pressure (CTP) occurred, or until the tubing became stuck in the stripper brass.

  12. Lithium Loaded Glass Fiber Neutron Detector Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2009-11-12

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. Reported here are the results of tests of the lithium-loaded glass fibers option. This testing measured the neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a small system manufactured by Nucsafe (Oak Ridge, TN).

  13. Spallation studies on shock loaded uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Tonks, D.L.; Hixson, R.; Gustavsen, R.L.; Vorthman, J.E.; Kelly, A.; Zurek, A.K.; Thissel, W.R.

    1997-12-31

    Uranium samples at two different purity levels were used for spall strength measurements at three different stress levels. A 50 mm single-stage gas-gun was used to produce planar impact conditions using Z-cut quartz impactors. Samples of depleted uranium were taken from very high purity material and from material that had 300 ppm of carbon added. A pair of shots was done for each impact strength, one member of the pair with VISAR diagnostics and the second with soft recovery for metallographical examination. A series of increasing final stress states were chosen to effectively freeze the microstructural damage at three places in the development to full spall separation. This allowed determination of the dependence of spall mechanisms on stress level and sample purity. This report will discuss both the results of the metallurgical examination of soft recovered samples and the modeling of the free surface VISAR data. The micrographs taken from the recovered samples show brittle cracking as the spallation failure mechanism. Deformation induced twins are plentiful and obviously play a role in the spallation process. The twins are produced in the initial shock loading and, so, are present already before the fracture process begins. The 1 d characteristics code CHARADE has been used to model the free surface VISAR data.

  14. Development of a Short-Duration Drive Cycle to Represent Long-Term Measured Drive Cycle Data: Evaluation of Truck Efficiency Technologies in Class 8 Tractor Trailers

    SciTech Connect

    LaClair, Tim; Gao, Zhiming; Fu, Joshua; Calcagno, Jimmy; Yun, Jeongran

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the fuel savings and emissions reductions that can be achieved from truck fuel efficiency technologies for a fleet's specific usage allows the fleet to select a combination of technologies that will yield the greatest operational efficiency and profitability. An accurate characterization of usage for the fleet is critical for such an evaluation; however, short-term measured drive cycle data do not generally reflect overall usage very effectively. This study presents a detailed analysis of vehicle usage in a commercial vehicle fleet and demonstrates the development of a short-duration synthetic drive cycle with measured drive cycle data collected over an extended period of time. The approach matched statistical measures of the vehicle speed with acceleration history and integrated measured grade data to develop a compressed drive cycle that accurately represents total usage. Drive cycle measurements obtained during a full year from six tractor trailers in normal operations in a less-than-truckload carrier were analyzed to develop a synthetic drive cycle. The vehicle mass was also estimated to account for the variation of loads that the fleet experienced. These drive cycle and mass data were analyzed with a tractive energy analysis to quantify the benefits in terms of fuel efficiency and reduced carbon dioxide emissions that can be achieved on Class 8 tractor trailers by using advanced efficiency technologies, either individually or in combination. Although differences exist between Class 8 tractor trailer fleets, this study provides valuable insight into the energy and emissions reduction potential that various technologies can bring in this important trucking application. Finally, the methodology employed for generating the synthetic drive cycle serves as a rigorous approach to develop an accurate usage characterization that can be used to effectively compress large quantities of drive cycle data.

  15. Development of a Short-Duration Drive Cycle to Represent Long-Term Measured Drive Cycle Data: Evaluation of Truck Efficiency Technologies in Class 8 Tractor Trailers

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    LaClair, Tim; Gao, Zhiming; Fu, Joshua; Calcagno, Jimmy; Yun, Jeongran

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the fuel savings and emissions reductions that can be achieved from truck fuel efficiency technologies for a fleet's specific usage allows the fleet to select a combination of technologies that will yield the greatest operational efficiency and profitability. An accurate characterization of usage for the fleet is critical for such an evaluation; however, short-term measured drive cycle data do not generally reflect overall usage very effectively. This study presents a detailed analysis of vehicle usage in a commercial vehicle fleet and demonstrates the development of a short-duration synthetic drive cycle with measured drive cycle data collected over an extendedmore » period of time. The approach matched statistical measures of the vehicle speed with acceleration history and integrated measured grade data to develop a compressed drive cycle that accurately represents total usage. Drive cycle measurements obtained during a full year from six tractor trailers in normal operations in a less-than-truckload carrier were analyzed to develop a synthetic drive cycle. The vehicle mass was also estimated to account for the variation of loads that the fleet experienced. These drive cycle and mass data were analyzed with a tractive energy analysis to quantify the benefits in terms of fuel efficiency and reduced carbon dioxide emissions that can be achieved on Class 8 tractor trailers by using advanced efficiency technologies, either individually or in combination. Although differences exist between Class 8 tractor trailer fleets, this study provides valuable insight into the energy and emissions reduction potential that various technologies can bring in this important trucking application. Finally, the methodology employed for generating the synthetic drive cycle serves as a rigorous approach to develop an accurate usage characterization that can be used to effectively compress large quantities of drive cycle data.« less

  16. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 4. Evaluation of other loads and load combinations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Six topical areas were covered by the Task Group on Other Dynamic Loads and Load Combinations as described below: Event Combinations - dealing with the potential simultaneous occurrence of earthquakes, pipe ruptures, and water hammer events in the piping design basis; Response Combinations - dealing with multiply supported piping with independent inputs, the sequence of combinations between spacial and modal components of response, and the treatment of high frequency modes in combination with low frequency modal responses; Stress Limits/Dynamic Allowables - dealing with inelastic allowables for piping and strain rate effects; Water Hammer Loadings - dealing with code and design specifications for these loadings and procedures for identifying potential water hammer that could affect safety; Relief Valve Opening and Closing Loads - dealing with the adequacy of analytical tools for predicting the effects of these events and, in addition, with estimating effective cycles for fatigue evaluations; and Piping Vibration Loads - dealing with evaluation procedures for estimating other than seismic vibratory loads, the need to consider reciprocating and rotary equipment vibratory loads, and high frequency vibratory loads. NRC staff recommendations or regulatory changes and additional study appear in this report.

  17. A Robust Load Shedding Strategy for Microgrid Islanding Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Xiao, Bailu; Starke, Michael R; Ceylan, Oguzhan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    A microgrid is a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources. It can operate in either gridconnected mode to exchange energy with the main grid or run autonomously as an island in emergency mode. However, the transition of microgrid from grid-connected mode to islanded mode is usually associated with excessive load (or generation), which should be shed (or spilled). Under this condition, this paper proposes an robust load shedding strategy for microgrid islanding transition, which takes into account the uncertainties of renewable generation in the microgrid and guarantees the balance between load and generation after islanding. A robust optimization model is formulated to minimize the total operation cost, including fuel cost and penalty for load shedding. The proposed robust load shedding strategy works as a backup plan and updates at a prescribed interval. It assures a feasible operating point after islanding given the uncertainty of renewable generation. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on a simulated microgrid consisting of a wind turbine, a PV panel, a battery, two distributed generators (DGs), a critical load and a interruptible load. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm.

  18. Detection of Periodic Beacon Loads in Electrical Distribution Substation Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Lu, Ning; Boyd, Paul A.; Trudnowski, Daniel; Chassin, David P.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Shaw, James M.

    2006-05-31

    This research explores methods for identifying a whether a load is sending a signal to the utility SCADA system. Such a system can identify whether various loads are signialing using existing SCADA infrastructure, that is, without added, high cost communications infrastructure.

  19. Cone Penetrometer Load Cell Temperature and Radiation Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2013-08-28

    This report summarizes testing activities performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to verify the cone penetrometer load cell can withstand the tank conditions present in 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106. The tests demonstrated the load cell device will operate under the elevated temperature and radiation levels expected to be encountered during tank farm deployment of the device.

  20. Predicting the Response of Electricity Load to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Kalendra, Eric

    2015-07-28

    Our purpose is to develop a methodology to quantify the impact of climate change on electric loads in the United States. We perform simple linear regression, assisted by geospatial smoothing, on paired temperature and load time-series to estimate the heating- and coolinginduced sensitivity to temperature across 300 transmission zones and 16 seasonal and diurnal time periods. The estimated load sensitivities can be coupled with climate scenarios to quantify the potential impact of climate change on load, with a primary application being long-term electricity scenarios. The method allows regional and seasonal differences in climate and load response to be reflected in the electricity scenarios. While the immediate product of this analysis was designed to mesh with the spatial and temporal resolution of a specific electricity model to enable climate change scenarios and analysis with that model, we also propose that the process could be applied for other models and purposes.

  1. Recovery Act. Advanced Load Identification and Management for Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yi; Casey, Patrick; Du, Liang; He, Dawei

    2014-02-12

    In response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE)’s goal of achieving market ready, net-zero energy residential and commercial buildings by 2020 and 2025, Eaton partnered with the Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Georgia Institute of Technology to develop an intelligent load identification and management technology enabled by a novel “smart power strip” to provide critical intelligence and information to improve the capability and functionality of building load analysis and building power management systems. Buildings account for 41% of the energy consumption in the United States, significantly more than either transportation or industrial. Within the building sector, plug loads account for a significant portion of energy consumption. Plug load consumes 15-20% of building energy on average. As building managers implement aggressive energy conservation measures, the proportion of plug load energy can increase to as much as 50% of building energy leaving plug loads as the largest remaining single source of energy consumption. This project focused on addressing plug-in load control and management to further improve building energy efficiency accomplished through effective load identification. The execution of the project falls into the following three major aspects; An intelligent load modeling, identification and prediction technology was developed to automatically determine the type, energy consumption, power quality, operation status and performance status of plug-in loads, using electric waveforms at a power outlet level. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed technology through a large set of plug-in loads measurements and testing; A novel “Smart Power Strip (SPS) / Receptacle” prototype was developed to act as a vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of load identification technology as a low-cost, embedded solution; and Market environment for plug-in load control and management solutions

  2. Design-Load Basis for LANL Structures, Systems, and Components

    SciTech Connect

    I. Cuesta

    2004-09-01

    This document supports the recommendations in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Engineering Standard Manual (ESM), Chapter 5--Structural providing the basis for the loads, analysis procedures, and codes to be used in the ESM. It also provides the justification for eliminating the loads to be considered in design, and evidence that the design basis loads are appropriate and consistent with the graded approach required by the Department of Energy (DOE) Code of Federal Regulation Nuclear Safety Management, 10, Part 830. This document focuses on (1) the primary and secondary natural phenomena hazards listed in DOE-G-420.1-2, Appendix C, (2) additional loads not related to natural phenomena hazards, and (3) the design loads on structures during construction.

  3. Customer Impact Evaluation for the 2009 Southern California Edison Participating Load Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Gifford, William; Bodmann, Shawn; Young, Paul; Eto, Joseph H.; Laundergan, Jeremy

    2010-05-28

    The 2009 Participating Load Pilot Customer Impact Evaluation provides evidence that short duration demand response events which cycle off air conditioners for less than thirty minutes in a hot, dry environment do not lead to a significant degradation in the comfort level of residents participating in the program. This was investigated using: (1) Analysis of interval temperature data collected from inside residences of select program participants; and (2) Direct and indirect customer feedback from surveys designed and implemented by Southern California Edison at the conclusion of the program season. There were 100 indoor temperature monitors that were acquired by LBNL for this study that transmitted temperature readings at least once per hour with corresponding timestamps during the program season, June-October, 2009. Recorded temperatures were transferred from the onsite telemetry devices to a mesh network, stored, and then delivered to KEMA for analysis. Following an extensive data quality review, temperature increases during each of the thirty demand response test events were calculated for each device. The results are as follows: (1) Even for tests taking place during outside temperatures in excess of 100 degrees Fahrenheit, over 85 percent of the devices measured less than a 0.5 degree Fahrenheit temperature increase indoors during the duration of the event. (2) For the increases that were observed, none was more than 5 degrees and it was extremely rare for increases to be more than 2 degrees. At the end of the testing season SCE and KEMA designed and conducted a survey of the a facilities and public works managers and approximately 100 customers feedback survey to assess the extent the PLP events were noticed or disrupted the comfort level of participants. While only a small sampling of 3 managers and 16 customer surveys were completed, their responses indicate: (1) No customer reported even a moderate level of discomfort from the cycling-off of their air

  4. Seismic Loading for FAST: May 2011 - August 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Asareh, M. A.; Prowell, I.

    2012-08-01

    As more wind farms are constructed in seismically active regions, earthquake loading increases in prominence for design and analysis of wind turbines. Early investigation of seismic load tended to simplify the rotor and nacelle as a lumped mass on top of the turbine tower. This simplification allowed the use of techniques developed for conventional civil structures, such as buildings, to be easily applied to wind turbines. However, interest is shifting to more detailed models that consider loads for turbine components other than the tower. These improved models offer three key capabilities in consideration of base shaking for turbines: 1) The inclusion of aerodynamics and turbine control; 2) The ability to consider component loads other than just tower loads; and 3) An improved representation of turbine response in higher modes by reducing modeling simplifications. Both experimental and numerical investigations have shown that, especially for large modern turbines, it is important to consider interaction between earthquake input, aerodynamics, and operational loads. These investigations further show that consideration of higher mode activity may be necessary in the analysis of the seismic response of turbines. Since the FAST code is already capable of considering these factors, modifications were developed that allow simulation of base shaking. This approach allows consideration of this additional load source within a framework, the FAST code that is already familiar to many researchers and practitioners.

  5. Experimental evaluation of rotary engine timing gear loads

    SciTech Connect

    Kulina, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The function of the timing gear of a rotary engine is to control the angular velocity of the rotor in relation to that of the crankshaft. The only load on the gear consists of the friction load due to the rotor seals, the torsional motion of the rotor and any torque developed on the rotor caused by uneven pressure distribution across the rotor flank. In the design of the gear and attachments an estimate of the loads must be made. In the case of an aircraft engine, knowing the actual loads and designing accordingly would result in the most weight effective configuration. A specially instrumented stationary gear of a Deere 0.67 liter SCORE III rotary engine was used to measure the peak torque during test stand operation. The results of the test confirm that rotor friction and torsional motion (due to drive line dynamics) produce the prime gear load below 70% design speed. At the higher engine speeds, a sub-system resonance of the rotor contributes significantly to the total load on the gear. The results of this test, together with the results of three earlier tests conducted on stationary gears are used to establish a design guide. This design guide relates the stationary gear load to crankshaft mean torque and engine displacement.

  6. Exact analysis of particle dynamics in combined field of finite duration laser pulse and static axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Sagar, Vikram; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2012-11-15

    Dynamics of a charged particle is studied in the field of a relativistically intense linearly polarized finite duration laser pulse in the presence of a static axial magnetic field. For a finite duration laser pulse whose temporal shape is defined by Gaussian profile, exact analytical expressions are derived for the particle trajectory, momentum, and energy as function of laser phase. From the solutions, it is shown that, unlike for the monochromatic plane wave case, resonant phase locking time between the particle and laser pulse is finite. The net energy transferred to the particle does not increase monotonically but tends to saturate. It is further shown that appropriate tuning of cyclotron frequency of the particle with the characteristic frequency in the pulse spectrum can lead to the generation of accelerated particles with variable energies in MeV-TeV range.

  7. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in all wholesale electricity markets.

  8. Combi Systems for Low Load homes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Combi Systems for Low Load homes Combi Systems for Low Load homes This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Technical Update meeting on July 24-26, 2012. issue7_combi_systems.pdf (590.15 KB) More Documents & Publications Issue #7: What are the Best HVAC Solutions for Low-Load, High Performance Homes? Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Retrofit Integrated Space and Water Heating-Field Assessment Building America Expert

  9. Dynamic load measurement on an LPG carrier during voyage

    SciTech Connect

    Kamoi, Noriyuki; Taniguchi, Tomokazu; Kiso, Takashi; Kada, Kazuo; Motoi, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Shinichi

    1994-12-31

    There are few actual ship measurement data showing the propriety of the design loads given by classification societies rules or other relevant rules. Therefore, the authors measured acceleration of ship motion and fluctuating loads on tank supports and chocks of a 75,000 m{sup 3} LPG carrier during her voyage. This paper introduces the subject ship and typical measurement results over about 1.3 years. From the analysis of these data, the authors have made clear the amount of frequency of fluctuating loads during actual navigation and ascertained the propriety of the ship`s design base.

  10. Ice Load Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Timothy J.; Brown, Thomas; Byrne, Alex

    2014-10-30

    As interest and investment in offshore wind projects increase worldwide, some turbines will be installed in locations where ice of significant thickness forms on the water surface. This ice moves under the driving forces of wind, current, and thermal effects and may result in substantial forces on bottom-fixed support structures. The North and Baltic Seas in Europe have begun to see significant wind energy development and the Great Lakes of the United States and Canada may host wind energy development in the near future. Design of the support structures for these projects is best performed through the use of an integrated tool that can calculate the cumulative effects of forces due to turbine operations, wind, waves, and floating ice. The dynamic nature of ice forces requires that these forces be included in the design simulations, rather than added as static forces to simulation results. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard[2] for offshore wind turbine design and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard[3] for offshore structures provide requirements and algorithms for the calculation of forces induced by surface ice; however, currently none of the major wind turbine dynamic simulation codes provides the ability to model ice loads. The scope of work of the project described in this report includes the development of a suite of subroutines, collectively named IceFloe, that meet the requirements of the IEC and ISO standards and couples with four of the major wind turbine dynamic simulation codes. The mechanisms by which ice forces impinge on offshore structures generally include the forces required for crushing of the ice against vertical-sided structures and the forces required to fracture the ice as it rides up on conical-sided structures. Within these two broad categories, the dynamic character of the forces with respect to time is also dependent on other factors such as the velocity and thickness of the moving ice

  11. Analytical Tools to Predict Distribution Outage Restoration Load. Final Project Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Law, John

    1994-11-14

    The main activity of this project has been twofold: (1) development of a computer model to predict CLPU(Cold Load Pickup) and (2) development of a field measurement and analysis method to obtain the input parameters of the CLPU model. The field measurement and analysis method is called the Step-Voltage-Test (STEPV). The Kootenai Electric Cooperative Appleway 51 feeder in Coeur d`Alene was selected for analysis in this project and STEPV tests were performed in winters of 92 and 93. The STEPV data was analyzed (method and results presented within this report) to obtain the Appleway 51 feeder parameters for prediction by the CLPU model. One only CLPU record was obtained in winter 1994. Unfortunately, the actual CLPU was not dramatic (short outage and moderate temperature) and did not display cyclic restoration current. A predicted Appleway 51 feeder CLPU was generated using the parameters obtained via the STEPV measurement/analysis/algorithm method at the same ambient temperature and outage duration as the measured actual CLPU. The predicted CLPU corresponds reasonably well with the single actual CLPU data obtained in winter 1994 on the Appleway 51 feeder.

  12. Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts: Evaluation of BaselineLoad Models for Non-Residential Buildings in California

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, Katie; Piette, Mary Ann; Goldman, Charles; Kiliccote,Sila

    2008-01-01

    Both Federal and California state policymakers areincreasingly interested in developing more standardized and consistentapproaches to estimate and verify the load impacts of demand responseprograms and dynamic pricing tariffs. This study describes a statisticalanalysis of the performance of different models used to calculate thebaseline electric load for commercial buildings participating in ademand-response (DR) program, with emphasis onthe importance of weathereffects. During a DR event, a variety of adjustments may be made tobuilding operation, with the goal of reducing the building peak electricload. In order to determine the actual peak load reduction, an estimateof what the load would have been on the day of the event without any DRactions is needed. This baseline load profile (BLP) is key to accuratelyassessing the load impacts from event-based DR programs and may alsoimpact payment settlements for certain types of DR programs. We testedseven baseline models on a sample of 33 buildings located in California.These models can be loosely categorized into two groups: (1) averagingmethods, which use some linear combination of hourly load values fromprevious days to predict the load on the event, and (2) explicit weathermodels, which use a formula based on local hourly temperature to predictthe load. The models were tested both with and without morningadjustments, which use data from the day of the event to adjust theestimated BLP up or down.Key findings from this study are: - The accuracyof the BLP model currently used by California utilities to estimate loadreductions in several DR programs (i.e., hourly usage in highest 3 out of10 previous days) could be improved substantially if a morning adjustmentfactor were applied for weather-sensitive commercial and institutionalbuildings. - Applying a morning adjustment factor significantly reducesthe bias and improves the accuracy of all BLP models examined in oursample of buildings. - For buildings with low load

  13. T-load microchannel array and fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Swierkowski, Stefan P.

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) T-load for planar microchannel arrays for electrophoresis, for example, which enables sample injection directly onto a plane perpendicular to the microchannels' axis, at their ends. This is accomplished by forming input wells that extend beyond the ends of the microchannel thereby eliminating the right angle connection from the input well into the end of the microchannel. In addition, the T-load input well eases the placement of electrode in or adjacent the well and thus enables very efficient reproducible electrokinetic (ek) injection. The T-load input well eliminates the prior input well/microchannel alignment concerns, since the input well can be drilled after the top and bottom microchannel plates are bonded together. The T-load input well may extend partially or entirely through the bottom microchannel plate which enables more efficient gel and solution flushing, and also enables placement of multiple electrodes to assist in the ek sample injection.

  14. Review of Residential Low-Load HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Scott A.; Thornton, Brian; Widder, Sarah H.

    2013-09-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building America Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an investigation to inventory commercially available HVAC technologies that are being installed in low-load homes. The first step in this investigation was to conduct a review of published literature to identify low-load HVAC technologies available in the United States and abroad, and document the findings of existing case studies that have evaluated the performance of the identified technologies. This report presents the findings of the literature review, identifies gaps in the literature or technical understanding that must be addressed before low-load HVAC technologies can be fully evaluated, and introduces PNNL’s planned research and analysis for this project to address identified gaps and potential future work on residential low-load HVAC systems.

  15. Attainable Burnup in a LIFE Engine Loaded with Depleted Uranium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Attainable Burnup in a LIFE Engine Loaded with Depleted Uranium The Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) system uses a laser-based fusion source for electricity ...

  16. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  17. Observation of Beam Loading in a Laser-Plasma Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Rechatin, C.; Ismail, A. Ben; Lim, J.; Faure, J.; Malka, V.; Davoine, X.; Lefebvre, E.; Lifschitz, A.

    2009-11-06

    Beam loading is the phenomenon which limits the charge and the beam quality in plasma based accelerators. An experimental study conducted with a laser-plasma accelerator is presented. Beam loading manifests itself through the decrease of the beam energy, the reduction of dark current, and the increase of the energy spread for large beam charge. 3D PIC simulations are compared to the experimental results and confirm the effects of beam loading. It is found that, in our experimental conditions, the trapped electron beams generate decelerating fields on the order of 1 (GV/m)/pC and that beam loading effects are optimized for trapped charges of about 20 pC.

  18. Design of dynamic load-balancing tools for parallel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, K.D.; Hendrickson, B.A.; Boman, E.G.; St. John, M.; Vaughan, C.T.

    2000-01-03

    The design of general-purpose dynamic load-balancing tools for parallel applications is more challenging than the design of static partitioning tools. Both algorithmic and software engineering issues arise. The authors have addressed many of these issues in the design of the Zoltan dynamic load-balancing library. Zoltan has an object-oriented interface that makes it easy to use and provides separation between the application and the load-balancing algorithms. It contains a suite of dynamic load-balancing algorithms, including both geometric and graph-based algorithms. Its design makes it valuable both as a partitioning tool for a variety of applications and as a research test-bed for new algorithmic development. In this paper, the authors describe Zoltan's design and demonstrate its use in an unstructured-mesh finite element application.

  19. Hanford Apatite Treatability Test Report Errata: Apatite Mass Loading Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.

    2014-05-19

    The objective of this errata report is to document an error in the apatite loading (i.e., treatment capacity) estimate reported in previous apatite treatability test reports and provide additional calculation details for estimating apatite loading and barrier longevity. The apatite treatability test final report (PNNL-19572; Vermeul et al. 2010) documents the results of the first field-scale evaluation of the injectable apatite PRB technology. The apatite loading value in units of milligram-apatite per gram-sediment is incorrect in this and some other previous reports. The apatite loading in units of milligram phosphate per gram-sediment, however, is correct, and this is the unit used for comparison to field core sample measurements.

  20. Thermal Cycling Combined with Dynamic Mechanical Load: Preliminary Report

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This PowerPoint presentation summarizes the efforts of the team led by ESPEC Corp. to investigate thermal cycling combined with dynamic mechanical load, a solar project funded by the SunShot Initiative.

  1. Active Aerodynamic Blade Control Design for Load Alleviation...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The accurate evaluation of the impact of AALC fatigue load reductions on the Cost of Energy (COE) of a wind turbine will require a complete new turbine design that fully integrates ...

  2. Property:Geothermal/LoadFactor | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Pages using the property "GeothermalLoadFactor" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 4 4 UR...

  3. Polyamidoamine Dendrimer-Based Binders for High-Loading Lithium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Polyamidoamine Dendrimer-Based Binders for High-Loading Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are regarded as one of the most promising candidates ...

  4. Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Question | OpenEI...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Question Home Hi, I saw that you were actively replying to the questions on that page, so thought I'd contact you to ask about the data...

  5. Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Login to post comments Russmach32 Russmach321 year 8 weeks ago Validation of dataset Hello, in the description of this dataset it states that these load profiles are simulated....

  6. Integrating UF6 Cylinder RF Tracking With Continuous Load Cell...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    is demonstrating the integration of UF6 cylinder tracking, using RF technology, with continuous load cell monitoring (CLCM) at mock UF6 feed and withdrawal (F&W) stations. ...

  7. Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load Homes

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 26, 2012, and addressed the question What are the best HVAC solutions for low-load, high performance homes?"

  8. ZERH Webinar: Low Load HVAC in Zero Energy Ready Homes

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Building low-load homes creates a new set of challenges for HVAC designers and installers. Right-sizing equipment, managing ventilation, and controlling interior moisture levels are critical if you...

  9. HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar, presented by IBACOS (a Building America Research Team) will highlight the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations, following the guidelines of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J version 8

  10. Beam loading compensation for the NLC low frequency linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.; Miller, R.; Farkas, D.; Raubenheimer, T.; Tang, H.; Yeremian, D.

    1997-03-01

    The NLC low rf linacs are heavily loaded by a beam of about 130 ns in macropulse length (90 bunches) and a current up to 2.75 Amps. Beam loading voltage generates a large energy spread along the bunch train. This energy spread is critical for lattice design and, if not properly compensated, induces emittance growth and in turn lowers the luminosity of the machine. In this paper, the authors study the {Delta}F and {Delta}T beam loading compensation techniques for the NLC low rf linacs. They will apply these methods to the NLC low rf linacs to demonstrate the efficacy of these methods. Finally, they discuss a hybrid {Delta}T + {Delta}F method to improve the efficiency of beam loading compensation.

  11. SEP Success Story: Warding Off Energy Vampires and Phantom Loads |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Warding Off Energy Vampires and Phantom Loads SEP Success Story: Warding Off Energy Vampires and Phantom Loads October 1, 2013 - 9:46am Addthis This Halloween, keep energy vampires at bay -- while saving energy and money -- with these home energy efficiency tricks. | Infographic by Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department This Halloween, keep energy vampires at bay -- while saving energy and money -- with these home energy efficiency tricks. | Infographic by Sarah Gerrity,

  12. High load operation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Liechty, Michael P.; Hardy, William L.; Rodman, Anthony; Hergart, Carl-Anders

    2008-12-23

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine is set up by first identifying combinations of compression ratio and exhaust gas percentages for each speed and load across the engines operating range. These identified ratios and exhaust gas percentages can then be converted into geometric compression ratio controller settings and exhaust gas recirculation rate controller settings that are mapped against speed and load, and made available to the electronic

  13. Taming the Grid: Dynamic Load Composition Quantification at the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Distribution-Transformer Level (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Taming the Grid: Dynamic Load Composition Quantification at the Distribution-Transformer Level Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Taming the Grid: Dynamic Load Composition Quantification at the Distribution-Transformer Level Authors: Flynn, Eric B. [1] ; Holby, Edward F. [1] ; Disterhaupt, Jennifer L. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2013-05-07 OSTI Identifier: 1078377

  14. Improved Lithium-Loaded Liquid Scintillators for Neutron Detection - Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Improved Lithium-Loaded Liquid Scintillators for Neutron Detection Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary A liquid scintillator with a substantially increased lithium weight was developed by ORNL researchers. Scintillators are widely used for the detection of neutron radiation emitted by radioactive sources. Conventional liquid scintillators are loaded with neutron absorbers. However, these scintillators generally have

  15. Healthcare Energy: Spotlight on Lighting and Other Electric Loads |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Lighting and Other Electric Loads Healthcare Energy: Spotlight on Lighting and Other Electric Loads Compact fluorescent, light-emitting diode, and energy-saving incandescent light bulbs. | Image by Dennis Schroeder/NREL 19469 Compact fluorescent, light-emitting diode, and energy-saving incandescent light bulbs. | Image by Dennis Schroeder/NREL 19469 The Building Technologies Office conducted a healthcare energy end-use monitoring project in partnership with two

  16. Carbon Monoxide Tolerant Electrocatalyst with Low Platinum Loading and a

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Process for its Preparation - Energy Innovation Portal Startup America Startup America Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Carbon Monoxide Tolerant Electrocatalyst with Low Platinum Loading and a Process for its Preparation Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Pt Submonolayers on Ru Nanoparticles: A Novel Low Pt Loading, High CO Tolerance Fuel Cell Electrocatalyst (173 KB)

  17. Selecting a Control Strategy for Plug and Process Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Lobato, C.; Sheppy, M.; Brackney, L.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-09-01

    Plug and Process Loads (PPLs) are building loads that are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the building occupants. PPLs in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. On an individual building level, they account for approximately 25% of the total electrical load in a minimally code-compliant commercial building, and can exceed 50% in an ultra-high efficiency building such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Research Support Facility (RSF) (Lobato et al. 2010). Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. A complex array of technologies that measure and manage PPLs has emerged in the marketplace. Some fall short of manufacturer performance claims, however. NREL has been actively engaged in developing an evaluation and selection process for PPLs control, and is using this process to evaluate a range of technologies for active PPLs management that will cap RSF plug loads. Using a control strategy to match plug load use to users' required job functions is a huge untapped potential for energy savings.

  18. Transportation Electrification Load Development For A Renewable Future Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, T.; Mai, T.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2010-12-01

    The transition to electricity as a transportation fuel will create a new load for electricity generation. A set of regional hourly load profiles for electrified vehicles was developed for the 2010 to 2050 timeframe. The transportation electrical energy was determined using regional population forecast data, historical vehicle per capita data, and market penetration growth functions to determine the number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in each analysis region. Market saturation scenarios of 30% and 50% of sales of PEVs consuming on average approx. 6 kWh per day were considered. PEV aggregate load profiles from previous work were combined with vehicle population data to generate hourly loads on a regional basis. A transition from consumer-controlled charging toward utility-controlled charging was assumed such that by 2050 approximately 45% of the transportation energy demands could be delivered across four daily time slices under optimal control from the utility?s perspective. This electrified transportation analysis resulted in an estimate for both the flexible load and fixed load shapes on a regional basis that may evolve under two PEV market penetration scenarios.

  19. Measured electric hot water standby and demand loads from Pacific Northwest homes. End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, R.G.; Ross, B.A.

    1991-11-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration began the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) in 1983 to obtain metered hourly end-use consumption data for a large sample of new and existing residential and commercial buildings in the Pacific Northwest. Loads and load shapes from the first 3 years of data fro each of several ELCAP residential studies representing various segments of the housing population have been summarized by Pratt et al. The analysis reported here uses the ELCAP data to investigate in much greater detail the relationship of key occupant and tank characteristics to the consumption of electricity for water heating. The hourly data collected provides opportunities to understand electricity consumption for heating water and to examine assumptions about water heating that are critical to load forecasting and conservation resource assessments. Specific objectives of this analysis are to: (A) determine the current baseline for standby heat losses by determining the standby heat loss of each hot water tank in the sample, (B) examine key assumptions affecting standby heat losses such as hot water temperatures and tank sizes and locations, (C) estimate, where possible, impacts on standby heat losses by conservation measures such as insulating tank wraps, pipe wraps, anticonvection valves or traps, and insulating bottom boards, (D) estimate the EF-factors used by the federal efficiency standards and the nominal R-values of the tanks in the sample, (E) develop estimates of demand for hot water for each home in the sample by subtracting the standby load from the total hot water load, (F) examine the relationship between the ages and number of occupants and the hot water demand, (G) place the standby and demand components of water heating electricity consumption in perspective with the total hot water load and load shape.

  20. FY 93 Thermal Loading Systems Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    S.F. Saterlie

    1994-08-29

    The objective of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Thermal Loading Systems Study being conducted by the is to identify a thermal strategy that will meet the performance requirements for waste isolation and will be safe and licensable. Specifically, both postclosure and preclosure performance standards must be met by the thermal loading strategy ultimately selected. In addition cost and schedule constraints must be considered. The Systems Engineering approach requires structured, detailed analyses that will ultimately provide the technical basis for the development, integration, and evaluation of the overall system, not just a subelement of that system. It is also necessary that the systems study construct options from within the range that are allowed within the current legislative and programmatic framework. For example the total amount of fuel that can legally be emplaced is no more than 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) which is composed of 63,000 MTU spent fuel and 7,000 MTU of defense high level waste. It is the intent of this study to begin the structured development of the basis for a thermal loading decision. However, it is recognized that to be able to make a final decision on thermal loading will require underground data on the effects of heating as well as a suite of ''validated'' models. It will be some time before these data and models are available to the program. Developing a final, thermal loading decision will, therefore, be an iterative process. In the interim, the objective of the thermal loading systems study has been to utilize the information available to assess the impact of thermal loading. Where technical justification exists, recommendations to narrow the range of thermal loading options can be made. Additionally, recommendations as to the type of testing and accuracy of the testing needed to establish the requisite information will be made. A constraint on the ability of the study to select an option stems from the lack of

  1. Transportation Electrification Load Development For a Renewable Future Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, Tony; Mai, Trieu; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2010-09-30

    Electrification of the transportation sector offers the opportunity to significantly reduce petroleum consumption. The transportation sector accounts for 70% of US petroleum consumption. The transition to electricity as a transportation fuel will create a new load for electricity generation. In support of a recent US Department of Energy funded activity that analyzed a future generation scenario with high renewable energy technology contributions, a set of regional hourly load profiles for electrified vehicles were developed for the 2010 to 2050 timeframe. These load profiles with their underlying assumptions will be presented in this paper. The transportation electrical energy was determined using regional population forecast data, historical vehicle per capita data, and market penetration growth functions to determine the number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in each analysis region. Two market saturation scenarios of 30% of sales and 50% of sales of PEVs consuming on average {approx}6 kWh per day were considered. Results were generated for 3109 counties and were consolidated to 134 Power Control Areas (PCA) for the use NREL's's regional generation planning analysis tool ReEDS. PEV aggregate load profiles from previous work were combined with vehicle population data to generate hourly loads on a regional basis. A transition from consumer-controlled charging toward utility-controlled charging was assumed such that by 2050 approximately 45% of the transportation energy demands could be delivered across 4 daily time slices under optimal control from the utility perspective. No other literature has addressed the potential flexibility in energy delivery to electric vehicles in connection with a regional power generation study. This electrified transportation analysis resulted in an estimate for both the flexible load and fixed load shapes on a regional basis that may evolve under two PEV market penetration scenarios. EVS25 Copyright.

  2. File:06MTAMontanaOverdimensionalOrOverweightLoadPermit (1).pdf...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    MTAMontanaOverdimensionalOrOverweightLoadPermit (1).pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:06MTAMontanaOverdimensionalOrOverweightLoadPermit...

  3. Reducing Data Center Loads for a Large-scale, Low Energy Office...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Center Loads for a Large- scale, Low-energy Office Building: NREL's Research Support ... National Renewable Energy Laboratory Reducing Data Center Loads for a Large-Scale, ...

  4. Shock Loading of Granular Ni/Al Composites. Part 1. Mechanics of Loading

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Cherukara, Mathew J.; Germann, Timothy C.; Kober, Edward M.; Strachan, Alejandro

    2014-10-16

    We present molecular dynamics simulations of the thermomechanical response under shock loading of a granular material consisting of laminated Ni/Al grains. We observe two regimes: At low piston velocities (up ≲ 1km/s), the shock wave is diffuse, and the width of the shock front decreases with increasing piston velocity. Beyond a critical shock strength, however, the width remains relatively constant at approximately the mean grain radius. This change in behavior follows from an evolution of the mechanism of compaction with increasing insult strength. Furthermore, the mechanism evolves from plastic deformation-mediated pore collapse for relatively weak shocks, to solid extrusion andmore » fluid ejecta filling pores ahead of the shock front at intermediate strengths, and finally to atomic jetting into the pore for very strong shocks (up ≳ 2 km/s). High-energy fluid ejecta into pores leads to the formation of flow vorticity and can result in a large fraction of the input energy localizing into translational kinetic energy components including the formation of hot spots. This has implications for the mechanical mixing of Ni and Al in these reactive composites.« less

  5. Shock Loading of Granular Ni/Al Composites. Part 1. Mechanics of Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Cherukara, Mathew J.; Germann, Timothy C.; Kober, Edward M.; Strachan, Alejandro

    2014-10-16

    We present molecular dynamics simulations of the thermomechanical response under shock loading of a granular material consisting of laminated Ni/Al grains. We observe two regimes: At low piston velocities (up ? 1km/s), the shock wave is diffuse, and the width of the shock front decreases with increasing piston velocity. Beyond a critical shock strength, however, the width remains relatively constant at approximately the mean grain radius. This change in behavior follows from an evolution of the mechanism of compaction with increasing insult strength. Furthermore, the mechanism evolves from plastic deformation-mediated pore collapse for relatively weak shocks, to solid extrusion and fluid ejecta filling pores ahead of the shock front at intermediate strengths, and finally to atomic jetting into the pore for very strong shocks (up ? 2 km/s). High-energy fluid ejecta into pores leads to the formation of flow vorticity and can result in a large fraction of the input energy localizing into translational kinetic energy components including the formation of hot spots. This has implications for the mechanical mixing of Ni and Al in these reactive composites.

  6. Self locking coupling mechanism for engaging and moving a load

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Richard L.; Casamajor, Alan B.; Parsons, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    Coupling mechanism (11) for engaging and lifting a load (12) has a housing (19) with a guide passage (18) for receiving a knob (13) which is secured to the load (12) through a neck (15) of smaller diameter. A hollow ball (23) in the housing (19) has an opening (27) which receives the knob (13) and the ball (23) is then turned to displace the opening (27) from the housing passage (18) and to cause the neck (15) to enter a slot (29) in the ball (23) thereby securing the load (12) to the coupling mechanism (11) as elements (49) of the housing (19) block travel of the neck (15) back into the opening (27) when the ball (23) is turned to the load holding orientation. As engagement of the load (12) and locking of the coupling mechanism are accomplished simultaneously by the same ball (23) motion, operation is simplified and reliability is greatly increased. The ball (23) is preferably turned by a motor (32) through worm gearing (36) and the coupling mechanism (11) may be controlled from a remote location. Among other uses, the coupling mechanism (11) is adaptable to the handling of spent nuclear reactor fuel elements (12).

  7. Design Considerations For Blast Loads In Pressure Vessels.

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, E. A.; Nickell, Robert E.; Pepin, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), conducts confined detonation experiments utilizing large, spherical, steel pressure vessels to contain the reaction products and hazardous materials from high-explosive (HE) events. Structural design and analysis considerations include: (a) Blast loading phase (i.e., impulsive loading); (b) Dynamic structural response; (c) Fragment (i.e., shrapnel) generation and penetration; (d) Ductile and non-ductile fracture; and (e) Design Criteria to ASME Code Sec. VIII, Div. 3, Impulsively Loaded Vessels. These vessels are designed for one-time-use only, efficiently utilizing the significant plastic energy absorption capability of ductile vessel materials. Alternatively, vessels may be designed for multiple-detonation events, in which case the material response is restricted to elastic or near-elastic range. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 Part 50 provides requirements for commercial nuclear reactor licensing; specifically dealing with accidental combustible gases in containment structures that might cause extreme loadings. The design philosophy contained herein may be applied to extreme loading events postulated to occur in nuclear reactor and non-nuclear systems or containments.

  8. Wind loading on solar concentrators: some general considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Roschke, E. J.

    1984-05-01

    A survey has been completed to examine the problems and complications arising from wind loading on solar concentrators. Wind loading is site specific and has an important bearing on the design, cost, performance, operation and maintenance, safety, survival, and replacement of solar collecting systems. Emphasis herein is on paraboloidal, two-axis tracking systems. Thermal receiver problems also are discussed. Wind characteristics are discussed from a general point of view; current methods for determining design wind speed are reviewed. Aerodynamic coefficients are defined and illustrative examples are presented. Wind tunnel testing is discussed, and environmental wind tunnels are reviewed; recent results on heliostat arrays are reviewed as well. Aeroelasticity in relation to structural design is discussed briefly. Wind loads, i.e., forces and moments, are proportional to the square of the mean wind velocity. Forces are proportional to the square of concentrator diameter, and moments are proportional to the cube of diameter. Thus, wind loads have an important bearing on size selection from both cost and performance standpoints. It is concluded that sufficient information exists so that reasonably accurate predictions of wind loading are possible for a given paraboloidal concentrator configuration, provided that reliable and relevant wind conditions are specified. Such predictions will be useful to the design engineer and to the systems engineer as well. Information is lacking, however, on wind effects in field arrays of paraboloidal concentrators. Wind tunnel tests have been performed on model heliostat arrays, but there are important aerodynamic differences between heliostats and paraboloidal dishes.

  9. Detailed End Use Load Modeling for Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.

    2010-04-09

    The field of distribution system analysis has made significant advances in the past ten years. It is now standard practice when performing a power flow simulation to use an algorithm that is capable of unbalanced per-phase analysis. Recent work has also focused on examining the need for time-series simulations instead of examining a single time period, i.e., peak loading. One area that still requires a significant amount of work is the proper modeling of end use loads. Currently it is common practice to use a simple load model consisting of a combination of constant power, constant impedance, and constant current elements. While this simple form of end use load modeling is sufficient for a single point in time, the exact model values are difficult to determine and it is inadequate for some time-series simulations. This paper will examine how to improve simple time invariant load models as well as develop multi-state time variant models.

  10. Self locking coupling mechanism for engaging and moving a load

    DOEpatents

    Wood, R.L.; Casamajor, A.B.; Parsons, R.E.

    1980-09-12

    A coupling mechanism for engaging and lifting a load has a housing with a guide passage for receiving a knob which is secured to the load through a neck of smaller diameter. A hollow ball in the housing has an opening which receives the knob and the ball is then turned to displace the opening from the housing passage and to cause the neck to enter a slot in the ball thereby securing the load to the coupling mechanism as elements of the housing block travel of the neck back into the opening when the ball is turned to the load holding orientation. As engagement of the load and locking of the coupling mechanism are accomplished simultaneously by the same ball motion, operation is simplified and reliability is greatly increased. The ball is preferably turned by a motor through worm gearing and the coupling mechanism may be controlled from a remote location. Among other uses, the coupling mechanism is adaptable to the handling of spent nuclear reactor fuel elements.

  11. Voltage distortion in distribution feeders with nonlinear loads

    SciTech Connect

    Emanuel, A.E.; Janczak, J. ); Pileggi, D.J.; Gulachenski, E.M.; Root, C.E.; Breen, M. ); Gentile, T.J. )

    1994-01-01

    The voltage of three real-life 13.8kV feeders supplying customers with non-linear loads was analyzed by means of computer simulations. Three classes of non-linear loads were considered. Each class is characteristic for different types of ac to dc converters such as the input dc supply used for adjustable-speed-drives, battery chargers, PC's, TV's and electronically ballasted lights. The analysis is based on the determination of the most harmonic susceptible busses and their response to each harmonic frequency. A new expeditive method that takes into account the background harmonic voltage phasor, and an equivalent bus impedance was developed and used to compute the maximum non-linear loads that yields VTHD = 5%, (Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion). The main conclusion of this work is that when mitigation methods are not used, for a 15kV class feeder with a maximum 10MVA installed load, the total non-linear residential load should not exceed 300kW if the ITHD <30% (Current Total Harmonic Distortion), and 100kW if ITHD >100%.

  12. Simultaneous observation of nascent plasma and bubble induced by laser ablation in water with various pulse durations

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Ayaka Matsumoto, Ayumu; Nishi, Naoya; Sakka, Tetsuo; Fukami, Kazuhiro

    2015-05-07

    We investigate the effects of pulse duration on the dynamics of the nascent plasma and bubble induced by laser ablation in water. To examine the relationship between the nascent plasma and the bubble without disturbed by shot-to-shot fluctuation, we observe the images of the plasma and the bubble simultaneously by using two intensified charge coupled device detectors. We successfully observe the images of the plasma and bubble during the pulsed-irradiation, when the bubble size is as small as 20??m. The light-emitting region of the plasma during the laser irradiation seems to exceed the bubble boundary in the case of the short-pulse (30-ns pulse) irradiation, while the size of the plasma is significantly smaller than that of the bubble in the case of the long-pulse (100-ns pulse) irradiation. The results suggest that the extent of the plasma quenching in the initial stage significantly depends on the pulse duration. Also, we investigate how the plasma-bubble relationship in the very early stage affects the shape of the atomic spectral lines observed at the later delay time of 600?ns. The present work gives important information to obtain high quality spectra in the application of underwater laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, as well as to clarify the mechanism of liquid-phase laser ablation.

  13. Tungsten quasispherical wire loads with a profiled mass

    SciTech Connect

    Grabovskii, E. V.; Dzhangobegov, V. V. Oleinik, G. M.; Rodionov, R. N.

    2015-12-15

    Wire arrays made from micrometer tungsten wires with linear mass profiled along their height are developed for experiments on the generation of X-ray radiation upon pinch compression with a current of ∼3 MA at a pulse duration of ∼100 ns. Wires are imaged with a scanning electron microscope, and their diameter is determined. It is shown that the arrays have such a profile of height distribution of linear mass that allows for compact spherical compression upon current implosion.

  14. Model for Aggregated Water Heater Load Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-19

    The transition to the new generation power grid, or smart grid, requires novel ways of using and analyzing data collected from the grid infrastructure. Fundamental functionalities like demand response (DR), that the smart grid needs, rely heavily on the ability of the energy providers and distributors to forecast the load behavior of appliances under different DR strategies. This paper presents a new model of aggregated water heater load, based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The model has been validated against simulated data from an open source distribution simulation software (GridLAB-D). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the DBN model accurately tracks the load profile curves of aggregated water heaters under different testing scenarios.

  15. Beam loading and cavity compensation for the ground test accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jachim, S.P.; Natter, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) will be a heavily beam-loaded H/sup minus/ linac with tight tolerances on accelerating field parameters. The methods used in modeling the effects of beam loading in this machine are described. The response of the cavity to both beam and radio-frequency (RF) drive stimulus is derived, including the effects of cavity detuning. This derivation is not restricted to a small-signal approximation. An analytical method for synthesizing a predistortion network that decouples the amplitude and phase responses of the cavity is also outlined. Simulation of performance, including beam loading, is achieved through use of a control system analysis software package. A straightforward method is presented for extrapolating this work to model large coupled structures with closely spaced parasitic modes. Results to date have enabled the RF control system designs for GTA to be optimized and have given insight into their operation. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Influence of plasma loading in a hybrid muon cooling channel

    SciTech Connect

    Freemire, B.; Stratakis, D.; Yonehara, K.

    2015-05-03

    In a hybrid 6D cooling channel, cooling is accomplished by reducing the beam momentum through ionization energy loss in wedge absorbers and replenishing the momentum loss in the longitudinal direction with gas-filled rf cavities. While the gas acts as a buffer to prevent rf breakdown, gas ionization also occurs as the beam passes through the pressurized cavity. The resulting plasma may gain substantial energy from the rf electric field which it can transfer via collisions to the gas, an effect known as plasma loading. In this paper, we investigate the influence of plasma loading on the cooling performance of a rectilinear hybrid channel. With the aid of numerical simulations we examine the sensitivity in cooling performance and plasma loading to key parameters such as the rf gradient and gas pressure.

  17. Recommended nozzle loads for major equipment in fossil plants

    SciTech Connect

    Basavaraju, C.

    1995-12-31

    Most commonly, equipment nozzles are limiting items in the qualification of piping systems. Difficulty in meeting the allowable nozzle loads for major equipment such as boilers, HRSGs, steam turbines, pumps, tanks, heat exchangers, etc. is a commonly encountered and recurring problem. This issue also has a potential for impact on project costs and schedules due to modifications, piping reanalysis, and repeated interfaces with equipment vendor. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance with regard to allowable nozzle loads. The approach consisted of utilizing data gathered and experience gained from several recently completed fossil fueled power projects. Tables containing a reasonable set of recommended values for allowable nozzle loads, which do not impose unnecessary burden either on the equipment manufacturers or on the designers and analysts of connected piping, are presented for guidance and use in the procurement of major equipment.

  18. Comparison of Wind Power and Load Forecasting Error Distributions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.; Orwig, K.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of large amounts of variable and uncertain power sources, such as wind power, into the electricity grid presents a number of challenges for system operations. One issue involves the uncertainty associated with scheduling power that wind will supply in future timeframes. However, this is not an entirely new challenge; load is also variable and uncertain, and is strongly influenced by weather patterns. In this work we make a comparison between the day-ahead forecasting errors encountered in wind power forecasting and load forecasting. The study examines the distribution of errors from operational forecasting systems in two different Independent System Operator (ISO) regions for both wind power and load forecasts at the day-ahead timeframe. The day-ahead timescale is critical in power system operations because it serves the unit commitment function for slow-starting conventional generators.

  19. Dislocation transport in shock-loaded single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.N.

    1987-01-05

    It has been previously observed that the impact surface of (100) shock-loaded lithium fluoride is a strong source of dislocations. These dislocations, on one side of the impact surface, are nearly all of the same sign and move in the same direction when the driving (impact) stress is maintained. This produces an excess of like-signed dislocations between the impact surface and the advancing planar shock front. It is shown that inclusion of dislocation transport effects in the equation for dislocation regeneration is required when surface sources are present. A derivation of the general expression of dislocation transport is presented along with some specific results for (100) loaded lithium fluoride. These results have important consequences regarding proper analysis of elastic precursor decay and rate-dependent plastic deformation in shock-loaded solids.

  20. Microchannel cross load array with dense parallel input

    DOEpatents

    Swierkowski, Stefan P.

    2004-04-06

    An architecture or layout for microchannel arrays using T or Cross (+) loading for electrophoresis or other injection and separation chemistry that are performed in microfluidic configurations. This architecture enables a very dense layout of arrays of functionally identical shaped channels and it also solves the problem of simultaneously enabling efficient parallel shapes and biasing of the input wells, waste wells, and bias wells at the input end of the separation columns. One T load architecture uses circular holes with common rows, but not columns, which allows the flow paths for each channel to be identical in shape, using multiple mirror image pieces. Another T load architecture enables the access hole array to be formed on a biaxial, collinear grid suitable for EDM micromachining (square holes), with common rows and columns.

  1. An effective loading method of americium targets in fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ohki, Shigeo; Sato, Isamu; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kenya

    2007-07-01

    Recently, the development of target fuel with high americium (Am) content has been launched for the reduction of the overall fuel fabrication cost of the minor actinide (MA) recycling. In the framework of the development, this study proposes an effective loading method of Am targets in fast reactors. As a result of parametric survey calculations, we have found the ring-shaped target loading pattern between inner and outer core regions. This loading method is satisfactory both in core characteristics and in MA transmutation property. It should be noted that the Am targets can contribute to the suppression of the core power distribution change due to burnup. The major drawback of Am target is the production of helium gas. A target design modification by increasing the cladding thickness is found to be the most feasible measure to cope with the helium production. (authors)

  2. Molecular dynamics of shock loading of metals with defects

    SciTech Connect

    Belak, J.F.

    1997-12-31

    The finite rise time of shock waves in metals is commonly attributed to dissipative or viscous behavior of the metal. This viscous or plastic behavior is commonly attributed to the motion of defects such as dislocations. Despite this intuitive understanding, the experimental observation of defect motion or nucleation during shock loading has not been possible due to the short time scales involved. Molecular dynamics modeling with realistic interatomic potentials can provide some insight into defect motion during shock loading. However, until quite recently, the length scale required to accurately represent a metal with defects has been beyond the scope of even the most powerful supercomputers. Here, the author presents simulations of the shock response of single defects and indicate how simulation might provide some insight into the shock loading of metals.

  3. Parasitic load control system for exhaust temperature control

    DOEpatents

    Strauser, Aaron D.; Coleman, Gerald N.; Coldren, Dana R.

    2009-04-28

    A parasitic load control system is provided. The system may include an exhaust producing engine and a fuel pumping mechanism configured to pressurize fuel in a pressure chamber. The system may also include an injection valve configured to cause fuel pressure to build within the pressure chamber when in a first position and allow injection of fuel from the pressure chamber into one or more combustion chambers of the engine when in a second position. The system may further include a controller configured to independently regulate the pressure in the pressure chamber and the injection of fuel into the one or more combustion chambers, to increase a load on the fuel pumping mechanism, increasing parasitic load on the engine, thereby increasing a temperature of the exhaust produced by the engine.

  4. Mass loading of soil particles on plant surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W. )

    1989-12-01

    Radionuclide-bearing soil particles on plant surfaces can be ingested and contribute to human dose, but evaluating the potential dose is limited by the relatively few data available on the masses of soil particles present on plant surfaces. This report summarizes mass loading data (i.e., mass of soil per unit of vegetation) for crops in the southeastern United States and compares these data to (1) those from other regions and (2) the mass loadings used in radionuclide transfer models to predict soil contamination of plant surfaces. Mass loadings were estimated using the 238Pu content of crops as an indicator of soil on plant surfaces. Crops were grown in two soils: a sandy clay loam soil and a loamy sand soil. Concentrations of soil on southeastern crops (i.e., mg soil g-1 plant) differed by more than a factor of 100 due to differences in crop growth form and biomass. Mean concentrations ranged from 1.7 mg g-1 for corn to 260 mg g-1 for lettuce. Differences in mass loadings between soils were less than those among crops. Concentrations differed by less than a factor of two between the two soil types. Because of (1) the differences among crops and (2) the limited data available from other systems, it is difficult to draw conclusions regarding regional or climatic variation in mass loadings. There is, however, little evidence to suggest large differences among regions. The mass loadings used to predict soil contamination in current radionuclide transfer models appear to be less than those observed for most crops.

  5. Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Ed; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-11-06

    Direct load control (DLC) refers to the scenario where third party entities outside the home or facility are responsible for deciding how and when specific customer loads will be controlled in response to Demand Response (DR) events on the electric grid. Examples of third parties responsible for performing DLC may be Utilities, Independent System Operators (ISO), Aggregators, or third party control companies. DLC can be contrasted with facility centric load control (FCLC) where the decisions for how loads are controlled are made entirely within the facility or enterprise control systems. In FCLC the facility owner has more freedom of choice in how to respond to DR events on the grid. Both approaches are in use today in automation of DR and both will continue to be used in future market segments including industrial, commercial and residential facilities. This paper will present a framework which can be used to differentiate between DLC and FCLC based upon where decisions are made on how specific loads are controlled in response to DR events. This differentiation is then used to compare and contrast the differences between DLC and FCLC to identify the impact each has on:(1)Utility/ISO and third party systems for managing demand response, (2)Facility systems for implementing load control, (3)Communications networks for interacting with the facility and (4)Facility operators and managers. Finally a survey of some of the existing DR related specifications and communications standards is given and their applicability to DLC or FCLC. In general FCLC adds more cost and responsibilities to the facilities whereas DLC represents higher costs and complexity for the Utility/ISO. This difference is primarily due to where the DR Logic is implemented and the consequences that creates. DLC may be more certain than FCLC because it is more predictable - however as more loads have the capability to respond to DR signals, people may prefer to have their own control of end-use loads

  6. Bolt preload selection for pulsed-loaded vessel closures

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, T.A.; Lewis, B.B.; Bowers, S.M.

    1995-02-01

    Bounding, closed-form solutions are developed for selecting the bolt preload for a square, flat plate closure subjected to a pressure pulse load. The solutions consider the limiting case in which preload is primarily dependent on closure bending response as well as the limiting case in which preload depends on elastic bolt response. The selection of bolt preload is illustrated. Also presented in the paper is a detailed finite element analysis of dynamically loaded, bolted circular closure. The responses of the structure, closure, and bolts are included, and results are obtained for various preloads. The analysis illustrates a method of bolt preload modeling for use in general finite element computer programs.

  7. Inductrack III configuration--a maglev system for high loads

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Richard F

    2013-11-12

    Inductrack III configurations are suited for use in transporting heavy freight loads. Inductrack III addresses a problem associated with the cantilevered track of the Inductrack II configuration. The use of a cantilevered track could present mechanical design problems in attempting to achieve a strong enough track system such that it would be capable of supporting very heavy loads. In Inductrack III, the levitating portion of the track can be supported uniformly from below, as the levitating Halbach array used on the moving vehicle is a single-sided one, thus does not require the cantilevered track as employed in Inductrack II.

  8. Dry method for recycling iodine-loaded silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Thomas R.; Staples, Bruce A.; Murphy, Llewellyn P.

    1978-05-09

    Fission product iodine is removed from a waste gas stream and stored by passing the gas stream through a bed of silver-exchanged zeolite until the zeolite is loaded with iodine, passing dry hydrogen gas through the bed to remove the iodine and regenerate the bed, and passing the hydrogen stream containing the hydrogen iodide thus formed through a lead-exchanged zeolite which adsorbs the radioactive iodine from the gas stream and permanently storing the lead-exchanged zeolite loaded with radioactive iodine.

  9. Microsoft Word - 10_Million_Loaded_Miles.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    WIPP Trucks Surpass 10 Million Loaded Miles CARLSBAD, N.M., April 19, 2010 - The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office said drivers, who haul defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, surpassed 10 million safe, loaded miles. The first of more than 8,400 shipments to WIPP arrived 11 years ago from Los Alamos National Laboratory in northern New Mexico. "There's no doubt, some of the best drivers in the transportation industry work for

  10. Inductrack III configuration--a maglev system for high loads

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F

    2015-03-24

    Inductrack III configurations are suited for use in transporting heavy freight loads. Inductrack III addresses a problem associated with the cantilevered track of the Inductrack II configuration. The use of a cantilevered track could present mechanical design problems in attempting to achieve a strong enough track system such that it would be capable of supporting very heavy loads. In Inductrack III, the levitating portion of the track can be supported uniformly from below, as the levitating Halbach array used on the moving vehicle is a single-sided one, thus does not require the cantilevered track as employed in Inductrack II.

  11. Building America Expert Meeting Report. Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2011-10-01

    This expert meeting was hosted by the IBACOS Building America research team to determine how HVAC companies can transition from a traditional contractor status to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting.

  12. Integration of Non-Traditional Membranes into MEAs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Integration of Non-Traditional Membranes into MEAs Integration of Non-Traditional Membranes into MEAs Presented at the 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held May 18, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia htmwg_may09_nontraditional_membranes.pdf (819.66 KB) More Documents & Publications A Discussion on Improved HTMs Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells Processing-Performance Relationships for Perfluorosulfonate Ionomer Membrane

  13. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: New Tradition Homes, Vancouver, WA

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Tradition Homes of Vancouver, Washington, partnered with Building America to design homes that achieved HERS scores of 65 or less. The homes were designed with ducts in conditioned space and incorporated moisture management techniques for durability in the damp Northwest climate. For homes built with crawlspaces, New Tradition employs extensive grading so that the ground slopes away from the home on all sides. Below grade, a sloped trench is dug diagonally across the crawlspace that exits to a

  14. Hollywood, Florida Celebrates a Less Traditional Type of "Sweeps Week" |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Hollywood, Florida Celebrates a Less Traditional Type of "Sweeps Week" Hollywood, Florida Celebrates a Less Traditional Type of "Sweeps Week" May 13, 2011 - 4:45pm Addthis Elementary school students look over a solar demonstration trailer. | Photo courtesy of the City of Hollywood, FL Elementary school students look over a solar demonstration trailer. | Photo courtesy of the City of Hollywood, FL John Johansen There's a term in Hollywood, California

  15. Elimination of metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products increases ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Papanek, Beth A.; Biswas, Ranjita; Rydzak, Thomas; Guss, Adam M.

    2015-09-12

    Clostridium thermocellum has the natural ability to convert cellulose to ethanol, making it a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. To further improve its CBP capabilities, we study a mutant strain of C. thermocellum that was constructed (strain AG553; C. thermocellum Δhpt ΔhydG Δldh Δpfl Δpta-ack) to increase flux to ethanol by removing side product formation. Strain AG553 showed a two- to threefold increase in ethanol yield relative to the wild type on all substrates tested. On defined medium, strain AG553 exceeded 70% of theoretical ethanol yield on lower loadings of the model crystalline cellulose Avicel, effectively eliminating formate, acetate, and lactate production and reducing H2 production by fivefold. On 5 g/L Avicel, strain AG553 reached an ethanol yield of 63.5% of the theoretical maximum compared with 19.9% by the wild type, and it showed similar yields on pretreated switchgrass and poplar. The elimination of organic acid production suggested that the strain might be capable of growth under higher substrate loadings in the absence of pH control. Final ethanol titer peaked at 73.4 mM in mutant AG553 on 20 g/L Avicel, at which point the pH decreased to a level that does not allow growth of C. thermocellum, likely due to CO2 accumulation. In comparison, the maximum titer of wild type C. thermocellum was 14.1 mM ethanol on 10 g/L Avicel. In conclusion, with the elimination of the metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products other than ethanol, AG553 is the best ethanol-yielding CBP strain to date and will serve as a platform strain for further metabolic engineering for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.

  16. Spinning Reserve From Hotel Load Response: Initial Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J

    2008-11-01

    This project was motivated by the fundamental match between hotel space conditioning load response capability and power system contingency response needs. As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. At ORNL s suggestion, Digital Solutions Inc. adapted its hotel air conditioning control technology to supply power system spinning reserve. This energy saving technology is primarily designed to provide the hotel operator with the ability to control individual room temperature set-points based upon occupancy (25% to 50% energy savings based on an earlier study [Kirby and Ally, 2002]). DSI added instantaneous local load shedding capability in response to power system frequency and centrally dispatched load shedding capability in response to power system operator command. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host the spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority supplied real-time metering equipment in the form of an internet connected Dranetz-BMI power quality meter and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and test results. The Sevier County Electric System installed the metering. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. These results are prior to implementing control over the common area air conditioning loads. Testing was also not at times of highest system or hotel loading. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator s command to shed load was issued. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect, with all units responding essentially simultaneously. Load restoration was ramped back in over several minutes. The restoration ramp can be adjusted to the power system needs. Frequency response testing was not completed. Initial

  17. Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Ally, Moonis Raza; Rice, C Keith

    2009-02-01

    This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.

  18. Mirant: Case 67a: Units 3 & 4 & 5 at Max Load for 12 hours and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Case 67a: Units 3 & 4 & 5 at Max Load for 12 hours and at Min Load for 12 hours Mirant: Case 67a: Units 3 & 4 & 5 at Max Load for 12 hours and at Min Load for 12 hours Docket No. ...

  19. Configuring load as a resource for competitive electricity markets--Review of demand response programs in the U.S. and around the world

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, Grayson C.

    2002-09-01

    The restructuring of regional and national electricity markets in the U.S. and around the world has been accompanied by numerous problems, including generation capacity shortages, transmission congestion, wholesale price volatility, and reduced system reliability. These problems have created new opportunities for technologies and business approaches that allow load serving entities and other aggregators to control and manage the load patterns of wholesale and retail end-users they serve. Demand Response Programs, once called Load Management, have re-emerged as an important element in the fine-tuning of newly restructured electricity markets. During the summers of 1999 and 2001 they played a vital role in stabilizing wholesale markets and providing a hedge against generation shortfalls throughout the U.S.A. Demand Response Programs include ''traditional'' capacity reservation and interruptible/curtailable rates programs as well as voluntary demand bidding programs offered by either Load Serving Entities (LSEs) or regional Independent System Operators (ISOs). The Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) has been monitoring the development of new types of Demand Response Programs both in the U.S. and around the world. This paper provides a survey and overview of the technologies and program designs that make up these emerging and important new programs.

  20. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    SciTech Connect

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R; Ma, Ookie

    2013-11-01

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  1. Pipelines and laterally loaded piles in elastoplastic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Rajani, B. . Inst. for Research in Construction)

    1993-09-01

    The uplift behavior of a shallow pipeline embedded in an elastoplastic medium is examined. An analytical solution for a beam on elastoplastic foundation is developed and a characteristic nondimensional load-displacement and stress-displacement relationship are presented. An approximate three-dimensional (3D) solution is proposed that accounts for embedment and breakaway condition behind the pipeline making use of the load-displacement curves developed for rigid anchors by Rowe and Davis in 1982. A comparison of these results with those obtained by 3D finite-element analysis indicates that the simplified solution of a beam on elastoplastic foundation is a practical alternative for analyzing the uplift behavior of shallow pipelines. The approximate solution is also used to compare the behavior of a laterally loaded pile for which no separation or separation between the surrounding soil and the back of the pile is permitted as the load is monotonically increased. The results are presented in the form of nondimensional charts that permit hand calculations and rapid verification of structural design of the pipeline and piles.

  2. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  3. C AND M BOTTOM LOADING FURNACE TEST DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonds, D

    2005-08-01

    The test was performed to determine the response of the HBL Phase III Glovebox during C&M Bottom Loading Furnace operations. In addition the data maybe used to benchmark a heat transfer model of the HBL Phase III Glovebox and Furnace.

  4. Load beam unit replaceable inserts for dry coal extrusion pumps

    DOEpatents

    Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D.

    2012-11-13

    A track assembly for a particulate material extrusion pump according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure includes a link assembly with a roller bearing. An insert mounted to a load beam located such that the roller bearing contacts the insert.

  5. 2013 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (summary)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The 2013 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (2013 White Book) is BPA's latest projection of the Pacific Northwest regional retail loads, contract obligations, contract purchases, and resource capabilities. The 2013 White Book is a snapshot of conditions as of October 1, 2013, documenting the loads and resources for the Federal system and region for the 10-year study period OY 2014 through 2023. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). Starting with the 2012 White Book, BPA changed the annual production schedule for future White Books. BPA is scheduled to publish a complete White Book, which includes a Federal System Needs Assessment analysis, every other year (even years). In the odd-numbered years, BPA will publish a biennial summary update (Supplement) that only contains major changes to the Federal System and Regional System analyses that have occurred since the last White Book. http://www.bpa.gov/power/pgp/whitebook/2013/index.shtml.

  6. Load rejection operation in conventional power plants in ENEL - Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Gadda, E. ); Radice, A. )

    1989-09-01

    The capability of maintaining auxiliary load after a main breaker trip following an emergency in the electric power system is of major concern for any thermoelectric generating unit. In ENEL the reliability of run back to house load of fossil fired units has been greatly improved by adopting a new procedure. Instead of that originally recommended the new procedure allows to trip all fuel input to the boiler and maintains house load operating the turbine on mass and energy stored in the boiler. This procedure was qualified a few years ago and since then is used in the 320 MW units in operation (the main bulk of ENEL's thermal capacity) whether equipped with subcritical once through boilers or with assisted circulation drum boilers. A series of test carried out recently on supercritical 660 MW units have shown that adopting the same procedure these larger units can sustain successfully the run back to house load too. Up to now the new procedure has been used in many other thermal units of size ranging between 70 MW to 240 MW and can be performed in most of ENEL's thermal power plants.

  7. Bismuth-Loaded Polymer Scintillators for Gamma Ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rupert, B L; Cherepy, N J; Sturm, B W; Sanner, R D; Dai, Z; Payne, S A

    2011-04-11

    We synthesize a series of polyvinylcarbazole monoliths containing varying loadings of triphenyl bismuth as a high-Z dopant and varying fluors, either organic or organometallic, in order to study their use as scintillators capable of gamma ray spectroscopy. A trend of increasing bismuth loading resulting in a better-resolved photopeak is observed. For PVK parts with no fluor or a standard organic fluor, diphenylanthracene, increasing bismuth loading results in decreasing light yield while with samples 1 or 3 % by weight of the spin-orbit coupling organometallic fluor FIrpic, which emits light from both singlet and triple excitons, show increasing light yield with increasing bismuth loading. Our best performing PVK/ BiPh{sub 3}/FIrpic scintillator with 40 wt % BiPh3 and 3 wt % FIrpic has an emission maximum of 500 nm, a light yield of {approx}30,000 photons/MeV, and energy resolution better than 7% FWHM at 662 keV. Replacing the Ir complex with an equal weight of diphenylanthracene produces a sample with a light yield of {approx}6,000 photons/MeV, with an emission maximum at 420 nm and energy resolution of 9% at 662 keV. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that the BiPh{sub 3} forms small clusters of approximately 5 nm diameter.

  8. Active investigation of material damage under load using micro-CT

    SciTech Connect

    Navalgund, Megha Mishra, Debasish; Manoharan, V.; Zunjarrao, Suraj

    2015-03-31

    Due the growth of composite materials across multiple industries such as Aviation, Wind there is an increasing need to not just standardize and improve manufacturing processes but also to design these materials for the specific applications. One of the things that this translates to is understanding how failure initiates and grows in these materials and at what loads, especially around internal flaws such as voids or features such as ply drops. Traditional methods of investigating internal damage such as CT lack the resolution to resolve ply level damage in composites. Interrupted testing with layer removal can be used to investigate internal damage using microscopy; however this is a destructive method. Advanced techniques such as such as DIC are useful for in-situ damage detection, however are limited to surface information and would not enable interrogating the volume. Computed tomography has become a state of the art technique for metrology and complete volumetric investigation especially for metallic components. However, its application to the composite world is still nascent. This paper demonstrates micro-CT’s capability as a gauge to quantitatively estimate the extent of damage and understand the propagation of damage in PMC composites while the component is under stress.

  9. All-Speed Methods and Long-Duration Time Integration for Incorporation into the 7-Equation Two-Phase Model

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Berry; S. Y. Kadioglu

    2012-05-01

    The numerical simulation of multiphase flows in Light Water (Nuclear) Reactors, LWRs, for normal, accident, and off-normal operation, and for operational optimization must cover a huge disparity of transient time durations, from milliseconds to years. In addition, our recent work has shown that the application of classical Riemann approaches, which pervade modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD), suffer numerical accuracy degradation, especially for compressible liquid flows. In this setting, all-speed or Mach uniform methods are need which can be accurately and efficiently integrated over a very large range of time scales. Thus we need a multi-time-scale integration approach to compliment our previously documented multi-spatial-scale approach to multiphase flow modeling [1]. This report briefly summarizes our efforts in these areas.

  10. CAN STELLAR MIXING EXPLAIN THE LACK OF TYPE Ib SUPERNOVAE IN LONG-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS?

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, Lucille H. [HPC-3, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Fryer, Chris L. [CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Young, Patrick A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85276 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    The discovery of supernovae associated with long-duration gamma-ray burst observations is primary evidence that the progenitors of these outbursts are massive stars. One of the principle mysteries in understanding these progenitors has been the fact that all of these gamma-ray-burst-associated supernovae are Type Ic supernovae with no evidence of helium in the stellar atmosphere. Many studies have focused on whether or not this helium is simply hidden from spectral analyses. In this Letter, we show results from recent stellar models using new convection algorithms based on our current understanding of stellar mixing. We demonstrate that enhanced convection may lead to severe depletion of stellar helium layers, suggesting that the helium is not observed simply because it is not in the star. We also present light curves and spectra of these compact helium-depleted stars compared to models with more conventional helium layers.

  11. Soft x-ray shock loading and momentum coupling in meteorite and planetary materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, R. Jeffery; Remo, John L.; Furnish, Michael David

    2010-12-01

    X-ray momentum coupling coefficients, C{sub M}, were determined by measuring stress waveforms in planetary materials subjected to impulsive radiation loading from the Sandia National Laboratories Z-machine. Results from the velocity interferometry (VISAR) diagnostic provided limited equation-of-state data as well. Targets were iron and stone meteorites, magnesium rich olivine (dunite) solid and powder ({approx}5--300 {mu}m), and Si, Al, and Fe calibration targets. All samples were {approx}1 mm thick and, except for Si, backed by LiF single-crystal windows. The x-ray spectrum included a combination of thermal radiation (blackbody 170--237 eV) and line emissions from the pinch material (Cu, Ni, Al, or stainless steel). Target fluences 0.4--1.7 kJ/cm{sup 2} at intensities 43--260 GW/cm{sup 2} produced front surface plasma pressures 2.6--12.4 GPa. Stress waves driven into the samples were attenuating due to the short ({approx}5 ns) duration of the drive pulse. Attenuating wave impulse is constant allowing accurate C{sub M} measurements provided mechanical impedance mismatch between samples and the window are known. Impedance-corrected C{sub M} determined from rear-surface motion was 1.9--3.1 x 10{sup -5} s/m for stony meteorites, 2.7 and 0.5 x 10{sup -5} s/m for solid and powdered dunite, 0.8--1.4 x 10{sup -5}.

  12. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

  13. Estimated radiactive and shock loading of fusion reactor armor

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D C

    2008-11-25

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is of interest as a source of neutrons for proliferation-resistant and high burn-up fission reactor designs. ICF is a transient process, each implosion leading to energy release over a short period, with a continuous series of ICF operations needed to drive the fission reactor. ICF yields energy in the form of MeV-range neutrons and ions, and thermal x-rays. These radiations, particularly the thermal x-rays, can deposit a pulse of energy in the wall of the ICF chamber, inducing loading by isochoric heating (i.e. at constant volume before the material can expand) or by ablation of material from the surface. The explosion of the hot ICF system, and the compression of any fill material in the chamber, may also result in direct mechanical loading by a blast wave (decaying shock) reaching the chamber wall. The chamber wall must be able to survive the repetitive loading events for long enough for the reactor to operate economically. It is thus necessary to understand the loading induced by ICF systems in possible chamber wall designs, and to predict the response and life time of the wall. Estimates are given for the loading induced in the wall armor of the fusion chamber caused by ablative thermal radiation from the fusion plasma and by the hydrodynamic shock. Taking a version of the LIFE design as an example, the ablation pressure was estimated to be {approx}0.6 GPa with an approximately exponential decay with time constant {approx}0.6 ns. Radiation hydrodynamics simulations suggested that ablation of the W armor should be negligible.

  14. Load As A Reliability Resource in the Restructured Electricity Market

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, J.D.

    2002-06-10

    Recent electricity price spikes are painful reminders of the value that meaningful demand-side responses could bring to the restructuring US electricity system. Review of the aggregate offers made by suppliers confirms that even a modest increase in demand elasticity could dramatically reduce these extremes in price volatility. There is a strong need for dramatically increased customer participation in these markets to enhance system reliability and reduce price volatility. Indeed, allowing customers to manage their loads in response to system conditions might be thought of as the ultimate reliability resource. Most would agree that meaningful demand-side responses to price are the hallmark of a well-functioning competitive market [1]. Yet, in today's markets for electricity, little or no such response is evident. The reason is simple: customers currently do not experience directly the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Consequently, they have no incentive to modify these decisions in ways that might enhance system reliability or improve the efficiency of the markets in which electricity is traded. Increased customer participation is a necessary step in the evolution toward more efficient markets for electricity and ancillary services. This scoping report provides a three-part assessment of the current status of efforts to enhance the ability of customer's load to participate in competitive markets with a specific focus on the role of customer loads in enhancing electricity system reliability. First, this report considers the definitions of electricity-reliability-enhancing ancillary services (Section 2) and a preliminary assessment of the ability of customer's loads to provide these services. Second, is a review a variety of programs in which load has been called on as a system reliability resource (Section 3). These experiences, drawn from both past and current utility and ISO programs, focus on programs triggered by system condition (e

  15. Microstructure evolution during tensile loading histories of a polyurea

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldi, R.G.; Boyce, M.C.; Weigand, S.J.; Londono, D.J.; Guise, M.W.

    2012-02-07

    The evolution in the hard/soft domain microstructure of an elastomeric-like polyurea during different tensile loading histories was studied using in situ small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The nonlinear stress-strain behavior is initially stiff with a rollover yield to a more compliant response; unloading is highly nonlinear showing substantial hysteresis while also exhibiting significant recovery. Reloading reveals a substantially more compliant 'softened' behavior and dramatically reduced hysteresis. WAXS peaks monitor characteristic dimensions of regular features within the hard domains; the peak location remains unchanged with tensile deformation indicating no separation of the internal structure within a domain, but the peak intensity becomes anisotropic with deformation evolving in a reversible manner consistent with orientation due to stretch. The SAXS profiles provide information between major hard domains. SAXS peaks are found to shift with tensile loading in a relatively affine manner up to a tensile true strain of {approx}0.4, which, using a Bragg reduction to aid interpretation, reveals an axial increase and a transverse decrease in interdomain spacings; this evolution is reversible for strains less than {approx}0.4. Increasing axial strain beyond a true strain of {approx}0.4 is accompanied by a dramatic, progressive, and irreversible reduction in axial Bragg spacing, indicating a breakdown in the hard domain aggregate network structure. A four-point pattern is seen to develop during stretching. The breakdown in networked structure during a first load cycle gives a new structure for subsequent load cycles, which is seen to evolve in a reversible manner for strains less than or equal to the prior maximum strain. However, for strains exceeding the prior maximum strain excursion, additional breakdown is found. These SAXS results show that a breakdown in the hard domain aggregate network structure is a governing mechanism for the large

  16. Dislocation model of nucleation and development of slip bands and their effect on service life of structural materials subject to cyclic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Shetulov, D. I.; Andreev, V. V. Myasnikov, A. M.

    2015-12-15

    Most of the destructions of machine parts are of fatigue character. Under cyclic loading, the surface layer, in which hardening–softening processes rapidly occur, is formed almost at once after its beginning. The interaction of plastic-deformation traces with each other and with other structural elements, such as grains, results in the formation of a characteristic microstructure of the machine-part surface subject to cyclic loadings. The character of accumulation of slip bands and their shape (narrow, wide, twisting, and broken) depends on the conditions under which (under what factors) the cyclic loading occurs. The fatigue-resistance index expressed in terms of the slope of left portion of the fatigue curve linearized in logarithmic coordinates also depends on the set of relevant factors. The dependence of the surface damageability on the fatigue resistance index makes it possible to implement the method of predicting the fatigue curve by the description of the factors acting on a detail or construction. The position of the inflection point on the curve in the highcycle fatigue region (the endurance limit and the number of loading cycles, the ordinate and abscissa of the inflection point on the fatigue curve, respectively) also depends on the set of relevant factors. In combination with the previously obtained value of the slope of the left portion of the curve in the high-cycle fatigue region, this makes it possible to construct an a priori fatigue curve, thus reducing the scope of required fatigue tests and, hence, high expenses because of their long duration and high cost. The scope of tests upon using the developed method of prediction may be reduced to a minimum of one or two samples at the predicted level of the endurance limit.

  17. Conditional load and store in a shared memory

    SciTech Connect

    Blumrich, Matthias A; Ohmacht, Martin

    2015-02-03

    A method, system and computer program product for implementing load-reserve and store-conditional instructions in a multi-processor computing system. The computing system includes a multitude of processor units and a shared memory cache, and each of the processor units has access to the memory cache. In one embodiment, the method comprises providing the memory cache with a series of reservation registers, and storing in these registers addresses reserved in the memory cache for the processor units as a result of issuing load-reserve requests. In this embodiment, when one of the processor units makes a request to store data in the memory cache using a store-conditional request, the reservation registers are checked to determine if an address in the memory cache is reserved for that processor unit. If an address in the memory cache is reserved for that processor, the data are stored at this address.

  18. Transparent bulk-size nanocomposites with high inorganic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shi; Gaume, Romain

    2015-12-14

    With relatively high nanoparticle loading in polymer matrices, hybrid nanocomposites made by colloidal dispersion routes suffer from severe inhomogeneous agglomeration, a phenomenon that deteriorates light transmission even when the refractive indices of the inorganic and organic phases are closely matched. The dispersion of particles in a matrix is of paramount importance to obtain composites of high optical quality. Here, we describe an innovative, yet straightforward method to fabricate monolithic transparent hybrid nanocomposites with very high particle loading and high refractive index mismatch tolerance between the inorganic and organic constituents. We demonstrate 77% transmission at 800 nm in a 2 mm-thick acrylate polymer nanocomposite containing 61 vol. % CaF{sub 2} nanoparticles. Modeling shows that similar performance could easily be obtained with various inorganic phases relevant to a number of photonic applications.

  19. Transverse electromagnetic horn antenna with resistively-loaded exterior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Aurand, John F.

    1999-01-01

    An improved transverse electromagnetic (TEM) horn antenna comprises a resistive loading material on the exterior surfaces of the antenna plates. The resistive loading material attenuates or inhibits currents on the exterior surfaces of the TEM horn antenna. The exterior electromagnetic fields are of opposite polarity in comparison to the primary and desired interior electromagnetic field, thus inherently cause partial cancellation of the interior wave upon radiation or upon reception. Reducing the exterior fields increases the radiation efficiency of the antenna by reducing the cancellation of the primary interior field (supported by the interior surface currents). This increases the transmit gain and receive sensitivity of the TEM horn antenna, as well as improving the transient (time-domain) response.

  20. Engineering to Control Noise, Loading, and Optimal Operating Points

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell R. Swartz

    2000-11-12

    Successful engineering of low-energy nuclear systems requires control of noise, loading, and optimum operating point (OOP) manifolds. The latter result from the biphasic system response of low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR)/cold fusion systems, and their ash production rate, to input electrical power. Knowledge of the optimal operating point manifold can improve the reproducibility and efficacy of these systems in several ways. Improved control of noise, loading, and peak production rates is available through the study, and use, of OOP manifolds. Engineering of systems toward the OOP-manifold drive-point peak may, with inclusion of geometric factors, permit more accurate uniform determinations of the calibrated activity of these materials/systems.

  1. LITERATURE REVIEW ON MAXIMUM LOADING OF RADIONUCLIDES ON CRYSTALLINE SILICOTITANATE

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K.; Pennebaker, F.

    2010-10-13

    Plans are underway to use small column ion exchange (SCIX) units installed in high-level waste tanks to remove Cs-137 from highly alkaline salt solutions at Savannah River Site. The ion exchange material slated for the SCIX project is engineered or granular crystalline silicotitanate (CST). Information on the maximum loading of radionuclides on CST is needed by Savannah River Remediation for safety evaluations. A literature review has been conducted that culminated in the estimation of the maximum loading of all but one of the radionuclides of interest (Cs-137, Sr-90, Ba-137m, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Am-241, and Cm-244). No data was found for Cm-244.

  2. Plug and Process Loads Capacity and Power Requirements Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppy, M.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-09-01

    This report addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that would help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. Limited initial data, however, suggest that actual PPL densities in leased buildings are substantially lower. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems. Better guidance will enable improved sizing and design of these systems, decrease upfront capital costs, and allow systems to operate more energy efficiently. The main focus of this report is to provide industry with reliable, objective third-party guidance to address the information gap in typical PPL densities for commercial building tenants. This could drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands.

  3. net_energy_load_1990_2004.xls

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Not applicable for this table format Table 1a . Historical Net Energy For Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004. (Thousands of Megawatthours) Net Energy For Load (Annual) Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990 2,886,496 442,507 142,502 221,099 197,326 127,102 250,681 485,205 252,037 209,789 558,248 1991 2,941,669 450,586 146,903

  4. Test experience with multiterminal HVDC load flow and stability programs

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.G.; Davies, J.B. ); McNichol, J.R. ); Gulachenski, E.M.; Doe, S. ); Balu, N.J. )

    1988-07-01

    A powerful new set of load flow and stability programs for the study of HVdc systems has recently been completed. During the development of the programs novel applications of multiterminal HVdc systems were investigated, firstly on a large test system and later on actual utility models. This paper describes the test systems used, the HVdc systems studied and some of the interesting system related aspects of the HVdc system performance.

  5. Methods and apparatus for rotor load control in wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2006-08-22

    A wind turbine having a rotor, at least one rotor blade, and a plurality of generators, of which a first generator is configured to provide power to an electric grid and a second generator is configured to provide power to the wind turbine during times of grid loss. The wind turbine is configured to utilize power provided by the second generator to reduce loads on the wind turbine during times of grid loss.

  6. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    LBNL -62701 ORNL/TM-2007/060 PNNL-16618 Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience Grayson Heffner 1 , Charles Goldman 1 , Brendan Kirby 2 and Michael Kintner-Meyer 3 1. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 2. Oak Ridge National Laboratory 3. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Energy Technologies Division May 2007 The work described in this report was coordinated by the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions and was funded by the

  7. Low-Load HVAC Systems for Single and Multifamily Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Load HVAC Systems for Single and Multifamily Applications Anthony Grisolia Managing Director Innovation Programs Andrew Poerschke Specialist Innovation Programs CONFIDENTIAL Agenda Basis for Thermal Comfort Comparative Modeling Newtown Townhouse Case Study Plug and Play System Future Work How IBACOS Thinks About Comfort Risks Home 24 Home 25 Home 26 Same Plan Same Street Same Orientation Different Occupants 0.5 CLO 1.0 MET ASHRAE 55 Comfort Aggregate of 36 Homes 0.5 CLO 1.0 MET 47% of data

  8. 21-PWR WASTE PACKAGE WITH ABSORBER PLATES LOADING CURVE EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Scaglione

    2004-12-17

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of initial pressurized water reactor (PWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of spent nuclear fuel into the 21 PWR waste package with absorber plates design as provided in Attachment IV. This calculation is an example of the application of the methodology presented in the ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003). The scope of this calculation covers a range of enrichments from 0 through 5.0 weight percent U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 45 GWd/MTU. Higher burnups were not necessary because 45 GWd/MTU was high enough for the loading curve determination. This activity supports the validation of the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel applications. The intended use of these results will be in establishing PWR waste package configuration loading specifications. Limitations of this evaluation are as follows: (1) The results are based on burnup credit for actinides and selected fission products as proposed in YMP (2003, Table 3-1) and referred to as the ''Principal Isotopes''. Any change to the isotope listing will have a direct impact on the results of this report. (2) The results are based on 1.5 wt% Gd in the Ni-Gd Alloy material and having no tuff inside the waste package. If the Gd loading is reduced or a process to introduce tuff inside the waste package is defined, then this report would need to be reevaluated based on the alternative materials. This calculation is subject to the ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 2004) because it concerns engineered barriers that are included in the ''Q-List'' (BSC 2004k, Appendix A) as items important to safety and waste isolation.

  9. Renewable Energy Load Matching Software - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Energy Wind Energy Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Renewable Energy Load Matching Software National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication RELM Publication (561 KB) Technology Marketing Summary The most common way of describing the quality of an existing or potential wind or solar power generation site is the total amount of energy expected to be

  10. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Odukomaiya, Adewale; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  11. Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations Arlan Burdick IBACOS, Inc. June 2011 ii NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process

  12. MHD generator with improved network coupling electrodes to a load

    DOEpatents

    Rosa, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    An MHD generator has a plurality of segmented electrodes extending longitudinally of a duct, whereby progressively increasing high DC voltages are derived from a set of cathode electrodes and progressively increasing low DC voltages are derived from a set of anode electrodes. First and second load terminals are respectively connected to the cathode and anode electrodes by separate coupling networks, each of which includes a number of SCR's and a number of diode rectifiers.

  13. Techno-Economic Analysis of Traditional Hydrogen Transmission and Distribution Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Traditional Hydrogen Transmission and Distribution Options Amgad Elgowainy Argonne National Laboratory Hydrogen Transmission and Distribution Workshop National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO February 25, 2014 2 Traditional hydrogen transmission and distribution (T&D) options Gaseous Form Liquid Form 3 Cost contribution of components in pipeline T&D $0.10-$0.6/kg H2 .100mi $2-$3/kg H2_stored $0.2-0.3/kg H2_dispensed 10% $0.2/kg H2 100-1000 MT/day $10M $100K-$200K/in-mi

  14. Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) load and resource profiles.

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, Lauren; Skolnik, Edward G.; Marchionini, Brian; Fall, Ndeye K.

    2007-07-01

    In 1997, an international team interested in the development of Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems for rural electrification projects around the world was organized by the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO) with the support of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The team focused on defining load and resource profiles for RAPS systems. They identified single family homes, small communities, and villages as candidates for RAPS applications, and defined several different size/power requirements for each. Based on renewable energy and resource data, the team devised a ''strawman'' series of load profiles. A RAPS system typically consists of a renewable and/or conventional generator, power conversion equipment, and a battery. The purpose of this report is to present data and information on insolation levels and load requirements for ''typical'' homes, small communities, and larger villages around the world in order to facilitate the development of robust design practices for RAPS systems, and especially for the storage battery component. These systems could have significant impact on areas of the world that would otherwise not be served by conventional electrical grids.

  15. Aerodynamic loads and performance of the Darrieus rotor

    SciTech Connect

    Paraschivoiu, I.

    1982-11-01

    The double-multiple-streamtube model was used for determining the aerodynamic blade loads and roto performance on the Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine with curved blades. This analytical model i capable of predicting the difference in the induced velocities at the upstream and downstream passes. The upwind and downwind interference factors are calculated by a double iteration, one for each half of the rotor and vertical variations in the freestream velocity are accounted for. Under local aerodynamic conditions a closed-form analytical solution is obtained for two functions, one for the upwind and one for the downwind hal of the turbine. Thus the local aerodynamic loads on the blade and the rotor performance are calculated more accurately than by other streamtube methods. Comparison of the analytical results obtained with the doublemultiple-streamtube model and the available field test data for the Sandia 17-m machine shows good agreement. This method can therefore be used for generating a suitable aerodynamic-load model for structural-design analysis of the Darrieus rotor.

  16. Discussion series on PURPA related topics: load management

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, J I

    1980-08-01

    The Discussion Series on PURPA Related Topics is composed of five volumes: Metering, Billing, Information to Customers, Load Management Techniques and Master Metering. These reports are based on twenty-five Demonstration and Implementation projects sponsored and directed during the past five years by the US Department of Energy, Office of Utility Systems. Each of the topics bears directly on one or more of the federal standards contained in the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). This volume, Load Management Techniques, relates primarily to the Time-of-Day rates standard, PURPA IB(d)3. The experiences related in this report deal, in part, with the procedures and equipment which are affected when time-of-day rates are implemented. One goal of this report is to describe how people in a variety of settings have dealt with the many practical issues in load management. Another is to highlight the lessons and summarize the experiences of the Project participants. This report does not stand as a manual nor provide prescriptive guidelines on how to deal with the topic. Rather it offers an account for those charged with the responsibility of implementing PURPA requirements to learn from the insights and problems which occurred during the Rate Demonstration projects.

  17. OPF incorporating load models maximizing net revenue. [Optimal Power Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, L.G.; El-Hawary, M.E. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-02-01

    Studies of effects of load modeling in optimal power flow studies using minimum cost and minimum loss objective reveal that a main disadvantage of cost minimization is the reduction of the objective via a reduction in the power demand. This inevitably results in lowering the total revenue and in most cases, reducing net revenue as well. An alternative approach for incorporating load models in security-constrained OPF (SCOPF) studies apparently avoids reducing the total power demand for the intact system, but reduces the voltages. A study of the behavior of conventional OPF solutions in the presence of loads not controlled by ULTC's shows that this result in a reducing the total power demand for the intact system. In this paper, the authors propose an objective that avoids the tendency to lower the total power demand, total revenue and net revenue, for OPF neglecting contingencies (normal OPF), as well as for security-constrained OPF. The minimum cost objective is modified by subtracting the total power demand from the total fuel cost. This is equivalent to maximizing the net revenue.

  18. A methodology to assess the radionuclide migration parameters through bentonite-sand backfill in a short experimental duration

    SciTech Connect

    Gurumoorthy, C.; Kusakabe, O.

    2007-07-01

    Bentonite-Sand Backfill is a part of Engineered Barrier System (EBS) widely used in a Near Surface Disposal Facility (NSDF) to delay migration of radionuclides from the disposed nuclear waste in a geo environment. Laboratory migration experiments have been conducted to understand the advection/diffusion mechanisms of various radionuclides through backfill and to evaluate their migration rates in order to assess the performance of EBS. Migration through backfill is an extremely slow process and the experiments are time consuming. Also, these experiments have limitations to simulate the field stress conditions. Various researchers have experienced the advantages of centrifuge modeling technique to model contaminant transport problems of geo-environment. However, no such studies have been carried out adopting this technique to model the behaviour of bentonite-sand mixture as backfill in NSDF. An attempt has been made in the present study to investigate the validity of this technique to carry out such studies. Significance of geotechnical centrifuge modeling to simulate the prototype radionuclide migration mechanisms through backfill is highlighted. This paper presents the dimensional analysis of various scale factors to construct a physical model for centrifuge tests to monitor online the migration phenomena of radionuclides through bentonite-sand mixture. Studies reveal the feasibility of the technique to evaluate the migration parameters in a short experimental duration. Such studies help in improving EBS design and assessing the long-term performance of EBS in NSDF. (authors)

  19. Wind Turbine Generator System Duration Test Report for the Gaia-Wind 11 kW Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Huskey, A.; Bowen, A.; Jager, D.

    2010-09-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NRELs) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Duration testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality tests. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes a Gaia-Wind 11 kW wind turbine mounted on an 18 m monopole tower. Gaia-Wind Ltd. manufactured the turbine in Denmark, although the company is based in Scotland. The system was installed by the NWTC Site Operations group with guidance and assistance from Gaia-Wind.

  20. Effect of long duration UV irradiation on diamondlike carbon surfaces in the presence of a hydrocarbon gaseous atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Riedo, A.; Wahlstroem, P.; Scheer, J. A.; Wurz, P.; Tulej, M.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of the effect of long duration UV irradiation (up to 2905 min) of flight quality diamondlike carbon charge state conversion surfaces for application in space research in the presence of a hydrocarbon atmosphere were done. An isopropanol atmosphere was used for simulating the hydrocarbon gaseous environment for an instrument on a satellite in space. Charge state conversion surfaces are used in neutral particle sensing instruments where neutral atoms have to be ionized prior to the analysis. A narrow-band (126{+-}5 nm) discharge lamp and a broad-band deuterium lamp (112-370 nm) were used as sources of UV radiation. The UV irradiation of a surface results in the desorption of some volatiles present on the surface and the decomposition of others. Desorption of volatiles, mostly water, is observed for both UV sources. The decomposition of the hydrocarbons and the subsequent build-up of a hydrocarbonaceous layer is only observed for the broad-band UV lamp, which is more representative for the space environment. Unfortunately, the hydrocarbonaceous layer cannot be removed thermally, i.e., it is permanent, and causes a degradation of the performance of the charge state conversion surfaces. With the present measurements we can quantify the UV influence at which the degradation of the conversion surfaces becomes noticeable.

  1. THE ORIGIN AND PROPAGATION OF VARIABILITY IN THE OUTFLOWS OF LONG-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Morsony, Brian J.; Lazzati, Davide; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2010-11-01

    We present the results of hydrodynamical simulations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets propagating through their stellar progenitor material and subsequently through the surrounding circumstellar medium. We consider both jets that are injected with constant properties in the center of the star and jets injected with a variable luminosity. We show that the variability properties of the jet outside the star are a combination of the variability injected at the base of the jet and the variability caused by the jet propagation through the star. Comparing power spectra for the two cases shows that the variability injected by the engine is preserved even if the jet is heavily shocked inside the star. Such shocking produces additional variability at long timescales, of order several seconds. Within the limited number of progenitors and jets investigated, our findings suggest that the broad pulses of several seconds duration typically observed in GRBs are due to the interaction of the jet with the progenitor, while the short-timescale variability, characterized by fluctuations on timescales of milliseconds, has to be injected at the base of the jet. Studying the properties of the fast variability in GRBs may therefore provide clues to the nature of the inner engine and the mechanisms of energy extraction from it.

  2. The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Negres, R A; Norton, M A; Liao, Z M; Cross, D A; Bude, J D; Carr, C W

    2009-10-29

    Past work in the area of laser-induced damage growth has shown growth rates to be primarily dependent on the laser fluence and wavelength. More recent studies suggest that growth rate, similar to the damage initiation process, is affected by a number of additional parameters including pulse duration, pulse shape, site size, and internal structure. In this study, we focus on the effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser damage sites located on the exit surface of fused silica optics. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a significant dependence of growth rate at 351 nm on pulse duration from 1 ns to 15 ns as {tau}{sup 0.3} for sites in the 50-100 {micro}m size range.

  3. Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Traditional Cultural Properties (NPS, 1990, revised 1998)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This National Park Service bulletin is meant to assist federal agencies, State Historic Preservation Officers, local governments, Indian tribes, and other historic preservation practitioners in determining whether properties thought to have traditional cultural significance are eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places.

  4. DOE-Supported Project Demonstrates Benefits of Constructed Wetlands to Treat Non-Traditional Water Sources

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In a pilot-scale test supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy, Clemson University researchers have shown that manmade or "constructed" wetlands can be used to treat non-traditional water sources which could then be used in power plants or for other purposes.

  5. Building America Expert Meeting Report: Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2011-10-01

    This report outlines findings resulting from a U.S. Department of Energy Building America expert meeting to determine how HVAC companies can transition from a traditional contractor status to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting. IBACOS has embarked upon a research effort under the Building America Program to understand business impacts and change management strategies for HVAC companies. HVAC companies can implement these strategies in order to quickly transition from a 'traditional' heating and cooling contractor to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting. Due to HVAC service contracts, which allow repeat interaction with homeowners, HVAC companies are ideally positioned in the marketplace to resolve homeowner comfort issues through whole house energy upgrades. There are essentially two primary ways to define the routes of transition for an HVAC contractor taking on whole house performance contracting: (1) Sub-contracting out the shell repair/upgrade work; and (2) Integrating the shell repair/upgrade work into their existing business. IBACOS held an Expert Meeting on the topic of Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors on March 29, 2011 in San Francisco, CA. The major objectives of the meeting were to: Review and validate the general business models for traditional HVAC companies and whole house energy upgrade companies Review preliminary findings on the differences between the structure of traditional HVAC Companies and whole house energy upgrade companies Seek industry input on how to structure information so it is relevant and useful for traditional HVAC contractors who are transitioning to becoming whole house energy upgrade contractors Seven industry experts identified by IBACOS participated in the session along with one representative from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The objective of the meeting was to validate the general operational profile of an

  6. On the relation between traditional iterative methods and modern multilevel/domain decomposition methods

    SciTech Connect

    Griebel, M.

    1994-12-31

    In recent years, it has turned out that many modern iterative algorithms (multigrid schemes, multilevel preconditioners, domain decomposition methods etc.) for solving problems resulting from the discretization of PDEs can be interpreted as additive (Jacobi-like) or multiplicative (Gauss-Seidel-like) subspace correction methods. The key to their analysis is the study of certain metric properties of the underlying splitting of the discretization space V into a sum of subspaces V{sub j}, j = 1{hor_ellipsis}, J resp. of the variational problem on V into auxiliary problems on these subspaces. Here, the author proposes a modified approach to the abstract convergence theory of these additive and multiplicative Schwarz iterative methods, that makes the relation to traditional iteration methods more explicit. To this end he introduces the enlarged Hilbert space V = V{sub 0} x {hor_ellipsis} x V{sub j} which is nothing else but the usual construction of the Cartesian product of the Hilbert spaces V{sub j} and use it now in the discretization process. This results in an enlarged, semidefinite linear system to be solved instead of the usual definite system. Then, modern multilevel methods as well as domain decomposition methods simplify to just traditional (block-) iteration methods. Now, the convergence analysis can be carried out directly for these traditional iterations on the enlarged system, making convergence proofs of multilevel and domain decomposition methods more clear, or, at least, more classical. The terms that enter the convergence proofs are exactly the ones of the classical iterative methods. It remains to estimate them properly. The convergence proof itself follow basically line by line the old proofs of the respective traditional iterative methods. Additionally, new multilevel/domain decomposition methods are constructed straightforwardly by now applying just other old and well known traditional iterative methods to the enlarged system.

  7. Milestone Report - M41SW030910 - Test Plan for Kr Loaded Zeolite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Milestone Report - M41SW030910 - Test Plan for Kr Loaded Zeolite Samples Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Milestone Report - M41SW030910 - Test Plan for Kr Loaded Zeolite ...

  8. CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

  9. Benefits and costs of load management: a technical assistance and resource material handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Ronald; Ackerman, Gary; Lau, Ronald; Patmore, James; Ma, Fred; Sechan, Neil; Schoor, Alan; Simon, Lois; Bleiweis, Bruce; Lloyd, Kevin

    1980-06-01

    This handbook will assist state regulatory authorities and electric utilities in complying with the Load Management Standard of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. The handbook has two major sections. The first discusses load-management techniques in terms of equipment, customer applications, combinations of techniques, etc. Key steps for evaluating the costs and benefits of load management options also are presented. These steps are intended to sequentially eliminate ineffective load-management options as the cost-benefit calculation becomes more detailed. The second section includes up-to-date information on available load-management technologies, models for utility costing, load-management data transfer, prescreening of load-management options, and the load-management literature.

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    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

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    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

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    SciTech Connect

    Giller, R.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-16

    This document provides calculations and discussions to compare Hanford Site wind load criteria with the current national standard for wind loads (ASCE 7, 1995). Site criteria uses the 1988 edition ASCE 7.

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    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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    SciTech Connect

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

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