National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for total suspended particulates

  1. Mass transfer within electrostatic precipitators: in-flight adsorption of mercury by charged suspended particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Herek L. Clack

    2006-06-01

    Electrostatic precipitation is the dominant method of particulate control used for coal combustion, and varying degrees of mercury capture and transformation have been reported across ESPs. Nevertheless, the fate of gas-phase mercury within an ESP remains poorly understood. The present analysis focuses on the gas-particle mass transfer that occurs within a charged aerosol in an ESP. As a necessary step in gas-phase mercury adsorption or transformation, gas-particle mass transfer - particularly in configurations other than fixed beds - has received far less attention than studies of adsorption kinetics. Our previous analysis showed that only a small fraction of gas-phase mercury entering an ESP is likely to be adsorbed by collected particulate matter on the plate electrodes. The present simplified analysis provides insight into gas-particle mass transfer within an ESP under two limiting conditions: laminar and turbulent fluid flows. The analysis reveals that during the process of particulate collection, gas-particle mass transfer can be quite high, easily exceeding the mass transfer to ESP plate electrodes in most cases. Decreasing particle size, increasing particle mass loading, and increasing temperature all result in increased gas-particle mass transfer. The analysis predicts significantly greater gas-particle mass transfer in the laminar limit than in the turbulent limit; however, the differences become negligible under conditions where other factors, such as total mass of suspended particulates, are the controlling mass transfer parameters. Results are compared to selected pilot- and full-scale sorbent injection data. 41 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Total Particulate Matter Air Sampling Data (TEOM) from Los Alamos National Laboratory

    DOE Data Explorer

    LANL measures the total particulate mass concentration in the air on a routine basis as well as during incidents that may affect ambient air. The collected data is added to the Air Quality Index (AQI). AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality. It tells you how clean or polluted your air is, and what associated health effects might be a concern for you. The AQI focuses on health effects you may experience within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air. EPA calculates the AQI for five major air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act.

  3. Liquid chromatographic determination of benzo(a)pyrene in total particulate matter of cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, B.A.; Jenkins, R.A.; Griest, W.H.; Reagan, R.R.; Holladay, S.K.

    1985-09-01

    The benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) delivery of reference and commercially available tobacco cigarettes, as well as reference and placebo marijuana cigarettes, is determined using a sequential liquid chromatographic/liquid chromatographic procedure. The total particulate matter of sample cigarette smoke is collected using a Cambridge filter pad, which is ultrasonically extracted with acetone. The resulting extract is filtered, then fractionated using semipreparative-scale normal phase liquid chromatography (LC). Quantitative determination is achieved using analytical-scale reverse phase LC equipped with a fluorescence detector. The method is precise (+/- 10-15% relative standard deviation) and yields 85% or better BaP recovery at the ng/cig. level. A single pad may be analyzed in 8 person-hours, while a more typical lot of 12 pads (6 pads each for 2 cigarette brands) may be analyzed in 10 person-days.

  4. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    A flexible whip suspended in a hopper is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  5. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.

    1986-01-01

    A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  6. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1984-06-27

    A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  7. Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Product: Total Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases PropanePropylene Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Fuel ...

  8. Total..........................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0.9 Q Q Q Heat Pump......7.7 0.3 Q Q Steam or Hot Water System......Census Division Total West Energy Information Administration ...

  9. Total..........................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0.9 Q Q Q Heat Pump......6.2 3.8 2.4 Steam or Hot Water System......Census Division Total Northeast Energy Information ...

  10. Total............................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Total................................................................... 111.1 2,033 1,618 1,031 791 630 401 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................................... 3.2 357 336 113 188 177 59 500 to 999....................................................... 23.8 733 667 308 343 312 144 1,000 to 1,499................................................. 20.8 1,157 1,086 625 435 409 235 1,500 to 1,999................................................. 15.4 1,592

  11. Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Total floor- space 1 Heated floor- space 2 Total floor- space 1 Cooled floor- space 2 Total floor- space 1 Lit floor- space 2 All buildings 87,093 80,078 70,053 79,294 60,998 83,569 68,729 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 8,041 6,699 5,833 6,124 4,916 7,130 5,590 5,001 to 10,000 8,900 7,590 6,316 7,304 5,327 8,152 6,288 10,001 to 25,000 14,105 12,744 10,540 12,357 8,840 13,250 10,251 25,001 to 50,000 11,917 10,911 9,638 10,813 7,968 11,542 9,329 50,001 to 100,000 13,918 13,114

  12. Total...................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2,033 1,618 1,031 791 630 401 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................................... 3.2 357 336 113 188 177 59 500 to 999....................................................... 23.8 733 667 308 343 312 144 1,000 to 1,499................................................. 20.8 1,157 1,086 625 435 409 235 1,500 to 1,999................................................. 15.4 1,592 1,441 906 595 539 339 2,000 to

  13. Total..........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    . 111.1 20.6 15.1 5.5 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.4 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 4.6 3.6 1.1 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 2.8 2.2 0.6 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 1.9 1.4 0.5 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.3 1.7 0.5 2,500 to

  14. Total..........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.5 0.3 Q 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 3.9 2.4 1.5 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 4.4 3.2 1.2 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 3.5 2.4 1.1 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 3.2 2.1 1.1 2,500 to

  15. Total..........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.6 Q Q 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 9.0 4.2 1.5 3.2 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 8.6 4.7 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 6.0 2.9 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 4.1 2.1 0.7

  16. Total..........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 1.0 0.2 0.8 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 6.3 1.4 4.9 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 5.0 1.6 3.4 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 4.0 1.4 2.6 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.6 0.9 1.7 2,500 to

  17. Total................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    .. 111.1 86.6 2,522 1,970 1,310 1,812 1,475 821 1,055 944 554 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................. 3.2 0.9 261 336 162 Q Q Q 334 260 Q 500 to 999.................................... 23.8 9.4 670 683 320 705 666 274 811 721 363 1,000 to 1,499.............................. 20.8 15.0 1,121 1,083 622 1,129 1,052 535 1,228 1,090 676 1,500 to 1,999.............................. 15.4 14.4 1,574 1,450 945 1,628 1,327 629 1,712 1,489 808 2,000 to

  18. Total..........................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    .. 111.1 24.5 1,090 902 341 872 780 441 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500...................................... 3.1 2.3 403 360 165 366 348 93 500 to 999.............................................. 22.2 14.4 763 660 277 730 646 303 1,000 to 1,499........................................ 19.1 5.8 1,223 1,130 496 1,187 1,086 696 1,500 to 1,999........................................ 14.4 1.0 1,700 1,422 412 1,698 1,544 1,348 2,000 to 2,499........................................ 12.7

  19. Total...................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500............................................ 3.2 0.4 Q 0.6 1.7 0.4 500 to 999................................................... 23.8 4.8 1.4 4.2 10.2 3.2 1,000 to 1,499............................................. 20.8 10.6 1.8 1.8 4.0 2.6 1,500 to 1,999............................................. 15.4 12.4 1.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 2,000 to 2,499............................................. 12.2 10.7 1.0 0.2 Q Q 2,500 to

  20. Total.........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 2 Fewer than 500.................................................. 3.2 Q 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.5 500 to 999.......................................................... 23.8 1.5 5.4 5.5 6.1 5.3 1,000 to 1,499.................................................... 20.8 1.4 4.0 5.2 5.0 5.2 1,500 to 1,999.................................................... 15.4 1.4 3.1 3.5 3.6 3.8 2,000 to 2,499.................................................... 12.2 1.4 3.2 3.0 2.3 2.3

  1. Total..........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.9 1.0 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 4.6 3.9 9.0 6.3 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 2.8 4.4 8.6 5.0 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 1.9 3.5 6.0 4.0 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.3 3.2 4.1

  2. Total..........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.4 Q Q 0.5 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 2.5 1.5 2.1 3.7 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 1.1 2.0 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 0.5 1.2 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 0.7 0.5 0.8 1.4

  3. Total...........................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500.................................... 3.2 0.7 Q 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.3 Q 500 to 999........................................... 23.8 2.7 1.4 2.2 2.8 5.5 5.1 3.0 1.1 1,000 to 1,499..................................... 20.8 2.3 1.4 2.4 2.5 3.5 3.5 3.6 1.6 1,500 to 1,999..................................... 15.4 1.8 1.4 2.2 2.0 2.4 2.4 2.1 1.2 2,000 to 2,499..................................... 12.2 1.4 0.9

  4. Total...........................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................... 3.2 1.9 0.9 Q Q Q 1.3 2.3 500 to 999........................................... 23.8 10.5 7.3 3.3 1.4 1.2 6.6 12.9 1,000 to 1,499..................................... 20.8 5.8 7.0 3.8 2.2 2.0 3.9 8.9 1,500 to 1,999..................................... 15.4 3.1 4.2 3.4 2.0 2.7 1.9 5.0 2,000 to 2,499..................................... 12.2 1.7 2.7 2.9 1.8 3.2 1.1 2.8

  5. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  6. Suspended-slurry reactor

    DOEpatents

    None

    2016-03-22

    An apparatus for generating a large volume of gas from a liquid stream is disclosed. The apparatus includes a first channel through which the liquid stream passes. The apparatus also includes a layer of catalyst particles suspended in a solid slurry for generating gas from the liquid stream. The apparatus further includes a second channel through which a mixture of converted liquid and generated gas passes. A heat exchange channel heats the liquid stream. A wicking structure located in the second channel separates the gas generated from the converted liquid.

  7. Rare earth element components in atmospheric particulates in the Bayan Obo mine region

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lingqing Liang, Tao Zhang, Qian; Li, Kexin

    2014-05-01

    The Bayan Obo mine, located in Inner Mongolia, China, is the largest light rare earth body ever found in the world. The research for rare earth elements (REEs) enrichment in atmospheric particulates caused by mining and ore processing is fairly limited so far. In this paper, atmospheric particulates including total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM{sub 10}) were collected around the Bayan Obo mine region, in August 2012 and March 2013, to analyze the levels and distributions of REEs in particles. The total concentrations of REEs for TSP were 149.8 and 239.6 ng/m{sup 3}, and those for PM{sub 10} were 42.8 and 68.9 ng/m{sup 3}, in August 2012 and March 2013, respectively. Enrichment factor was calculated for all 14 REEs in the TSP and PM{sub 10} and the results indicated that REEs enrichment in atmosphere particulates was caused by anthropogenic sources and influenced by the strong wind in springtime. The spatial distribution of REEs in TSP showed a strong gradient concentration in the prevailing wind direction. REE chondrite normalized patterns of TSP and PM{sub 10} were similar and the normalized curves inclined to the right side, showing the conspicuous fractionation between the light REEs and heavy REE, which supported by the chondrite normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (La{sub N}/Yb{sub N}, La{sub N}/Sm{sub N}, Gd{sub N}/Yb{sub N}). - Highlights: • TSP and PM{sub 10} samples were collected to analyze the levels and distributions of REE. • Enrichment factors indicated that REE enrichment was caused by anthropogenic sources. • The distribution of REEs showed a strong gradient in the prevailing wind direction. • Obvious fractionation between LREEs and HREEs is observed in atmospheric particulates.

  8. Particulate Matter Aerosols

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    particulate matter aerosols Particulate Matter Aerosols The study of atmospheric aerosols is important because of its adverse effects on health, air quality, visibility, cultural heritage, and Earth's radiation balance. Techniques that can help better characterize particulate matter are required to better understand the constituents, causes and sources of particulate matter (PM) aerosols. Carbon is one of the main constituents of atmospheric aerosols. Radiocarbon (14C) measurement performed on

  9. The use of a receptor model for fine particulate in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, E.; Garcia, I.; Ruiz, M.E.

    1997-12-31

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) faces severe pollution problems typical of large urban areas all over the world. The city is in an elevated basin (2,240 m) at a subtropical latitude (19.5N), with a high mountain chain at the West and South. This basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to the frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The study of atmospheric pollution and its control have been carried out using physico-chemical dispersion models, and the type known as receptor models often finds favor. The main objective of this paper is to present the results of a chemical mass balance receptor model applied to two different data sets of particulate matter. The twelve-hour samples were collected during day and night periods in the winter of 1989, previous to the introduction of catalytic converters in automobiles, and the other after 1991, since the catalytic converters are compulsory in all the new model vehicles. Samples of particulate matter were collected using a denuder and a Hi-Vol systems for the fine fraction (aerosols with diameter less than 2.5 {micro}m) and total suspended particles respectively. The results show that the major source contributions to the inhalable particulate matter for the first period are: automobiles (44%); secondary aerosols (19%); dust (10%).

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of Suspended Carbon Nanotube...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Suspended Carbon Nanotube Devices in Liquid Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fabrication and Characterization of Suspended Carbon Nanotube Devices in ...

  11. Particulate and gaseous organic receptor modeling for the southern California Air Quality Study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.G.; Chow, J.G.; Lu, Z.; Gertler, A.W.

    1993-11-01

    The Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model was applied to the chemically-speciated diurnal particulate matter samples and volatile organic compound (VOC) acquired during the summer and fall campaigns of the Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS). Source profiles applicable to the Los Angeles area were used to apportion PM[sub (2.5)] and PM[sub (10)] to primary paved road dust, primary construction dust, primary motor vehicle exhaust, primary marine aerosol, secondary ammonium nitrate, and secondary ammonium sulfate. Nonmethane hydrocarbon was apportioned to motor vehicle exhaust, liquid fuel, gasoline vapor, gas leaks, architectural and industrial coatings, and biogenic emissions. Suspended dust was the major contributor to PM(10) during the summer, while secondary ammonium nitrate and primary motor vehicle exhaust contributions were high in the fall. Motor vehicle exhaust was the major contributor to nonmethane hydrocarbons, ranging from 30% to 70% of the total.

  12. Wettability of partially suspended graphene

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ondarçuhu, Thierry; Thomas, Vincent; Nuñez, Marc; Dujardin, Erik; Rahman, Atikur; Black, Charles T.; Checco, Antonio

    2016-04-13

    Dependence on the wettability of graphene on the nature of the underlying substrate remains only partially understood. We systematically investigate the role of liquid-substrate interactions on the wettability of graphene by varying the area fraction of suspended graphene from 0 to 95% by means of nanotextured substrates. We find that completely suspended graphene exhibits the highest water contact angle (85° ± 5°) compared to partially suspended or supported graphene, regardless of the hydrophobicity (hydrophilicity) of the substrate. Moreover, 80% of the long-range water-substrate interactions are screened by the graphene monolayer, the wettability of which is primarily determined by short-range graphene-liquidmore » interactions. By its well-defined chemical and geometrical properties, supported graphene therefore provides a model system to elucidate the relative contribution of short and long range interactions to the macroscopic contact angle.« less

  13. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Creek, Kathryn Louise; Castro, Alonso; Gray, Perry Clayton

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  14. Pitch based foam with particulate

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W.

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive, pitch based foam composite having a particulate content. The particulate alters the mechanical characteristics of the foam without severely degrading the foam thermal conductivity. The composite is formed by mixing the particulate with pitch prior to foaming.

  15. Effects of ambient sulfur oxides and suspended particles on respiratory health of preadolescent children

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.; Dockery, D.W.; Spengler, J.D.; Stram, D.O.; Speizer, F.E.

    1986-05-01

    Reported here are the results from an ongoing study of outdoor air pollution and respiratory health of children living in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States. The study enrolled 10,106 white preadolescent children between 1974 and 1977 in 3 successive annual visits to each city. Each child received a spirometric examination, and a parent completed a standard questionnaire. Of this cohort, 8,380 children were seen for a second examination 1 yr later. An air pollution monitoring program was begun in each community at about the time of the first examination. For this report, measurements of total suspended particulates (TSP), the sulfate fraction of TSP (TSO/sub 4/), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations at study-affiliated outdoor stations were combined with measurements at other public and private monitoring sites to create a record of TSP, TSO/sub 4/, and SO/sub 2/ concentrations in each of 9 air pollution regions during the 1-yr period preceding each examination and, for TSP, during each child's lifetime up to the time of testing. Across the 6 cities, frequency of cough was significantly associated with the average of 24-h mean concentrations of all 3 air pollutants during the year preceding the health examination (p less than 0.01). Rates of bronchitis and a composite measure of lower respiratory illness were significantly associated with average particulate concentrations (p less than 0.05). In analyses restricted to lifetime residents, these outcomes were significantly associated with measures of lifetime mean TSP concentration. Within the cities, however, temporal and spatial variation in air pollutant concentrations and illness and symptom rates were not positively associated.

  16. Suspended Solids Profiler Shop Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-19

    The Suspended Solids Profiler (SSP) Instrument is planned to be installed in the AZ-101 tank to measure suspended solids concentrations during mixer pump testing. The SSP sensor uses a reflectance measurement principle to determine the suspended solids concentrations. The purpose of this test is to provide a documented means of verifying that the functional components of the SSP operate properly.

  17. Method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground

    DOEpatents

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Dwyer, Stephen F.; Vigil, Francine S.; Stewart, Willis E.

    2004-12-28

    An improved method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground for constructing underground permeable reactive barriers, which are used for environmental remediation of subsurface contaminated soil and water. A media injector sub-assembly attached to a triple wall drill string pipe sprays a mixture of active particulate media suspended in a carrier fluid radially outwards from the sub-assembly, at the same time that a mixing fluid is sprayed radially outwards. The media spray intersects the mixing spray at a relatively close distance from the point of injection, which entrains the particulate media into the mixing spray and ensures a uniform and deep dispersion of the active media in the surrounding soil. The media injector sub-assembly can optionally include channels for supplying compressed air to an attached down-the-hole hammer drive assembly for use during drilling.

  18. Particulate and Gaseous Emissions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Recent research in the MFC has focused on char-NOx formation and reburn (Figure 2), NOx formation during oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized coal, and ultrafine particulate matter ...

  19. Estimates of particulate mass in multi-canister overpacks

    SciTech Connect

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    1999-02-25

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulate that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  20. Estimates of Particulate Mass in Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO)

    SciTech Connect

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    2000-02-16

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulates that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  1. Void/particulate detector

    DOEpatents

    Claytor, Thomas N.; Karplus, Henry B.

    1985-01-01

    Voids and particulates are detected in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe by a detector which includes three transducers spaced about the pipe. A first transducer at a first location on the pipe transmits an ultrasonic signal into the stream. A second transducer detects the through-transmission of the signal at a second location and a third transducer at a third location upstream from the first location detects the back-scattering of the signal from any voids or particulates. To differentiate between voids and particulates a fourth transducer is positioned at a fourth location which is also upstream from the first location. The back-scattered signals are normalized with the through-transmission signal to minimize temperature fluctuations.

  2. Microwave regenerated particulate trap

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, A.C. Jr.; Yonushonis, T.M.; Haberkamp, W.C.; Mako, F.; Len, L.K,; Silberglitt, R.; Ahmed, I.

    1997-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that a fibrous particulate filter can extract particulate matter from the diesel exhaust. However, additional engineering efforts remains to achieve the design target of 90%. It has also be shown that with minor modifications magnetrons produced for home ovens can endure a simulated diesel operating environment. Much work remains to develop a robust product ready to complete extensive engine testing and evaluation. These efforts include: (1) additional environmental testing of magnetrons; (2) vibration testing of the filter in the housing; (3) evaluating alternative methods/designs to seal the center bore; and (4) determining the optimum coating thickness that provides sufficient structural integrity while maintaining rapid heating rates.

  3. Substrate interactions with suspended and supported monolayer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and supported monolayer MoS2: Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy Title: Substrate interactions with suspended and supported monolayer MoS2: Angle-resolved ...

  4. Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications Specific ...

  5. Preserving Diesel Exhaust Ultrafine (Nano-) Particulate Structure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Ultrafine (Nano-) Particulate Structure in Genotoxicity Studies to Support Engineering Development of Emission Controls Preserving Diesel Exhaust Ultrafine (Nano-) Particulate ...

  6. Worker exposure to chemical agents in the manufacture of rubber tires and tubes: particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.M.; Harris, R.L.; Arp, E.W.; Symons, M.J.; Van Ert, M.D.

    1980-03-01

    The Occupational Health Studies Group industrial hygiene studies at a group of 14 tire and tube manufacturing plants chosen to represent a cross-section of the industry include numerous evaluations of potential exposure to airborne particulate matter. Results of these environmental particulate sampling studies are reported by plant and by occupational groups within plants. High volume, open face and cyclone samplers were employed to evaluate both personnel and area particulate concentrations. The concentrations of particulates yielded by high volume and open face total particulate samplers are compared with those of comparison samples of respirable material. Personnel samples of particulates are compared with general air samples taken in the same work area. An overall review and comparison is given of particulate exposures to workers in various occupational title groups where particulate materials are released to the air from processes or operations.

  7. Void/particulate detector

    DOEpatents

    Claytor, T.N.; Karplus, H.B.

    1983-09-26

    Apparatus for detecting voids and particulates in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe may comprise: (a) a transducer for transmitting an ultrasonic signal into the stream, coupled to the pipe at a first location; (b) a second transducer for detecting the through-transmission of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a second location; (c) a third transducer for detecting the back-scattering of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a third location, said third location being upstream from said first location; (d) circuit means for normalizing the back-scattered signal from said third transducer to the through-transmitted signal from said second transducer; which normalized signal provides a measure of the voids and particulates flowing past said first location.

  8. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  9. Regenerable particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Stuecker, John N.; Cesarano, III, Joseph; Miller, James E.

    2009-05-05

    A method of making a three-dimensional lattice structure, such as a filter used to remove particulates from a gas stream, where the physical lattice structure is designed utilizing software simulation from pre-defined mass transfer and flow characteristics and the designed lattice structure is fabricated using a free-form fabrication manufacturing technique, where the periodic lattice structure is comprised of individual geometric elements.

  10. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  11. X-ray fluorescence mapping of mercury on suspended mineral particles and diatoms in a contaminated freshwater system

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Gu, B.; Mishra, B.; Miller, C.; Wang, W.; Lai, B.; Brooks, S. C.; Kemner, K. M.; Liang, L.

    2014-05-23

    Mercury (Hg) bioavailability and geochemical cycling is affected by its partitioning between the aqueous and particulate phases. We applied X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobes to directly visualize and quantify the spatial localization of Hg and its correlations with other elements of interest on suspended particles from a Hg contaminated freshwater system. Up to 175 μg g–1 Hg is found on suspended particles. Mercury is heterogeneously distributed among phytoplankton (e.g., diatoms) and mineral particles that are rich in iron oxides and natural organic matter (NOM), possibly as Hg-NOM-iron oxide ternary complexes. The diatom-bound Hg is mostly found on outer surfaces of themore » cells, suggesting passive sorption of inorganic Hg on diatoms. Our results indicate that localized sorption of Hg onto suspended particles, including diatoms and NOM-coated oxide minerals, is an important sink for Hg in natural aquatic environments.« less

  12. X-ray fluorescence mapping of mercury on suspended mineral particles and diatoms in a contaminated freshwater system

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Baohua; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Miller, Carrie L; Wang, Wei; Lai, Barry; Brooks, Scott C; Kemner, Kenneth M; Liang, Liyuan

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioavailability and geochemical cycling is affected by its partitioning between the aqueous and particulate phases. We applied X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobes to directly visualize and quantify the spatial localization of Hg and its correlations with other elements of interest on suspended particles from a Hg contaminated freshwater system. Up to 175 g/g Hg is found on suspended particles. Mercury is heterogeneously distributed among phytoplankton (e.g., diatoms) and mineral particles that are rich in iron oxides and natural organic matter (NOM), possibly as Hg-NOM-iron oxide ternary complexes. The diatom-bound Hg is mostly found on outer surfaces of the cells, suggesting passive sorption of inorganic Hg on diatoms. Our results indicate that localized sorption of Hg onto suspended particles, including diatoms and NOM-coated oxide minerals, is an important sink for Hg in natural aquatic environments.

  13. Apparatus for particulate matter analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

    2007-01-30

    The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

  14. Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration Durability of ...

  15. Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters ...

  16. Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Biofuels Impact ...

  17. Observation of heavy metal compounds in suspended particulate matter at East Helena, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.L.; Maughan, A.D.

    1984-12-01

    X-ray diffraction, x-ray transmission, and x-ray fluorescence procedures have been used to evaluate quantitatively the chemical species for 24 ambient filter samples taken from receptor sites at East Helena, Montana. Twenty-five distinct chemical compounds representing various smelting processes, atmospheric chemical reactions, local fugitive dust sources, and possible filter artifacts have been observed. These compounds include the common crustal silicates and carbonates, and industrial sulfides, sulfates, and oxides. In addition, elemental cadmium and copper have been observed in a number of ambient samples. The soils and some accumulated residential dust of the East Helena area contain relatively high levels of lead and copper compounds.

  18. Method and apparatus for acoustically monitoring the flow of suspended solid particulate matter

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Paul D.; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring char flow in a coal gasifier system cludes flow monitor circuits which measure acoustic attenuation caused by the presence of char in a char line and provide a char flow/no flow indication and an indication of relative char density. The flow monitor circuits compute the ratio of signals in two frequency bands, a first frequency band representative of background noise, and a second higher frequency band in which background noise is attenuated by the presence of char. Since the second frequency band contains higher frequencies, the ratio can be used to provide a flow/no flow indication. The second band can also be selected so that attenuation is monotonically related to particle concentration, providing a quantitative measure of char concentration.

  19. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  20. Particulate Generation in Tritium Systems

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Analysis SEM Photomicrograph X-ray Spectrum C Cu F Si 6 Analysis of Particulates ... Analysis X-Ray Spectrum O F 13 SEM images of lint free cloth used to collect particles. ...

  1. Electrically heated particulate filter restart strategy

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-07-12

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a propagation module that estimates a propagation status of combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to re-initiate regeneration based on the propagation status.

  2. Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-12-31

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  3. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  4. A suspended-particle rosette multi-sampler for discrete biogeochemical sampling in low-particle-density waters

    SciTech Connect

    Breier, J. A.; Rauch, C. G.; McCartney, K.; Toner, B. M.; Fakra, S. C.; White, S. N.; German, C. R.

    2010-06-22

    To enable detailed investigations of early stage hydrothermal plume formation and abiotic and biotic plume processes we developed a new oceanographic tool. The Suspended Particulate Rosette sampling system has been designed to collect geochemical and microbial samples from the rising portion of deep-sea hydrothermal plumes. It can be deployed on a remotely operated vehicle for sampling rising plumes, on a wire-deployed water rosette for spatially discrete sampling of non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes, or on a fixed mooring in a hydrothermal vent field for time series sampling. It has performed successfully during both its first mooring deployment at the East Pacific Rise and its first remotely-operated vehicle deployments along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It is currently capable of rapidly filtering 24 discrete large-water-volume samples (30-100 L per sample) for suspended particles during a single deployment (e.g. >90 L per sample at 4-7 L per minute through 1 {mu}m pore diameter polycarbonate filters). The Suspended Particulate Rosette sampler has been designed with a long-term goal of seafloor observatory deployments, where it can be used to collect samples in response to tectonic or other events. It is compatible with in situ optical sensors, such as laser Raman or visible reflectance spectroscopy systems, enabling in situ particle analysis immediately after sample collection and before the particles alter or degrade.

  5. Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Brown, David B.

    2010-02-02

    A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

  6. Molybdenum-rhenium superconducting suspended nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Mohsin; Christopher Hudson, David; Russo, Saverio

    2014-06-09

    Suspended superconducting nanostructures of MoRe 50%/50% by weight are fabricated employing commonly used fabrication steps in micro- and nano-meter scale devices followed by wet-etching with Hydro-fluoric acid of a SiO{sub 2} sacrificial layer. Suspended superconducting channels as narrow as 50?nm and length 3??m have a critical temperature of ?6.5?K, which can increase by 0.5?K upon annealing at 400?C. A detailed study of the dependence of the superconducting critical current and critical temperature upon annealing and in devices with different channel widths reveals that desorption of contaminants is responsible for the improved superconducting properties. These findings pave the way for the development of superconducting electromechanical devices using standard fabrication techniques.

  7. Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems 2011 DOE Hydrogen and ... Development of Advanced Particulate Filters Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate ...

  8. Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Diesel Particulate Filters Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters Neutron computed tomography shows soot and ash loading in a cordierite diesel particulate filter PDF icon ...

  9. Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control Title: Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control A system includes a particulate ...

  10. Suspended plutonium aerosols near a soil cleanup site on Johnston Atoll in 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.; Fry, C.F.; Johnson, J.S.

    1994-02-01

    Plutonium aerosol monitoring was conducted for one month near the 1992 operation of a stationary sorting system used to {open_quotes}mine{close_quotes} contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll. Pairs of high volume cascade impactors and a high volume air sampler were located at each of three locations of the process stream: the {open_quotes}spoils pile{close_quote} that was the feedstock, the {open_quotes}plant area{close_quotes} near the-hot soil gate of the sorter, and the {open_quotes}clean pile{close_quotes} conveyer area where sorted clean soil was moved. These locations were monitored only during the working hours, while air monitoring was also done at an upwind, uncontaminated {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} area 24-hours per day. The three monitoring locations were extremely dusty, even though there were frequent rains during the period of operation. Total suspended particulate mass loadings were 178 {mu}g/m{sup 3} at the spoils pile, 93 {mu}g/m{sup 3} at the plant area, and 79 {mu}g/m{sup 3} at the clean pile during this period, when background mass loadings were 41 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. There was no practical difference in the aerosol specific activity between the three locations, however, which had a median value of 3.64 pCi/g (135 Bq/kg). The aerosol specific activity is enhanced by a factor of 3 over the specific activity of the processed contaminant soil. This is about the same enhancement factor as found by other studies of road traffic, bulldozing, and agricultural operations. Specific activity of processed soil was 1.35 pCi/g (50 Bq/kg). The median mass-loading of the three downwind sites was 109 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (uncorrected for the sea spray contribution), so that the median concentrations in air using the median aerosol specific activity was calculated to be 397 aCi/m{sup 3} (15 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}). Measured Pu concentrations ranged from 280 to 1508 aCi/m{sup 3} (10 to 56 {mu}Bq/m3).

  11. Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Technology: Success stories...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste ...

  12. Total Imports

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data Series: Imports - Total Imports - Crude Oil Imports - Crude Oil, Commercial Imports - by SPR Imports - into SPR by Others Imports - Total Products Imports - Total Motor Gasoline Imports - Finished Motor Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Other Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Conventional Gasoline Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 & < Imports -

  13. Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics ...

  14. Electronic structure of cobalt nanocrystals suspended inliquid

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hongjian; Guo, Jinghua; Yin, Yadong; Augustsson, Andreas; Dong, Chungli; Nordgren, Joseph; Chang, Chinglin; Alivisatos, Paul; Thornton, Geoff; Ogletree, D. Frank; Requejo, Felix G.; de Groot, Frank; Salmeron, Miquel

    2007-07-16

    The electronic structure of cobalt nanocrystals suspended in liquid as a function of size has been investigated using in-situ x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy. A sharp absorption peak associated with the ligand molecules is found that increases in intensity upon reducing the nanocrystal size. X-ray Raman features due to d-d and to charge-transfer excitations of ligand molecules are identified. The study reveals the local symmetry of the surface of {var_epsilon}-Co phase nanocrystals, which originates from a dynamic interaction between Co nanocrystals and surfactant + solvent molecules.

  15. Dry scrubber with integral particulate collection device

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.J.; Myers, R.B.; Tonn, D.P.

    1993-06-01

    A dry scrubber/particulate collection device is described comprising: (a) a dry scrubber component having a flue gas entrance, a spray zone, and a flue gas exit; (b) a particulate collection component downstream of said flue gas exit and capable of being isolated utilizing one or more isolation dampers located between said dry scrubber component and said particulate collection component, said dry scrubber component and said particulate collection component together comprising integral parts of a single assembly; and, (c) control means for controlling the flow of flue gas through said particulate collection component of said assembly.

  16. Method for forming suspended micromechanical structures

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A micromachining method is disclosed for forming a suspended micromechanical structure from {111} crystalline silicon. The micromachining method is based on the use of anisotropic dry etching to define lateral features of the structure which are etched down into a {111}-silicon substrate to a first etch depth, thereby forming sidewalls of the structure. The sidewalls are then coated with a protection layer, and the substrate is dry etched to a second etch depth to define a spacing of the structure from the substrate. A selective anisotropic wet etchant (e.g. KOH, EDP, TMAH, NaOH or CsOH) is used to laterally undercut the structure between the first and second etch depths, thereby forming a substantially planar lower surface of the structure along a {111} crystal plane that is parallel to an upper surface of the structure. The lateral extent of undercutting by the wet etchant is controlled and effectively terminated by either timing the etching, by the location of angled {111}-silicon planes or by the locations of preformed etch-stops. This present method allows the formation of suspended micromechanical structures having large vertical dimensions and large masses while allowing for detailed lateral features which can be provided by dry etch definition. Additionally, the method of the present invention is compatible with the formation of electronic circuitry on the substrate.

  17. Particulate Generation in Tritium Systems

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Particulate Generation in a Tritium System Paul Cloessner, PhD Laboratory Fellow Tritium Focus Group February 22, 2014 Outline * Description of Events * Analysis of Material * Sources of material contamination * System Restoration/Modifications * Contaminant Minimization and Control * Lessons Learned 2 An Unpleasant Surprise * Let down filter on compressor became plugged after 10 years of operation. * Tritium processing interrupted when other filters (flow orifices) became plugged approximately

  18. Idaho Waste Treatment Facility Startup Testing Suspended To Evaluate System

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Idaho Waste Treatment Facility Startup Testing Suspended To Evaluate System IDAHO FALLS, ID- On Saturday, June 16, startup testing was suspended at the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) located at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho Site. Testing and plant heat-up was suspended to allow detailed evaluation of a system pressure event observed during testing on Saturday. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) Facility startup testing has been ongoing for the past month, evaluating system

  19. IMPACT OF SIPHONING ACTIVITY AND NATURALLY SUSPENDED PARTICLE LOAD ON MUSSEL KILL by PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Molloy

    2003-08-04

    Under this USDOE-NETL contract, the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens is being developed as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels. The specific purpose of the contract is to identify biotic and abiotic factors that affect mussel kill. Ingestion of these bacteria by zebra mussels is required to achieve kill, and tests evaluating factors that relate to mussel feeding are contained in this report. Specifically the impact of the following two factors were investigated: (1) Mussel siphoning behavior--In nature, zebra mussels typically have their two shells spread apart and their inhalant siphon tube extended from between their shells for taking food particles into their mantle cavities (Fig. 1). Our tests indicated that there is a direct correlation between mussel siphoning activity and mussel mortality achieved by a bacterial treatment. Therefore, to encourage mussel feeding on bacteria, future pipe treatments within power plants should be carried out using procedures which minimize disturbance to mussel siphoning. 2. Naturally suspended particle loads--Since bacterial cells are lethal only if ingested by mussels, waters containing very high levels of naturally suspended particles might reduce the mortality that can be achieved by a bacterial treatment. If true, this inhibition might occur as a result of particle exclusion, i.e., there could be reduced ingestion of bacterial cells since they represent a reduced percentage of all particles ingested. Our tests indicated that a range of particle concentrations that might naturally exist in a turbid river did not inhibit mussel kill by the bacterial cells, but that an artificially high load of natural particles was capable of causing a reduction in kill. To be conservative, therefore, future pipe treatments should be timed to occur when intake waters have relatively low quantities of naturally suspended particulate matter.

  20. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-03-30

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  1. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  2. X-ray fluorescence mapping of mercury on suspended mineral particles and diatoms in a contaminated freshwater system

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Gu, B.; Mishra, B.; Miller, C.; Wang, W.; Lai, B.; Brooks, S. C.; Kemner, K. M.; Liang, L.

    2014-09-30

    Mercury (Hg) bioavailability and geochemical cycling is affected by its partitioning between the aqueous and particulate phases. We applied a synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe to visualize and quantify directly the spatial localization of Hg and its correlations with other elements of interest on suspended particles from a Hg-contaminated freshwater system. Up to 175 μg g−1 Hg is found on suspended particles, but less than 0.01% is in the form of methylmercury. Mercury is heterogeneously distributed among phytoplankton (e.g., diatoms) and mineral particles that are rich in iron oxides and natural organic matter (NOM). The diatom-bound Hg is mostly foundmore » on outer surfaces of the cells, suggesting passive sorption of Hg on diatoms. Our results indicate that localized sorption of Hg onto suspended particles, including diatoms and NOM-coated oxide minerals, may play an important role in affecting the partitioning, reactivity, and biogeochemical cycling of Hg in natural aquatic environments.« less

  3. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

  4. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-11-08

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  5. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-01-26

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  6. Development and Applications of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications CARB Verification of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters for Emergency Generator Sets A Revealing Look Inside Passive and Active DPF Regeneration: ...

  7. Particulate residue separators for harvesting devices

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, John R.

    2010-06-29

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include a plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams which are formed by the harvesting device and which travel, at least in part, along the plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly which is located in partially occluding relation relative to the plenum, and which substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  8. Methods of separating particulate residue streams

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, J. Richard

    2011-04-05

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  9. Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Heavy-duty Engine using the PMP Methodologies Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro VI' Heavy-duty Engine using the PMP Methodologies Poster ...

  10. Particulate Matter Characteristics for Highly Dilute Stoichiometric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    PDF icon p-24storey.pdf More Documents & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate ...

  11. Electrically heated particulate filter using catalyst striping

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; Ament, Frank

    2013-07-16

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating is applied to the PF that increases a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  12. Diesel Particulate Filters: Market Introducution in Europe |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications A New Active DPF System for "Stop and Go" Duty-Cycle Vehicles French perspective on diesel engines & emissions Diesel Particulate Filter: A Success ...

  13. Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

    2014-07-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  14. Methods of and system for swing damping movement of suspended objects

    DOEpatents

    Jones, J.F.; Petterson, B.J.; Strip, D.R.

    1991-03-05

    A payload suspended from a gantry is swing damped in accordance with a control algorithm based on the periodic motion of the suspended mass or by servoing on the forces induced by the suspended mass. 13 figures.

  15. Methods of and system for swing damping movement of suspended objects

    DOEpatents

    Jones, James F.; Petterson, Ben J.; Strip, David R.

    1991-01-01

    A payload suspended from a gantry is swing damped in accordance with a control algorithm based on the periodic motion of the suspended mass or by servoing on the forces induced by the suspended mass.

  16. Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J.; Zhuang, Ye; Almlie, Jay C.

    2012-01-10

    Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

  17. Electrically heated particulate filter propagation support methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-06-07

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A propagation module estimates a propagation status of the combustion of the particulate matter based on a combustion temperature. A temperature adjustment module controls the combustion temperature by selectively increasing a temperature of exhaust that passes through the particulate filter.

  18. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  19. Predicting Thermal Stress in Diesel Particulate Filters | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Thermal Stress in Diesel Particulate Filters Predicting Thermal Stress in Diesel Particulate Filters 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Corning ...

  20. Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Findings of important implications for aftertreatment devices such as EGR coolers and diesel particulate filters, of physico-chemical changes observed in particulate matter during advanced combustion.

  1. Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by...

  2. 2007 Diesel Particulate Measurement Research (E-66 Project) ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Diesel Particulate Measurement Research (E-66 Project) 2007 Diesel Particulate Measurement Research (E-66 Project) 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference: ...

  3. New Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters for Catalyzed and Non...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters for Catalyzed and Non-Catalyzed Applications New Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters for Catalyzed and Non-Catalyzed Applications 2003 DEER ...

  4. Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization 2005 Diesel Engine ...

  5. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods ...

  6. Emissions and Durability of Underground Mining Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Durability of Underground Mining Diesel Particulate Filter Applications Emissions and Durability of Underground Mining Diesel Particulate Filter Applications Presentation given at ...

  7. A New CFD Model for understanding and Managing Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    CFD Model for understanding and Managing Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration A New CFD Model for understanding and Managing Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration ...

  8. Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Fluid particulate flows are common phenomena in nature and industry. ...

  9. Electronic Structure of Cobalt Nanocrystals Suspended in Liquid

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ligand, layer (in this case, oleic acid) and are suspended in a liquid solvent (in this case, 1,2-dichlorobenzene). Cobalt nanocrystals display a wealth of size-dependent...

  10. Suspended-slurry reactor (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An apparatus for generating a large volume of gas from a liquid stream is disclosed. The ... catalyst particles suspended in a solid slurry for generating gas from the liquid stream. ...

  11. Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2012-10-23

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

  12. New ESP additive controls particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.; Baldrey, K.E.; Bustard, C.J.; Martin, C.E.; Dharmarajan, N.N.

    1997-06-01

    This article reports that a conditioning agent enhanced precipitator performance after plant switched to low-sulfur coal. Firing low-sulfur coal at a power plant designed for medium- or high-sulfur coal will impact the downstream particulate control device. Since the performance of an electro-static precipitator (ESP) is a strong function of the sulfur content in the coal, switching to a low-sulfur coal will severely impact collection efficiency. Particle resistivity is the dominant parameter affecting the performance of an ESP. When the resistivity is too high, the ESP must be increased in size by a factor of two to three, resulting in proportionally increased capital and operating costs. Fly ash from low-sulfur coal is known to have a typical resistivity one or two orders of magnitude above that for ideal collection efficiency in a well-designed ESP. Therefore, when a utility burning a medium- or high-sulfur coal switches to a low-sulfur coal, the increase in particle resistivity resulting from the reduced SO{sub 3} concentration will lead to severe problems in the ESP. There have been many instances where utilities have switched from a high- to a low-sulfur coal, and the problems caused by the increased resistivity have had such a devastating effect on the performance of the ESP that emissions have increased by a factor of 10.

  13. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A control system for controlling regeneration of a particulate filter for a hybrid vehicle ... An engine control module controls operation of an engine of the hybrid vehicle based on ...

  14. Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    This study focuses primarily on particulate matter mass analysis of a gasoline direct injection engine in a test cell with a chassis dynamometer. PDF icon p-10gibbs.pdf More ...

  15. Requirements from Particulate Filter Technology for Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Hot Gas Filtration of Fine and Ultra fine Particles with Liquid Phase Sintered SiC Ceramic DPF Evaluation of Passive and Active Soot Filters for Removal of Particulate ...

  16. Nano-superconducting quantum interference devices with suspended junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, D.; Hasselbach, K.; Kirtley, J. R.

    2014-04-14

    Nano-Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (nano-SQUIDs) are usually fabricated from a single layer of either Nb or Al. We describe here a simple method for fabricating suspended nano-bridges in Nb/Al thin-film bilayers. We use these suspended bridges, which act as Josephson weak links, to fabricate nano-SQUIDs which show critical current oscillations at temperatures up to 1.5?K and magnetic flux densities up to over 20?mT. These nano-SQUIDs exhibit flux modulation depths intermediate between all-Al and all-Nb devices, with some of the desirable characteristics of both. The suspended geometry is attractive for magnetic single nanoparticle measurements.

  17. System for concentrating and analyzing particles suspended in a fluid

    DOEpatents

    Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Cummings, Eric B.; Singh, Anup K.

    2011-04-26

    Disclosed is a device for separating and concentrating particles suspended in a fluid stream by using dielectrophoresis (DEP) to trap and/or deflect those particles as they migrate through a fluid channel. The method uses fluid channels designed to constrain a liquid flowing through it to uniform electrokinetic flow velocities. This behavior is achieved by connecting deep and shallow sections of channels, with the channel depth varying abruptly along an interface. By careful design of abrupt changes in specific permeability at the interface, an abrupt and spatially uniform change in electrokinetic force can be selected. Because these abrupt interfaces also cause a sharp gradient in applied electric fields, a DEP force also can be established along the interface. Depending on the complex conductivity of the suspended particles and the immersion liquid, the DEP force can controllably complement or oppose the local electrokinetic force transporting the fluid through the channel allowing for manipulation of particles suspended in the transporting liquid.

  18. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  19. Particulate matter pollution in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Vega R, E.; Mora P, V.; Mugica A, V.

    1998-12-31

    The levels of particulate matter are of concern since they may induce severe effects on public health and is the second atmospheric pollution problem in Mexico City. Another noticeable effect in large cities attributable to particulate matter, is the deterioration of visibility. In this paper the analysis of the data of TSP and PM10 during 1988 to 1996 is presented. The seasonal variation of particulate matter, the typical ratios of PM10/TSP and relationships of the two variables were determined. It was found that PM10 concentrations show an important tendency to decrease during this period, due to some control strategies, although this is not the case for TSP. The monthly trend exhibits a clear relationship with the dry (October through April) and wet (May through September) seasons. The particulate matter concentrations are lower during the wet season. The hourly behavior shows that the highest concentrations are correlated with the traffic rush hours. The most TSP polluted area was the northeast, meanwhile the southeast is the most PM10 polluted area. There is a clear evidence of the particulate matter transportation from these areas to other sites of the City.

  20. PRODUCTION OF SHEET FROM PARTICULATE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Blainey, A.

    1959-05-12

    A process is presented for forming coherent sheet material from particulate material such as granular or powdered metal, granular or powdered oxide, slurries, pastes, and plastic mixes which cohere under pressure. The primary object is to avoid the use of expensive and/ or short lived pressing tools, that is, dies and specially profiled rolls, and so to reduce the cost of the product and to prcvide in a simple manner for the making of the product in a variety of shapes or sizes. The sheet material is formed when the particulate material is laterally confined in a boundary material deformable in all lateral directions under axial pressure and then axially compressing the layer of particulate material together with the boundary material.

  1. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material

    DOEpatents

    Utz, Bruce R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cugini, Anthony V. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  2. Particulate control for the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sloat, D.G.; Gaikwad, R.P.

    1997-09-01

    As a response to the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) of 1990, utilities will be faced with new emission limitations on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} that could have a major impact on their current particulate control equipment. Most of the plants affected already have electrostatic precipitators for particulate control. A large number of power plants will be switching to lower sulfur coals as part of the CAAA Title IV Phase 2 SO{sub 2} rules. The lower sulfur coal ash usually does not collect well in a small precipitator so the existing precipitator will need to be upgraded to continue to meet their current emission limitations. Title IV also requires plants to lower NO{sub x} emissions which is often accomplished by modifications to the boiler such as retrofitting low NO{sub x} burners. These boiler modifications can increase the amount of unburned carbon in the ash as well as reduce the size distribution of the fly ash. Both of these changes can negatively impact a precipitator`s performance. Finally, the CAAA Title III identifies 189 pollutants as hazardous air pollutants, also known as air toxics, which have been viewed as a risk to human health. This may result in further tightening of particulate regulations for power plants and place an increased burden on the existing particulate control equipment. This paper evaluates the technologies available to comply with these new and more stringent particulate control requirements. To demonstrate the retrofit alternatives available to meet these new particulate emission requirements, two hypothetical case studies are discussed.

  3. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  4. Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, Thomas P.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

  5. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  6. Expanded Capacity Microwave-Cleaned Diesel Particulate Filter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    DEER Conference Presentation: Industrial Ceramic Solutions, LLC PDF icon ... Time and Fuel Consumption Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter Versatile ...

  7. Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ace056_stewart_2012_o.pdf (2.05 MB) More Documents & Publications Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions Vehicle

  8. Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Transient distributed DPF wall and gas temperature were simultaneously measured using ... Filter Regeneration Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters (Agreement ...

  9. Electrically heated particulate filter preparation methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-01-31

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a fuel control module that controls injection of fuel into exhaust that passes through the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration after the fuel has been injected into the exhaust.

  10. Barge Truck Total

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Barge Truck Total delivered cost per short ton Shipments with transportation rates over total shipments Total delivered cost per short ton Shipments with transportation rates over...

  11. Method of making suspended thin-film semiconductor piezoelectric devices

    DOEpatents

    Casalnuovo, Stephen A.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming a very thin suspended layer of piezoelectric material of thickness less than 10 microns. The device is made from a combination of GaAs and AlGaAs layers to form either a sensor or an electronic filter. Onto a GaAs substrate is epitaxially deposited a thin (1-5 micron) sacrificial AlGaAs layer, followed by a thin GaAs top layer. In one embodiment the substrate is selectively etched away from below until the AlGaAs layer is reached. Then a second selective etch removes the sacrificial AlGaAs layer, that has acted here as an etch stop, leaving the thin suspended layer of piezoelectric GaAs. In another embodiment, a pattern of small openings is etched through the thin layer of GaAs on top of the device to expose the sacrificial AlGaAs layer. A second selective etch is done through these openings to remove the sacrificial AlGaAs layer, leaving the top GaAs layer suspended over the GaAs substrate. A novel etchant solution containing a surface tension reducing agent is utilized to remove the AlGaAs while preventing buildup of gas bubbles that would otherwise break the thin GaAs layer.

  12. Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Prieto, A.M.; Santos, A.G.; Csipak, A.R.; Caliri, C.M.; Silva, I.C.; Arbex, M.A.; Silva, F.S.; Marchi, M.R.R.

    2012-12-15

    Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris is thought to be antimutagenic. In this study, we attempted to determine whether this extract and casearin X (a clerodane diterpene from C. sylvestris) are protective against the harmful effects of airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. To that end, we used the Tradescantia micronucleus test in meiotic pollen cells of Tradescantia pallida, the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells, and the comet assay in mouse blood cells. The mutagenic compound was total suspended particulate (TSP) from air. For the Tradescantia micronucleus test, T. pallida cuttings were treated with the extract at 0.13, 0.25, or 0.50 mg/ml. Subsequently, TSP was added at 0.3 mg/ml, and tetrads from the inflorescences were examined for micronuclei. For the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells and the comet assay in mouse blood cells, Balb/c mice were treated for 15 days with the extract3.9, 7.5, or 15.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)or with casearin X0.3, 0.25, or 1.2 mg/kg BWafter which they received TSP (3.75 mg/kg BW). In T. pallida and mouse bone marrow cells, the extract was antimutagenic at all concentrations tested. In mouse blood cells, the extract was antigenotoxic at all concentrations, whereas casearin X was not antimutagenic but was antigenotoxic at all concentrations. We conclude that C. sylvestris ethanolic extract and casearin X protect DNA from damage induced by airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. -- Highlights: ? We assessed DNA protection of C. sylvestris ethanolic extract. ? We assessed DNA protection of casearin X. ? We used Tradescantia pallida micronucleus test as screening. ? We used comet assay and micronucleus test in mice. ? The compounds protected DNA against sugar cane burning pollutants.

  13. Face crack reduction strategy for particulate filters

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-01-31

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion. A control module initiates combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater and selectively adjusts oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter. A method comprises providing a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion; initiating combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater; selectively adjusting oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter.

  14. Apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination includes a tool for collecting a contamination sample from a target surface, a mask having an opening of known area formed therein for defining the target surface, and a flexible connector connecting the tool to the mask. The tool includes a body portion having a large diameter section defining a surface and a small diameter section extending from the large diameter section. A particulate collector is removably mounted on the surface of the large diameter section for collecting the contaminants. The tool further includes a spindle extending from the small diameter section and a spool slidingly mounted on the spindle. A spring is disposed between the small diameter section and the spool for biasing the spool away from the small diameter section. An indicator is provided on the spindle so as to be revealed when the spool is pressed downward to compress the spring.

  15. Generator powered electrically heated diesel particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2014-03-18

    A control circuit for a vehicle powertrain includes a switch that selectivity interrupts current flow between a first terminal and a second terminal. A first power source provides power to the first terminal and a second power source provides power to the second terminal and to a heater of a heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The switch is opened during a DPF regeneration cycle to prevent the first power source from being loaded by the heater while the heater is energized.

  16. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina; Redal, María Ana; Alghamdi, Mansour A.; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Shamy, Magdy; Muñoz, Manuel J.; and others

    2015-07-15

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer.

  17. Total Crude by Pipeline

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Product: Total Crude by All Transport Methods Domestic Crude by All Transport Methods Foreign Crude by All Transport Methods Total Crude by Pipeline Domestic Crude by Pipeline Foreign Crude by Pipeline Total Crude by Tanker Domestic Crude by Tanker Foreign Crude by Tanker Total Crude by Barge Domestic Crude by Barge Foreign Crude by Barge Total Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Domestic Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Foreign Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Total Crude by Trucks Domestic Crude by Trucks Foreign

  18. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  19. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Test Facility (FTF) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Test Facility (FTF) High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Test Facility (FTF) DOE-STD-3020-2015 Specification for HEPA Filters Used by DOE Contractors The purpose of this standard is to establish specifications and quality assurance (QA) requirements for the procurement, packaging, shipping and storage of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. DOE-STD-3025-2007 Quality Assurance Inspection and Testing of HEPA

  20. Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lagrange Multiplier Technique (Conference) | SciTech Connect Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Fluid particulate flows are common phenomena in nature and industry. Modeling of such flows at micro and macro levels as well establishing relationships between these approaches are needed to

  1. Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Generating Station, Alexandria, Virginia | Department of Energy Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria, Virginia Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria, Virginia Docket No. EO-05-01: TRC Environmental Corporation (TRC) of Lowell, Massachusetts was retained by Mirant Potomac River, LLC (Mirant) to provide sampling and analytical support in completing a Particulate Emission

  2. Shielded regeneration heating element for a particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-01-04

    An exhaust system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A catalyst substrate or a flow converter is disposed upstream from said heating element. The catalyst substrate oxidizes the exhaust prior to reception by the heating element. The flow converter converts turbulent exhaust flow to laminar exhaust flow prior to reception by the heating element.

  3. Diesel particulate filter regeneration via resistive surface heating

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-10-08

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine; and a grid of electrically resistive material that is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and that selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  4. Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern Great

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plains Site Field Campaign Report (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Program Document: Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern Great Plains Site Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern Great Plains Site Field Campaign Report The purpose of this study was to measure the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) fractions of PM2.5 particulate matter at the U.S. Department

  5. IUTAM symposium on hydrodynamic diffusion of suspended particles

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrodynamic diffusion refers to the fluctuating motion of nonBrownian particles (or droplets or bubbles) which occurs in a dispersion due to multiparticle interactions. For example, in a concentrated sheared suspension, particles do not move along streamlines but instead exhibit fluctuating motions as they tumble around each other. This leads to a net migration of particles down gradients in particle concentration and in shear rate, due to the higher frequency of encounters of a test particle with other particles on the side of the test particle which has higher concentration or shear rate. As another example, suspended particles subject to sedimentation, centrifugation, or fluidization, do not generally move relative to the fluid with a constant velocity, but instead experience diffusion-like fluctuations in velocity due to interactions with neighboring particles and the resulting variation in the microstructure or configuration of the suspended particles. In flowing granular materials, the particles interact through direct collisions or contacts (rather than through the surrounding fluid); these collisions also cause the particles to undergo fluctuating motions characteristic of diffusion processes. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Electrically heated particulate filter with reduced stress

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.

    2013-03-05

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter comprising an inlet for receiving exhaust gas. A zoned heater is arranged in the inlet and comprises a resistive heater comprising N zones, where N is an integer greater than one. Each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates others of the N zones.

  7. Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Strzelec, Andrea; Bilheux, Hassina Z; FINNEY, Charles E A; Daw, C Stuart; Foster, Prof. Dave; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J.; Schillinger, Burkhard; Schulz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nondestructive neutron computed tomography (nCT) measurements of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a method to measure ash and soot loading in the filters. Uncatalyzed and unwashcoated 200cpsi cordierite DPFs exposed to 100% biodiesel (B100) exhaust and conventional ultra low sulfur 2007 certification diesel (ULSD) exhaust at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP) are compared to a brand new (never exposed) filter. Precise structural information about the substrate as well as an attempt to quantify soot and ash loading in the channel of the DPF illustrates the potential strength of the neutron imaging technique.

  8. Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly different in morphology and nanostructures PDF icon p-19seong.pdf ...

  9. Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed & Volatile Carbon Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) ...

  10. Performance of the Low-Efficiency Diesel Particulate Filter for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Performance of the Low-Efficiency Diesel Particulate Filter for Diesel PM Reduction Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) ...

  11. Partial-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter of Sintered Metal Fiber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Partial-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter of Sintered Metal Fiber Fleece Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in ...

  12. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Ireland, J.; Fang, H. L.

    2006-11-01

    Presents results of tests of ultra-low sulfur diesel blended with soy-biodiesel at 5 percent using a Cummins ISB engine with a diesel particulate filter.

  13. Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study focuses primarily on particulate matter mass analysis of a gasoline direct injection engine in a test cell with a chassis dynamometer.

  14. Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems (ANLCorningCaterpillar CRADA) PDF icon ace22lee.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Advanced Diesel ...

  15. Diesel Particulate Filter: A Success for Faurecia Exhaust Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Filter: A Success for Faurecia Exhaust Systems Diesel Particulate Filter: A Success for ... More Documents & Publications Combination of Diesel fuel system architectures and ...

  16. Non-Destructive Neutron Imaging to Analyze Particulate Filters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    non-invasive imaging is being employed in the laboratory to understand how soot, ash, and catalytic washcoat are deposited within a diesel particulate filter. PDF icon...

  17. Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review ... Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions Vehicle Technologies Office ...

  18. Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit ... Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions Fuel-Neutral Studies of ...

  19. Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperatur...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit ... Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions Development of Advanced Diesel ...

  20. Update on 2007 Diesel Particulate Measurement Research | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Real-Time Measurement of Diesel Trap Efficiency Mass Correlation of Engine Emissions with Spectral Instruments Real-Time Particulate Mass Measurements Pre and Post Diesel ...

  1. Development of Acicular Mullite Materials for Diesel Particulate...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Tailored Acicular Mullite Substrates for Multifunctional Diesel Particulate Filters Future Trends for DPFSCR On-Filter (SCRF) fundamental Modeling and Experimental Studies of ...

  2. Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter ... An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system ...

  3. Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine Determine ...

  4. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-02-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  5. Non-Destructive Neutron Imaging to Analyze Particulate Filters

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Non-destructive, non-invasive imaging is being employed in the laboratory to understand how soot, ash, and catalytic washcoat are deposited within a diesel particulate filter.

  6. Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision Tree Based Control Using a non-parametric decision tree to measure transient PM could correctly identify 94% of high ...

  7. Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Evaluation of how sampling details affect the measurement of volatile organic compounds in ... Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Particulate Matter on DPF ...

  8. Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern Great Plains Site Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol ...

  9. The State of the Science in Diesel Particulate Control | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Particulate Matter on DPF Soot Aftertreatment Research Prioritization: A CLEERS Industrial Survey Development ...

  10. Electrochemical sensor having suspended element counter electrode and deflection method for current sensing

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2010-05-18

    An electrochemical suspended element-based sensor system includes a solution cell for holding an electrolyte comprising solution including at least one electrochemically reducible or oxidizable species. A working electrode (WE), reference electrode (RE) and a counter electrode (CE) are disposed in the solution. The CE includes an asymmetric suspended element, wherein one side of the suspended element includes a metal or a highly doped semiconductor surface. The suspended element bends when current associated with reduction or oxidation of the electrochemically reducible or oxidizable species at the WE passes through the suspended element. At least one measurement system measures the bending of the suspended element or a parameter which is a function of the bending.

  11. Method of forming particulate materials for thin-film solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

    2004-11-23

    A method for preparing particulate materials useful in fabricating thin-film solar cells is disclosed. Particulate materials is prepared by the method include for example materials comprising copper and indium and/or gallium in the form of single-phase, mixed-metal oxide particulates; multi-phase, mixed-metal particulates comprising a metal oxide; and multinary metal particulates.

  12. Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Specific designs and material properties have to be developed for gasoline particulate filters based on the different engine and exhaust gas characteristic of gasoline engines compared to diesel engines, e.g., generally lower levels of engine-out particulate emissions or higher GDI exhaust gas temperatures

  13. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOEpatents

    Carl, Daniel E.

    1997-01-01

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector's centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gasflow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel's wall in the form of a "wavy film," while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator.

  14. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOEpatents

    Carl, D.E.

    1997-10-21

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector`s centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gas flow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel`s wall in the form of a ``wavy film,`` while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator. 4 figs.

  15. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOEpatents

    Even, W.R. Jr.; Guthrie, S.E.; Raber, T.N.; Wally, K.; Whinnery, L.L.; Zifer, T.

    1999-02-02

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a packed bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that (a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, (b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, (c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, (d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and (e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of an individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport. 4 figs.

  16. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOEpatents

    Even, Jr., William R.; Guthrie, Stephen E.; Raber, Thomas N.; Wally, Karl; Whinnery, LeRoy L.; Zifer, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a "packed" bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport.

  17. Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Postma, Arlin K.

    1984-01-01

    Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

  18. Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

    2011-07-19

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  19. Process for producing dispersed particulate composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Hirth, John P.

    1995-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming noninterwoven dispersed particulate composite products. In one case a composite multi-layer film product comprises a substantially noninterwoven multi-layer film having a plurality of discrete layers. This noninterwoven film comprises at least one discrete layer of a first material and at least one discrete layer of a second material. In another case the first and second materials are blended together with each other. In either case, the first material comprises a metalloid and the second material a metal compound. At least one component of a first material in one discrete layer undergoes a solid state displacement reaction with at least one component of a second material thereby producing the requisite noninterwoven composite film product. Preferably, the first material comprises silicon, the second material comprises Mo.sub.2 C, the third material comprises SiC and the fourth material comprises MoSi.sub.2.

  20. On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines 2009 DOE ...

  1. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    . Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per...

  2. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  3. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  4. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  5. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    A. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per...

  6. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  7. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  8. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

  9. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, G.S.

    1998-12-15

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers is disclosed using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer`s position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates. 4 figs.

  10. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, Gary S.

    1998-01-01

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer's position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates.

  11. Parallel Total Energy

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2004-10-21

    This is a total energy electronic structure code using Local Density Approximation (LDA) of the density funtional theory. It uses the plane wave as the wave function basis set. It can sue both the norm conserving pseudopotentials and the ultra soft pseudopotentials. It can relax the atomic positions according to the total energy. It is a parallel code using MP1.

  12. Engine gaseous, aerosol precursor and particulate at simulated flight altitude conditions. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Wey, C.C.

    1998-10-01

    The overall objective of the NASA Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) is to develop scientific bases for assessing atmospheric impacts of the exhaust emissions by both current and future fleets of subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Among the six primary elements of the AEAP is Emissions Characterization. The objective of the Emission Characterization effort is to determine the exhaust emission constituents and concentrations at the engine exit plane. The specific objective of this engine test is to obtain a database of gaseous and particulate emissions as a function of fuel sulfur and engine operating conditions. The database of the particulate emission properties is to be used as a comparative baseline with subsequent flight measurement. The engine used in this test was a Pratt and Whitney F100-200E turbofan engine. Aviation fuel (Jet A) with a range of fuel sulfur was used. Low and high sulfur values are limited by commercially available fuels and by fuel specification limits of 0.3% by weight. Test matrix was set by parametrically varying the combustor inlet temperature (T3) between idle and maximum power setting at simulated SLS and up to five other altitudes for each fuel. Four diagnostic systems, extractive and non-intrusive, were assembled for the gaseous and particulate emissions characterization measurements study. NASA extractive system includes smoke meter and analyzers for measurement of CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NOx, O{sub 2}, total unburnt hydrocarbons (THC), and SO{sub 2}. Particulate emissions were characterized by University of Missouri-Rolla Mobile Aerosol Sampling System.

  13. Note: Precision viscosity measurement using suspended microchannel resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, I.; Lee, J.; Park, K.

    2012-11-15

    We report the characterization of a suspended microchannel resonator (SMR) for viscosity measurements in a low viscosity regime (<10 mPa s) using two measurement schemes. First, the quality factor (Q-factor) of the SMR was characterized with glycerol-water mixtures. The measured Q-factor at 20 Degree-Sign C exhibits a bilinear behavior with the sensitivity of 1281 (mPa s){sup -1} for a lower (1-4 mPa s) and 355 (mPa s){sup -1} for a higher viscosity range (4-8 mPa s), respectively. The second scheme is the vibration amplitude monitoring of the SMR running in a closed loop feedback. When compared in terms of the measurement time, the amplitude-based measurement takes only 0.1 {approx} 1 ms while the Q-factor-based measurement takes {approx}30 s. However, the viscosity resolution of the Q-factor-based measurement is at least three times better than the amplitude-based measurement. By comparing the Q-factors of heavy water and 9.65 wt.% glycerol-water mixture that have very similar viscosities but different densities, we confirmed that the SMR can measure the dynamic viscosity without the density correction. The obtained results demonstrate that the SMR can measure the fluid viscosity with high precision and even real-time monitoring of the viscosity change is possible with the amplitude-based measurement scheme.

  14. Summary Max Total Units

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Summary Max Total Units *If All Splits, No Rack Units **If Only FW, AC Splits 1000 52 28 28 2000 87 59 35 3000 61 33 15 4000 61 33 15 Totals 261 153 93 ***Costs $1,957,500.00 $1,147,500.00 $697,500.00 Notes: added several refrigerants removed bins from analysis removed R-22 from list 1000lb, no Glycol, CO2 or ammonia Seawater R-404A only * includes seawater units ** no seawater units included *** Costs = (total units) X (estimate of $7500 per unit) 1000lb, air cooled split systems, fresh water

  15. Achieving low particulate emissions with electrostatic precipitators

    SciTech Connect

    Mastropietro, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    A great deal of literature has been published in recent years maligning electrostatic precipitators (ESP) as not being effective in achieving low emissions, or as being less effective than fabric filters in collecting fine particulate. This observation is not valid, provided the ESP is properly sized. The misconception comes from comparing modern high efficiency fabric filters, with 1950-1970`s vintage ESP`s. ESP`s were sized much smaller in that era, basically just for {open_quotes}good-neighbor{close_quotes} policies. Figure 1 shows the historical sizing practices for coal-fired utility boilers. From this, it can be seen that ESP`s from the 50`s through the early 1970`s were only about one-fourth to one-half the size of modern ESP`s. These undersized ESP`s, often in the presence of a coal switch to low sulfur coal, sometimes perform poorly. When replaced with a fabric filter, the claim is made that the ESP did not work and that a fabric filter does work properly. Had the ESP been increased in size to modern standards, it too would work properly.

  16. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    SciTech Connect

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  17. PARTICULATE EMISSION ABATEMENT FOR KRAKOW BOILERHOUSES

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce H. Easom; Leo A, Smolensky; S. Ronald Wysk; Jan Surowka; Miroslaw Litke; Jacek Ginter

    1998-09-30

    A U.S./Polish Bilateral Steering Committee (BSC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) selected LSR Technologies, Inc. as a contractor to participate in the Krakow Clean Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. The objective of this program was the formation of business ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and services to reduce air emissions in the city of Krakow. A cooperative agreement was entered into by DOE and LSR to begin work in April 1994 involving implementation of particulate control technology called a Core Separator{trademark} for coal-fueled boilerhouses in the city. The major work tasks included: (1) conducting a market analysis, (2) completion of a formal marketing plan, (3) obtaining patent protection within Poland, (4) selecting a manufacturing partner, and (5) completing a demonstration unit and commercial installations. In addition to work performed by LSR Technologies, key contributors to this project were (1) the Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), a non-profit consulting organization specializing in energy and environmental-related technologies, and (2) EcoInstal, a privately held Polish company serving the air pollution control market. As the project concluded in late 1998, five (5) Core Separator{trademark} installations had been implemented in the city of Krakow, while about 40 others were completed in other regions of Poland.

  18. Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sayuti, M. [Faculty of Engineering, Malikussaleh University of Lhokseumawe, 24300 Aceh (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sulaiman, S.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Arifin, M. K. A. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Suraya, S.; Vijayaram, T. R.

    2011-01-17

    This paper discusses the mechanical properties of Titanium Carbide (TiC) particulate reinforced aluminium-silicon alloy matrix composite. TiC particulate reinforced LM6 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by carbon dioxide sand molding process with different particulate weight fraction. Tensile strength, hardness and microstructure studies were conducted to determine the maximum load, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and fracture surface analysis have been performed to characterize the morphological aspects of the test samples after tensile testing. Hardness values are measured for the TiC reinforced LM6 alloy composites and it has been found that it gradually increases with increased addition of the reinforcement phase. The tensile strength of the composites increased with the increase percentage of TiC particulate.

  19. EERE Success Story-Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Filter Sensor Reduces Fuel Consumption, Wins R&D 100 Award EERE Success Story-Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor Reduces Fuel Consumption, Wins R&D 100 Award October ...

  20. Diesel Particulate Filters and NO2 Emission Limits | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Filters and NO2 Emission Limits Diesel Particulate Filters and NO2 Emission Limits EPAs New air quality standards for NO2 will impact future DPF designs deer09ibrahim.pdf (1.05 ...

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - 1999 Northeast Corridor Ozone & Particulate...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : 1999 Northeast Corridor Ozone & Particulate Study 1999.07.23 - 1999.08.11 Lead...

  2. Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac...

    Energy Saver

    of two series of emissions tests for particulate matter (PM), the first during normal unit operation and the second with the injection of TRONA upstream of hot side ESP fields. ...

  3. Observations and Modeling of GoAmazon Particulate Matter and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ENERGY Office of Science DOESC-ARM-15-059 Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON): Particulate Matter and Gases Final Campaign Summary RHM Godoi CGG Barbosa ...

  4. Development of an Active Regeneration Diesel Particulate Filter...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    A New Active DPF System for "Stop and Go" Duty-Cycle Vehicles Donaldson Active Regeneration PM System A New CFD Model for understanding and Managing Diesel Particulate Filter ...

  5. Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace024lee2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate...

  6. In Vitro Genotoxicity of Particulate and Semi-Volatile Organic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Organic Compound Exhaust Materails from a Set of Gasoline and a Set of Diesel Engine Vehicles Operated at 30F In Vitro Genotoxicity of Particulate and Semi-Volatile Organic ...

  7. JV Task 95-Particulate Control Consulting for Minnesota Ore Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller

    2008-10-31

    The purpose of the project was to assist U.S. Steel in the evaluation, selection, planning, design, and testing of potential approaches to help meet U.S. Steel's goal for low-particulate matter emissions and regulatory compliance. The energy-intensive process for producing iron pellets includes treating the pellets in high-temperature kilns in which the iron is converted from magnetite to hematite. The kilns can be fired with either natural gas or a combination of gas and coal or biomass fuel and are equipped with wet venturi scrubbers for particulate control. Particulate measurements at the inlet and outlet of the scrubbers and analysis of size-fractionated particulate samples led to an understanding of the effect of process variables on the measured emissions and an approach to meet regulatory compliance.

  8. ARM - Field Campaign - Semi-Continuous OCEC Particulate Measurement

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Campaign : Semi-Continuous OCEC Particulate Measurement 2013.06.01 - 2013.11.27 Lead Scientist : Robert Cary For data sets, see below. Abstract The Sunset Laboratory...

  9. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  10. ARM - Measurement - Total carbon

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total carbon The total concentration of carbon in all its organic and non-organic forms. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including

  11. Method of feeding particulate material to a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Borio, Richard W. (Somers, CT); Goodstine, Stephen L. (Windsor, CT)

    1984-01-01

    A centrifugal spreader type feeder that supplies a mixture of particulate limestone and coal to the top of a fluidized bed reactor having a flow of air upward therethrough. Large particles of particulate matter are distributed over the upper surface of the bed to utilize the natural mixing within the bed, while fine particles are adapted to utilize an independent feeder that separates them from the large particles and injects them into the bed.

  12. Mesoscale simulations of particulate flows with parallel distributed

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lagrange multiplier technique (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Mesoscale simulations of particulate flows with parallel distributed Lagrange multiplier technique Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoscale simulations of particulate flows with parallel distributed Lagrange multiplier technique Authors: Kanarska, Y ; Lomov, I ; Antoun, T Publication Date: 2010-09-10 OSTI Identifier: 1120915 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-455392 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48

  13. Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2012-06-26

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust; and a grid that includes electrically resistive material that is segmented by non-conductive material into a plurality of zones and wherein the grid is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF.

  14. Optical Backscatter Probe for Sensing Particulate Matter - Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Optical Backscatter Probe for Sensing Particulate Matter Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryTo provide emissions information for automotive engines, ORNL researchers developed a technology that enables very rapid measurement of particulate matter in gas emissions. This fiber optic-based probe can be

  15. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON). Particulate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Matter and Gases Final Campaign Summary (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON). Particulate Matter and Gases Final Campaign Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON). Particulate Matter and Gases Final Campaign Summary Because of their proven adverse effects on human health and vegetation, and also considering their influence over the local and regional

  16. Method and apparatus for acoustically monitoring the flow of suspended solid particulate matter. [Patent application; monitoring char flow in coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Roach, P.D.; Raptis, A.C.

    1980-11-24

    A method and apparatus for monitoring char flow in a coal gasifier system includes flow monitor circuits which measure acoustic attenuation caused by the presence of char in a char line and provides a char flow/no flow indication and an indication of relative char density. The flow monitor circuits compute the ratio of signals in two frequency bands, a first frequency band representative of background noise, and a second higher frequency band in which background noise is attenuated by the presence of char. Since the second frequency band contains higher frequencies, the ratio can be used to provide a flow/no flow indication. The second band can also be selected so that attenuation is monotonically related to particle concentration, providing a quantitative measure of char concentration.

  17. Diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration by electrical heating of resistive coatings

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Weldon S.; Gonze, Eugene V.

    2008-12-30

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is integrally formed in an upstream end of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  18. Idaho waste treatment facility startup testing suspended to evaluate system response

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    IDAHO FALLS, ID- On Saturday, June 16, startup testing was suspended at the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho Site.

  19. Total DOE/NNSA

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    8 Actuals 2009 Actuals 2010 Actuals 2011 Actuals 2012 Actuals 2013 Actuals 2014 Actuals 2015 Actuals Total DOE/NNSA 4,385 4,151 4,240 4,862 5,154 5,476 7,170 7,593 Total non-NNSA 3,925 4,017 4,005 3,821 3,875 3,974 3,826 3765 Total Facility 8,310 8,168 8,245 8,683 9,029 9,450 10,996 11,358 non-NNSA includes DOE offices and Strategic Parternship Projects (SPP) employees NNSA M&O Employee Reporting

  20. 21 briefing pages total

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    briefing pages total p. 1 Reservist Differential Briefing U.S. Office of Personnel Management December 11, 2009 p. 2 Agenda - Introduction of Speakers - Background - References/Tools - Overview of Reservist Differential Authority - Qualifying Active Duty Service and Military Orders - Understanding Military Leave and Earnings Statements p. 3 Background 5 U.S.C. 5538 (Section 751 of the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009, March 11, 2009) (Public Law 111-8) Law requires OPM to consult with DOD Law

  1. Development of microwave-heated diesel particulate filters

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M.A.; Stinton, D.P.; Yonushonis, T.M.; McDonald, A.C.; Wiczynski, P.D.; Haberkamp, W.C.

    1996-06-01

    Diesel engines are a prime mover of freight in the United States. Because of legislated reductions in diesel engine emissions, considerable research has been focused on the reduction of these emissions while maintaining the durability, reliability, and fuel economy of diesel engines. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has found that particulate exhaust from diesel powered vehicles represents a potential health hazard. As a result, regulations have been promulgated limiting the allowable amounts of particulate from those vehicles. The 0.1 g/bhp/hr (gram per brake horsepower per hour) particulate standard that applies to heavy-duty diesels became effective in 1994. Engine manufacturers have met those requirements with engine modifications and/or oxidation catalysts. EPA has established more stringent standards for diesel-powered urban buses because of health concerns in densely populated urban areas.

  2. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  3. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material and product thereof

    DOEpatents

    Utz, Bruce R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cugini, Anthony V. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  4. Fluidizing a mixture of particulate coal and char

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.

    1979-08-07

    Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

  5. EERE Success Story-Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Reduces Fuel Consumption, Wins R&D 100 Award | Department of Energy Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor Reduces Fuel Consumption, Wins R&D 100 Award EERE Success Story-Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor Reduces Fuel Consumption, Wins R&D 100 Award October 15, 2014 - 4:51pm Addthis Developed jointly by Corning, the FEV Group, Maguffin Microwave, Detroit Diesel, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in cooperation with the New York City Department of

  6. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2012 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Miller, Julianne J

    2013-07-01

    401. This difference may be the result of using filter media at Station 400 with a smaller pore size than the media used at the other two stations. Average annual gamma exposure at Station 401 is slightly greater than at Station 400 and 402. Average annual gamma exposure at all three TTR stations are in the upper range to slightly higher than values reported for the CEMP stations surrounding the TTR. At higher wind speeds, the saltation counts are greater at Station 401 than at Station 402 while the suspended particulate concentrations are greater at Station 402 than at Statin 401. Although these observations seem counterintuitive, they are likely the result of differences in the soil material present at the two sites. Station 401 is located on an interfluve elevated above two adjacent drainage channels where the soil surface is likely to be composed of coarser material. Station 402 is located in finer sediments at the playa edge and is also subject to dust from a dirt road only 500 m to the north. During prolonged high wind events, suspended dust concentrations at Station 401 peaked with the initial winds then decreased whereas dust concentrations at Station 402 peaked with each peak in the wind speed. This likely reflects a limited PM10 source that is quickly expended at Station 401 relative to an abundant PM10 source at Station 402. In CY2013, to facilitate comparisons between radiological analyses of collected dust, the filter media at all three stations will be standardized. In addition, a sequence of samples will be collected at Station 400 using both types of filter media to enable development of a mathematical relationship between the results derived from the two filter types. Additionally, having acquired approximately four years of observations at Stations 400 and 401 and a year of observations at Station 402, a period-of-record analysis of the radiological and airborne dust conditions will be undertaken.

  7. Macromodel for assessing residential concentrations of combustion-generated pollutants: Model development and preliminary predictions for CO, NO/sub 2/, and respirable suspended particles

    SciTech Connect

    Traynor, G.W.; Aceti, J.C.; Apte, M.G.; Smith, B.V.; Green, L.L.; Smith-Reiser, A.; Novak, K.M.; Moses, D.O.

    1989-01-01

    A simulation model (also called a ''macromodel'') has been developed to predict residential air pollutant concentration distributions for specified populations. The model inputs include the market penetration of pollution sources, pollution source characteristics (e.g., emission rates, source usage rates), building characteristics (e.g., house volume, air exchange rates), and meteorological parameters (e.g., outside temperature). Four geographically distinct regions of the US have been modeled using Monte Carlo and deterministic simulation techniques. Single-source simulations were also conducted. The highest predicted CO and NO/sub 2/ residential concentrations were associated with the winter-time use of unvented gas and kerosene space heaters. The highest predicted respirable suspended particulate concentrations were associated with indoor cigarette smoking and the winter-time use of non-airtight wood stoves, radiant kerosene heaters, convective unvented gas space heaters, and oil forced-air furnaces. Future field studies in this area should (1) fill information gaps identified in this report, and (2) collect information on the macromodel input parameters to properly interpret the results. It is almost more important to measure the parameters that affect indoor concentration than it is to measure the concentrations themselves.

  8. Active DPF for Off-Road Particulate Matter (PM) Control | Department...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    how a possibly catalyzed active diesel particulate filter can be used to control off-road particulate matter. deer08servati.pdf (245.37 KB) More Documents & Publications DPF ...

  9. Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor Reduces Fuel Consumption, Wins R&D 100 Award

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor (RF-DPF) is a sensor that uses radio frequencies to measure the amount and distribution of soot and ash in the filters that remove particulate matter from the exhaust of diesel engines.

  10. Large theoretical thermoelectric power factor of suspended single-layer MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Babaei, Hasan E-mail: babaei@auburn.edu; Khodadadi, J. M.; Sinha, Sanjiv

    2014-11-10

    We have calculated the semi-classical thermoelectric power factor of suspended single-layer (SL)- MoS{sub 2} utilizing electron relaxation times derived from ab initio calculations. Measurements of the thermoelectric power factor of SL-MoS{sub 2} on substrates reveal poor power factors. In contrast, we find the thermoelectric power factor of suspended SL-MoS{sub 2} to peak at ∼2.8 × 10{sup 4} μW/m K{sup 2} at 300 K, at an electron concentration of 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}. This figure is higher than that in bulk Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, for example. Given its relatively high thermal conductivity, suspended SL-MoS{sub 2} may hold promise for in-plane thin-film Peltier coolers, provided reasonable mobilities can be realized.

  11. Thermal convection in a sparcely packed porous layer saturated with suspended particles

    SciTech Connect

    Mackie, C.

    2000-04-01

    This analytical study has considered the incipient convection of a sparcely packed porous medium saturated with suspended particles. A linear stability analysis is performed to determine the effects of the permeability of the medium and suspended components on the conditions for incipient instability under a range of thermal boundary conditions. The flow in the medium is modeled by using the Brinkman-extended Darcy model. The analysis reveals that the stability of the system is affected significantly by the presence of the porous medium, state of particles and the thermal boundary conditions. Moreover, the results of this study bridge the gap between thermal convection in a porous medium and in a classical fluid with suspended particles.

  12. Substrate interactions with suspended and supported monolayer MoS2: Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Jin, Wencan; Yeh, Po -Chun; Zaki, Nader; Zhang, Datong; Liou, Jonathan T.; Dadap, Jerry I.; Barinov, Alexey; Yablonskikh, Mikhail; Sadowski, Jerzy T.; Sutter, Peter; et al

    2015-03-17

    We report the directly measured electronic structure of exfoliated monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) using micrometer-scale angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Measurements of both suspended and supported monolayer MoS₂ elucidate the effects of interaction with a substrate. Thus, a suggested relaxation of the in-plane lattice constant is found for both suspended and supported monolayer MoS₂ crystals. For suspended MoS₂, a careful investigation of the measured uppermost valence band gives an effective mass at Γ¯ and Κ¯ of 2.00m₀ and 0.43m₀, respectively. We also measure an increase in the band linewidth from the midpoint of Γ¯Κ¯ to the vicinity of Κ¯ and briefly discussmore » its possible origin.« less

  13. Apparatus and method for concentrating and filtering particles suspended in a fluid

    DOEpatents

    Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Cummings, Eric B.; Singh, Anup K.

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed is a device for separating and concentrating particles suspended in a fluid stream by using dielectrophoresis (DEP) to trap and/or deflect those particles as they migrate through a fluid channel. The method uses fluid channels designed to constrain a liquid flowing through it to uniform electrokinetic flow velocities. This behavior is achieved by connecting deep and shallow sections of channels, with the channel depth varying abruptly along an interface. By careful design of abrupt changes in specific permeability at the interface, an abrupt and spatially uniform change in electrokinetic force can be selected. Because these abrupt interfaces also cause a sharp gradient in applied electric fields, a DEP force also can be established along the interface. Depending on the complex conductivity of the suspended particles and the immersion liquid, the DEP force can controllably complement or oppose the local electrokinetic force transporting the fluid through the channel allowing for manipulation of particles suspended in the transporting liquid.

  14. Application to Export Electric Energy OE Docket No. EA-401 Lonestar Power Marketing LLC: Request to Suspend Consideration of Application

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Application from Lonestar to export electric energy to Mexico.  Received letter requesting to suspend consideration of application of Frontera and Lonestar.

  15. Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

    2012-10-23

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

  16. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    DOEpatents

    Almlie, Jay C; Miller, Stanley J

    2014-11-11

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  17. Comparison of Particulate Collection in Probes and on Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, J.M.; Humphreys, M.P.

    2001-06-14

    Major radionuclide emissions from the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex are nuclides of uranium which are emitted as a particulate. The radionuclide NESHAP regulation requires stack sampling to be conducted in accordance with ANST Standard N13.1, 1969. Appendix B of this standard requires in every case where sampling delivery lines are used that an evaluation should be made of deposition in these lines. A number of Y-12 Complex stacks are fitted with continuous samplers which draw particulate laden air through a probe and across a sample filter. One approach to evaluate line loss as required by the ANSI standard is to establish a representative factor that is used for all subsequent sampling efforts. Another approach is to conduct a routine probe wash procedure on an ongoing basis to account for line losses. In 1991, Y-12 National Security Complex personnel began routine probe washes as part of their sample collection procedure. Since then, 50-80 stacks have been sampled on a near continuous basis and probe washes have been conducted quarterly. Particulate collection in probes versus particulate collection on filters is recorded as a probe factor and probe factor trends for a 10-year period are available.

  18. Electrically heated particulate matter filter with recessed inlet end plugs

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Ament, Frank

    2012-02-21

    A particulate matter (PM) filter includes filter walls having inlet ends and outlet ends. First adjacent pairs of the filter walls define inlet channels. Second adjacent pairs of the filter walls define outlet channels. Outlet end plugs are arranged in the inlet channels adjacent to the output ends. Inlet end plugs arranged in the outlet channels spaced from the inlet ends.

  19. Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2009-09-29

    A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

  20. Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly different in morphology and nanostructures

  1. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced aerosol analysis methods were used to examine particulates from single cylinder test engines running on gasoline and ethanol blends.

  2. DOE Does Not Accept SPR Bids and Suspends Plans for Future Purchases |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy SPR Bids and Suspends Plans for Future Purchases DOE Does Not Accept SPR Bids and Suspends Plans for Future Purchases May 2, 2007 - 12:45pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy has rejected all offers received from the second solicitation issued this spring that sought to purchase up to four million barrels of crude oil for the United States' crude oil reserve. Both solicitations resulted in no awards because the Department

  3. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and systems for hybrid vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-10-12

    A control system for controlling regeneration of a particulate filter for a hybrid vehicle is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration. An engine control module controls operation of an engine of the hybrid vehicle based on the control of the current to the particulate filter.

  4. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  5. U.S. Total Exports

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Total To Barbados Total To Brazil Freeport, TX Sabine Pass, LA Total to Canada Eastport, ID Calais, ME Detroit, MI Marysville, MI Port Huron, MI Crosby, ND Portal, ND Sault St. Marie, MI St. Clair, MI Noyes, MN Warroad, MN Babb, MT Havre, MT Port of Morgan, MT Sherwood, ND Pittsburg, NH Buffalo, NY Grand Island, NY Massena, NY Niagara Falls, NY Waddington, NY Sumas, WA Sweetgrass, MT Total to Chile Sabine Pass, LA Total to China Kenai, AK Sabine Pass, LA Total to Egypt Freeport, TX Total to

  6. U.S. Total Exports

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Sabine Pass, LA Total To Barbados Miami, FL Total To Brazil Freeport, TX Sabine Pass, LA Total to Canada Eastport, ID Calais, ME Detroit, MI Marysville, MI Port Huron, MI Portal, ND Sault St. Marie, MI St. Clair, MI Noyes, MN Babb, MT Havre, MT Port of Morgan, MT Sherwood, ND Pittsburg, NH Grand Island, NY Massena, NY Niagara Falls, NY Waddington, NY Sumas, WA Sweetgrass, MT Total to Chile Sabine Pass, LA Total to China Kenai, AK Sabine Pass, LA Total to Dominican Republic Sabine Pass, LA Total

  7. Characteristics of inhalable particulate matter concentration and size distribution from power plants in China

    SciTech Connect

    Honghong Yi; Jiming Hao; Lei Duan; Xinghua Li; Xingming Guo

    2006-09-15

    The collection efficiency of particulate emission control devices (PECDs), particulate matter (PM) emissions, and PM size distribution were determined experimentally at the inlet and outlet of PECDs at five coal-fired power plants. Different boilers, coals, and PECDs are used in these power plants. Measurement in situ was performed by an electrical low-pressure impactor with a sampling system, which consisted of an isokinetic sampler probe, precut cyclone, and two- stage dilution system with a sample line to the instruments. The size distribution was measured over a range from 0.03 to 10 {mu}m. Before and after all of the PECDs, the particle number size distributions display a bimodal distribution. The PM2.5 fraction emitted to atmosphere includes a significant amount of the mass from the coarse particle mode. The controlled and uncontrolled emission factors of total PM, inhalable PM (PM10), and fine PM (PM2.5) were obtained. Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and baghouse total collection efficiencies are 96.38 99.89% and 99.94%, respectively. The minimum collection efficiency of the ESP and the baghouse both appear in the particle size range of 0.1 1 0 {mu}m. In this size range, ESP and baghouse collection efficiencies are 85.79 98.6% and 99.54%. Real- time measurement shows that the mass and number concentration of PM10 will be greatly affected by the operating conditions of the PECDs. The number of emitted particles increases with increasing boiler load level because of higher combustion temperature. During test run periods, the data reproducibility is satisfactory. 19 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Fluidizable particulate materials and methods of making same

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.P.

    1999-10-26

    The invention provides fluidizable, substantially spherical particulate material of improved attrition resistance having an average particle size from about 100 to about 400 microns useful as sorbents, catalysts, catalytic supports, specialty ceramics or the like. The particles are prepared by spray drying a slurry comprising inorganic starting materials and an organic binder. Exemplary inorganic starting materials include mixtures of zinc oxide with titanium dioxide, or with iron oxide, alumina or the like. Exemplary organic binders include polyvinyl alcohol, hydroxypropylemethyl cellulose, polyvinyl acetate and the like. The spray dried particles are heat treated at a first temperature wherein organic binder material is removed to thereby provide a porous structure to the particles, and thereafter the particles are calcined at a higher temperature to cause reaction of the inorganic starting materials and to thereby form the final inorganic particulate material.

  9. Design characteristics for facilities which process hazardous particulate

    SciTech Connect

    Abeln, S.P.; Creek, K.; Salisbury, S.

    1998-12-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is establishing a research and processing capability for beryllium. The unique properties of beryllium, including light weight, rigidity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and nuclear properties make it critical to a number of US defense and aerospace programs. Concomitant with the unique engineering properties are the health hazards associated with processing beryllium in a particulate form and the potential for worker inhalation of aerosolized beryllium. Beryllium has the lowest airborne standard for worker protection compared to all other nonradioactive metals by more than an order of magnitude. This paper describes the design characteristics of the new beryllium facility at Los Alamos as they relate to protection of the workforce. Design characteristics to be reviewed include; facility layout, support systems to minimize aerosol exposure and spread, and detailed review of the ventilation system design for general room air cleanliness and extraction of particulate at the source.

  10. Fluidizable particulate materials and methods of making same

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Raghubir P.

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides fluidizable, substantially spherical particulate material of improved attrition resistance having an average particle size from about 100 to about 400 microns useful as sorbents, catalysts, catalytic supports, specialty ceramics or the like. The particles are prepared by spray drying a slurry comprising inorganic starting materials and an organic binder. Exemplary inorganic starting materials include mixtures of zinc oxide with titanium dioxide, or with iron oxide, alumina or the like. Exemplary organic binders include polyvinyl alcohol, hydroxypropylemethyl cellulose, polyvinyl acetate and the like. The spray dried particles are heat treated at a first temperature wherein organic binder material is removed to thereby provide a porous structure to the particles, and thereafter the particles are calcined at a higher temperature to cause reaction of the inorganic starting materials and to thereby form the final inorganic particulate material.

  11. Perspectives on Localized Corrosion in Thin Layers of Particulate

    SciTech Connect

    Payer, Joe H.; Kelly, Robert G.

    2007-07-01

    The requirements for the initiation and propagation of localized corrosion are reviewed, and the stability criteria for sustained localized corrosion are discussed. A conceptual framework is applied to a specific scenario of a hot metal surface covered by a thin layer of particulate containing dissolvable salts in the presence of air of limited humidity. A number of processes are demonstrated to affect the crevice corrosion propagation, stifling and arrest. Contributions of the particulate layer properties, the anode, cathode and coupled processes are identified, showing that any of these can control localized corrosion propagation. Whether stifling or arrest occur will depend upon the material and environmental conditions for a given case. The findings add to the technical basis for the analysis of localized corrosion by a decision tree methodology. (authors)

  12. Electrically heated particulate matter filter soot control system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2016-03-15

    A regeneration system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A control module determines a current soot loading level of the PM filter and compares the current soot loading level to a predetermined soot loading level. The control module permits regeneration of the PM filter when the current soot loading level is less than the predetermined soot loading level.

  13. Stabilization void-fill encapsulation high-efficiency particulate filters

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, R.G.; Stewart, W.E.; Phillips, S.J.; Serkowski, M.M.; England, J.L.; Boynton, H.C.

    1994-05-01

    This report discusses high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter systems that which are contaminated with radionuclides are part of the nuclear fuel processing systems conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and require replacement and safe and efficient disposal for plant safety. Two K-3 HEPA filters were removed from service, placed burial boxes, buried, and safely and efficiently stabilized remotely which reduced radiation exposure to personnel and the environment.

  14. Grooved impactor and inertial trap for sampling inhalable particulate matter

    DOEpatents

    Loo, Billy W.

    1984-01-01

    An inertial trap and grooved impactor for providing a sharp cutoff for particles over 15 microns from entering an inhalable particulate sampler. The impactor head has a tapered surface and is provided with V-shaped grooves. The tapered surface functions for reducing particle blow-off or reentrainment while the grooves prevent particle bounce. Water droplets and any resuspended material over the 15 micron size are collected by the inertial trap and deposited in a reservoir associated with the impactor.

  15. Advanced hybrid particulate collector and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J.

    2003-04-08

    A device and method for controlling particulate air pollutants of the present invention combines filtration and electrostatic collection devices. The invention includes a chamber housing a plurality of rows of filter elements. Between the rows of filter elements are rows of high voltage discharge electrodes. Between the rows of discharge electrodes and the rows of filter elements are grounded perforated plates for creating electrostatic precipitation zones.

  16. Microwave mode shifting antenna system for regenerating particulate filters

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Kirby, Kevin W [Calabasas Hills, CA; Phelps, Amanda [Malibu, CA; Gregoire, Daniel J [Thousand Oaks, CA

    2011-04-26

    A regeneration system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter including a microwave energy absorbing surface, and an antenna system comprising N antennas and an antenna driver module that sequentially drives the antenna system in a plurality of transverse modes of the antenna system to heat selected portions of the microwave absorbing surface to regenerate the PM filter, where N is an integer greater than one. The transverse modes may include transverse electric (TE) and/or transverse magnetic (TM) modes.

  17. Total Eolica | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Eolica Jump to: navigation, search Name: Total Eolica Place: Spain Product: Project developer References: Total Eolica1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding...

  18. Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1,001 to 5,000 2,777 8,041 10,232 2.9 786 56 5,001 to 10,000 1,229 8,900 9,225 7.2 965 62 10,001 to 25,000 884 14,105 14,189 16.0 994 65 25,001 to 50,000 332 11,917 11,327 35.9 1,052 72 50,001 to 100,000 199 13,918 12,345 69.9 1,127 80 100,001 to 200,000 90 12,415 11,310 137.9 1,098 89 200,001 to 500,000 38 10,724 10,356 284.2 1,035 99 Over 500,000 8 7,074 9,196 885.0 769 117 Principal building activity Education 389 12,239 10,885 31.5 1,124 53 Food sales 177 1,252 1,172 7.1 1,067 121 Food

  19. Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1,001 to 5,000 2,777 8,041 10,232 2.9 786 56 5,001 to 10,000 1,229 8,900 9,225 7.2 965 62 10,001 to 25,000 884 14,105 14,189 16.0 994 65 25,001 to 50,000 332 11,917 11,327 35.9 1,052 72 50,001 to 100,000 199 13,918 12,345 69.9 1,127 80 100,001 to 200,000 90 12,415 11,310 137.9 1,098 89 200,001 to 500,000 38 10,724 10,356 284.2 1,035 99 Over 500,000 8 7,074 9,196 885.0 769 117 Principal building activity Education 389 12,239 10,885 31.5 1,124 53 Food sales 177 1,252 1,172 7.1 1,067 121 Food

  20. Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Median square feet per building (thousand) Median square feet per worker Median operating hours per week Median age of buildings (years) All buildings 5,557 87,093 88,182 5.0 1,029 50 32 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 2,777 8,041 10,232 2.8 821 49 37 5,001 to 10,000 1,229 8,900 9,225 7.0 1,167 50 31 10,001 to 25,000 884 14,105 14,189 15.0 1,444 56 32 25,001 to 50,000 332 11,917 11,327 35.0 1,461 60 29 50,001 to 100,000 199 13,918 12,345 67.0 1,442 60 26 100,001 to 200,000 90

  1. Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Fuel Oil, Greater than 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Lubricants Asphalt and Road Oil Other Products Period: Annual (as of January 1) Download Series History Download ...

  2. Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    of photovoltaic module shipments, 2015 (peak kilowatts) Source Disposition Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic CellModule ...

  3. Total..........................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Housing Units (millions) UrbanRural Location (as Self-Reported) Living Space ... Housing Units (millions) UrbanRural Location (as Self-Reported) Living Space ...

  4. Total..........................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Housing Units (millions) UrbanRural Location (as Self-Reported) City Town Suburbs Rural ... Housing Units (millions) UrbanRural Location (as Self-Reported) City Town Suburbs Rural ...

  5. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Living Space Characteristics Detached Attached Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Table HC3.2 ...

  6. Total..........................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... 111.1 20.6 15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment...... 17.8 4.0 2.4 1.7 Have Cooling Equipment...... 93.3 ...

  7. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook

    ... Average Square Feet per Apartment in a -- Apartments (millions) Major Outside Wall Construction Siding (Aluminum, Vinyl, Steel)...... 35.3 3.5 1,286 1,090 325 852 786 461 ...

  8. Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... District heat 48 5,964 8,230 124.9 725 87 District chilled water 54 4,608 5,742 85.4 803 ... Natural gas 12 732 1,048 61.5 699 67 District chilled water 54 4,608 5,742 85.4 803 87 ...

  9. Total..............................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    111.1 86.6 2,720 1,970 1,310 1,941 1,475 821 1,059 944 554 Census Region and Division Northeast.................................... 20.6 13.9 3,224 2,173 836 2,219 1,619 583 903 830 Q New England.......................... 5.5 3.6 3,365 2,154 313 2,634 1,826 Q 951 940 Q Middle Atlantic........................ 15.1 10.3 3,167 2,181 1,049 2,188 1,603 582 Q Q Q Midwest...................................... 25.6 21.0 2,823 2,239 1,624 2,356 1,669 1,336 1,081 961 778 East North

  10. Total...........................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Q Million U.S. Housing Units Renter- Occupied Housing Units (millions) Type of Renter-Occupied Housing Unit U.S. Housing Units (millions Single-Family Units Apartments in Buildings With-- Living Space Characteristics Detached Attached Table HC4.2 Living Space Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Units, 2005 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Million U.S. Housing

  11. Total............................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

  12. Total.............................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer........... 35.5 17.1 10.8 4.2 1.8 1.6 10.3 20.6 Use a Personal Computer....................... 75.6 9.6 18.0 16.4 11.3 20.3 6.4 17.9 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model.................................. 58.6 7.6 14.2 13.1 9.2 14.6 5.0 14.5 Laptop Model...................................... 16.9 2.0 3.8 3.3 2.1 5.7 1.3 3.5 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2 Hours..............................

  13. Total..............................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,171 1,618 1,031 845 630 401 Census Region and Division Northeast................................................... 20.6 2,334 1,664 562 911 649 220 New England.......................................... 5.5 2,472 1,680 265 1,057 719 113 Middle Atlantic........................................ 15.1 2,284 1,658 670 864 627 254 Midwest...................................................... 25.6 2,421 1,927 1,360 981 781 551 East North Central.................................. 17.7 2,483 1,926 1,269

  14. Total..............................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................ 17.8 5.3 4.7 2.8 1.9 3.1 3.6 7.5 Have Cooling Equipment............................. 93.3 21.5 24.1 17.8 11.2 18.8 13.0 31.1 Use Cooling Equipment.............................. 91.4 21.0 23.5 17.4 11.0 18.6 12.6 30.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............. 1.9 0.5 0.6 0.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.......................................... 65.9 11.0 16.5 13.5 8.7 16.1 6.4 17.2 Without a Heat

  15. Total...............................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    20.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 6.9 8.1 14.2 6.4 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 13.7 17.5 26.6 17.8 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 9.3 11.9 18.2 11.0 2.......................................................... 16.2 2.9 3.5 5.5 4.4 3 or More............................................. 9.0 1.5 2.1 2.9 2.5 Number of Laptop PCs

  16. Total...............................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 14.2 7.2 2.8 4.2 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 26.6 14.5 4.1 7.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 18.2 10.0 2.9 5.3 2.......................................................... 16.2 5.5 3.0 0.7 1.8 3 or More............................................. 9.0 2.9 1.5 0.5 0.8 Number of Laptop PCs

  17. Total...............................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 17.1 10.8 4.2 1.8 1.6 10.3 20.6 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 9.6 18.0 16.4 11.3 20.3 6.4 17.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 8.3 14.2 11.4 7.2 9.2 5.3 14.2 2.......................................................... 16.2 0.9 2.6 3.7 2.9 6.2 0.8 2.6 3 or More............................................. 9.0 0.4 1.2

  18. Total...............................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................. 17.8 5.3 4.7 2.8 1.9 3.1 3.6 7.5 Have Cooling Equipment.............................. 93.3 21.5 24.1 17.8 11.2 18.8 13.0 31.1 Use Cooling Equipment............................... 91.4 21.0 23.5 17.4 11.0 18.6 12.6 30.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............. 1.9 0.5 0.6 0.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................ 65.9 11.0 16.5 13.5 8.7 16.1 6.4 17.2 Without a Heat

  19. Total...............................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    47.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 16.9 6.5 4.6 7.6 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 30.3 12.5 18.1 14.7 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 21.1 8.3 10.7 10.1 2.......................................................... 16.2 6.2 2.8 4.1 3.0 3 or More............................................. 9.0 2.9 1.4 3.2 1.6 Number of Laptop PCs

  20. Total................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    111.1 26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment....... 1.2 0.5 0.3 0.2 Q 0.2 0.3 0.6 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.......... 109.8 26.2 28.5 20.4 13.0 21.8 16.3 37.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............ 109.1 25.9 28.1 20.3 12.9 21.8 16.0 37.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It.............. 0.8 0.3 0.3 Q Q N 0.4 0.6 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.................................................. 58.2 12.2 14.4 11.3 7.1 13.2 7.6 18.3 Central

  1. Total.................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    49.2 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Have Cooling Equipment............................... 93.3 31.3 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Use Cooling Equipment................................ 91.4 30.4 14.6 15.4 11.1 6.9 5.2 7.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............... 1.9 1.0 0.5 Q Q Q Q Q Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................... 17.8 17.8 N N N N N N Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................. 65.9 3.9 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Without a Heat

  2. Total.................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment........ 1.2 N Q Q 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.2 Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment........... 109.8 14.7 7.4 12.4 12.2 18.5 18.3 17.1 9.2 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............. 109.1 14.6 7.3 12.4 12.2 18.2 18.2 17.1 9.1 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It............... 0.8 Q Q Q Q 0.3 Q N Q Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas................................................... 58.2 9.2 4.9 7.8 7.1 8.8 8.4 7.8 4.2 Central

  3. Total.................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day.............................. 8.2 2.9 2.5 1.3 0.5 1.0 2.4 4.6 2 Times A Day........................................... 24.6 6.5 7.0 4.3 3.2 3.6 4.8 10.3 Once a Day................................................ 42.3 8.8 9.8 8.7 5.1 10.0 5.0 12.9 A Few Times Each Week........................... 27.2 5.6 7.2 4.7 3.3 6.3 3.2 7.5 About Once a Week................................... 3.9 1.1 1.1

  4. Total..................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    78.1 64.1 4.2 1.8 2.3 5.7 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment..................... 17.8 11.3 9.3 0.6 Q 0.4 0.9 Have Cooling Equipment................................. 93.3 66.8 54.7 3.6 1.7 1.9 4.8 Use Cooling Equipment.................................. 91.4 65.8 54.0 3.6 1.7 1.9 4.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................. 1.9 1.1 0.8 Q N Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................. 65.9 51.7 43.9 2.5 0.7 1.6 3.1 Without a Heat

  5. Total..................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    33.0 8.0 3.4 5.9 14.4 1.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment..................... 17.8 6.5 1.6 0.9 1.3 2.4 0.2 Have Cooling Equipment................................. 93.3 26.5 6.5 2.5 4.6 12.0 1.0 Use Cooling Equipment.................................. 91.4 25.7 6.3 2.5 4.4 11.7 0.8 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................. 1.9 0.8 Q Q 0.2 0.3 Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................. 65.9 14.1 3.6 1.5 2.1 6.4 0.6 Without a Heat

  6. Total..................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    . 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment..................... 17.8 3.9 1.8 2.2 2.1 3.1 2.6 1.7 0.4 Have Cooling Equipment................................. 93.3 10.8 5.6 10.3 10.4 15.8 16.0 15.6 8.8 Use Cooling Equipment.................................. 91.4 10.6 5.5 10.3 10.3 15.3 15.7 15.3 8.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................. 1.9 Q Q Q Q 0.6 0.4 0.3 Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central

  7. Total...................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    15.2 7.8 1.0 1.2 3.3 1.9 For Two Housing Units............................. 0.9 Q N Q 0.6 N Heat Pump.................................................. 9.2 7.4 0.3 Q 0.7 0.5 Portable Electric Heater............................... 1.6 0.8 Q Q Q 0.3 Other Equipment......................................... 1.9 0.7 Q Q 0.7 Q Fuel Oil........................................................... 7.7 5.5 0.4 0.8 0.9 0.2 Steam or Hot Water System........................ 4.7 2.9 Q 0.7 0.8 N For One Housing

  8. Total...................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................... 65.9 47.5 4.0 2.8 7.9 3.7 Without a Heat Pump.................................. 53.5 37.8 3.4 2.2 7.0 3.1 With a Heat Pump....................................... 12.3 9.7 0.6 0.5 1.0 0.6 Window/Wall Units.......................................... 28.9 14.9 2.3 3.5 6.0 2.1 1 Unit........................................................... 14.5 6.6 1.0 1.6 4.2 1.2 2

  9. Total...................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................. 65.9 47.5 4.0 2.8 7.9 3.7 Without a Heat Pump.................................. 53.5 37.8 3.4 2.2 7.0 3.1 With a Heat Pump....................................... 12.3 9.7 0.6 0.5 1.0 0.6 Window/Wall Units........................................ 28.9 14.9 2.3 3.5 6.0 2.1 1 Unit........................................................... 14.5 6.6 1.0 1.6 4.2 1.2 2

  10. Total....................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Household Size 1 Person.......................................................... 30.0 4.6 2.5 3.7 3.2 5.4 5.5 3.7 1.6 2 Persons......................................................... 34.8 4.3 1.9 4.4 4.1 5.9 5.3 5.5 3.4 3 Persons......................................................... 18.4 2.5 1.3 1.7 1.9 2.9 3.5 2.8 1.6 4 Persons......................................................... 15.9 1.9 0.8 1.5 1.6 3.0 2.5 3.1 1.4 5

  11. Total.......................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0.6 15.1 5.5 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 6.9 5.3 1.6 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 13.7 9.8 3.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 9.3 6.8 2.5 2.................................................................. 16.2 2.9 1.9 1.0 3 or More..................................................... 9.0 1.5 1.1 0.4 Number of Laptop PCs

  12. Total.......................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 8.1 5.6 2.5 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 17.5 12.1 5.4 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 11.9 8.4 3.4 2.................................................................. 16.2 3.5 2.2 1.3 3 or More..................................................... 9.0 2.1 1.5 0.6 Number of Laptop PCs

  13. Total.......................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 6.4 2.2 4.2 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 17.8 5.3 12.5 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 11.0 3.4 7.6 2.................................................................. 16.2 4.4 1.3 3.1 3 or More..................................................... 9.0 2.5 0.7 1.8 Number of Laptop PCs

  14. Total........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.7 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 20.5 25.6 40.3 23.4 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 20.5 25.6 40.1 22.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N Q 0.6 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 11.4 18.4 13.6 14.7 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 6.1

  15. Total........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q N Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 25.6 17.7 7.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 25.6 17.7 7.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 18.4 13.1 5.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 16.2 11.6 4.7 For One Housing

  16. Total........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q N Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 40.3 21.4 6.9 12.0 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 40.1 21.2 6.9 12.0 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 Q Q N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 13.6 5.6 2.3 5.7 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 11.0 4.4

  17. Total........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.2 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 7.1 6.8 7.9 11.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 7.1 6.6 7.9 11.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N Q N 0.5 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 3.8 0.4 3.8 8.4 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 1.8 Q 3.1 6.0

  18. Total...........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0.6 15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................. 17.8 4.0 2.4 1.7 Have Cooling Equipment.......................................... 93.3 16.5 12.8 3.8 Use Cooling Equipment........................................... 91.4 16.3 12.6 3.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it.......................... 1.9 0.3 Q Q Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 6.0 5.2 0.8 Without a Heat

  19. Total...........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................. 17.8 2.1 1.8 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment.......................................... 93.3 23.5 16.0 7.5 Use Cooling Equipment........................................... 91.4 23.4 15.9 7.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it.......................... 1.9 Q Q Q Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 17.3 11.3 6.0 Without a Heat

  20. Total...........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................. 17.8 10.3 3.1 7.3 Have Cooling Equipment.......................................... 93.3 13.9 4.5 9.4 Use Cooling Equipment........................................... 91.4 12.9 4.3 8.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it.......................... 1.9 1.0 Q 0.8 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 10.5 3.9 6.5 Without a Heat

  1. Total.............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 4.0 2.1 1.4 10.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 16.5 23.5 39.3 13.9 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 16.3 23.4 38.9 12.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.3 Q 0.5 1.0 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 6.0 17.3 32.1 10.5 Without a Heat

  2. Total.............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 1.2 1.0 0.2 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 4.0 2.7 1.2 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 7.9 5.4 2.5 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 6.0 4.8 1.2 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.6 0.5 Q Less Than Once a

  3. Total.............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 1.4 1.0 0.4 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 5.8 3.5 2.3 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 10.7 7.8 2.9 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 5.6 4.0 1.6 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.9 0.6 0.3 Less Than Once a

  4. Total.............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 2.1 1.8 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 23.5 16.0 7.5 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 23.4 15.9 7.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 Q Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 17.3 11.3 6.0 Without a Heat

  5. Total.............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 1.4 0.8 0.2 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 39.3 20.9 6.7 11.8 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 38.9 20.7 6.6 11.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.5 Q Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 32.1 17.6 5.2 9.3 Without a Heat

  6. Total.............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 2.6 0.7 1.9 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 6.6 2.0 4.6 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 8.8 2.9 5.8 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 4.7 1.5 3.1 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.7 Q 0.6 Less Than Once a

  7. Total.............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 10.3 3.1 7.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 13.9 4.5 9.4 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 12.9 4.3 8.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 1.0 Q 0.8 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 10.5 3.9 6.5 Without a Heat

  8. Total.............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 8.5 2.7 2.6 4.0 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 38.6 16.2 20.1 18.4 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 37.8 15.9 19.8 18.0 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.4 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 25.8 10.9 16.6 12.5 Without a Heat

  9. Total..............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    20.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................ 17.8 4.0 2.1 1.4 10.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................. 93.3 16.5 23.5 39.3 13.9 Use Cooling Equipment.............................................. 91.4 16.3 23.4 38.9 12.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................. 1.9 0.3 Q 0.5 1.0 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................... 65.9 6.0 17.3 32.1 10.5

  10. Total..............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................ 17.8 1.4 0.8 0.2 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................. 93.3 39.3 20.9 6.7 11.8 Use Cooling Equipment.............................................. 91.4 38.9 20.7 6.6 11.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................. 1.9 0.5 Q Q Q Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................... 65.9 32.1 17.6 5.2 9.3 Without a

  11. Total..............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer .......................... 35.5 3.0 2.0 2.7 3.1 Use a Personal Computer....................................... 75.6 4.2 5.0 5.3 9.0 Number of Desktop PCs 1......................................................................... 50.3 3.1 3.4 3.4 5.4 2......................................................................... 16.2 0.7 1.1 1.2 2.2 3 or More............................................................ 9.0 0.3

  12. Total..............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................ 17.8 8.5 2.7 2.6 4.0 Have Cooling Equipment............................................. 93.3 38.6 16.2 20.1 18.4 Use Cooling Equipment.............................................. 91.4 37.8 15.9 19.8 18.0 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................. 1.9 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.4 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................... 65.9 25.8 10.9 16.6 12.5

  13. Total.................................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................... 17.8 1.8 Q Q 4.9 Have Cooling Equipment................................................ 93.3 5.3 7.0 7.8 7.2 Use Cooling Equipment................................................. 91.4 5.3 7.0 7.7 6.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................... 1.9 Q N Q 0.6 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................................. 65.9 1.1 6.4 6.4 5.4 Without a

  14. Total....................................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 6.9 8.1 14.2 6.4 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 13.7 17.5 26.6 17.8 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 10.4 14.1 20.5 13.7 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 3.3 3.4 6.1 4.1 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  15. Total....................................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 8.1 5.6 2.5 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 17.5 12.1 5.4 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 14.1 10.0 4.0 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 3.4 2.1 1.3 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  16. Total....................................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day................................................. 8.2 3.0 1.6 0.3 1.1 2 Times A Day.............................................................. 24.6 8.3 4.2 1.3 2.7 Once a Day................................................................... 42.3 15.0 8.1 2.7 4.2 A Few Times Each Week............................................. 27.2 10.9 6.0 1.8 3.1 About Once a Week..................................................... 3.9

  17. Total....................................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 14.2 7.2 2.8 4.2 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 26.6 14.5 4.1 7.9 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 20.5 11.0 3.4 6.1 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 6.1 3.5 0.7 1.9 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  18. Total....................................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 6.4 2.2 4.2 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 17.8 5.3 12.5 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 13.7 4.2 9.5 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 4.1 1.1 3.0 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  19. Total....................................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day................................................. 8.2 3.7 1.6 1.4 1.5 2 Times A Day.............................................................. 24.6 10.8 4.1 4.3 5.5 Once a Day................................................................... 42.3 17.0 7.2 8.7 9.3 A Few Times Each Week............................................. 27.2 11.4 4.7 6.4 4.8 About Once a Week.....................................................

  20. Total....................................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    111.1 47.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 16.9 6.5 4.6 7.6 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 30.3 12.5 18.1 14.7 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 22.9 9.8 14.1 11.9 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 7.4 2.7 4.0 2.9 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  1. Total.........................................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ..... 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer...................................... 35.5 3.0 2.0 2.7 3.1 Use a Personal Computer.................................................. 75.6 4.2 5.0 5.3 9.0 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model............................................................. 58.6 3.2 3.9 4.0 6.7 Laptop Model................................................................. 16.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 2.4 Hours Turned on Per Week Less

  2. Photocurrent spectroscopy of exciton and free particle optical transitions in suspended carbon nanotube pn-junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Shun-Wen; Theiss, Jesse; Hazra, Jubin; Aykol, Mehmet; Kapadia, Rehan; Cronin, Stephen B.

    2015-08-03

    We study photocurrent generation in individual, suspended carbon nanotube pn-junction diodes formed by electrostatic doping using two gate electrodes. Photocurrent spectra collected under various electrostatic doping concentrations reveal distinctive behaviors for free particle optical transitions and excitonic transitions. In particular, the photocurrent generated by excitonic transitions exhibits a strong gate doping dependence, while that of the free particle transitions is gate independent. Here, the built-in potential of the pn-junction is required to separate the strongly bound electron-hole pairs of the excitons, while free particle excitations do not require this field-assisted charge separation. We observe a sharp, well defined E{sub 11} free particle interband transition in contrast with previous photocurrent studies. Several steps are taken to ensure that the active charge separating region of these pn-junctions is suspended off the substrate in a suspended region that is substantially longer than the exciton diffusion length and, therefore, the photocurrent does not originate from a Schottky junction. We present a detailed model of the built-in fields in these pn-junctions, which, together with phonon-assistant exciton dissociation, predicts photocurrents on the same order of those observed experimentally.

  3. UTILIZING WATER EMULSIFICATION TO REDUCE NOX AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, Michael D; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Lee, Doh-Won; Huff, Shean P; Storey, John Morse; Swartz, Matthew M; Wagner, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    A key barrier limiting extended utilization of biodiesel is higher NOx emissions compared to petrodiesel fuels. The reason for this effect is unclear, but various researchers have attributed this phenomena to the higher liquid bulk modulus associated with biodiesel and the additional heat released during the breaking of C-C double bonds in the methyl ester groups. In this study water was incorporated into neat biodiesel (B100) as an emulsion in an attempt to lower NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. A biodiesel emulsion containing 10wt% water was formulated and evaluated against an ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) and neat biodiesel (B100) in a light-duty diesel engine operated at 1500RPM and at loads of 68Nm (50ft-lbs) and 102Nm (75ft-lbs). The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was also examined. The incorporation of water was found to significantly lower the NOx emissions of B100, while maintaining fuel efficiency when operating at 0 and 27% EGR. The soot fraction of the particulates (as determined using an opacity meter) was much lower for the B100 and B100-water emulsion compared ULSD. In contrast, total PM mass (for the three fuel types) was unchanged for the 0% EGR condition but was significantly lower for the B100 and B100-emulsion during the 27% EGR condition compared to the ULSD fuel. Analysis of the emissions and heat release data indicate that water enhances air-fuel premixing to maintain fuel economy and lower soot formation. The exhaust chemistry of the biodiesel base fuels (B100 and water-emulsified B100) was found to be unique in that they contained measurable levels of methyl alkenoates, which were not found for the ULSD. These compounds were formed by the partial cracking of the methyl ester groups during combustion.

  4. Carcinogenic effects in A/J mice of particulate of a coal-tar paint used in potable water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.; Laurie, R.D.; Bull, R.J.; Stober, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Coal-tar paints are among the products used as inside coatings for water pipes and storage tanks to retard corrosion in potable water-supply systems. Four different formulations of these paints were tested in earlier work by this laboratory in the Ames mutagenesis and the mouse skin carcinogenesis bioassays(6). The paint most active in these assays was then tested in a particulate form in the lung adenoma assay with A/J mice. The paint was applied to clean glass plates, cured, collected and homogenized in 2% Emulphor. Doses of this coal-tar suspension were administered by gavage at 1.0, 10.0, and 55.0 mg in 0.2 ml per mouse 3 x weekly for 8 weeks. The total doses of coal-tar paint were 24, 240, and 1320 mg/mouse. Benzo(a)pyrene, administered in a parallel schedule to a total dose of 6 mg/mouse, served as positive control. A negative control group received an equivalent volume of 2% Emulphor. Animals were sacrificed at 9 months of age (8 months after first dose) and lung adenomas counted. A dose-related response, in the average number of lung tumors per mouse, was observed with the coal-tar particulate. There were also squamous-cell tumors of the forestomach in 42% of the mice receiving 55.0 mg coal tar paint per application.

  5. Advanced hybrid particulate collector and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Miller, S.J.

    1999-08-17

    A device and method for controlling particulate air pollutants of the present invention combines filtration and electrostatic collection devices. The invention includes a chamber housing a plurality of rows of filter elements. Between each row of filter elements is a grounded plate. Between the grounded plates and the filter elements are electrode grids for creating electrostatic precipitation zones between each row of filter elements. In this way, when the filter elements are cleaned by pulsing air in a reverse direction, the dust removed from the bags will collect in the electrostatic precipitation zones rather than on adjacent filter elements. 12 figs.

  6. Advanced hybrid particulate collector and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J.

    1999-01-01

    A device and method for controlling particulate air pollutants of the present invention combines filtration and electrostatic collection devices. The invention includes a chamber housing a plurality of rows of filter elements. Between each row of filter elements is a grounded plate. Between the grounded plates and the filter elements are electrode grids for creating electrostatic precipitation zones between each row of filter elements. In this way, when the filter elements are cleaned by pulsing air in a reverse direction, the dust removed from the bags will collect in the electrostatic precipitation zones rather than on adjacent filter elements.

  7. Apparatus for removal of particulate matter from gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Peyton L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Morse, John C. (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus for the removal of particulate matter from the gaseous product stream of an entrained flow coal gasifier which apparatus includes an initial screen, an intermediate screen which is aligned with the direction of flow of the gaseous product stream and a final screen transversely disposed to the flow of gaseous product and which apparatus is capable of withstanding at least a pressure differential of about 10 psi (68.95 kPa) or greater at the temperatures of the gaseous product stream.

  8. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  9. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

    2011-08-16

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  10. Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-06-26

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes X zones. An electrical heater includes Y heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A valve assembly includes Z sections that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. A control module adjusts flow through each of the Z sections during regeneration of the PM filter via control of the valve assembly. X, Y and Z are integers.

  11. Zoned electrical heater arranged in spaced relationship from particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-11-15

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  12. Controlled laser production of elongated articles from particulates

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, Raymond D. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Milewski, John O. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2002-01-01

    It has been discovered that wires and small diameter rods can be produced using laser deposition technology in a novel way. An elongated article such as a wire or rod is constructed by melting and depositing particulate material into a deposition zone which has been designed to yield the desired article shape and dimensions. The article is withdrawn from the deposition zone as it is formed, thus enabling formation of the article in a continuous process. Alternatively, the deposition zone is moved along any of numerous deposition paths away from the article being formed.

  13. Side stream separator for boiler particulate emission control

    SciTech Connect

    Skiven, D.A.; Sortor, C.J.; Tessier, R.J.

    1982-02-09

    A device is disclosed for controlling the particulate emission from coal-fired boilers. A cyclone type primary separator between the boiler and the stack and a bag filter is coupled in side stream relation to the cyclone separator such as to shunt and departiculatize up to about 20% of the gas stream entering the cyclone. The shunted gas is drawn from below the tube sheet of the cyclone separator, filtered through the bags and returned to the stack. Means are provided to control the temperature of the shunted gas within defined limits corresponding to the acid dew point of the gas and the thermal degradation temperature of the filter media.

  14. Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2012-02-14

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

  15. Prospecting by sampling and analysis of airborne particulates and gases

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-05-01

    A method is claimed for prospecting by sampling airborne particulates or gases at a ground position and recording wind direction values at the time of sampling. The samples are subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of a desired material or the ratios of the desired material to other identifiable materials in the collected samples. By comparing the measured concentrations or ratios to expected background data in the vicinity sampled, one can select recorded wind directions indicative of the upwind position of the land-based source of the desired material.

  16. Wireless zoned particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Kirby, Kevin W [Calabasas Hills, CA; Phelps, Amanda [Malibu, CA

    2011-10-04

    An assembly includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. An absorbing layer absorbs microwave energy in one of N frequency ranges and is arranged with the upstream end. N is an integer. A frequency selective filter has M frequency selective segments and receives microwave energy in the N frequency ranges. M is an integer. One of the M frequency selective segments permits passage of the microwave energy in one of the N frequency ranges and does not permit passage of microwave energy in the other of the N frequency ranges.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems for GDI Engines

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about particulate...

  18. Real-Time Particulate Mass Measurements Pre and Post Diesel Particulat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Radio Frequency-Based Sensors for Monitoring Diesel Particulate Filter Loading and Regeneration Real-Time Measurement of Diesel Trap ...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems for GDI Engines

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about particulate...

  20. Development of a Sub-Grid Model of a Diesel Particulate Filter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of the lattice-Boltzmann technique Development of a Sub-Grid Model of a Diesel Particulate Filter: application of the lattice-Boltzmann technique 2002 DEER Conference ...

  1. Measuring PM Distribution in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter using a Terahertz Wave Scanner

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Terahertz scanning system produced 3-dimensional image of local PM density in catatalyzed particulate filters tested under loading and oxidizing conditions

  2. MOL.19980331.0174 PARTICULATE MATTEX AMBIENT A I R QUALITY

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    MOL.19980331.0174 PARTICULATE MATTEX AMBIENT A I R QUALITY DATA REPORT FOR 1989 AND 1990 ... Applications International Corporation Technical & Management Support Services Las Vegas, ...

  3. Graphene-based structure, method of suspending graphene membrane, and method of depositing material onto graphene membrane

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Meyer, Jannik Christian

    2013-04-02

    An embodiment of a method of suspending a graphene membrane across a gap in a support structure includes attaching graphene to a substrate. A pre-fabricated support structure having the gap is attached to the graphene. The graphene and the pre-fabricated support structure are then separated from the substrate which leaves the graphene membrane suspended across the gap in the pre-fabricated support structure. An embodiment of a method of depositing material includes placing a support structure having a graphene membrane suspended across a gap under vacuum. A precursor is adsorbed to a surface of the graphene membrane. A portion of the graphene membrane is exposed to a focused electron beam which deposits a material from the precursor onto the graphene membrane. An embodiment of a graphene-based structure includes a support structure having a gap, a graphene membrane suspended across the gap, and a material deposited in a pattern on the graphene membrane.

  4. Country Total Percent of U.S. Total Canada

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Taiwan 60,155 1% Vietnam 361,184 4% All others 1,861,971 19% Total 9,755,831 100% Table 7 . Photovoltaic module import shipments by country, 2015 Note: All Others includes Czech ...

  5. Determination of Total Solids in Biomass and Total Dissolved...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The published moisture loss on drying for sodium tartrate is 15.62% (84.38% total solids). 14.6 Sample size: Determined by sample matrix. 14.7 Sample storage: Samples should be ...

  6. NO2 oxidation reactivity and burning mode of diesel particulates

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Strzelec, Andrea; Vander Wal, Randy L.; Thompson, Thomas N.; Toops, Todd J.; Daw, C. Stuart

    2016-03-24

    The NO2 oxidation kinetics and burning mode for diesel particulate from light-duty and medium-duty engines fueled with either ultra low sulfur diesel or soy methyl ester biodiesel blends have been investigated and are shown to be significantly different from oxidation by O2. Oxidation kinetics were measured using a flow-through packed bed microreactor for temperature programmed reactions and isothermal differential pulsed oxidation reactions. The burning mode was evaluated using the same reactor system for flowing BET specific surface area measurements and HR-TEM with fringe analysis to evaluate the nanostructure of the nascent and partially oxidized particulates. The low activation energy measured,more » specific surface area progression with extent of oxidation, HR-TEM images and difference plots of fringe length and tortuosity paint a consistent picture of higher reactivity for NO2, which reacts indiscriminately immediately upon contact with the surface, leading to the Zone I or shrinking core type oxidation. In comparison, O2 oxidation is shown to have relatively lower reactivity, preferentially attacking highly curved lamella, which are more reactive due to bond strain, and short lamella, which have a higher proportion of more reactive edge sites. Furthermore, this preferential oxidation leads to Zone II type oxidation, where solid phase diffusion of oxygen via pores contributes significantly to slowing the overall oxidation rate, by comparison.« less

  7. Distributor means for charging particulate material into receptacles

    DOEpatents

    Greaves, Melvin J.

    1977-06-14

    Disclosed are receptacles, such as shaft furnaces illustrated by a blast furnace and an upright oil shale retort, embodying rotatable charge distributor means for distributing particulate charge material in the furnace, which charge distributor means can provide a high uniformity of distribution of various sizes of particles and also can provide and maintain a stock line of desired contour and heighth in the receptacle. The distributor means includes a hopper having rigidly fixed to it a plurality of downwardly extending chutes with lower discharge portions that discharge in concentric circular zones at the stock line. The distributor means includes a segmented portion at the juncture of the hopper and the chutes that divides the charge material discharged into the hopper in proportion to the area of the circular zone at the stock line that is fed by the chute. The distributor means embodies means for providing mass flow of the particulate charge material through the chutes to the stock line and for avoiding segregation between larger and smaller particles of charge material deposited at the stock line.

  8. Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect

    SciTech Connect

    Judith C. Chow; John G. Watson; Joe L. Mauderly; Daniel L. Costa; Ronald E. Wyzga; Sverre Vedal; George M. Hidy; Sam L. Altshuler; David Marrack; Jon M. Heuss; George T. Wolff; C. Aden Pope III; Douglas W. Dockery

    2006-10-15

    In the 2006 A&WMA Critical Review on 'Health Effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect' Drs. C. Arden Pope III and Douglas Dockery addressed the epidemiological evidence for the effects of particulate matter (PM) on human health indicators. The review documents substantial progress since the 1997 Critical Review in the areas of: (1) short-term exposure and mortality; (2) long-term exposure and mortality; (3) time scales of exposure; (4) the shape of the concentration-response function; (5) cardiovascular disease; and (6) biological plausibility. This critical review discussion was compiled from written submissions and presentation transcripts, which were revised for conciseness and to minimize redundancy. The invited discussants were as follows were: Dr. Joe L. Mauderly, Dr. Daniel L. Costa, Dr. Ronald E. Wyzga, and Dr. Sverre Vedal. The contributing discussants were: Dr. George M. Hidy, Sam L. Altshuler, Dr. David Marrack, Jon M. Heuss, and Dr. George T. Wolff. See Coal Abstracts entry Sep 2006 00390 for the Critical Review. 80 refs.

  9. Cooler and particulate separator for an off-gas stack

    DOEpatents

    Wright, G.T.

    1991-04-08

    This report describes an off-gas stack for a melter, furnace or reaction vessel comprising an air conduit leading to two sets of holes, one set injecting air into the off-gas stack near the melter plenum and the second set injecting air downstream of the first set. The first set injects air at a compound angle, having both downward and tangential components, to create a reverse vortex flow, counter to the direction of flow of gas through the stack and also along the periphery of the stack interior surface. Air from the first set of holes prevents recirculation zones from forming and the attendant accumulation of particulate deposits on the wall of the stack and will also return to the plenum any particulate swept up in the gas entering the stack. The second set of holes injects air in the same direction as the gas in the stack to compensate for the pressure drop and to prevent the concentration of condensate in the stack. A set of sprayers, receiving water from a second conduit, is located downstream of the second set of holes and sprays water into the gas to further cool it.

  10. Cooler and particulate separator for an off-gas stack

    DOEpatents

    Wright, George T.

    1992-01-01

    An off-gas stack for a melter comprising an air conduit leading to two sets of holes, one set injecting air into the off-gas stack near the melter plenum and the second set injecting air downstream of the first set. The first set injects air at a compound angle, having both downward and tangential components, to create a reverse vortex flow, counter to the direction of flow of gas through the stack and also along the periphery of the stack interior surface. Air from the first set of holes pervents recirculation zones from forming and the attendant accumulation of particulate deposits on the wall of the stack and will also return to the plenum any particulate swept up in the gas entering the stack. The second set of holes injects air in the same direction as the gas in the stack to compensate for the pressure drop and to prevent the concentration of condensate in the stack. A set of sprayers, receiving water from a second conduit, is located downstream of the second set of holes and sprays water into the gas to further cool it.

  11. Exposure assessment approaches to evaluate respiratory health effects of particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Quackenboss, J.J.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-01-01

    Several approaches can be taken to estimate or classify total personal exposures to air pollutants. While personal exposure monitoring (PEM) provides the most direct measurements, it is usually not practical for extended time periods or large populations. This paper describes the use of indirect approaches to estimate total personal exposure for NO2 and particulate matter (PM), summarizes the distributions of these estimates, and compares the effectiveness of these estimates with microenvironmental concentrations for evaluating effects on respiratory function and symptoms. Pollutant concentrations were measured at several indoor and outdoor locations for over 400 households participating in an epidemiological study in Tucson, Arizona. Central site monitoring data were significantly correlated with samples collected directly outside homes, but the former usually had higher pollutant concentrations. Integrated indices of daily total personal exposure were calculated using micro-environmental (ME) measurements or estimates and time-budget diary information. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) were measured for up to four times a day during two-week study periods. In thirty children (ages 6-15 years) with current diagnosed asthma, a significant reduction in PEFR was associated with NO2 levels measured outside of their homes. Additional decrements of morning PEFR were found in those children sleeping in bedrooms with higher measured NO2 levels. Morning and noon PEFR decrements were also linked to higher morning NO2 levels that were measured at central monitoring stations. Effects of PM were also found, but were limited to morning PEFR. No effects were found in non-asthmatic children. The relationship of PEFR to the calculated indices of daily average total exposure were weaker than to the microenvironment concentrations.

  12. TotalView Training 2015

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    TotalView Training 2015 TotalView Training 2015 NERSC will host an in-depth training course on TotalView, a graphical parallel debugger developed by Rogue Wave Software, on Thursday, March 26, 2015. This will be provided by Rogue Wave Software staff members. The training will include a lecture and demo sessions in the morning, followed by a hands-on parallel debugging session in the afternoon. Location This event will be presented online using WebEx technology and in person at NERSC Oakland

  13. Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    and 1994 Vehicle Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 1993 Family Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factor: Less than 5,000 5,000...

  14. ARM - Measurement - Total cloud water

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    cloud water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total cloud water The total concentration (mass/vol) of ice and liquid water particles in a cloud; this includes condensed water content (CWC). Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  15. Resistive heater geometry and regeneration method for a diesel particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Phelps, Amanda; Kirby, Kevin W.; Gregoir, Daniel J.

    2011-10-25

    One embodiment of the invention includes a diesel particulate filter comprising a first face and a second face; a bottom electrode layer formed over the first face of the diesel particulate filter; a middle resistive layer formed over a portion of the bottom electrode layer; and a top electrode layer formed over a portion of the middle resistive layer.

  16. Measuring the mass, density, and size of particles and cells using a suspended microchannel resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Godin, Michel; Bryan, Andrea K.; Burg, Thomas P.; Babcock, Ken; Manalis, Scott R.

    2007-09-17

    We demonstrate the measurement of mass, density, and size of cells and nanoparticles using suspended microchannel resonators. The masses of individual particles are quantified as transient frequency shifts, while the particles transit a microfluidic channel embedded in the resonating cantilever. Mass histograms resulting from these data reveal the distribution of a population of heterogeneously sized particles. Particle density is inferred from measurements made in different carrier fluids since the frequency shift for a particle is proportional to the mass difference relative to the displaced solution. We have characterized the density of polystyrene particles, Escherichia coli, and human red blood cells with a resolution down to 10{sup -4} g/cm{sup 3}.

  17. Dry scrubbing oxides and particulate contaminants from hot gases

    SciTech Connect

    Quee, J. A.; Haak, M. P.

    1985-03-12

    Sulfur dioxides are dry scrubbed from a flue gas by introducing minute droplets containing a liquid, such as water, and an alkali or alkaline reactant, such as lime, into the spray zone in the primary spray drying chamber of a spray dryer and concurrently contacting these droplets with the hot flue gas. The droplets are partially dried to a tacky condition before reaching a foraminous collecting member extending through the primary spray drying chamber and collect on the collecting member as a moist, porous mat. As the flue gas continues to flow through the mat, the mat serves as a filter for removing fly ash and other particulate matter and remaining sulfur oxides react with unreacted particles of the reactant and reactive ingredients of the fly ash particles in the mat.

  18. Fuel Efficient Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Modeling and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Mark L.; Gallant, Thomas R.; Kim, Do Heui; Maupin, Gary D.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2010-08-01

    The project described in this report seeks to promote effective diesel particulate filter technology with minimum fuel penalty by enhancing fundamental understanding of filtration mechanisms through targeted experiments and computer simulations. The overall backpressure of a filtration system depends upon complex interactions of particulate matter and ash with the microscopic pores in filter media. Better characterization of these phenomena is essential for exhaust system optimization. The acicular mullite (ACM) diesel particulate filter substrate is under continuing development by Dow Automotive. ACM is made up of long mullite crystals which intersect to form filter wall framework and protrude from the wall surface into the DPF channels. ACM filters have been demonstrated to effectively remove diesel exhaust particles while maintaining relatively low backpressure. Modeling approaches developed for more conventional ceramic filter materials, such as silicon carbide and cordierite, have been difficult to apply to ACM because of properties arising from its unique microstructure. Penetration of soot into the high-porosity region of projecting crystal structures leads to a somewhat extended depth filtration mode, but with less dramatic increases in pressure drop than are normally observed during depth filtration in cordierite or silicon carbide filters. Another consequence is greater contact between the soot and solid surfaces, which may enhance the action of some catalyst coatings in filter regeneration. The projecting crystals appear to provide a two-fold benefit for maintaining low backpressures during filter loading: they help prevent soot from being forced into the throats of pores in the lower porosity region of the filter wall, and they also tend to support the forming filter cake, resulting in lower average cake density and higher permeability. Other simulations suggest that soot deposits may also tend to form at the tips of projecting crystals due to the axial

  19. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  20. Integrated exhaust and electrically heated particulate filter regeneration systems

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2013-01-08

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes multiple zones. An electrical heater includes heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A post-fuel injection system injects fuel into at least one of a cylinder of an engine and an exhaust system. A control module is configured to operate in a first mode that includes activating the electrical heater to heat exhaust of the engine. The control module is also configured to operate in a second mode that includes activating the post-injection system to heat the exhaust. The control module selectively operates in at least one of the first mode and the second mode.

  1. Kinetic Model Development for the Combustion of Particulate Matter from Conventional and Soy Methyl Ester Diesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Strzelec, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    The primary objective of this research has been to investigate how the oxidation characteristics of diesel particulate matter (PM) are affected by blending soy-based biodiesel fuel with conventional ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. PM produced in a light duty engine from different biodiesel-conventional fuel blends was subjected to a range of physical and chemical measurements in order to better understand the mechanisms by which fuel-related changes to oxidation reactivity are brought about. These observations were then incorporated into a kinetic model to predict PM oxidation. Nanostructure of the fixed carbon was investigated by HR-TEM and showed that particulates from biodiesel had a more open structure than particulates generated from conventional diesel fuel, which was confirmed by BET surface area measurements. Surface area evolution with extent of oxidation reaction was measured for PM from ULSD and biodiesel. Biodiesel particulate has a significantly larger surface area for the first 40% of conversion, at which point the samples become quite similar. Oxidation characteristics of nascent PM and the fixed carbon portion were measured by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and it was noted that increased biodiesel blending lowered the light-off temperature as well as the temperature where the peak rate of oxidation occurred. A shift in the oxidation profiles of all fuels was seen when the mobile carbon fraction was removed, leaving only the fixed carbon, however the trend in temperature advantage of the biofuel blending remained. The mobile carbon fraction was measured by temperature programmed desorption found to generally increase with increasing biodiesel blend level. The relative change in the light-off temperatures for the nascent and fixed carbon samples was found to be related to the fraction of mobile carbon. Effective Arrhenius parameters for fixed carbon oxidation were directly measured with isothermal, differential oxidation experiments

  2. Origin of particulate organic carbon in the marine atmosphere as indicated by it stable carbon isotopic composition

    SciTech Connect

    Chesselet, R.; Fontugne, M.; Buat-Menard, P.; Ezat, U.; Lambert, C.E.

    1981-04-01

    Organic carbon concentration and isotopic composition were determined in samples of atmospheric particulate matter collected in 1979 at remote marine locations (Enewetak atoll, Sargasso Sea) during the SEAREX (Sea-Air Exchange) program field experiments. Atmospheric Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) concentrations were found to be in the range of 0.3 to 1.2 mg. m/sup -3/, in agreement with previous literature data. The major mass of POC was found on the smallest particles (r<0.5 mm). The /sup 13/C//sup 12/C of the small particles is close to the one expected (d/sup 13/C = 26 +- 2/sup 0///sub infinity/) for atmospheric POC of continental origin. For all the samples analysed so far, it appears that more than 80% of atmospheric POC over remote marine areas is of continental origin. This can be explained either by long-range transport of small sized continental organic aserosols or by the production of POC in the marine atmosphere from a vapor phase organic carbon pool of continental origin. The POC in the large size fraction of marine aerosols (<20% of the total concentration) is likely to have a direct marine origin since its carbon isotopic composition is close to the expected value (d/sup 13/C = -21 +- 2/sup 0///sub 00/) for POC associated with sea-salt droplets transported to the marine atmosphere.

  3. Reexamination of Basal Plane Thermal Conductivity of Suspended Graphene Samples Measured by Electro-Thermal Micro-Bridge Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Insun; Pettes, Michael; Lindsay, Lucas R; Ou, Eric; Weathers, Annie; Moore, Arden; Yao, Zhen; Shi, Li

    2015-01-01

    Thermal transport in suspended graphene samples has been measured in prior works and this work with the use of a suspended electro-thermal micro-bridge method. These measurement results are analyzed here to evaluate and eliminate the errors caused by the extrinsic thermal contact resistance. It is noted that the thermal resistance measured in a recent work increases linearly with the suspended length of the single-layer graphene samples synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and that such a feature does not reveal the failure of Fourier s law despite the increase in the apparent thermal conductivity with length. The re-analyzed thermal conductivity of a single-layer CVD graphene sample reaches about ( 1680 180 )Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, which is close to the highest value reported for highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. In comparison, the thermal conductivity values measured for two suspended exfoliated bi-layer graphene samples are about ( 880 60 ) and ( 730 60 ) Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, and approach that of the natural graphite source above room temperature. However, the low-temperature thermal conductivities of these suspended graphene samples are still considerably lower than the graphite values, with the peak thermal conductivities shifted to much higher temperatures. Analysis of the thermal conductivity data reveals that the low temperature behavior is dominated by phonon scattering by polymer residue instead of by the lateral boundary.

  4. Reexamination of Basal Plane Thermal Conductivity of Suspended Graphene Samples Measured by Electro-Thermal Micro-Bridge Methods

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Jo, Insun; Pettes, Michael; Lindsay, Lucas R.; Ou, Eric; Weathers, Annie; Moore, Arden; Yao, Zhen; Shi, Li

    2015-05-18

    Thermal transport in suspended graphene samples has been measured in prior works and this work with the use of a suspended electro-thermal micro-bridge method. These measurement results are analyzed here to evaluate and eliminate the errors caused by the extrinsic thermal contact resistance. It is noted that the thermal resistance measured in a recent work increases linearly with the suspended length of the single-layer graphene samples synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and that such a feature does not reveal the failure of Fourier s law despite the increase in the apparent thermal conductivity with length. The re-analyzed thermal conductivitymore » of a single-layer CVD graphene sample reaches about ( 1680 180 )Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, which is close to the highest value reported for highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. In comparison, the thermal conductivity values measured for two suspended exfoliated bi-layer graphene samples are about ( 880 60 ) and ( 730 60 ) Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, and approach that of the natural graphite source above room temperature. However, the low-temperature thermal conductivities of these suspended graphene samples are still considerably lower than the graphite values, with the peak thermal conductivities shifted to much higher temperatures. Analysis of the thermal conductivity data reveals that the low temperature behavior is dominated by phonon scattering by polymer residue instead of by the lateral boundary.« less

  5. Reexamination of Basal Plane Thermal Conductivity of Suspended Graphene Samples Measured by Electro-Thermal Micro-Bridge Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Insun; Pettes, Michael; Lindsay, Lucas R.; Ou, Eric; Weathers, Annie; Moore, Arden; Yao, Zhen; Shi, Li

    2015-05-18

    Thermal transport in suspended graphene samples has been measured in prior works and this work with the use of a suspended electro-thermal micro-bridge method. These measurement results are analyzed here to evaluate and eliminate the errors caused by the extrinsic thermal contact resistance. It is noted that the thermal resistance measured in a recent work increases linearly with the suspended length of the single-layer graphene samples synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and that such a feature does not reveal the failure of Fourier s law despite the increase in the apparent thermal conductivity with length. The re-analyzed thermal conductivity of a single-layer CVD graphene sample reaches about ( 1680 180 )Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, which is close to the highest value reported for highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. In comparison, the thermal conductivity values measured for two suspended exfoliated bi-layer graphene samples are about ( 880 60 ) and ( 730 60 ) Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, and approach that of the natural graphite source above room temperature. However, the low-temperature thermal conductivities of these suspended graphene samples are still considerably lower than the graphite values, with the peak thermal conductivities shifted to much higher temperatures. Analysis of the thermal conductivity data reveals that the low temperature behavior is dominated by phonon scattering by polymer residue instead of by the lateral boundary.

  6. CATEGORY Total Procurement Total Small Business Small Disadvantaged

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    CATEGORY Total Procurement Total Small Business Small Disadvantaged Business Woman Owned Small Business HubZone Small Business Veteran-Owned Small Business Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Business FY 2013 Dollars Accomplished $1,049,087,940 $562,676,028 $136,485,766 $106,515,229 $12,080,258 $63,473,852 $28,080,960 FY 2013 % Accomplishment 54.40% 13.00% 10.20% 1.20% 6.60% 2.70% FY 2014 Dollars Accomplished $868,961,755 $443,711,175 $92,478,522 $88,633,031 $29,867,820 $43,719,452 $26,826,374

  7. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: ...

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0 New Hampshire - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle ...

  9. Total Number of Operable Refineries

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge

  10. Alternatives to conventional diesel fuel-some potential implications of California's TAC decision on diesel particulate.

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, J. J.; Rote, D. M.; Saricks, C. L.; Stodolsky, F.

    1999-08-10

    Limitations on the use of petroleum-based diesel fuel in California could occur pursuant to the 1998 declaration by California's Air Resources Board (CARB) that the particulate matter component of diesel exhaust is a carcinogen, therefore a toxic air contaminant (TAC) subject to provisions of the state's Proposition 65. It is the declared intention of CARB not to ban or restrict diesel fuel, per se, at this time. Assuming no total ban, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) explored two feasible ''mid-course'' strategies. (1) Increased penetration of natural gas and greater gasoline use in the transportation fuels market, to the extent that some compression-ignition (CI) applications revert to spark-ignition (SI) engines. (2) New specifications requiring diesel fuel reformulation based on exhaust products of individual diesel fuel constituents. Each of these alternatives results in some degree of (conventional) diesel displacement. In the first case, diesel fuel is assumed admissible for ignition assistance as a pilot fuel in natural gas (NG)-powered heavy-duty vehicles, and gasoline demand in California increases by 32.2 million liters per day overall, about 21 percent above projected 2010 baseline demand. Natural gas demand increases by 13.6 million diesel liter equivalents per day, about 7 percent above projected (total) consumption level. In the second case, compression-ignition engines utilize substitutes for petroleum-based diesel having similar ignition and performance properties. For each case we estimated localized air emission plus generalized greenhouse gas and energy changes. Economic implications of vehicle and engine replacement were not evaluated.

  11. A statistical study of the macroepidemiology of air pollution and total mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.; Malone, R.G.; Daum, M.L.; Mendell, N.R.; Yang, Chin-Chun

    1988-04-01

    A statistical analysis of spatial patterns of 1980 US urban total mortality (all causes) was performed, evaluating demographic, socioeconomic and air pollution factors as predictors. Specific mortality predictors included cigarette smoking, drinking water hardness, heating fuel use, and 1978-1982 annual concentrations of the following air pollutants: ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfate aerosol, particulate concentrations of lead, iron, cadmium, manganese, vanadium, as well as total and fine particle mass concentrations from the inhalable particulate network (dichotomous samplers). In addition, estimates of sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and sulfate aerosol were made for each city using the ASTRAP long-range transport diffusion model, and entered into the analysis as independent variables. Because the number of cities with valid air quality and water hardness data varied considerably by pollutant, it was necessary to consider several different data sets, ranging from 48 to 952 cities. The relatively strong associations (ca. 5--10%) shown for 1980 pollution with 1980 total mortality are generally not confirmed by independent studies, for example, in Europe. In addition, the US studies did not find those pollutants with known adverse health effects at the concentrations in question (such as ozone or CO) to be associated with mortality. The question of causality vs. circumstantial association must therefore be regarded as still unresolved. 59 refs., 20 figs., 40 tabs.

  12. Ultrasonic irradiation of deuterium-loaded palladium particles suspended in heavy water

    SciTech Connect

    Jorne, J.

    1996-01-01

    Ultrasonic irradiation of a slurry of deuterium-loaded palladium powder (1 {mu}m) suspended in heavy water causes cavitation and high-speed collisions between the palladium particles. High local temperatures, estimated at above the melting point of palladium (1828 K), cause melting and interparticle fusion. The expectation that such collisions can induce high stresses within the palladium particles and lead to favorable conditions for nuclear cold fusion of the deuterium atoms within the palladium lattice is checked by measuring the neutron rates during ultrasonic irradiation. Several bursts of neutron counting are observed and can be accounted for as background anomalism, although the highest observed neutron rate is about four times the background and cannot be explained as background. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the deuterium-loaded palladium powders reveals that after ultrasonic irradiation in heavy water, the palladium powder becomes partially oxidized and undergoes some compositional changes. 18 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Lateral acoustic wave resonator comprising a suspended membrane of low damping resonator material

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady; , Ihab F.; Ziaei-Moayyed, Maryam; Branch; , Darren W.; Su; Mehmet F.,; Reinke; Charles M.,

    2013-09-03

    A very high-Q, low insertion loss resonator can be achieved by storing many overtone cycles of a lateral acoustic wave (i.e., Lamb wave) in a lithographically defined suspended membrane comprising a low damping resonator material, such as silicon carbide. The high-Q resonator can sets up a Fabry-Perot cavity in a low-damping resonator material using high-reflectivity acoustic end mirrors, which can comprise phononic crystals. The lateral overtone acoustic wave resonator can be electrically transduced by piezoelectric couplers. The resonator Q can be increased without increasing the impedance or insertion loss by storing many cycles or wavelengths in the high-Q resonator material, with much lower damping than the piezoelectric transducer material.

  14. Cost-effective particulate control options at Potomac Electric Power Company's Dickerson Station: An integrated approach to current and future particulate limits

    SciTech Connect

    Christoffersen, S.W.; Rouse, G.T.; Krasnopoler, M.J.; Chapowski, J.A.

    1998-07-01

    The Dickerson Generating Station evaluated several particulate control options to identify the most cost-effective option. The study's goals were to: eliminate the particulate scrubber and its high maintenance costs, and incorporate flexibility for low-sulfur coal and possible stricter emission limits. Each of the three Dickerson 190 MW units has a small 37-year-old electrostatic precipitator and a wet particulate scrubber. The study evaluated alternatives to replace the scrubber and enhance ESP performance: Existing ESP alternatives--Extend height of existing ESP; Flue gas conditioning. Scrubber stream alternatives--Partial-flow ESP or pulse jet baghouse. Full-flow alternatives--Supplemental ESP; COHPAC baghouse; replacement ESP or baghouse. A technical and economic prescreening eliminated some of the options. Capital, operating, and life cycle costs were estimated for the remaining options to determine the most cost-effective alternative. This paper will present the technical and economic evaluations done for this study, including performance and costs.

  15. Design Storm for Total Retention.pdf

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Title: Design Storm for "Total Retention" under Individual Permit, Poster, Individual ... International. Environmental Programs Design Storm for "Total Retention" under ...

  16. U.S. Total Imports

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    St. Clair, MI International Falls, MN Noyes, MN Warroad, MN Babb, MT Havre, MT Port of Del Bonita, MT Port of Morgan, MT Sweetgrass, MT Whitlash, MT Portal, ND Sherwood, ND Pittsburg, NH Champlain, NY Grand Island, NY Massena, NY Niagara Falls, NY Waddington, NY Sumas, WA Highgate Springs, VT North Troy, VT U.S. Pipeline Total from Mexico Ogilby, CA Otay Mesa, CA Alamo, TX El Paso, TX Galvan Ranch, TX Hidalgo, TX McAllen, TX Penitas, TX LNG Imports from Algeria Cove Point, MD Everett, MA Lake

  17. fundamental Modeling and Experimental Studies of Acicular Mullite Diesel Particulate Filters

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pore-scale simulations of filtration and regeneration in acicular muillite diesel particulate filters have suggested underlying mechanisms that contribute to lower back pressures compared to other common DPF substrates.

  18. Engine-External HC-Dosing for Regeneration of Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Engine-External HC-Dosing for Regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filters for Heavy Duty and NRMM According to Annex XXVII StVZO Engine-External HC-Dosing for Regeneration of Diesel ...

  19. Monitoring and Control of Alkali Volatilization and Batch Carryover for Minimization of Particulates and Crown Corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    2001-01-01

    New Technology will Allow Glass Manufacturers to Optimize Furnace Conditions. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is a continuous monitoring technique that glass manufacturers can use to reduce particulate matter emissions and extend furnace life.

  20. On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Matt; Matthews, Ron

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the research was to refine and complete development of an on-board particulate matter (PM) sensor for diesel, DISI, and HCCI engines, bringing it to a point where it could be commercialized and marketed.

  1. Catalytic fabric filtration for simultaneous NO{sub x} and particulate control. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G.F.; Dunham, G.E.; Laudal, D.L.; Ness, S.R.; Schelkoph, G.L.

    1994-08-01

    The overall objective of the project proposed was to evaluate the catalyst-coated fabric filter concept for effective control of NO{sub 2} and particulate emissions simultaneously. General goals included demonstrating high removal efficiency of NO{sub x} and particulate matter, acceptable bag and catalyst life, and that process economics show a significant cost savings in comparison to a commercial SCR process and conventional particulate control. Specific goals included the following: reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 60 ppM or less; demonstrate particulate removal efficiency of >99.5%; demonstrate a bag/catalyst life of >1 year; Control ammonia slip to <25 ppM; show that catalytic fabric filtration can achieve a 50% cost savings over conventional fabric filtration and SCR control technology; determine compatibility with S0{sub 2} removal systems; and show that the concept results in a nonhazardous waste product.

  2. Characterization of particulate matter deposited in diesel particulate filters: Visual and analytical approach in macro-, micro- and nano-scales

    SciTech Connect

    Liati, Anthi; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis

    2010-09-15

    Multi-scale analytical investigations of particulate matter (soot and ash) of two loaded diesel particulate filters (DPF) from (a) a truck (DPF1) and (b) a passenger car (DPF2) reveal the following: in DPF1 (without fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 130-270 {mu}m thick, homogeneous porous cake with pronounced orientation. Soot aggregates consist of 15-30 nm large individual particles exhibiting relatively mature internal nanostructures, however, far from being graphite. Ash aggregates largely accumulate at the outlet part of DPF1, while minor amounts are deposited directly on the channel walls all along the filter length. They consist of crystalline phases with individual particles of sizes down to the nanoscale range. Chemically, the ash consists mainly of Mg, S, Ca, Zn and P, elements encountered in lubricating oil additives. In the passenger car DPF2 (with fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 200-500 {mu}m thick, inhomogeneous porous cake consisting of several superposed layers corresponding to different soot generations. The largest part of the soot cake is composed of unburned, oriented soot aggregates left behind despite repeated regenerations, while a small part constitutes a loose layer with randomly oriented aggregates, which was deposited last and has not seen any regeneration. Fe-oxide particles of micro- to nano-scale sizes, originating from the fuel-borne additive, are often dispersed within the part of the soot cake composed of the unburned soot leftovers. The individual soot nanoparticles in DPF2 are approximately 15-40 nm large and generally less mature than in the truck DPF1. The presence of soot leftovers in DPF2 indicates that the addition of fuel-borne material does not fully compensate for the temperatures needed for complete soot removal. Ash in DPF2 is filling up more than half of the filter volume (at the downstream part) and is dominated by Fe-oxide aggregates, due to the Fe-based fuel

  3. Solar total energy project Shenandoah

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-10

    This document presents the description of the final design for the Solar Total Energy System (STES) to be installed at the Shenandoah, Georgia, site for utilization by the Bleyle knitwear plant. The system is a fully cascaded total energy system design featuring high temperature paraboloidal dish solar collectors with a 235 concentration ratio, a steam Rankine cycle power conversion system capable of supplying 100 to 400 kW(e) output with an intermediate process steam take-off point, and a back pressure condenser for heating and cooling. The design also includes an integrated control system employing the supervisory control concept to allow maximum experimental flexibility. The system design criteria and requirements are presented including the performance criteria and operating requirements, environmental conditions of operation; interface requirements with the Bleyle plant and the Georgia Power Company lines; maintenance, reliability, and testing requirements; health and safety requirements; and other applicable ordinances and codes. The major subsystems of the STES are described including the Solar Collection Subysystem (SCS), the Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS), the Thermal Utilization Subsystem (TUS), the Control and Instrumentation Subsystem (CAIS), and the Electrical Subsystem (ES). Each of these sections include design criteria and operational requirements specific to the subsystem, including interface requirements with the other subsystems, maintenance and reliability requirements, and testing and acceptance criteria. (WHK)

  4. Optical backscatter probe for sensing particulate in a combustion gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Parks, James E; Partridge, William P

    2013-05-28

    A system for sensing particulate in a combustion gas stream is disclosed. The system transmits light into a combustion gas stream, and thereafter detects a portion of the transmitted light as scattered light in an amount corresponding to the amount of particulates in the emissions. Purge gas may be supplied adjacent the light supply and the detector to reduce particles in the emissions from coating or otherwise compromising the transmission of light into the emissions and recovery of scattered light from the emissions.

  5. Measurement and speciation of gas and particulate phase organic acids in an urban environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.; Koutrakis, P.

    1994-12-31

    Organic acids are important contributors to ambient acidity, in both gas and particulate phase. Particulate phase organic acids represent an important fraction of organic particulate matter. This paper presents the results of a field study conducted in Philadelphia, PA, during the summer of 1992, to measure the concentrations of gas and particulate phase organic acids. Formic acid was found to be the most abundant gas phase organic acid, with acetic and propionic acids detected at lower concentrations. Organic acids constituted approximately 5% of the particulate fine mass, whereas sulfate and ammonium constituted 40% and 15%, respectively. Dicarboxylic acids and even-carbon monocarboxylic acids were found to account for a large fraction of particulate weak acidity; odd-carbon monocarboxylic acids accounted for a very small fraction. The pronounced even carbon preference of the monocarboxylic acid distribution suggests a biogenic origin; the dicarboxylic acid distribution may suggest that primary emission is more important than photochemical production. This paper discusses the measurement and analytical techniques used in this study and the chemistry and origins of organic acids.

  6. Total quality management implementation guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    These Guidelines were designed by the Energy Quality Council to help managers and supervisors in the Department of Energy Complex bring Total Quality Management to their organizations. Because the Department is composed of a rich mixture of diverse organizations, each with its own distinctive culture and quality history, these Guidelines are intended to be adapted by users to meet the particular needs of their organizations. For example, for organizations that are well along on their quality journeys and may already have achieved quality results, these Guidelines will provide a consistent methodology and terminology reference to foster their alignment with the overall Energy quality initiative. For organizations that are just beginning their quality journeys, these Guidelines will serve as a startup manual on quality principles applied in the Energy context.

  7. Total Imports of Residual Fuel

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. Total 133,646 119,888 93,672 82,173 63,294 69,914 1936-2015 PAD District 1 88,999 79,188 59,594 33,566 30,944 34,524 1981-2015 Connecticut 220 129 1995-2015 Delaware 748 1,704 510 1,604 2,479 1995-2015 Florida 15,713 11,654 10,589 8,331 5,055 7,198 1995-2015 Georgia 5,648 7,668 6,370 4,038 2,037 1,629 1995-2015 Maine 1,304 651 419 75 317 135 1995-2015 Maryland 3,638 1,779 1,238 433 938 589 1995-2015 Massachusetts 123 50 78 542 88 1995-2015 New

  8. Total Imports of Residual Fuel

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History U.S. Total 8,596 6,340 4,707 8,092 8,512 8,017 1936-2016 PAD District 1 2,694 1,250 1,327 2,980 2,074 3,566 1981-2016 Connecticut 1995-2015 Delaware 280 231 385 1995-2016 Florida 800 200 531 499 765 1995-2016 Georgia 149 106 1995-2016 Maine 1995-2015 Maryland 84 66 1995-2016 Massachusetts 1995-2015 New Hampshire 1995-2015 New Jersey 1,073 734 355 1,984 399 1,501 1995-2016 New York 210 196 175 1,223 653 1995-2016 North Carolina 1995-2011

  9. Total quality management program planning

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, P.T.; Spence, K.

    1994-05-01

    As government funding grows scarce, competition between the national laboratories is increasing dramatically. In this era of tougher competition, there is no for resistance to change. There must instead be a uniform commitment to improving the overall quality of our products (research and technology) and an increased focus on our customers` needs. There has been an ongoing effort to bring the principles of total quality management (TQM) to all Energy Systems employees to help them better prepare for future changes while responding to the pressures on federal budgets. The need exists for instituting a vigorous program of education and training to an understanding of the techniques needed to improve and initiate a change in organizational culture. The TQM facilitator is responsible for educating the work force on the benefits of self-managed work teams, designing a program of instruction for implementation, and thus getting TQM off the ground at the worker and first-line supervisory levels so that the benefits can flow back up. This program plan presents a conceptual model for TQM in the form of a hot air balloon. In this model, there are numerous factors which can individually and collectively impede the progress of TQM within the division and the Laboratory. When these factors are addressed and corrected, the benefits of TQM become more visible. As this occurs, it is hoped that workers and management alike will grasp the ``total quality`` concept as an acceptable agent for change and continual improvement. TQM can then rise to the occasion and take its rightful place as an integral and valid step in the Laboratory`s formula for survival.

  10. Total-derivative supersymmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Haba, Naoyuki; Uekusa, Nobuhiro

    2010-05-15

    On an interval compactification in supersymmetric theory, boundary conditions for bulk fields must be treated carefully. If they are taken arbitrarily following the requirement that a theory is supersymmetric, the conditions could give redundant constraints on the theory. We construct a supersymmetric action integral on an interval by introducing brane interactions with which total-derivative terms under the supersymmetry transformation become zero due to a cancellation. The variational principle leads equations of motion and also boundary conditions for bulk fields, which determine boundary values of bulk fields. By estimating mass spectrum, spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in this simple setup can be realized in a new framework. This supersymmetry breaking does not induce a massless R axion, which is favorable for phenomenology. It is worth noting that fermions in hyper-multiplet, gauge bosons, and the fifth-dimensional component of gauge bosons can have zero-modes (while the other components are all massive as Kaluza-Klein modes), which fits the gauge-Higgs unification scenarios.

  11. Sizes, graphitic structures and fractal geometry of light-duty diesel engine particulates.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K. O.; Zhu, J.; Ciatti, S.; Choi, M. Y.; Energy Systems; Drexel Univ.

    2003-01-01

    The particulate matter of a light-duty diesel engine was characterized in its morphology, sizes, internal microstructures, and fractal geometry. A thermophoretic sampling system was employed to collect particulates directly from the exhaust manifold of a 1.7-liter turbocharged common-rail direct-injection diesel engine. The particulate samples collected at various engine-operating conditions were then analyzed by using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an image processing/data acquisition system. Results showed that mean primary particle diameters (dp), and radii of gyration (Rg), ranged from 19.4 nm to 32.5 nm and 77.4 nm to 134.1 nm, respectively, through the entire engine-operating conditions of 675 rpm (idling) to 4000 rpm and 0% to 100% loads. It was also revealed that the other important parameters sensitive to the particulate formation, such as exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) rate, equivalence ratio, and temperature, affected particle sizes significantly. Bigger primary particles were measured at higher EGR rates, higher equivalence ratios (fuel-rich), and lower exhaust temperatures. Fractal dimensions (D{sup f}) were measured at a range of 1.5 - 1.7, which are smaller than those measured for heavy-duty direct-injection diesel engine particulates in our previous study. This finding implies that the light-duty diesel engine used in this study produces more stretched chain-like shape particles, while the heavy-duty diesel engine emits more spherical particles. The microstructures of diesel particulates were observed at high TEM magnifications and further analyzed by a Raman spectroscope. Raman spectra revealed an atomic structure of the particulates produced at high engine loads, which is similar to that of typical graphite.

  12. Probing excitonic states in suspended two-dimensional semiconductors by photocurrent spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Klots, A. R.; Newaz, A. K. M.; Wang, Bin; Prasai, D.; Krzyzanowska, H.; Lin, Junhao; Caudel, D.; Ghimire, N. J.; Yan, J.; Ivanov, B. L.; Velizhanin, K. A.; Burger, A.; Mandrus, D. G.; Tolk, N. H.; Pantelides, S. T.; Bolotin, K. I.

    2014-10-16

    The optical response of semiconducting monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) is dominated by strongly bound excitons that are stable even at room temperature. However, substrate-related effects such as screening and disorder in currently available specimens mask many anticipated physical phenomena and limit device applications of TMDCs. Here, we demonstrate that that these undesirable effects are strongly suppressed in suspended devices. Extremely robust (photogain > 1,000) and fast (response time < 1 ms) photoresponse allow us to study, for the first time, the formation, binding energies, and dissociation mechanisms of excitons in TMDCs through photocurrent spectroscopy. By analyzing the spectral positions of peaks in the photocurrent and by comparing them with first-principles calculations, we obtain binding energies, band gaps and spin-orbit splitting in monolayer TMDCs. For monolayer MoS2, in particular, we obtain an extremely large binding energy for band-edge excitons, Ebind ≥ 570 meV. Along with band-edge excitons, we observe excitons associated with a van Hove singularity of rather unique nature. In conclusion, the analysis of the source-drain voltage dependence of photocurrent spectra reveals exciton dissociation and photoconversion mechanisms in TMDCs.

  13. Probing excitonic states in suspended two-dimensional semiconductors by photocurrent spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Klots, A. R.; Newaz, A. K. M.; Wang, Bin; Prasai, D.; Krzyzanowska, H.; Lin, Junhao; Caudel, D.; Ghimire, N. J.; Yan, J.; Ivanov, B. L.; et al

    2014-10-16

    The optical response of semiconducting monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) is dominated by strongly bound excitons that are stable even at room temperature. However, substrate-related effects such as screening and disorder in currently available specimens mask many anticipated physical phenomena and limit device applications of TMDCs. Here, we demonstrate that that these undesirable effects are strongly suppressed in suspended devices. Extremely robust (photogain > 1,000) and fast (response time < 1 ms) photoresponse allow us to study, for the first time, the formation, binding energies, and dissociation mechanisms of excitons in TMDCs through photocurrent spectroscopy. By analyzing the spectral positions ofmore » peaks in the photocurrent and by comparing them with first-principles calculations, we obtain binding energies, band gaps and spin-orbit splitting in monolayer TMDCs. For monolayer MoS2, in particular, we obtain an extremely large binding energy for band-edge excitons, Ebind ≥ 570 meV. Along with band-edge excitons, we observe excitons associated with a van Hove singularity of rather unique nature. In conclusion, the analysis of the source-drain voltage dependence of photocurrent spectra reveals exciton dissociation and photoconversion mechanisms in TMDCs.« less

  14. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)" ...

  15. ,"Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ... "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports" ...

  16. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing...

  17. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Total Working Gas Capacity Total Number of Existing Fields Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources ...

  18. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  19. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  20. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  1. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  2. Development of Metal Substrate for Denox Catalysts and Particulate Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, Michael; Habeger, Craig; Frary, Megan; Haines, Scott; Fluharty, Amy; Dakhoul, Youssef; Carr, Michael; Park, Paul; Stefanick, Matthew; DaCosta, Herbert; Balmer-Millar, M Lou; Readey, Michael; McCluskey, Philip

    2005-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop advanced metallic catalyst substrate materials and designs for use in off-highway applications. The new materials and designs will be used as catalyst substrates and diesel particulate traps. They will increase durability, reduce flow resistance, decrease time to light-off, and reduce cost relative to cordierite substrates. Metallic catalyst substrates are used extensively for diesel oxidation catalysts and have the potential to be used in other catalytic systems for diesel engines. Metallic substrates have many advantages over ceramic materials including improved durability and resistance to thermal shock and vibration. However, the cost is generally higher than cordierite. The most common foil material used for metallic substrates is FeCr Alloy, which is expensive and has temperature capabilities beyond what is necessary for diesel applications. The first task in the project was Identification and Testing of New Materials. In this task, several materials were analyzed to determine if a low cost substitute for FeCr Alloy was available or could be developed. Two materials were identified as having lower cost while showing no decrease in mechanical properties or oxidation resistance at the application temperatures. Also, the ability to fabricate these materials into a finished substrate was not compromised, and the ability to washcoat these materials was satisfactory. Therefore, both candidate materials were recommended for cost savings depending on which would be less expensive in production quantities. The second task dealt with the use of novel flow designs to improve the converter efficiency while possibly decreasing the size of the converter to reduce cost even more. A non-linear flow path was simulated to determine if there would be an increase in efficiency. From there, small samples were produced for bench testing. Bench tests showed that the use of non-linear channels significantly reduced the light

  3. Development of a Low-Cost Particulate Matter Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    White, Richard M.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Black, Justin

    2008-08-01

    We describe a small, inexpensive portable monitor for airborne particulates, composed of the following elements: a. A simple size-selective inlet (vertical elutriator) that permits only particles below a pre-set diameter to pass and enter the measurement section; b. A measurement section in which passing particles are deposited thermophoretically on a micro-fabricated resonant piezoelectric mass sensor; c. An optical characterization module co-located with the mass sensor module that directs infrared and ultraviolet beams through the deposit. The emergent optical beams are detected by a photodiode. The optical absorption of the deposit can be measured in order to characterize the deposit, and determine how much is due to diesel exhaust and/or environmental tobacco smoke; and d. A small pump that moves air through the device, which may also be operated in a passive mode. The component modules were designed by the project team, and fabricated at UCB andLBNL. Testing and validation were performed in a room-sized environmental chamber at LBNL in to which was added either environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, produced by a cigarette smoking machine) or diesel exhaust (from a conventional diesel engine). Two pilot field tests in a dwelling compared the monitor with existing aerosol instruments during exposure to infiltrated ambient air to which cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, wood smoke and cooking fumes were added. The limit of detection (LOD) derived from statistical analysis of field data is 18 mu g m-3, at the 99percent confidence level. The monitor weighs less than 120 g and has a volume of roughly 250 cm3. Power consumption is approximately 100 milliwatts. During this study, the optical component of the device was not fully implemented and has been left for future efforts. Suggested improvements in the current prototype include use of integrated thermal correction, reconfiguration of the resonator for increased particle collection area, increased thermophoretic

  4. Advances in controlling particulate emissions from fossil-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.

    1995-12-31

    Present and possible future Federal, state, and local air pollutant emission regulations coupled with an increasingly competitive business environment and the aging of existing particulate control equipment are motivating utilities to improve particulate control system effectiveness and reduce control cost. To these ends, several cost-effective means of improving particulate control are being developed and tested. Three fossil plant retrofit technologies of note include two flue gas conditioning systems--one ``agentless`` arrangement that uses the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas as the raw material for an SO{sub 3} conditioning system, and a promising new additive that has performed well in laboratory and pilot-scale tests. A second retrofit technology supplements all or most of the existing electrostatic precipitator with a pulse-jet baghouse. A third approach described in this paper is one example of a new class of advanced filtration systems, some of which can remove NO{sub x} and particulate in the same vessel. Technologies like these will enable utilities to boost particulate removal effectiveness after switching to lower-sulfur coal for Clean Air Act compliance, minimize compliance costs, and optimally position themselves for possible further emission regulations.

  5. Plasma regenerated particulate trap and NO.sub.x reduction system

    DOEpatents

    Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Vogtlin, George E.; Merritt, Bernard T.; Brusasco, Raymond M.

    2000-01-01

    A non-catalytic two-stage process for removal of NO.sub.x and particulates from engine exhaust comprises a first stage that plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, and a second stage, which preferably occurs simultaneously with the first stage, that converts NO.sub.2 and carbon soot particles to respective environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2 and CO.sub.2. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced while carbon soot from trapped particulates is simultaneously converted to CO.sub.2 when reacting with the NO.sub.2 (that converts to N.sub.2). For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a chamber where carbon-containing particulates are electrostatically trapped or filtered and a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. Volatile hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) from the trapped particulates are oxidized in the plasma and the remaining soot from the particulates reacts with the NO.sub.2 to convert NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, and the soot to CO.sub.2. The nitrogen exhaust components remain in the gas phase throughout the process, with no accompanying adsorption.

  6. Investigations of release phenomenon of volatile organic compounds and particulates from residual storage chip piles

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, S.; Nagarkatti, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper outlines the method for estimating Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emissions from wood handling and storage operations at a pulp mill. Fugitive particulate matter emissions from wood handling and storage operations are due to material load/dropout operations, wind erosion from storage piles and vehicular traffic on paved roads. The particulate matter emissions are a function of a number of variables like windspeed, surface moisture content, material silt content, and number of days of precipitation. Literature review attributes VOC emissions to biological, microbiological, chemical, and physical processes occurring in wood material storage pile. The VOC emissions are from the surface of these piles and the VOC released during retrieval of chips from the pile. VOC emissions are based on the chip throughput, number of turnovers, moisture content and surface area of the pile. The emission factors with the requisite calculation methodology to be utilized for quantifying VOC emissions from chip piles has been discussed in this paper.

  7. Impact of Biodiesel on the Oxidation Kinetics and Morphology of Diesel Particulate

    SciTech Connect

    Strzelec, Andrea; Toops, Todd J; Daw, C Stuart

    2011-01-01

    We compare the oxidation characteristics of four different diesel particulates generated with a modern light-duty engine. The four particulates represent engine fueling with conventional ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), biodiesel, and two intermediate blends of these fuels. The comparisons discussed here are based on complementary measurements implemented in a laboratory micro-reactor, including temperature programmed desorption and oxidation, pulsed isothermal oxidation, and BET surface area. From these measurements we have derived models that are consistent with the observed oxidation reactivity differences. When accessible surface area effects are properly accounted for, the oxidation kinetics of the fixed carbon components were found to consistently exhibit an Arrhenius activation energy of 113 6 kJ/mol. Release of volatile carbon from the as-collected particulate appears to follow a temperaturedependent rate law.

  8. Apparatus for real-time airborne particulate radionuclide collection and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Smart, John E.; Perkins, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    An improved apparatus for collecting and analyzing an airborne particulate radionuclide having a filter mounted in a housing, the housing having an air inlet upstream of the filter and an air outlet downstream of the filter, wherein an air stream flows therethrough. The air inlet receives the air stream, the filter collects the airborne particulate radionuclide and permits a filtered air stream to pass through the air outlet. The improvement which permits real time counting is a gamma detecting germanium diode mounted downstream of the filter in the filtered air stream. The gamma detecting germanium diode is spaced apart from a downstream side of the filter a minimum distance for a substantially maximum counting detection while permitting substantially free air flow through the filter and uniform particulate radionuclide deposition on the filter.

  9. Comparison of glucose fermentation by suspended and gel-entrapped yeast cells: An in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance study

    SciTech Connect

    Taipa, M.A.; Cabral, J.M.S. Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisboa ); Santos, H. U.N.L., Monte de Caparica )

    1993-03-15

    Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ([sup 31]P NMR) was used to compare the anaerobic metabolism of glucose by suspended and gel-entrapped Saccaromyces bayanus cells. The fermentation of glucose was carried out in a reaction system with continuous circulation through the NMR sample tube. The intracellular pH and the levels of some phosphorylated compounds were noninvasively monitored by [sup 31]P NMR while glucose, fermentation products, and biomass were determined by analytical techniques. Qualitative comparisons showed that no significant differences are observed in the relative concentrations of the major phosphorylated metabolites in the spectra, but distinct profile for the variation of both intracellular and extracellular pH of immobilized cells is maintained at a constant value throughout the fermentation as opposed to freely suspended cells for which a steady decrease in the internal pH occurs. A faster and stronger acidification is also observed in the external medium of the assays with suspended cells. Furthermore, higher yields for ethanol and biomass production and lower yields of fermentation by-products are obtained with immobilized cells. It is concluded that the higher intracellular pH achieved in the presence of the gel matrix had a regulatory effect on the metabolism which favored the ethanol production pathway.

  10. Method for the Removal of Ultrafine Particulates from an Aqueous Suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, David J.; Kopasz, John P.; Ellison, Adam J.G.

    1999-03-05

    A method of separating ultra-fine particulate from an aqueous suspension such as a process stream or a waste stream. The method involves the addition of alkali silicate and an organic gelling agent to a volume of liquid, from the respective process or waste stream, to form a gel. The gel then undergoes syneresis to remove water and soluble salts from the gel-containing the particulate, thus, forming a silica monolith. The silica monolith is then sintered to form a hard, nonporous waste form.

  11. Method for the removal of ultrafine particulates from an aqueous suspension

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J. (Naperville, IL); Kopasz, John P. (Bolingbrook, IL); Ellison, Adam J. G. (Corning, NY)

    2000-01-01

    A method of separating ultra-fine particulates from an aqueous suspension such as a process stream or a waste stream. The method involves the addition of alkali silicate and an organic gelling agent to a volume of liquid, from the respective process or waste stream, to form a gel. The gel then undergoes syneresis to remove water and soluble salts from the gel containing the particulates, thus, forming a silica monolith. The silica monolith is then sintered to form a hard, nonporous waste form.

  12. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 634 578 46 1 Q 116.4 106.3...

  13. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 Delaware - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S8. Summary statistics for natural gas - Delaware, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals

  14. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 Massachusetts - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S23. Summary statistics for natural gas - Massachusetts, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross

  15. Total System Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Peer Review Panel for predicting the performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain.

  16. Methods of hydrolyzing pretreated densified biomass particulates and systems related thereto

    DOEpatents

    Bals, Bryan; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Campbell, Tim; Dale, Bruce

    2015-02-03

    A method is provided in which pretreated and densified cellulosic biomass particulates can be hydrolyzed at a high solids loading rate as compared with the solids loading rate of loose hydrolysable cellulosic biomass fibers. The resulting high concentration sugar-containing stream can be easily converted to biofuels or an entire suite of other useful bioproducts.

  17. Controlling particulates, temperature, and tritium in an inert glovebox for a weapons program

    SciTech Connect

    Purson, J.D.; Powers, D.; Walthers, C.; Navarro, C.; Newman, E.; Romero, J.; Jenkins, R.

    1996-07-01

    A glovebox is described in which several environmental parameters are controlled and monitored. Included in these are particulate, tritium, water vapor, oxygen and temperature. The paper details the design rationale and process and describes the glovebox, presently in use for neutron generator production.

  18. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J

    2008-05-01

    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

  19. Performance of electrostatic precipitators and fabric filter particulate controls on oil-fired electric utility boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McRanie, R.D.; Baker, S.S. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    Of the 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) listed in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, 11 are metals commonly found in particulate emissions from oil-fired boilers. In light of the potential future need for additional control of particulate emissions from oil-fired units, a white paper was prepared documenting the extent of particulate and HAPs emissions and the state-of-the-art in the use of electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter (FF) technologies to control their emissions from oil-fired boilers. The white paper is based on EPRI research on particulate emissions from oil-fired boilers and a survey of ESP and FF manufacturers. The EPRI ESPM{trademark} performance model was used to estimate the particulate control effectiveness of oil-fired ESPs. The white paper describes the characteristics of oil ash, summarizes particulate and HAPs emission rates for oil-fired boilers, and projects the particulate and HAPs removal effectiveness for baghouses and different sized ESPs. Information on oil-fired ESP operation and maintenance requirements and overall costs is included.

  20. TOKIO: Total Knowledge of I/O

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    TOKIO: Total Knowledge of I/O TOKIO: Total Knowledge of I/O The Total Knowledge of I/O (TOKIO) project is developing algorithms and a software framework that collects and correlates I/O workload data from production HPC resources at multiple system levels to provide a dramatically clearer view of system behavior, and the causes of behavior, to application scientists, facility operators and computer science researchers in the field. TOKIO is a collaboration between the Lawrence Berkeley and

  1. Total Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Military Off-Highway All Other Period: Annual Download Series ...

  2. Total Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Military Off-Highway All Other Period: Annual Download Series ...

  3. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Capacity Salt Caverns Storage Capacity Aquifers Storage Capacity Depleted Fields Storage Capacity Total Working Gas Capacity Working Gas Capacity of Salt Caverns Working...

  4. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0 Alabama - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S1. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alabama, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 346 367 402 436 414 Gas Wells R 6,243 R 6,203 R 6,174 R 6,117 6,044 Production

  5. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2 Alaska - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S2. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alaska, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 2,040 1,981 2,006 2,042 2,096 Gas Wells R 274 R 281 R 300 R 338 329 Production

  6. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0 Colorado - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S6. Summary statistics for natural gas - Colorado, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 5,963 6,456 6,799 7,771 7,733 Gas Wells R 43,792 R 46,141 R 46,883 R 46,876

  7. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6 District of Columbia - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S9. Summary statistics for natural gas - District of Columbia, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 Hawaii - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S13. Summary statistics for natural gas - Hawaii, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From

  9. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6 Idaho - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S14. Summary statistics for natural gas - Idaho, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From

  10. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    20 Maine - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S21. Summary statistics for natural gas - Maine, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From

  11. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0 Mississippi - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S26. Summary statistics for natural gas - Mississippi, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 561 618 581 540 501 Gas Wells R 1,703 R 1,666 R 1,632 R 1,594 1,560

  12. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 Montana - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S28. Summary statistics for natural gas - Montana, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 1,956 2,147 2,268 2,377 2,277 Gas Wells R 6,615 R 6,366 R 5,870 R 5,682 5,655

  13. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 New Mexico - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S33. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Mexico, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 12,887 13,791 14,171 14,814 14,580 Gas Wells R 40,231 R 40,441 R 40,119 R

  14. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6 New York - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S34. Summary statistics for natural gas - New York, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 988 1,170 1,589 1,731 1,697 Gas Wells R 7,372 R 7,731 R 7,553 R 7,619 7,605

  15. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0 North Dakota - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S36. Summary statistics for natural gas - North Dakota, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 5,561 7,379 9,363 11,532 12,799 Gas Wells R 526 R 451 R 423 R 398 462

  16. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2 Ohio - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S37. Summary statistics for natural gas - Ohio, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 6,775 6,745 7,038 7,257 5,941 Gas Wells R 31,966 R 31,647 R 30,804 R 31,060 26,599

  17. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 Oklahoma - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S38. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oklahoma, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 6,723 7,360 8,744 7,105 8,368 Gas Wells R 51,712 R 51,472 R 50,606 R 50,044

  18. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6 Oregon - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S39. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oregon, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Gas Wells R 28 R 24 R 24 R 12 14 Production (million cubic feet) Gross

  19. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8 Pennsylvania - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S40. Summary statistics for natural gas - Pennsylvania, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 7,046 7,627 7,164 8,481 7,557 Gas Wells R 61,815 R 62,922 R 61,838 R

  20. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6 Tennessee - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S44. Summary statistics for natural gas - Tennessee, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 52 75 NA NA NA Gas Wells R 1,027 R 1,027 1,089 NA NA Production (million cubic

  1. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8 Texas - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S45. Summary statistics for natural gas - Texas, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 85,030 94,203 96,949 104,205 105,159 Gas Wells R 139,368 R 140,087 R 140,964 R 142,292

  2. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0 Utah - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S46. Summary statistics for natural gas - Utah, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 3,119 3,520 3,946 4,249 3,966 Gas Wells R 7,603 R 8,121 R 8,300 R 8,537 8,739 Production

  3. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 Virginia - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S48. Summary statistics for natural gas - Virginia, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 2 1 1 2 2 Gas Wells R 7,781 R 7,874 7,956 R 8,061 8,111 Production (million

  4. Method of making polymer powders and whiskers as well as particulate products of the method and atomizing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Otaigbe, Joshua U.; McAvoy, Jon M.; Anderson, Iver E.; Ting, Jason; Mi, Jia; Terpstra, Robert

    2001-01-09

    Method for making polymer particulates, such as spherical powder and whiskers, by melting a polymer material under conditions to avoid thermal degradation of the polymer material, atomizing the melt using gas jet means in a manner to form atomized droplets, and cooling the droplets to form polymer particulates, which are collected for further processing. Atomization parameters can be controlled to produce polymer particulates with controlled particle shape, particle size, and particle size distribution. For example, atomization parameters can be controlled to produce spherical polymer powders, polymer whiskers, and combinations of spherical powders and whiskers. Atomizing apparatus also is provided for atoomizing polymer and metallic materials.

  5. Apparatus and method for removing particulate deposits from high temperature filters

    DOEpatents

    Nakaishi, Curtis V.; Holcombe, Norman T.; Micheli, Paul L.

    1992-01-01

    A combustion of a fuel-air mixture is used to provide a high-temperature and high-pressure pulse of gaseous combustion products for the back-flush cleaning of ceramic filter elements contained in a barrier filter system and utilized to separate particulates from particulate-laden process gases at high temperature and high pressure. The volume of gaseous combustion products provided by the combustion of the fuel-air mixture is preferably divided into a plurality of streams each passing through a sonic orifice and conveyed to the open end of each filter element as a high pressure pulse which passes through the filter elements and dislodges dust cake supported on a surface of the filter element.

  6. Fogging formulations for fixation of particulate contamination in ductwork and enclosures

    DOEpatents

    Maresca, Jr., Joseph W.; Kostelnik, Lori M.; Kriskivich, James R.; Demmer, Rick L.; Tripp, Julia L.

    2015-09-08

    A method and an apparatus using aqueous fixatives for fogging of ventilation ductwork, enclosures, or buildings containing dust, lint, and particulates that may be contaminated by radionuclides and other dangerous or unsafe particulate contaminants, which method and apparatus are capable of (1) obtaining full coverage within the ductwork and (2) penetrating and fixing the lint, dust and large particles present in the ductwork so that no airborne particles are released during or after the application of the fixative. New aqueous fogging solutions outperform conventional glycerin-based solutions. These aqueous solutions will fog using conventional methods of application and contain a surfactant to aid wetting and penetration of the lint and dust, a binder to stabilize loose or respirable particles, and an agent to aid in fogging and enhance adhesiveness. The solutions are safe and easy to use.

  7. Nonferrous industry particulate emissions: source category report. Final report, June 1983-August 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, M.; Minden, A.

    1986-12-01

    The report gives results of the development of particulate-emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the nonferrous industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from nonferrous plants, the data were summarized and rated in terms of reliability. Size-specific emission factors were developed from these data for the major processes used in the manufacture of nonferrous metals. A detailed process description is presented with emphasis on factors affecting the generation of emissions. There were replacements for Sections 7.1 (Primary Aluminum Production), 7.3 (Primary Copper Smelting), 7.6 (Primary Lead Smelting), 7.7 (Primary Zinc Smelting), and 7.11 (Secondary Lead Smelting) of EPA report AP-42. A Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors, was prepared, containing the size-specific emission factors developed during the program.

  8. Method of producing particulate-reinforced composites and composites produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Han, Qingyou; Liu, Zhiwei

    2013-12-24

    A process for producing particle-reinforced composite materials through utilization of an in situ reaction to produce a uniform dispersion of a fine particulate reinforcement phase. The process includes forming a melt of a first material, and then introducing particles of a second material into the melt and subjecting the melt to high-intensity acoustic vibration. A chemical reaction initiates between the first and second materials to produce reaction products in the melt. The reaction products comprise a solid particulate phase, and the high-intensity acoustic vibration fragments and/or separates the reaction products into solid particles that are dispersed in the melt and are smaller than the particles of the second material. Also encompassed are particle-reinforced composite materials produced by such a process.

  9. Method of producing particulate-reinforced composites and composties produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Han, Qingyou; Liu, Zhiwei

    2013-12-24

    A process for producing particle-reinforced composite materials through utilization of an in situ reaction to produce a uniform dispersion of a fine particulate reinforcement phase. The process includes forming a melt of a first material, and then introducing particles of a second material into the melt and subjecting the melt to high-intenisty acoustic vibration. A chemical reaction initiates between the first and second materials to produce reaction products in the melt. The reaciton products comprise a solide particulate phase, and the high-intensity acoustic vibration fragments and/or separates the reaction products into solid particles that are dispersed in the melt and are smaller than the particles of the second material. Also encompassed are particles-reinforced composite materials produced by such a process.

  10. Method for removing solid particulate material from within liquid fuel injector assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.; Andriulli, J.B.; Strain, P.D.

    1998-09-08

    A method is described for removing residual solid particulate material from the interior of liquid fuel injectors and other fluid flow control mechanisms having or being operatively associated with a flow-regulating fixed or variable orifice. The method comprises the sequential and alternate introduction of columns of a non-compressible liquid phase and columns of a compressed gas phase into the body of a fuel injector whereby the expansion of each column of the gas phase across the orifice accelerates the liquid phase in each trailing column of the liquid phase and thereby generates turbulence in each liquid phase for lifting and entraining the solid particulates for the subsequent removal thereof from the body of the fuel injector. 1 fig.

  11. Method for removing solid particulate material from within liquid fuel injector assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Knoxville, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN); Andriulli, John B. (Kingston, TN); Strain, Paul D. (Eads, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A method for removing residual solid particulate material from the interior of liquid fuel injectors and other fluid flow control mechanisms having or being operatively associated with a flow-regulating fixed or variable orifice. The method comprises the sequential and alternate introduction of columns of a non-compressible liquid phase and columns of a compressed gas phase into the body of a fuel injector whereby the expansion of each column of the gas phase across the orifice accelerates the liquid phase in each trailing column of the liquid phase and thereby generates turbulence in each liquid phase for lifting and entraining the solid particulates for the subsequent removal thereof from the body of the fuel injector.

  12. Method of producing particulate-reinforced composites and composites produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Han, Qingyou; Liu, Zhiwei

    2015-12-29

    A process for producing particle-reinforced composite materials through utilization of an in situ reaction to produce a uniform dispersion of a fine particulate reinforcement phase. The process includes forming a melt of a first material, and then introducing particles of a second material into the melt and subjecting the melt to high-intensity acoustic vibration. A chemical reaction initiates between the first and second materials to produce reaction products in the melt. The reaction products comprise a solid particulate phase, and the high-intensity acoustic vibration fragments and/or separates the reaction products into solid particles that are dispersed in the melt and are smaller than the particles of the second material. Also encompassed are particle-reinforced composite materials produced by such a process.

  13. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

    1995-06-27

    A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

  14. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, Meyer; Grohse, Edward W.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

  15. Development of Optical Technologies for Monitoring Moisture and Particulate in Geothermal Steam

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Partin

    2006-08-01

    The results of an investigation directed at evaluating the feasibility of using optical measurements for the real-time monitoring moisture and particulate in geothermal steam is described. The measurements exploit new technologies that have been developed for the telecommunications industry and includes new solid state laser devices, large-bandwidth, high-sensitivity detectors and low loss optical fiber compo-nents. In particular, the design, fabrication, and in-plant testing of an optical steam monitor for the detection of moisture is presented. The measurement principle is based upon the selective absorption of infrared energy in response to the presence of moisture. Typically, two wavelengths are used in the measurements: a wavelength that is strongly absorbed by water and a reference wavelength that is minimally influenced by water and steam which serves as a reference to correct for particulate or droplet scattering. The two wavelengths are chosen to be as close as possible in order to more effectively correct for scattering effects. The basic instrumentation platform developed for the in-situ monitoring of steam moisture can be modified and used to perform other measurements of interest to plant operators. An upgrade that will allow the instrument to be used for the sensitive detection of particulate in process streams has been investigated. The new monitor design involves the use of laser diodes that are much less sensitive to water and water vapor and more sensitive to scattering phenomena, as well as new processing techniques to recover these signals. The design reduces the averaging time and sampling volume, while increasing the laser probe power, enhancing particulate detection sensitivity. The design concept and initial laboratory experiments with this system are also reported.

  16. Natural Chemicals Transform Man-Made Particulates | U.S. DOE Office of

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Science (SC) Natural Chemicals Transform Man-Made Particulates Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585

  17. Operating Experience Level 3, Update to Requalification Test Failure of Certain High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Operating Experience Level 3 (OE-3) document provides information regarding the previous requalification test failure and subsequent successful requalification, of certain high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) Filters models manufactured by Flanders Corporation.

  18. In-use performance of Daimler-Benz light-duty diesel particulate-trap oxidizers. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, T.M.; Carlson, P.N.

    1988-02-01

    Ten in-use 1985 Mercedes-Benz light-duty diesel vehicles equiped with particulate trap oxidizer systems and with mileages between 30,000 and 50,000 miles were tested for particulate (PM) and gaseous exhaust (HC,CO, CO/sub 2/, and NOx) emissions. Seven out of ten vehicles had a first-test particulate emission level lower than a predetermined cutoff point of 0.35 g/mi. (The California PM certification standard for 1985 light-duty diesel vehicles is 0.4 g/mi.) Attempts were made to regenerate the particulate-trap oxidizers on the three vehicles that exceeded the 0.35 g/mi PM level and the vehicles were retested. Two of three retested vehicles passed the PM cutoff level.

  19. 2009 Total Energy Production by State | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Total Energy Production by State 2009 Total Energy Production by State 2009 Total Energy Production by State...

  20. Measurements of particulate matter concentrations at a landfill site (Crete, Greece)

    SciTech Connect

    Chalvatzaki, E.; Kopanakis, I.; Kontaksakis, M.; Glytsos, T.; Kalogerakis, N.; Lazaridis, M.

    2010-11-15

    Large amounts of solid waste are disposed in landfills and the potential of particulate matter (PM) emissions into the atmosphere is significant. Particulate matter emissions in landfills are the result of resuspension from the disposed waste and other activities such as mechanical recycling and composting, waste unloading and sorting, the process of coating residues and waste transport by trucks. Measurements of ambient levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) were performed in a landfill site located at Chania (Crete, Greece). Elevated PM{sub 10} concentrations were measured in the landfill site during several landfill operations. It was observed that the meteorological conditions (mainly wind velocity and temperature) influence considerably the PM{sub 10} concentrations. Comparison between the PM{sub 10} concentrations at the landfill and at a PM{sub 10} background site indicates the influence of the landfill activities on local concentrations at the landfill. No correlation was observed between the measurements at the landfill and the background sites. Finally, specific preventing measures are proposed to control the PM concentrations in landfills.

  1. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Melin, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

  2. Global Chemical Composition of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter for Exposure Assessment

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lo, Jason Wai-Ho; Wang, Yuxuan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; et al

    2014-10-24

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004–2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrationsmore » were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m3), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m3), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m3). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m3 over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m3) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m3). In conclusion, these estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5.« less

  3. Light absorption from particulate impurities in snow and ice determined by spectrophotometric analysis of filters

    SciTech Connect

    Grenfell, Thomas C.; Doherty, Sarah J.; Clarke, Antony D.; Warren, Stephen G.

    2011-05-10

    Light absorption by particulate impurities in snow and ice can affect the surface albedo and is important for the climate. The absorption properties of these particles can be determined by collecting and melting snow samples and extracting the particulate material by filtration of the meltwater. This paper describes the optical design and testing of a new instrument to measure the absorption spectrum from 400 to 750 nm wavelength of the particles collected on filters using an ''integrating-sandwich'' configuration. The measured absorption is shown to be unaffected by scattering of light from the deposited particulates. A set of calibration standards is used to derive an upper limit for the concentration of black carbon (BC) in the snow. The wavelength dependence of the absorption spectra from 450 to 600 nm is used to calculate an absorption Angstrom exponent for the aerosol. This exponent is used to estimate the actual BC concentration in the snow samples as well as the relative contributions of BC and non-BC constituents to the absorption of solar radiation integrated over the wavelength band 300 to 750 nm.

  4. TotalView Parallel Debugger at NERSC

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    The performance of the GUI can be greatly improved if used in conjunction with free NX software. The TotalView documentation web page is a good resource for learning more...

  5. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    -3,826 Total Supply 854,673 908,380 892,923 R 900,232 828,785 See footnotes at end of ... Gas Annual 165 Table S43. Summary statistics for natural gas - South Dakota, ...

  6. EQUUS Total Return Inc | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: EQUUS Total Return Inc Place: Houston, Texas Product: A business development company and VC investor that trades as a closed-end fund. EQUUS is...

  7. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Annual Energy Outlook

    as known volumes of natural gas that were the result of leaks, damage, accidents, migration, andor blow down. Notes: Totals may not add due to independent rounding. Prices are...

  8. Total Ore Processing Integration and Management

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Gertsch; Richard Gertsch

    2004-06-30

    This report outlines the technical progress achieved for project DE-FC26-03NT41785 (Total Ore Processing Integration and Management) during the period 01 April through 30 June of 2004.

  9. ARM - Measurement - Net broadband total irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsNet broadband total irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Net broadband total irradiance The difference between upwelling and downwelling, covering longwave and shortwave radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each

  10. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance The total diffuse and direct radiant energy that comes from some continuous range of directions, at wavelengths between 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, that is being emitted downwards. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following

  11. Apparatus and method for servicing an elongated suspended pump motor in an electric power plant with limited access

    DOEpatents

    Chavez, R.V.; Ekeroth, D.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Matusz, J.M.

    1994-04-26

    Elongated coolant pumps suspended under steam generators within containment in a power plant with limited access space, are removed and replaced by an elongated maintenance cart with an elongated opening along one side in which the motor is received. Rollers support the cart for conveying the elongated motor in an upright position out from under the steam generator and onto an elevator. The elevator is lowered to transfer support of the cart and motor through trunnions to saddles straddling the elevator for rotation of the cart to a generally horizontal position. The elevator then raises the horizontally disposed cart carrying the motor to a higher floor where it is rolled off the elevator and out through the auxiliary equipment hatch. 14 figures.

  12. An Evaluation of a Dual Coriolis Meter System for In-Line Monitoring of Suspended Solids Concentrations in Radioactive Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Hylton, T.D.

    2000-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes stored in underground tanks at several of its sites. In order to comply with various regulations and to circumvent potential problems associated with tank integrity, these wastes must be retrieved from the tanks, transferred to treatment facilities (or other storage locations), and processed to stable waste forms. The sludge wastes will typically be mobilized by some mechanical means (e.g., mixer pump, submerged jet) and mixed with the respective supernatants to create slurries that can be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. Depending on the DOE site, these slurries may be transferred up to six miles. Since the wastes are radioactive, it is critically important for the transfers to be made without plugging a pipeline. To reduce such a risk, the relevant properties of the slurry (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, and particle size distribution) should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be continuously monitored and controlled within specified limits while the transfer is in progress. The baseline method for determining the transport properties of slurries involves sampling and analysis; however, this method is time-consuming, and costly, and it does not provide real-time information. In addition, personnel who collect and analyze the samples are exposed to radiation. It is also questionable as to whether a laboratory analyst can obtain representative aliquots from the sample jar for these solid-liquid mixtures. The alternative method for determining the transport properties is in-line analysis. An in-line instrument is one that is connected to the process, analyzes the slurry as it flows through or by the instrument, and provides the results within seconds. This instrument can provide immediate feedback to operators so that, when necessary, the operators can respond

  13. Apparatus and method for servicing an elongated suspended pump motor in an electric power plant with limited access

    DOEpatents

    Chavez, Rossemary V.; Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Johnson, F. Thomas; Matusz, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Elongated coolant pumps suspended under steam generators within containment in a power plant with limited access space, are removed and replaced by an elongated maintenance cart with an elongated opening along one side in which the motor is received. Rollers support the cart for conveying the elongated motor in an upright position out from under the steam generator and onto an elevator. The elevator is lowered to transfer support of the cart and motor through trunnions to saddles straddling the elevator for rotation of the cart to a generally horizontal position. The elevator then raises the horizontally disposed cart carrying the motor to a higher floor where it is rolled off the elevator and out through the auxiliary equipment hatch.

  14. Influence of suspended solids on bioavailability of hexachlorobenzene and lindane to the deposit-feeding marine bivalve, Abra nitida (Mueller)

    SciTech Connect

    Ekelund, R.; Granmo, A.; Berggren, M.; Renberg, L.; Wahlberg, C.

    1987-03-01

    It is well-known that suspended solids in water adsorb hydrophobic pollutants, thereby decreasing the bioavailability of the compounds to aquatic organisms which do not use the particles as food. It is also known that hydrophobic pollutants deposited in sediments usually have a low bioavailability. The relative contribution of water and sediment respectively to bioaccumulation of hydrophobic pollutants has been discussed in many papers based on field data, but the conclusions are uncertain. However, very few studies have been performed under controlled conditions in the laboratory on how the bioaccumulation of such compounds dissolved in the water is changed by adsorption to particles when these particles are used as food by the organism. This has now been investigated using the deposit-feeding bivalve Abra nitida which was exposed to hexachlorobenzene and lindane by means of a new method for dosing of hydrophobic compounds to a continuous flow system in long term tests.

  15. Electrically Addressable Optical Devices Using A System Of Composite Layered Flakes Suspended In A Fluid Host To Obtain Angularly Depende

    DOEpatents

    Kosc, Tanya Z.; Marshall, Kenneth L.; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2004-12-07

    Composite or layered flakes having a plurality of layers of different materials, which may be dielectric materials, conductive materials, or liquid crystalline materials suspended in a fluid host and subjected to an electric field, provide optical effects dependent upon the angle or orientation of the flakes in the applied electric field. The optical effects depend upon the composition and thickness of the layers, producing reflectance, interference, additive and/or subtractive color effects. The composition of layered flakes may also be selected to enhance and/or alter the dielectric properties of flakes, whereby flake motion in an electric field is also enhanced and/or altered. The devices are useful as active electro-optical displays, polarizers, filters, light modulators, and wherever controllable polarizing, reflecting and transmissive optical properties are desired.

  16. Impacts of Mid-level Biofuel Content in Gasoline on SIDI Engine-Out and Tailpipe Particulate Matter Emissions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Ireland, J. C.; Zigler, B. T.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Knoll, K. E.; Alleman, T. L.; Tester, J. T.

    2011-02-01

    The influences of ethanol and iso-butanol blended with gasoline on engine-out and post Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) particle size distribution and number concentration were studied using a GM 2.0L turbocharged Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was operated using the production ECU with a dynamometer controlling the engine speed and the accelerator pedal position controlling the engine load. A TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) spectrometer was used to measure the particle size distribution in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. US federal certification gasoline (E0), two ethanol-blended fuels (E10 and E20), and 11.7% iso-butanol blended fuel (BU12) were tested. Measurements were conducted at ten selected steady-state engine operation conditions. Bi-modal particle size distributions were observed for all operating conditions with peak values at particle sizes of 10 nm and 70 nm. Idle and low speed / low load conditions emitted higher total particle numbers than other operating conditions. At idle, the engine-out Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were dominated by nucleation mode particles, and the production TWC reduced these nucleation mode particles by more than 50%, while leaving the accumulation mode particle distribution unchanged. At engine load higher than 6 bar NMEP, accumulation mode particles dominated the engine-out particle emissions and the TWC had little effect. Compared to the baseline gasoline (E0), E10 does not significantly change PM emissions, while E20 and BU12 both reduce PM emissions under the conditions studied. Iso-butanol was observed to impact PM emissions more than ethanol, with up to 50% reductions at some conditions. In this paper, the issues related to PM measurement using FMPS are also discussed. While some uncertainties are due to engine variation, the FMPS must be operated under careful maintenance procedures in order to achieve repeatable measurement results.

  17. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral total downwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    total downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral total downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, at specrally-resolved wavelengths between 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, is being emitted upwards and downwards into a radiation field and transferred across a surface area (real or imaginary) in a hemisphere of directions. Categories Radiometric Instruments

  18. Response of fine particulate matter to emission changes of oxides of nitrogen and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandra P. Tsimpidi; Vlassis A. Karydis; Spyros N. Pandis

    2008-11-15

    A three-dimensional chemical transport model (Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions) is used to investigate changes in fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in response to 50% emissions changes of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during July 2001 and January 2002 in the eastern United States. The reduction of NOx emissions by 50% during the summer results in lower average oxidant levels and lowers PM2.5 (8% on average), mainly because of reductions of sulfate (9-11%), nitrate (45-58%), and ammonium (7-11%). The organic particulate matter (PM) slightly decreases in rural areas, whereas it increases in cities by a few percent when NOx is reduced. Reduction of NOx during winter causes an increase of the oxidant levels and a rather complicated response of the PM components, leading to small net changes. Sulfate increases (8-17%), nitrate decreases (18-42%), organic PM slightly increases, and ammonium either increases or decreases a little. The reduction of VOC emissions during the summer causes on average a small increase of the oxidant levels and a marginal increase in PM2.5. This small net change is due to increases in the inorganic components and decreases of the organic ones. Reduction of VOC emissions during winter results in a decrease of the oxidant levels and a 5-10% reduction of PM2.5 because of reductions in nitrate (4-19%), ammonium (4-10%), organic PM (12-14%), and small reductions in sulfate. Although sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) reduction is the single most effective approach for sulfate control, the coupled decrease of SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions in both seasons is more effective in reducing total PM2.5 mass than the SO{sub 2} reduction alone. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter during a 2001 summer intensive study at the CMU Supersite and NETL Pittsburgh Site

    SciTech Connect

    Delbert J. Eatough; Nolan F. Mangelson; Richard R. Anderson

    2007-10-15

    Gaseous and particulate pollutant concentrations associated with five samples per day collected during a July 2001 summer intensive study at the Pittsburgh Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Supersite were used to apportion fine particulate matter (PM2.5) into primary and secondary contributions using PMF2. Input to the PMF2 analysis included the concentrations of PM2.5 nonvolatile and semivolatile organic material, elemental carbon (EC), ammonium sulfate, trace element components, gas-phase organic material, and NOx, NO{sub 2}, and O{sub 3} concentrations. A total of 10 factors were identified. These factors are associated with emissions from various sources and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. In addition, four secondary sources were identified, three of which were associated with secondary products of local emissions and were dominated by organic material and one of which was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the CMU site from the west and southwest. The three largest contributors to PM2.5 were secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) from the west and southwest from sources including coal-fired power plants, coke processing plants and steel mills, (49%), secondary material formed during midday photochemical processes (24%), and gasoline combustion emissions (11%). The other seven sources accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5. Results obtained at the CMU site were comparable to results previously reported at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), located approximately 18 km south of downtown Pittsburgh. The major contributor at both sites was material transported from the west and southwest. Some difference in nearby sources could be attributed to meteorology as evaluated by HYSPLIT model back-trajectory calculations. 27 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 0 ...

  1. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil Wells 120,880 67,065 69,839 R 70,475 66,065 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 94,349 87,854 94,268 R 107,577 107,964 Total 279,130 246,822 252,310 R 238,988 ...

  2. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    8,814 7,938 6,616 7,250 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 9,075 8,814 7,938 6,616 7,250 Repressuring NA NA NA NA NA Vented ...

  3. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas Wells 34 44 32 20 27 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 34 44 32 20 27 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 ...

  4. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    2,887 R 1,929 2,080 From Oil Wells 7 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 2,121 2,125 2,887 R 1,929 2,080 Repressuring 0 0 0 NA NA Vented ...

  5. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil Wells 68,505 49,380 51,948 R 50,722 44,748 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 2,088,306 2,130,551 1,534,372 R 1,197,480 1,120,806 Total 3,040,523 2,955,437 ...

  6. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    R 93,091 85,775 From Oil Wells 1,665 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 124,243 106,122 94,665 R 93,091 85,775 Repressuring 0 0 0 NA NA ...

  7. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Wells 37,194 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 35,924 31,689 28,244 R 25,387 23,359 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 309,952 296,299 292,467 R 286,480 285,236 Repressuring 521 NA NA ...

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas Wells 0 0 8 R 3 1 From Oil Wells 0 0 1 * 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0 0 9 R 3 1 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 0 ...

  9. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1,027 R 353 399 From Oil Wells 126 11 5 R 63 78 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 1,980 1,328 1,032 R 417 477 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and ...

  10. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    From Gas Wells 0 0 0 * 1 From Oil Wells 3 4 3 3 3 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 3 4 3 3 3 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 0 ...

  11. Total pressing Indonesian gas development, exports

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-24

    Total is on track to become Indonesia's leading gas exporter by the turn of the century. Total's aggressive development of its Mahakam Delta acreage in East Kalimantan is intended to keep pace with growing liquefied natural gas demand, mainly from Japan but also increasingly from South Korea and Taiwan. A frantic scramble is under way among natural gas suppliers in the Pacific Rim region, particularly those with current LNG export facilities, to accommodate projections of soaring natural gas demand in the region. Accordingly, Total's Indonesian gas production goal is the centerpiece of a larger strategy to become a major player in the Far East Asia gas scene. Its goals also fall in line with Indonesia's. Facing flat or declining oil production while domestic oil demand continues to soar along with a rapidly growing economy, Indonesia is heeding some studies that project the country could become a net oil importer by the turn of the century. The paper describes Total's Far East strategy, the Mahakam acreage which it operates, the shift to gas development, added discoveries, future development, project spending levels, and LNG export capacity.

  12. Total internal reflection laser tools and methods

    DOEpatents

    Zediker, Mark S.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Kolachalam, Sharath K.; Grubb, Daryl L.

    2016-02-02

    There is provided high power laser tools and laser heads that utilize total internal reflection ("TIR") structures to direct the laser beam along a laser beam path within the TIR structure. The TIR structures may be a TIR prism having its hypotenuse as a TIR surface.

  13. The Leica TCRA1105 Reflectorless Total Station

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudreault, F.

    2005-09-06

    This poster provides an overview of SLAC's TCRA1105 reflectorless total station for the Alignment Engineering Group. This instrument has shown itself to be very useful for planning new construction and providing quick measurements to difficult to reach or inaccessible surfaces.

  14. Filter-based control of particulate matter from a lean gasoline direct injection engine

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; DeBusk, Melanie Moses; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Storey, John Morse

    2016-01-01

    New regulations requiring increases in vehicle fuel economy are challenging automotive manufacturers to identify fuel-efficient engines for future vehicles. Lean gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines offer significant increases in fuel efficiency over the more common stoichiometric GDI engines already in the marketplace. However, particulate matter (PM) emissions from lean GDI engines, particularly during stratified combustion modes, are problematic for lean GDI technology to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Tier 3 and other future emission regulations. As such, the control of lean GDI PM with wall-flow filters, referred to as gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology, is of interest. Since lean GDI PM chemistry and morphology differ from diesel PM (where more filtration experience exists), the functionality of GPFs needs to be studied to determine the operating conditions suitable for efficient PM removal. In addition, lean GDI engine exhaust temperatures are generally higher than diesel engines which results in more continuous regeneration of the GPF and less presence of the soot cake layer common to diesel particulate filters. Since the soot layer improves filtration efficiency, this distinction is important to consider. Research on the emission control of PM from a lean GDI engine with a GPF was conducted on an engine dynamometer. PM, after dilution, was characterized with membrane filters, organic vs. elemental carbon characterization, and size distribution techniques at various steady state engine speed and load points. The engine was operated in three primary combustion modes: stoichiometric, lean homogeneous, and lean stratified. In addition, rich combustion was utilized to simulate PM from engine operation during active regeneration of lean NOx control technologies. High (>95%) PM filtration efficiencies were observed over a wide range of conditions; however, some PM was observed to slip through the GPF at high speed and load conditions. The

  15. Acute changes in pulse pressure in relation to constituents of particulate air pollution in elderly persons

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Lotte; Buczynska, Anna; Walgraeve, Christophe; Delcloo, Andy; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Van Grieken, Rene; Demeestere, Kristof; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; De Backer, Hugo; Nemery, Benoit; Nawrot, Tim S.

    2012-08-15

    An increased pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) suggests aortic stiffening. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of both particulate matter (PM) mass and composition on blood pressure, among elderly persons. We carried out a panel study in persons living in elderly homes in Antwerp, Belgium. We recruited 88 non-smoking persons, 70% women with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation: 5.2). Blood pressure was measured and a blood sample was collected on two time points, which were chosen so that there was an exposure contrast in ambient PM exposure. The elemental content of the collected indoor and outdoor PM{sub 2.5} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 {mu}m) mass concentration was measured. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) on outdoor PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 {mu}m) were measured. Each interquartile range increase of 20.8 {mu}g/m Superscript-Three in 24-h mean outdoor PM{sub 2.5} was associated with an increase in pulse pressure of 4.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 1.8-6.2), in persons taking antihypertensive medication (n=57), but not in persons not using antihypertensive medication (n=31) (p for interaction: 0.02). Vanadium, iron and nickel contents of PM{sub 2.5} were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, among persons on antihypertensive medication. Similar results were found for indoor concentrations. Of the oxy-PAHs, chrysene-5,6-dione and benzo[a]pyrene-3,6-dione were significantly associated with increases in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. In elderly, pulse pressure was positively associated with acute increases in outdoor and indoor air pollution, among persons taking antihypertensive medication. These results might form a mechanistic pathway linking air pollution as a trigger of cardiovascular events.

  16. Global Chemical Composition of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter for Exposure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lo, Jason Wai-Ho; Wang, Yuxuan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Bittman, Shabtai; Macdonald, Douglas J.

    2014-10-24

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004–2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m3), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m3), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m3). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m3 over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m3) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m3). In conclusion, these estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5.

  17. Particulate Formation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility ... Hydrogen Production Market Transformation Fuel Cells Predictive Simulation of Engines Transportation Energy Consortiums ...

  18. Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-AY-102 Annulus Space Particulate

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, G. A.

    2013-01-30

    The Special Analytical Studies Group at the 222-S Laboratory (222-S) examined the particulate recovered from a series of samples from the annular space of tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102) using solid phase characterization (SPC) methods. These include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the ASPEX®1 scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rigaku®2 MiniFlex X-ray diffractometer, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) using the Nikon®3 Eclipse Pol optical microscope. The SEM is equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to provide chemical information.

  19. Electrically resistive coating for remediation (regeneration) of a diesel particulate filter and method

    DOEpatents

    Phelps, Amanda C.; Kirby, Kevin K.; Gregoire, Daniel J.

    2012-02-14

    A resistively heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The resistively heated DPF includes a DPF having an inlet surface and at least one resistive coating on the inlet surface. The at least one resistive coating is configured to substantially maintain its resistance in an operating range of the DPF. The at least one resistive coating has a first terminal and a second terminal for applying electrical power to resistively heat up the at least one resistive coating in order to increase the temperature of the DPF to a regeneration temperature. The at least one resistive coating includes metal and semiconductor constituents.

  20. Investigation of NO2 Oxidation Kinetics and Burning Mode for Medium Duty Diesel Particulate: Contrasting O2 and NO2 Oxidation

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reports on preliminary measurements of particulate reactivity and changes in microstructure upon exposure to NO2, which is often present at significant levels in diesel engine exhaust.