National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for tomography print humankind

  1. Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography Print Wednesday, 24 February 2010 00:00 Humankind has benefitted from a long and productive relationship with yeast. For example, fermentation by yeast is an essential step in the production of bread, beer, wine, and even biofuels. However, not all yeast are beneficial. One strain of yeast, Candida albicans, grows unnoticed on most peoples' skin and in

  2. Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography Print Humankind has benefitted from a long and productive relationship with yeast. For example, fermentation by yeast is an essential step in the production of bread, beer, wine, and even biofuels. However, not all yeast are beneficial. One strain of yeast, Candida albicans, grows unnoticed on most peoples' skin and in the intestines. In response to certain environmental conditions, C. albicans can switch to a pathogenic

  3. Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography Print Humankind has benefitted from a long and productive relationship with yeast. For example, fermentation by yeast is an essential step in the production of bread, beer, wine, and even biofuels. However, not all yeast are beneficial. One strain of yeast, Candida albicans, grows unnoticed on most peoples' skin and in the intestines. In response to certain environmental conditions, C. albicans can switch to a pathogenic

  4. Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography Print Humankind has benefitted from a long and productive relationship with yeast. For example, fermentation by yeast is an essential step in the production of bread, beer, wine, and even biofuels. However, not all yeast are beneficial. One strain of yeast, Candida albicans, grows unnoticed on most peoples' skin and in the intestines. In response to certain environmental conditions, C. albicans can switch to a pathogenic

  5. Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography Print Humankind has benefitted from a long and productive relationship with yeast. For example, fermentation by yeast is an essential step in the production of bread, beer, wine, and even biofuels. However, not all yeast are beneficial. One strain of yeast, Candida albicans, grows unnoticed on most peoples' skin and in the intestines. In response to certain environmental conditions, C. albicans can switch to a pathogenic

  6. Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography Print Humankind has benefitted from a long and productive relationship with yeast. For example, fermentation by yeast is an essential step in the production of bread, beer, wine, and even biofuels. However, not all yeast are beneficial. One strain of yeast, Candida albicans, grows unnoticed on most peoples' skin and in the intestines. In response to certain environmental conditions, C. albicans can switch to a pathogenic

  7. Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography Print Humankind has benefitted from a long and productive relationship with yeast. For example, fermentation by yeast is an essential step in the production of bread, beer, wine, and even biofuels. However, not all yeast are beneficial. One strain of yeast, Candida albicans, grows unnoticed on most peoples' skin and in the intestines. In response to certain environmental conditions, C. albicans can switch to a pathogenic

  8. Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography Print Humankind has benefitted from a long and productive relationship with yeast. For example, fermentation by yeast is an essential step in the production of bread, beer, wine, and even biofuels. However, not all yeast are beneficial. One strain of yeast, Candida albicans, grows unnoticed on most peoples' skin and in the intestines. In response to certain environmental conditions, C. albicans can switch to a pathogenic

  9. Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography Print Humankind has benefitted from a long and productive relationship with yeast. For example, fermentation by yeast is an essential step in the production of bread, beer, wine, and even biofuels. However, not all yeast are beneficial. One strain of yeast, Candida albicans, grows unnoticed on most peoples' skin and in the intestines. In response to certain environmental conditions, C. albicans can switch to a pathogenic

  10. CIM-EARTH: Community integrated model of economic and resource trajectories for humankind.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, J.; Foster, I.; Judd, K.; Moyer, E.; Munson, T.; Univ. of Chicago; Hoover Inst.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is a global problem with local climatic and economic impacts. Mitigation policies can be applied on large geographic scales, such as a carbon cap-and-trade program for the entire U.S., on medium geographic scales, such as the NOx program for the northeastern U.S., or on smaller scales, such as statewide renewable portfolio standards and local gasoline taxes. To enable study of the environmental benefits, transition costs, capitalization effects, and other consequences of mitigation policies, we are developing dynamic general equilibrium models capable of incorporating important climate impacts. This report describes the economic framework we have developed and the current Community Integrated Model of Economic and Resource Trajectories for Humankind (CIM-EARTH) instance.

  11. TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography Print Thursday, 22 August 2013 10:50 TE Connectivity is a world leader in connectivity-the...

  12. Printing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Printing Printing The Printing Team is the liaison between the U.S. Government Printing Office and the Department of Energy. It consists of an expert group of printing specialists who offer a full range of services from assistance in developing your printing requirements to the final printing, distribution and mailing of products. The printed products range from black and white to full color items. These Services are available through the Working Capital Fund. The Printing Office produces a

  13. World's First Printed Car

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, Jay

    2015-06-03

    Local Motors partnered with ORNL to print the worlds first 3D-printed car (Strati) at the 2014 International Manufacturing Technology Show.

  14. Compact organic vapor jet printing print head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stepehen R; McGraw, Gregory

    2015-01-27

    A first device is provided. The first device includes a print head, and a first gas source hermetically sealed to the print head. The print head further includes a first layer further comprising a plurality of apertures, each aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns. A second layer is bonded to the first layer. The second layer includes a first via in fluid communication with the first gas source and at least one of the apertures. The second layer is made of an insulating material.

  15. Compact organic vapor jet printing print head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; McGraw, Gregory

    2013-12-24

    A first device is provided. The first device includes a print head, and a first gas source hermetically sealed to the print head. The print header further includes a first layer comprising a plurality of apertures, each aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns. A second layer is bonded to the first layer. The second layer includes a first via in fluid communication with the first gas source and at least one of the apertures. The second layer is made of an insulating material.

  16. TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography Print Thursday, 22 August 2013 10:50 TE Connectivity is a world leader in connectivity-the $13 billion global company designs and manufactures more than 500,000 different electronic connectivity products for the automotive, energy, industrial, broadband communications, consumer device, healthcare, aerospace, and defense industries. TE Connectivity has a long-standing commitment to innovation and engineering

  17. TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography Print Thursday, 22 August 2013 10:50 TE Connectivity is a world leader in connectivity-the $13 billion global company designs and manufactures more than 500,000 different electronic connectivity products for the automotive, energy, industrial, broadband communications, consumer device, healthcare, aerospace, and defense industries. TE Connectivity has a long-standing commitment to innovation and engineering

  18. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-10-23

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  19. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.

    2016-05-03

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  20. Government Printing Office Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Government Printing Office Requirements Government Printing Office Requirements This section describes the Government Printing Office (GPO) requirements for all print materials, whether printed electronically or on paper. This includes requirements for printing and copying for all EERE publications. Approved Printers Executive Order 12873, signed by President Clinton, requires that all government offices and their contractors are required to use GPO-approved printers to print and copy all

  1. Pseudolocal tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katsevich, Alexander J.; Ramm, Alexander G.

    1996-01-01

    Local tomographic data is used to determine the location and value of a discontinuity between a first internal density of an object and a second density of a region within the object. A beam of radiation is directed in a predetermined pattern through the region of the object containing the discontinuity. Relative attenuation data of the beam is determined within the predetermined pattern having a first data component that includes attenuation data through the region. The relative attenuation data is input to a pseudo-local tomography function, where the difference between the internal density and the pseudo-local tomography function is computed across the discontinuity. The pseudo-local tomography function outputs the location of the discontinuity and the difference in density between the first density and the second density.

  2. Pseudolocal tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katsevich, A.J.; Ramm, A.G.

    1996-07-23

    Local tomographic data is used to determine the location and value of a discontinuity between a first internal density of an object and a second density of a region within the object. A beam of radiation is directed in a predetermined pattern through the region of the object containing the discontinuity. Relative attenuation data of the beam is determined within the predetermined pattern having a first data component that includes attenuation data through the region. The relative attenuation data is input to a pseudo-local tomography function, where the difference between the internal density and the pseudo-local tomography function is computed across the discontinuity. The pseudo-local tomography function outputs the location of the discontinuity and the difference in density between the first density and the second density. 7 figs.

  3. Sintering Kinetics of Inkjet Printed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    circuits for functional applications envisioned by automotive and aerospace industries. ... Figure 1 illustrates the types of printed line instabilities generally encountered when ...

  4. Template:PrintPDFButton | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    PrintPDFButton Jump to: navigation, search This is the PrintPDFButton template. It is intended for inclusion on any page where printing the page contents to a PDF is desirable....

  5. Pennsylvania Company Develops Solar Cell Printing Technology

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The technology uses Plextronics’ conductive inks that can be printed by manufacturers worldwide to make solar cells, potentially as easily as they might print a newspaper.

  6. SolarPrint | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name: SolarPrint Place: Dublin, Ireland Sector: Solar Product: Irish solar cell manufacturer. The company developed DSSC technology. References: SolarPrint1 This...

  7. Widget:PrintPDFButton | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Dependencies Template:PrintPDFButton Usage This Widget assumes the existence of HTML elements created by the PrintPDFButton template, and is called via that template....

  8. SciTech Connect: "3d printing"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    3d printing" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "3d printing" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator ...

  9. printed-circuit heat exchanger PCHE

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    printed-circuit heat exchanger PCHE - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers printed-circuit heat exchanger PCHE Home...

  10. Printed Module Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stockert, Talysa R.; Fields, Jeremy D.; Pach, Gregory F.; Mauger, Scott A.; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.

    2015-06-14

    Monolithic interconnects in photovoltaic modules connect adjacent cells in series, and are typically formed sequentially involving multiple deposition and scribing steps. Interconnect widths of 500 um every 10 mm result in 5% dead area, which does not contribute to power generation in an interconnected solar panel. This work expands on previous work that introduced an alternative interconnection method capable of producing interconnect widths less than 100 um. The interconnect is added to the module in a single step after deposition of the photovoltaic stack, eliminating the need for scribe alignment. This alternative method can be used for all types of thin film photovoltaic modules. Voltage addition with copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar cells using a 2-scribe printed interconnect approach is demonstrated. Additionally, interconnect widths of 250 um are shown.

  11. Public Law 102-392 for Printing | Department of Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    2-392 for Printing Public Law 102-392 for Printing Public Law 102-392 for Printing Public Law 102-392 for Printing (118.61 KB) More Documents & Publications Minutes from the Print ...

  12. Detection of latent prints by Raman imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Linda Anne; Connatser, Raynella Magdalene; Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur

    2011-01-11

    The present invention relates to a method for detecting a print on a surface, the method comprising: (a) contacting the print with a Raman surface-enhancing agent to produce a Raman-enhanced print; and (b) detecting the Raman-enhanced print using a Raman spectroscopic method. The invention is particularly directed to the imaging of latent fingerprints.

  13. Add your e-prints to the E-print Network -- Energy, science,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Add E-prints: eprintshelp@osti.gov We invite you to submit your e-prints to the network. Having your e-prints in the network increases awareness of them and promotes the ...

  14. Minutes from the March 14, 2013 Printing and Mail Teleconference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Discussed suggestions for reducing printing expenses Presidential Executive Order 13589 and reducing hard copy printing in favor of electronic publishing Sec. 5. Printing. ...

  15. The United States Code - Printing, Title 44 Excerpts | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    The United States Code - Printing, Title 44 Excerpts The United States Code - Printing, Title 44 Excerpts The United States Code - Printing, Title 44 Excerpts PDF icon The United ...

  16. Minutes from the Print and Mail Managers Exchange Forum Teleconference...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Minutes from the Print and Mail Managers Exchange Forum Teleconferences Minutes from the Print and Mail Managers Exchange Forum Teleconferences Minutes from the Print and Mail...

  17. High resolution printing of charge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John; Park, Jang-Ung

    2015-06-16

    Provided are methods of printing a pattern of charge on a substrate surface, such as by electrohydrodynamic (e-jet) printing. The methods relate to providing a nozzle containing a printable fluid, providing a substrate having a substrate surface and generating from the nozzle an ejected printable fluid containing net charge. The ejected printable fluid containing net charge is directed to the substrate surface, wherein the net charge does not substantially degrade and the net charge retained on the substrate surface. Also provided are functional devices made by any of the disclosed methods.

  18. Heat sinking for printed circuitry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, S.K.; Richardson, G.; Pinkerton, A.L.

    1984-09-11

    A flat pak or other solid-state device mounted on a printed circuit board directly over a hole extends therethrough so that the bottom of the pak or device extends beyond the bottom of the circuit board. A heat sink disposed beneath the circuit board contacts the bottom of the pak or device and provides direct heat sinking thereto. Pressure may be applied to the top of the pak or device to assure good mechanical and thermal contact with the heat sink.

  19. Turbocharging Quantum Tomography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blume-Kohout, Robin J; Gamble, John King,; Nielsen, Erik; Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm; Scholten, Travis L.; Rudinger, Kenneth Michael

    2015-01-01

    Quantum tomography is used to characterize quantum operations implemented in quantum information processing (QIP) hardware. Traditionally, state tomography has been used to characterize the quantum state prepared in an initialization procedure, while quantum process tomography is used to characterize dynamical operations on a QIP system. As such, tomography is critical to the development of QIP hardware (since it is necessary both for debugging and validating as-built devices, and its results are used to influence the next generation of devices). But tomography su %7C ers from several critical drawbacks. In this report, we present new research that resolves several of these flaws. We describe a new form of tomography called gate set tomography (GST), which unifies state and process tomography, avoids prior methods critical reliance on precalibrated operations that are not generally available, and can achieve unprecedented accuracies. We report on theory and experimental development of adaptive tomography protocols that achieve far higher fidelity in state reconstruction than non-adaptive methods. Finally, we present a new theoretical and experimental analysis of process tomography on multispin systems, and demonstrate how to more e %7C ectively detect and characterize quantum noise using carefully tailored ensembles of input states.

  20. Mac OS X Printing with LPD

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Mac OS X Printing with LPD Last Modified by Jerry Camuso, 02/12/2015. 1 . From the "System Preferences", click on "Print & Fax" 2 . Click on "+" sign to add a new printer 3. Use "IP Printer" and select or type the following: Protocol: Line Printer Daemon - LPD Address: printserv.slac.stanford.edu Queue: Your print queue name from SLAC printserv. PLEASE NOTE: this information can be found at the bottom of this document Under "SSRL beamline print

  1. Toppan Printing Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Toppan Printing Co Ltd Place: Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Zip: 101-0024 Product: Japanese manufacturer of PV module backsheets. Coordinates:...

  2. Federal Sustainable Print Management - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    G 436.1-1, Federal Sustainable Print Management by Jake Wooley The Guide provides acceptable approaches for implementing the IT sustainability requirements and criteria required by ...

  3. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  4. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  5. Processing A Printed Wiring Board By Single Bath Electrodeposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltzer, Michael P. (Oakland, CA); Steffani, Christopher P. (Livermore, CA); Gonfiotti, Ray A. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-04-15

    A method of processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from the bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  6. Processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltzer, Michael P.; Steffani, Christopher P.; Gonfiotti, Ray A.

    2010-12-07

    A method of processing a printed wiring board. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  7. Print

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    water vapor. - For more information on CMBE: http:science.arm.govwgcpmscmbestestimate.html GFDL GCM models used in this comparison - AM2.1: current version of the...

  8. Print

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    < 5k 0 < 50k < 100k < 250k < 500k < 1M > 1M > 5M > 10M DE MD DC MA RI NJ AZ UT WY ID OR WA CA TX OK KS CO NE SD ND MN WI IL IA MO AR LA MS AL FL GA TN KY IN OH MI ME NH CT VT NY PA WV VA NC SC MT AK HI NV NM Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Procured Materials and Services 2015 (> $35M) Small business procurements in US: $14.73M

  9. Print

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Apaga las luces. Marca la caja. Apaga tu computadora. Usa bombillas de alta eficiencia energtica. Desenchufa los cargadores cuando no estn en uso. Usa luz natural, calor del ...

  10. Print

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    maneras fciles de usar energa en forma inteligente Apaga las luces. Marca la caja. Apaga tu computadora. Usa bombillas de alta eficiencia energtica. Desenchufa los cargadores...

  11. Continental breakup and the dawn of humankind

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Fe 7:00 p.m. Tuesday, April 8, 2008 Taos Convention Center, Los Angelitos Room Civic Plaza Drive 7:00 p.m. Wednesday, April 9, 2008 Duane W. Smith Auditorium Los Alamos High...

  12. E-print Network : Main View : Deep Federated Search

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    javascript. Home About Contact Us Help E-print Network Search Powered By Deep Web Technologies New Search Preferences E-print Network E-print Network Skip to main content FAQ *...

  13. Template:PrintFullVersionButton | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    PrintFullVersionButton Jump to: navigation, search This is the PrintFullVersionButton template. It is intended for inclusion on any page where the printing of a superset of pages...

  14. Printing a Car: A Team Effort in Innovation (Text Version) |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Printing a Car: A Team Effort in Innovation (Text Version) Printing a Car: A Team Effort in Innovation (Text Version) Below is the text version of the video Printing a Car: A Team ...

  15. Minutes from the March 17, 2010 Printing and Mail Teleconference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    March 17, 2010 Printing and Mail Managers Exchange Forum Teleconference Twenty-eight individuals participated in the Printing and Mail Managers Exchange Forum, which included Printing and Mail Managers and Contractors. Comments/Additions to last Months Minutes Dallas Woodruff, Headquarters opened the meeting by thanking everyone for participating in the today's teleconference. Printing Agenda Items... Upcoming Congressional Joint Committee on Printing Commercial Printing Report "JCP Form

  16. Minutes from the May 26, 2010 Printing and Mail Teleconference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    26, 2010 Printing and Mail Managers Exchange Forum Teleconference Seventeen individuals participated in the Printing and Mail Managers Exchange Forum, which included Printing and Mail Managers and Contractors. Comments/Additions to last Months Minutes Dallas Woodruff, Headquarters opened the meeting by thanking everyone for participating in the today's teleconference. Printing Agenda Items... Update on the FY 2010, Congressional Joint Committee on Printing Commercial Printing Report "JCP

  17. Minutes from the February 23, 2012 Printing and Mail Teleconference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Printing and Publishing Activities Three-Year Plan (2013-2015). Dallas Woodruff, Headquarters, informed the group that the Department-wide Printing and Publishing Activities ...

  18. Minutes from the November 01, 2012 Printing and Mail Teleconference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Printing discussion Discussed the question of how the 3-year plan correlates to a quarterly printing and publishing activities report. The quarterly report does not exist. We ...

  19. Minutes from the October 26, 2011 Printing and Mail Teleconference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Printing Agenda Items...... Printing and Publishing Activities Report "Three-Year Plan: Dallas Woodruff, Headquarters informed the group that all Three-Year Plan files have been ...

  20. Minutes from the January 20, 2010 Printing and Mail Teleconference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Printing Agenda Items... Update on the Department-wide Printing and Publishing Activities Report Three-Year Plan. Dallas Woodruff, Headquarters thanked the group for their ...

  1. Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing Addthis Description Innovation in the design ...

  2. Unitech Printed Circuit Board Corp UPCB | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Sector: Solar Product: Taiwan-based printed-circuit board maker with intent to enter into solar cell manufacturing industry. References: Unitech Printed Circuit Board Corp....

  3. Transfer Printed Microcells with Micro-Optic Concentrators for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transfer Printed Microcells with Micro-Optic Concentrators for Low Cost, High Performance Photovoltaic Modules Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transfer Printed...

  4. 3D printed cellular solid outperforms traditional stochastic foam in long-term mechanical response

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Maiti, A.; Small, W.; Lewicki, J.; Weisgraber, T. H.; Duoss, E. B.; Chinn, S. C.; Pearson, M. A.; Spadaccini, C. M.; Maxwell, R. S.; Wilson, T. S.

    2016-04-27

    3D printing of polymeric foams by direct-ink-write is a recent technological breakthrough that enables the creation of versatile compressible solids with programmable microstructure, customizable shapes, and tunable mechanical response including negative elastic modulus. However, in many applications the success of these 3D printed materials as a viable replacement for traditional stochastic foams critically depends on their mechanical performance and micro-architectural stability while deployed under long-term mechanical strain. To predict the long-term performance of the two types of foams we employed multi-year-long accelerated aging studies under compressive strain followed by a time-temperature-superposition analysis using a minimum-arc-length-based algorithm. The resulting master curvesmore » predict superior long-term performance of the 3D printed foam in terms of two different metrics, i.e., compression set and load retention. To gain deeper understanding, we imaged the microstructure of both foams using X-ray computed tomography, and performed finite-element analysis of the mechanical response within these microstructures. As a result, this indicates a wider stress variation in the stochastic foam with points of more extreme local stress as compared to the 3D printed material, which might explain the latter’s improved long-term stability and mechanical performance.« less

  5. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  6. Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Cheng, Fei; Gao, Jie; Stan, Liliana; Rosenmann, Daniel; Czaplewski, David; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-05-26

    We report a structural color printing platform based on aluminum plasmonic metamaterials supporting near perfect light absorption and narrow-band spectral response tunable across the visible spectrum to realize high-resolution, angle-insensitive color printing with high color purity and saturation. Additionally, the fabricated metamaterials can be protected by a transparent polymer thin layer for ambient use with further improved color performance. The demonstrated structural color printing with aluminum plasmonic metamaterials offers great potential for relevant applications such as security marking and information storage.

  7. World's First 3-D Printed Car | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    World's First 3-D Printed Car World's First 3-D Printed Car Addthis Description The video is about a partnership between Local Motors and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to print the world's first 3-D printed car-the Strati-at the 2014 International Manufacturing Technology Show

  8. E-print Network Alert Service

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Website Policies and Important Links E-print Web Log alert image About Search Browse by ... and engineering databases and Web sites, based on a search profile you submit to us. ...

  9. E-print Network : User Account

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    New Search | My Selections (0) | | | | Alerts | E-print Network Create User Account User Name: Email Address: I want to: Always receive emails Receive emails if there are new...

  10. Minutes from the January 19, 2011 Printing and Mail Teleconference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    January 2010 Printing and Mail Managers Exchange Forum Teleconference Twenty-one individuals participated in the Printing and Mail Managers Exchange Forum, which included Printing and Mail Managers and Contractors Comments/Additions to last Months Minutes No comments. Printing Agenda Items......... Update on the Department-wide FY-2010 Three-Year Plan Dallas Woodruff, Headquarters in formed the group that the Department-wide Printing and Publishing Activities is currently in the concurrence

  11. Minutes from the July 21, 2010 Printing and Mail Teleconference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    July 21, 2010 Printing and Mail Managers Exchange Forum Teleconference Twenty-one individuals participated in the Printing and Mail Managers Exchange Forum, which included Printing and Mail Managers and Contractors. Comments/Additions to last Months Minutes Dallas Woodruff, Headquarters opened the meeting by thanking everyone for participating in the today's teleconference. Printing Agenda Items... Update on the Government Printing Office revisions to the Standard Form one (SF!), Twenty-five

  12. Field Facilities Contacts for Printing and Mail | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Field Facilities Contacts for Printing and Mail Field Facilities Contacts for Printing and Mail This is the list of DOE field facilities contacts for Printing and Mail as of April 27, 2011. Go to Mail Services Go to Printing Services Field_Facilities_Contacts_Print-Mail.pdf (74.45 KB) More Documents & Publications Director's Perspective by George Miller Tenant Education and Training Fire Safety Committee Membership List

  13. Minutes from the Print and Mail Managers Exchange Forum Teleconferences |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Minutes from the Print and Mail Managers Exchange Forum Teleconferences Minutes from the Print and Mail Managers Exchange Forum Teleconferences Minutes from the Print and Mail Managers Exchange Forum Teleconferences. Contact the Office of Administrative Management and Support at (202) 586-4318 with any questions. Last updated 01/30/14 Minutes from the November 21, 2013 Printing and Mail Teleconference (8.88 KB) Minutes from the September 19, 2013 Printing and Mail

  14. Nozzle geometry for organic vapor jet printing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; McGraw, Gregory

    2015-01-13

    A first device is provided. The device includes a print head. The print head further includes a first nozzle hermetically sealed to a first source of gas. The first nozzle has an aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns in a direction perpendicular to a flow direction of the first nozzle. At a distance from the aperture into the first nozzle that is 5 times the smallest dimension of the aperture of the first nozzle, the smallest dimension perpendicular to the flow direction is at least twice the smallest dimension of the aperture of the first nozzle.

  15. THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING IS BLOWING UP.

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    THIS IS A COPY OF THE EXECUTED DOCUMENT THIS IS A COPY OF THE EXECUTED DOCUMENT THIS IS A COPY OF THE EXECUTED DOCUMENT THIS IS A COPY OF THE EXECUTED DOCUMENT

    March 2016 THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING IS BLOWING UP. From the obvious-hand tools and chess pieces-to the less obvious-body parts and shelf-stable food-just about every item imaginable is being subjected to the two-step process of digitization and fabrication that is 3D printing. One of the factors fueling the

  16. Dai Nippon Printing Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dai Nippon Printing Co Ltd Place: Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan Zip: 162-8001 Sector: Solar Product: Print conglomerate which is involved with...

  17. E-print Network Alerts -- Energy, science, and technology for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Home About Advanced Search Browse by Discipline Scientific Societies E-print Alerts Add E-prints FAQ * HELP * SITE MAP * CONTACT US Enter Search Terms Search Advanced Search

  18. Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing A screenshot of the cover of the 3D blade ...

  19. Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles Can Improve...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles Can Improve EV Power and Efficiency Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles Can Improve EV Power and Efficiency April...

  20. Gas cushion control of OVJP print head position

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2014-10-07

    An OVJP apparatus and method for applying organic vapor or other flowable material to a substrate using a printing head mechanism in which the print head spacing from the substrate is controllable using a cushion of air or other gas applied between the print head and substrate. The print head is mounted for translational movement towards and away from the substrate and is biased toward the substrate by springs or other means. A gas cushion feed assembly supplies a gas under pressure between the print head and substrate which opposes the biasing of the print head toward the substrate so as to form a space between the print head and substrate. By controlling the pressure of gas supplied, the print head separation from the substrate can be precisely controlled.

  1. Department of Energy Strategic Plan, May 2011, Print Quality | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Department of Energy Strategic Plan, May 2011, Print Quality Department of Energy Strategic Plan, May 2011, Print Quality Posted here are publication materials related to the Department of Energy's Strategic Plan of 2011. DOE_2011-Strategic-Plan_High-Resolution_Print-Quality is a full-data, high-resolution version of the document. This will print/reproduce with the maximum resolution available from your output device (printer). This is a 15.7 Mb file.

  2. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print Wednesday, 31 October 2012 00:00 The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film

  3. Wind Turbine Manufacturing Transforms with Three-Dimensional Printing |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Turbine Manufacturing Transforms with Three-Dimensional Printing Wind Turbine Manufacturing Transforms with Three-Dimensional Printing May 19, 2016 - 12:57pm Addthis From medical devices to airplane components, three-dimensional (3-D) printing (also called additive manufacturing) is transforming the manufacturing industry. Now, research that supports the Energy Department's Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) initiative is applying 3-D-printing processes to create wind turbine

  4. Compton tomography system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubsky, Victor; Romanoov, Volodymyr; Shoemaker, Keith; Patton, Edward Matthew; Jannson, Tomasz

    2016-02-02

    A Compton tomography system comprises an x-ray source configured to produce a planar x-ray beam. The beam irradiates a slice of an object to be imaged, producing Compton-scattered x-rays. The Compton-scattered x-rays are imaged by an x-ray camera. Translation of the object with respect to the source and camera or vice versa allows three-dimensional object imaging.

  5. Computed Tomography Status

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Hansche, B. D.

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a relatively new radiographic technique which has become widely used in the medical field, where it is better known as computerized axial tomographic (CAT) scanning. This technique is also being adopted by the industrial radiographic community, although the greater range of densities, variation in samples sizes, plus possible requirement for finer resolution make it difficult to duplicate the excellent results that the medical scanners have achieved.

  6. Generalized local emission tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katsevich, Alexander J.

    1998-01-01

    Emission tomography enables locations and values of internal isotope density distributions to be determined from radiation emitted from the whole object. In the method for locating the values of discontinuities, the intensities of radiation emitted from either the whole object or a region of the object containing the discontinuities are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the isotope density discontinuity. The asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) is determined in a neighborhood of S, and the value for the discontinuity is estimated from the asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) knowing pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object. In the method for determining the location of the discontinuity, the intensities of radiation emitted from an object are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the density discontinuity and the location .GAMMA. of the attenuation coefficient discontinuity. Pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object need not be known in this case.

  7. Enhanced local tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katsevich, Alexander J.; Ramm, Alexander G.

    1996-01-01

    Local tomography is enhanced to determine the location and value of a discontinuity between a first internal density of an object and a second density of a region within the object. A beam of radiation is directed in a predetermined pattern through the region of the object containing the discontinuity. Relative attenuation data of the beam is determined within the predetermined pattern having a first data component that includes attenuation data through the region. In a first method for evaluating the value of the discontinuity, the relative attenuation data is inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA. to define the location S of the density discontinuity. The asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA. is determined in a neighborhood of S, and the value for the discontinuity is estimated from the asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA.. In a second method for evaluating the value of the discontinuity, a gradient value for a mollified local tomography function .gradient..function..sub..LAMBDA..epsilon. (x.sub.ij) is determined along the discontinuity; and the value of the jump of the density across the discontinuity curve (or surface) S is estimated from the gradient values.

  8. A Docking Casette For Printed Circuit Boards

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barringer, Dennis R. (Wallkill, NY); Seminaro, Edward J. (Milton, NY); Toffler, Harold M. (Newburgh, NY)

    2003-08-19

    A docking apparatus for printed circuit boards including a cassette housing, having a housing base, a housing cover and a housing wall, wherein the housing base and the housing wall are disposed relative to each other so as to define a housing cavity for containing a printed circuit board and wherein the housing wall includes a cable opening disposed so as to be communicated with the housing cavity, a linkage mechanism, wherein the linkage mechanism includes an engagement configuration and a disengagement configuration and wherein the linkage mechanism is disposed so as to be associated with the cassette housing and a housing bezel, wherein the housing bezel is disposed relative to the cassette housing so as to be associated with the cable opening.

  9. Solar paint: From synthesis to printing

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Zhou, Xiaojing; Belcher, Warwick; Dastoor, Paul

    2014-11-13

    Water-based polymer nanoparticle dispersions (solar paint) offer the prospect of addressing two of the main challenges associated with printing large area organic photovoltaic devices; namely, how to control the nanoscale architecture of the active layer and eliminate the need for hazardous organic solvents during device fabrication. We review progress in the field of nanoparticulate organic photovoltaic (NPOPV) devices and future prospects for large-scale manufacturing of solar cells based on this technology.

  10. Rework of parylene coated printed wiring assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, J.O.

    1991-04-01

    This document describes the recommended method for reworking parylene coated Printed Wiring Assemblies (PWAs). Special training is required to successfully rework PWAs that are parylene coated. Parylene coating rework should not be attempted on production units unless successful parylene coating removal has been completed on non-production assemblies. The rework procedures described in this document are recommended for normal parylene rework. Special situations may dictate slight deviation from the methods described herein. 4 figs.

  11. Radial reflection diffraction tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lehman, Sean K.

    2012-12-18

    A wave-based tomographic imaging method and apparatus based upon one or more rotating radially outward oriented transmitting and receiving elements have been developed for non-destructive evaluation. At successive angular locations at a fixed radius, a predetermined transmitting element can launch a primary field and one or more predetermined receiving elements can collect the backscattered field in a "pitch/catch" operation. A Hilbert space inverse wave (HSIW) algorithm can construct images of the received scattered energy waves using operating modes chosen for a particular application. Applications include, improved intravascular imaging, bore hole tomography, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of parts having existing access holes.

  12. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  13. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1995-10-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU.

  14. High energy neutron Computed Tomography developed

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    objects. May 9, 2014 Neutron tomography horizontal "slice" of a tungsten and polyethylene test object containing tungsten carbide BBs. Neutron tomography horizontal "slice"...

  15. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  16. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  17. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  18. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  19. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  20. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  1. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  2. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  3. Minutes from the May 3, 2012 Printing and Mail Teleconference

    Energy Savers

    ... eliminate color, eliminate special finishes, eliminate blank pages) Reminder to send emails to me: Update for name, email address, and your roll (mail, printing or both) ...

  4. Silver Ink for Conductor Printing - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    flake suspended in a suitable solvent amenable to printing. These silver metal suspension formulations require high processing temperatures to sinter the particles (180 C)....

  5. Energy Department Unveils 3D-Printed Building; New Initiatives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Energy Department Unveils 3D-Printed Building; New Initiatives During Industry Day DOE Announces JUMP Initiative Winners, Launches New Crowdsourcing Calls at Bay Area Maker Faire

  6. DISCLAIMER : UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED - PLEASE CHECK THE STATUS...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    29 Oct 2015 DISCLAIMER : UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED - PLEASE CHECK THE STATUS OF THE DOCUMENT IN IDM Technical Specifications (In-Cash Procurement) Tech Specs for Boundary and first...

  7. E-print Network home page -- Energy, science, and technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy, science, and technology for the research community Enter Search Terms Search Advanced Search The E-print Network is . . . . . . a vast, integrated network of electronic ...

  8. Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    WORKING TOGETHER TO BUILD A FASTER AND LEANER FUTURE FOR WIND TURBINE BLADE MANUFACTURING ... For the wind industry, 3D printing could transform turbine blade mold manufacturing, ...

  9. Minutes from the September 15, 2010 Printing and Mail Teleconference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Some equipment requires approval from the Joint Committee on Printing prior to obtaining that piece of equipment. Mr. Woodruff also said site must request approval from ...

  10. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3D Printed Shelby Cobra 3D Printed Shelby Cobra Description ORNL's newly printed 3D car will be showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy's Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a

  11. 3D Printing a Classic | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    D Printing a Classic 3D Printing a Classic January 15, 2015 - 4:02pm Addthis The team from the Oak Ridge Manufacturing Demonstration Facility is at the Detroit Auto Show this week to display their latest accomplishment: a 3D-printed, electric-motor driven, Shelby Cobra. In just six weeks, the team went from designing the car in digital models, to 3D printing the frame and other parts with fiber-reinforced composite material, to assembling, finishing, and painting the final product. President

  12. Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Moreover, the fabricated metasurfaces can be protected with a protective coating for ambient use without degrading performances. The demonstrated structural color printing platform ...

  13. DOE fundamentals handbook: Engineering symbology, prints, and drawings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Engineering Symbology, Prints, and Drawings Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of engineering prints, their use, and their function. The handbook includes information on engineering fluid drawings and prints; piping and instrument drawings; major symbols and conventions; electronic diagrams and schematics; logic circuits and diagrams; and fabrication, construction, and architectural drawings. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for reading, interpreting, and using the engineering prints and drawings that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations and maintenance.

  14. DOE fundamentals handbook: Engineering symbology, prints, and drawings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Engineering Symbology, Prints, and Drawings Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of engineering prints, their use, and their function. The handbook includes information on engineering fluid drawings and prints; piping and instrument drawings; major symbols and conventions; electronic diagrams and schematics; logic circuits and diagrams; and fabrication, construction, and architectural drawings. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for reading, interpreting, and using the engineering prints and drawings that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations and maintenance.

  15. DOE fundamentals handbook: Engineering symbology, prints, and drawings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Engineering Symbology, Prints, and Drawings Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of engineering prints, their use, and their function. The handbook includes information on engineering fluid drawings and prints; piping and instrument drawings; major symbols and conventions; electronic diagrams and schematics; logic circuits and diagrams; and fabrication, construction, and architectural drawings. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for reading, interpreting, and using the engineering prints and drawings that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations and maintenance.

  16. W7 printing from VISITOR network

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    W7 printing from VISITOR network Last Modified by Jerry Camuso, 02/12/2015. 1 . From the "start menu", click on "Devices and Printers" 2. Click on "Add a printer" and choose "Add a local printer". 3 . Choose "create a new port" and pick "Standard TCP/IP Port" from the drop down menu. 4. Type the following for the next box and click "Next": Hostname or IP address: PRINTSERV.slac.stanford.edu Port name: This should be the DNS

  17. DOE Science Showcase - 3D Printing | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Ames Lab Video of the 3D printer in action, YouTube 3D printing yields advantages for US ITER engineers, ORNL 3D Printing Rises to the Occasion, ORNL "Printing" Tiny batteries, DOE ...

  18. In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 25 February 2015 00:00 Plastic solar cells...

  19. Local Motors Begins Their Six Day Quest to 3D Print the 'Strati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Local Motors Begins Their Six Day Quest to 3D Print the 'Strati' Car Live at IMTS (470.83 KB) More Documents & Publications Printing a Car: A Team Effort in Innovation Printing a ...

  20. Fact #804: November 18, 2013 Tool Available to Print Used Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Available to Print Used Vehicle Fuel Economy Window Stickers Fact 804: November 18, 2013 Tool Available to Print Used Vehicle Fuel Economy Window Stickers Because used vehicle ...

  1. Suitability for 3D Printed Parts for Laboratory Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zwicker, Andrew P.; Bloom, Josh; Albertson, Robert; Gershman, Sophia

    2014-08-01

    3D printing has become popular for a variety of users, from industrial to the home hobbyist, to scientists and engineers interested in producing their own laboratory equipment. In order to determine the suitability of 3D printed parts for our plasma physics laboratory, we measured the accuracy, strength, vacuum compatibility, and electrical properties of pieces printed in plastic. The flexibility of rapidly creating custom parts has led to the 3D printer becoming an invaluable resource in our laboratory and is equally suitable for producing equipment for advanced undergraduate laboratories.

  2. 3D Printing a Classic Shelby Cobra | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers

    7pt.2PerformanceBasedServiceAcquisition.pdf 37pt.2PerformanceBasedServiceAcquisition.pdf (1022.17 KB) More Documents & Publications Acquisitions___Communications.pdf Acquisition Guide Chapter 7.1 - Acquisition Planning One Acquisition Solution for Integrated Services (OASIS) - Brad DeMers, General Services Administration (GSA)

    3D Printed Shelby Cobra 3D Printed Shelby Cobra Description ORNL's newly printed 3D car will be showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on

  3. Neutron Computed Tomography of Turbine Blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilheux, Hassina

    2015-06-03

    ORNL Researcher Hassina Bilheux explains the ability of SNS to explore the internal structure of a 3D-printed turbine blade.

  4. 3D Printing Comes of Age | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and used only for prototype builds, to performing on the real factory floor. Watch the video about the 3D printing demonstration. Learn more about the Advanced Manufacturing Office

  5. Printing a Car: A Team Effort in Innovation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Oak Ridge National Lab's work with Local Motors to build a 3D-printed car was highlighted at the International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS) in September 2014 with a live demonstration.

  6. 3D-Printed Car by Local Motors- The Strati

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A timelapse video of the production process behind The Strati - the 3D-printed car by Local Motors, which manufactured with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and delivered at the International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS) in September of 2014.

  7. 3D Printing Enables New Generation of Heat Exchangers

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Three-dimensional printing is revolutionizing how we manufacture objects in almost every industry—from vehicles to medical devices to biotech. Now, the University of Maryland, through a partnership...

  8. Printed decorative solar panels could become part of our homes...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    content Printed decorative solar panels could become part of our homes and offices Hello, I provide user supp... The top one on this page: htt... Can you send the specific...

  9. 3D Printed Car at the International Manufacturing Technology...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Image: Courtesy of Local Motors Carbon Fiber Pellets 4 of 6 Carbon Fiber Pellets Pellets of plastic mixed with carbon fiber were used in the production process of the 3D-printed ...

  10. Instructions to Print Monthly P-card Statement

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    to Print Monthly P-card Statement 1. Go to Website https:gov1.paymentnet.com and login with your Organization ID, User ID and Pass Phrase. Organization ID is doe0001. User ID and...

  11. Future of 3D Printing | GE Global Research

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    In 2016, GE will enter a new jet engine into service called the CFM LEAP-the first in GE's line to incorporate 3D-printed parts. Specifically, it will be a combustion component ...

  12. A Unix Print Filter for Controlling an HP Laserjet Printer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a Unix print filter designed to control an Hewlett Packard Laserjet or other printer that uses Hewlett Packard's Printer Control Language (HP-PCL). The filter gives users the ability to control print pitch, orientation, and indentation by using standard flags to the Unix lpr command or multiple entries in the /etc/printcap file and allows both ascii and binary (i.e., graphics and down-loadable fonts) files to be printed. Additionally, the filter provides some accounting capability. The supported print pitch and orientation options are described, as are the different configuration options. The code for the filter is included in Appendix A and sample entries for the /etc/printcap file are included in Appendix B and C.

  13. Printing 3D Catalytic Devices | The Ames Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Printing 3D Catalytic Devices An error occurred. Try watching this video on www.youtube.com, or enable JavaScript if it is disabled in your browser. Ames Laboratory scientist Igor...

  14. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fission...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Optimization Online, An E-Print Site for the Optimization Community Oregon State University, Department of Mathematics, Vector Calculus Gap Project

  15. Researchers 3D print ultralight supercapacitors | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) 3D print ultralight supercapacitors Monday, February 22, 2016 - 12:00am NNSA Blog The micro-architectured, ultra-lightweight supercapacitor material is able to retain energy on par with those made with electrodes 10 to 100 times thinner. For the first time ever, scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and UC Santa Cruz have successfully 3D-printed supercapacitors using an ultra-lightweight graphene aerogel, opening the door to novel, unconstrained designs

  16. High energy neutron Computed Tomography developed

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    High energy neutron Computed Tomography developed High energy neutron Computed Tomography developed LANSCE now has a high-energy neutron imaging capability that can be deployed on WNR flight paths for unclassified and classified objects. May 9, 2014 Neutron tomography horizontal "slice" of a tungsten and polyethylene test object containing tungsten carbide BBs. Neutron tomography horizontal "slice" of a tungsten and polyethylene test object containing tungsten carbide BBs.

  17. Spatial resolution of diffraction tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickens, T.A.; Winbow, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Diffraction tomography is an imaging technique applicable to crosshole seismic data and aimed at achieving optimal spatial resolution away from the borehole. In principle the method can form acoustic images equivalent to extending acoustic well logs away from the wellbore and into the formation with a spatial resolution less than one wavelength of the radiation employed to gather the crosshole data. This paper reports on the capability of diffraction tomography to produce high-resolution reconstructions of simple targets from limited-view-angle data. The goal is to quantify the resolution and velocity-reconstruction capability of diffraction tomography with realistic source{endash}receiver geometries. Simple targets (disks and low-contrast sequences of layers) are used for this study. The scattering from these targets can be calculated without approximation, making them ideal test cases for the algorithm. The resolution capability of diffraction tomography is determined to be on the order of one wavelength for several experimental geometries. It is shown that the image-formation characteristics of diffraction tomography, in terms of its ability to determine object boundaries and velocities, are closely related to the experimental geometry. Reflection and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) experiments tend to reproduce boundaries well, while crosshole experiments give the best overall reconstruction of both target boundaries and velocity. The quantitative accuracy of the velocity reconstruction depends upon the match between the spatial-frequency content of the object and the spatial-frequency response of the algorithm. For some targets, the velocity cannot be correctly reproduced from limited-view-angle data. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  18. OSTIblog Articles in the 3D Printing Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Scientific and Technical Information 3D Printing Topic 3-D Printing - A powerful tool gains momentum by Kathy Chambers 29 May, 2014 in 17530 3D%20printed%20perforated%20metal%20box.jpg 3-D Printing - A powerful tool gains momentum Read more about 17530 3D printing technology is gaining fresh momentum in Department of Energy (DOE) research endeavors. 3D printing is achieved using an additive manufacturing process that creates 3D objects directly from a computer model, depositing material

  19. Optical systems fabricated by printing-based assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John; Nuzzo, Ralph; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Baca, Alfred J.; Motala, Michael; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Park, Sang-II; Yu; Chang-Jae; Ko, Heung-Cho; Stoykovich; Mark; Yoon, Jongseung

    2011-07-05

    Provided are optical devices and systems fabricated, at least in part, via printing-based assembly and integration of device components. In specific embodiments the present invention provides light emitting systems, light collecting systems, light sensing systems and photovoltaic systems comprising printable semiconductor elements, including large area, high performance macroelectronic devices. Optical systems of the present invention comprise semiconductor elements assembled, organized and/or integrated with other device components via printing techniques that exhibit performance characteristics and functionality comparable to single crystalline semiconductor based devices fabricated using conventional high temperature processing methods. Optical systems of the present invention have device geometries and configurations, such as form factors, component densities, and component positions, accessed by printing that provide a range of useful device functionalities. Optical systems of the present invention include devices and device arrays exhibiting a range of useful physical and mechanical properties including flexibility, shapeability, conformability and stretchablity.

  20. Optical systems fabricated by printing-based assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John; Nuzzo, Ralph; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Baca, Alfred; Motala, Michael; Ahn, Jong -Hyun; Park, Sang -Il; Yu, Chang -Jae; Ko, Heung Cho; Stoykovich, Mark; Yoon, Jongseung

    2015-08-25

    Provided are optical devices and systems fabricated, at least in part, via printing-based assembly and integration of device components. In specific embodiments the present invention provides light emitting systems, light collecting systems, light sensing systems and photovoltaic systems comprising printable semiconductor elements, including large area, high performance macroelectronic devices. Optical systems of the present invention comprise semiconductor elements assembled, organized and/or integrated with other device components via printing techniques that exhibit performance characteristics and functionality comparable to single crystalline semiconductor based devices fabricated using conventional high temperature processing methods. Optical systems of the present invention have device geometries and configurations, such as form factors, component densities, and component positions, accessed by printing that provide a range of useful device functionalities. Optical systems of the present invention include devices and device arrays exhibiting a range of useful physical and mechanical properties including flexibility, shapeability, conformability and stretchablity.

  1. Optical systems fabricated by printing-based assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John; Nuzzo, Ralph; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Baca, Alfred J; Motala, Michael; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Park, Sang-Il; Yu, Chang-Jae; Ko, Heung Cho; Stoykovich, Mark; Yoon, Jongseung

    2014-05-13

    Provided are optical devices and systems fabricated, at least in part, via printing-based assembly and integration of device components. In specific embodiments the present invention provides light emitting systems, light collecting systems, light sensing systems and photovoltaic systems comprising printable semiconductor elements, including large area, high performance macroelectronic devices. Optical systems of the present invention comprise semiconductor elements assembled, organized and/or integrated with other device components via printing techniques that exhibit performance characteristics and functionality comparable to single crystalline semiconductor based devices fabricated using conventional high temperature processing methods. Optical systems of the present invention have device geometries and configurations, such as form factors, component densities, and component positions, accessed by printing that provide a range of useful device functionalities. Optical systems of the present invention include devices and device arrays exhibiting a range of useful physical and mechanical properties including flexibility, shapeability, conformability and stretchablity.

  2. Toward integrated PV panels and power electronics using printing technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ababei, Cristinel; Yuvarajan, Subbaraya; Schulz, Douglas L.

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, we review the latest developments in the area of printing technologies with an emphasis on the fabrication of control-embedded photovoltaics (PV) with on-board active and passive devices. We also review the use of power converters and maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuits with PV panels. Our focus is on the investigation of the simplest implementations of such circuits in view of their integration with solar cells using printing technologies. We see this concept as potentially enabling toward further cost reduction. Besides a discussion as to feasibility, we shall also present some projections and guidelines toward possible integration. (author)

  3. Making 3D Printed Christmas Ornaments | GE Global Research

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Making 3D Printed Christmas Ornaments Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Making 3D Printed Christmas Ornaments Thomas The Elf 2011.12.20 Hi everybody! I am back again this year, bringing you some more holiday cheer from the GE Global Research labs! As an encore to the redesign of Santa's sleigh and

  4. High density printed electrical circuit board card connection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumbaugh, A.E.

    1997-05-06

    A zero insertion/extraction force printed circuit board card connection system comprises a cam-operated locking mechanism disposed along an edge portion of the printed circuit board. The extrusions along the circuit board mate with an extrusion fixed to the card cage having a plurality of electrical connectors. The card connection system allows the connectors to be held away from the circuit board during insertion/extraction and provides a constant mating force once the circuit board is positioned. The card connection system provides a simple solution to the need for a greater number of electrical signal connections. 12 figs.

  5. High density printed electrical circuit board card connection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumbaugh, Alan E.

    1997-01-01

    A zero insertion/extraction force printed circuit board card connection system comprises a cam-operated locking mechanism disposed along an edge portion of the printed circuit board. The extrusions along the circuit board mate with an extrusion fixed to the card cage having a plurality of electrical connectors. The card connection system allows the connectors to be held away from the circuit board during insertion/extraction and provides a constant mating force once the circuit board is positioned. The card connection system provides a simple solution to the need for a greater number of electrical signal connections.

  6. E-print Network Web Log News: Research Communications for Scientists...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Weve had a number of inquiries about how to best search our E-prints on Web-sites feature for individual authors. Heres what you do. First be sure that the E-prints on Web ...

  7. Install the E-print Network toolbar -- Energy, science, and technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Home About Advanced Search Browse by Discipline Scientific Societies E-print Alerts Add E-prints FAQ * HELP * SITE MAP * CONTACT US Enter Search Terms Search Advanced Search

  8. OSTI's E-print Network content tops 900,000 documents | OSTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    than 22,000 scientific e-print Web sites. In addition, the E-print Network provides links to more than 2,900 relevant scientific societies. This Web portal, established as the ...

  9. ENG-Canada-USA Government Procurement (clean 11 Feb 2010 printed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ENG-Canada-USA Government Procurement (clean 11 Feb 2010 printed) ENG-Canada-USA Government Procurement (clean 11 Feb 2010 printed) ENG-Canada-USA Government Procurement (clean 11 ...

  10. Intense X-rays expose tiny flaws in 3-D printed titanium that...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Researchers theorized there would be a "sweet spot" at which they could set printing ... was a little bitter: there was no sweet spot for printing flawless Ti-6Al-4V. ...

  11. Picture of the Week: An explosion of 3D printing technology

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    structure. May 24, 2015 An explosion of 3D printing technology x View image on Flickr Additive Manufacturing, known also as 3D printing, allows for the rapid production of...

  12. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Positron Scanning

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    track chemical reactions in living tissues and merges chemistry with biological imaging. ... Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for Imaging Body Chemistry, a Fermilab Colloquium ...

  13. Imaging and sensing based on muon tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L; Saunders, Alexander; Sossong, Michael James; Schultz, Larry Joe; Green, J. Andrew; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Hengartner, Nicolas W; Smith, Richard A; Colthart, James M; Klugh, David C; Scoggins, Gary E; Vineyard, David C

    2012-10-16

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons for imaging applications. Subtraction techniques are described to enhance the processing of the muon tomography data.

  14. EERE Success Story-Just Plain Cool, the 3D Printed Shelby Cobra |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Just Plain Cool, the 3D Printed Shelby Cobra EERE Success Story-Just Plain Cool, the 3D Printed Shelby Cobra February 4, 2015 - 4:32pm Addthis Indistinguishable from conventional production vehicles on display, the 3D printed Shelby Cobra celebrated its 50th anniversary at the Detroit Auto Show in early January. Printed at the Department of Energy's Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Shelby Cobra electric vehicle replica is

  15. Printing Tiny Batteries | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    "Printing" Tiny Batteries? Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News EFRC Events DOE Announcements Publications History Contact BES Home 06.26.13 Stories of Discovery & Innovation: "Printing" Tiny Batteries? Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Researchers use sophisticated 3D printing techniques to create batteries the size of a grain of sand. This work, featured in the Office of

  16. Gas microstrip detectors based on flexible printed circuit technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salomon, M.; Crowe, K.; Faszer, W.; Lindsay, P.; Maier, J.M.C.

    1996-06-01

    The authors have studied the properties of a new type of Gas Microstrip Counter built using flexible printed circuit technology. They describe the manufacturing procedures, the assembly of the device, as well as its operation under a variety of conditions, gases and types of radiation. They also describe two new passivation materials, tantalum and niobium, which produce effective surfaces.

  17. Printing a Car: A Team Effort in Innovation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, Jay; Love, Lonnie; Johnson, Mark; Ivester, Rob; Neff, Rick; Blue, Craig

    2014-09-17

    The story behind the realization of a unique project: the building of a 3D printed electric car, as told by team members. Strati materialized out of 15% carbon-reinforced ABS thermoplastic in a record 44 hours, under the very eyes of attendees at this year's International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS).

  18. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Longguang [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of MichiganShanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: yellen@duke.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of MichiganShanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, P.O. Box 90300, Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2014-06-23

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6?A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70?G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  19. Printing a Car: A Team Effort in Innovation

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Rogers, Jay; Love, Lonnie; Johnson, Mark; Ivester, Rob; Neff, Rick; Blue, Craig;

    2014-11-24

    The story behind the realization of a unique project: the building of a 3D printed electric car, as told by team members. Strati materialized out of 15% carbon-reinforced ABS thermoplastic in a record 44 hours, under the very eyes of attendees at this year's International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS).

  20. NEUTRON IMAGING, RADIOGRAPHY AND TOMOGRAPHY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SMITH,G.C.

    2002-03-01

    Neutrons are an invaluable probe in a wide range of scientific, medical and commercial endeavors. Many of these applications require the recording of an image of the neutron signal, either in one-dimension or in two-dimensions. We summarize the reactions of neutrons with the most important elements that are used for their detection. A description is then given of the major techniques used in neutron imaging, with emphasis on the detection media and position readout principle. Important characteristics such as position resolution, linearity, counting rate capability and sensitivity to gamma-background are discussed. Finally, the application of a subset of these instruments in radiology and tomography is described.

  1. Diffraction scattering computed tomography: a window into the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    tomography: a window into the structures of complex nanomaterials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Diffraction scattering computed tomography: a window into the ...

  2. X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for the Durability Characterization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for the Durability Characterization of Limestone Aggregate Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for...

  3. EERE Success Story-Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles Can

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Improve EV Power and Efficiency | Department of Energy Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles Can Improve EV Power and Efficiency EERE Success Story-Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles Can Improve EV Power and Efficiency April 28, 2015 - 2:02pm Addthis 3-D Printed Inverter 3-D Printed Inverter Plug-in electric vehicle technologies are on their way to being even lighter, more powerful and more efficient with the advent of power inverters created by 3-D printing and

  4. 3D Printed and Semiconductor Technology 'Mash-up' | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3D Printed and Semiconductor Technology 'Mash-up' 3D Printed and Semiconductor Technology 'Mash-up' May 7, 2015 - 4:11pm Addthis 3D Printed and Semiconductor Technology 'Mash-up' What will you get if you put a 3D-printed inverter package with wide bandgap materials, together with the 3D-printed EV version of the Shelby Cobra "plug and play" laboratory-on-wheels? You'll get innovation - innovation that will define even lighter, more powerful, and more efficient vehicles. Oak Ridge

  5. Selective evaporation of focusing fluid in two-fluid hydrodynamic print head.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keicher, David M.; Cook, Adam W.

    2014-09-01

    The work performed in this project has demonstrated the feasibility to use hydrodynamic focusing of two fluid steams to create a novel micro printing technology for electronics and other high performance applications. Initial efforts focused solely on selective evaporation of the sheath fluid from print stream provided insight in developing a unique print head geometry allowing excess sheath fluid to be separated from the print flow stream for recycling/reuse. Fluid flow models suggest that more than 81 percent of the sheath fluid can be removed without affecting the print stream. Further development and optimization is required to demonstrate this capability in operation. Print results using two-fluid hydrodynamic focusing yielded a 30 micrometers wide by 0.5 micrometers tall line that suggests that the cross-section of the printed feature from the print head was approximately 2 micrometers in diameter. Printing results also demonstrated that complete removal of the sheath fluid is not necessary for all material systems. The two-fluid printing technology could enable printing of insulated conductors and clad optical interconnects. Further development of this concept should be pursued.

  6. Positron emission tomography wrist detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlyer, David J.; O'Connor, Paul; Woody, Craig; Junnarkar, Sachin Shrirang; Radeka, Veljko; Vaska, Paul; Pratte, Jean-Francois

    2006-08-15

    A method of serially transferring annihilation information in a compact positron emission tomography (PET) scanner includes generating a time signal representing a time-of-occurrence of an annihilation event, generating an address signal representing a channel detecting the annihilation event, and generating a channel signal including the time and address signals. The method also includes generating a composite signal including the channel signal and another similarly generated channel signal concerning another annihilation event. An apparatus that serially transfers annihilation information includes a time signal generator, address signal generator, channel signal generator, and composite signal generator. The time signal is asynchronous and the address signal is synchronous to a clock signal. A PET scanner includes a scintillation array, detection array, front-end array, and a serial encoder. The serial encoders include the time signal generator, address signal generator, channel signal generator, and composite signal generator.

  7. Collimator-free photon tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Barbour, Randall L.

    1998-10-06

    A method of uncollimated single photon emission computed tomography includes administering a radioisotope to a patient for producing gamma ray photons from a source inside the patient. Emissivity of the photons is measured externally of the patient with an uncollimated gamma camera at a plurality of measurement positions surrounding the patient for obtaining corresponding energy spectrums thereat. Photon emissivity at the plurality of measurement positions is predicted using an initial prediction of an image of the source. The predicted and measured photon emissivities are compared to obtain differences therebetween. Prediction and comparison is iterated by updating the image prediction until the differences are below a threshold for obtaining a final prediction of the source image.

  8. Collimator-free photon tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Barbour, R.L.

    1998-10-06

    A method of uncollimated single photon emission computed tomography includes administering a radioisotope to a patient for producing gamma ray photons from a source inside the patient. Emissivity of the photons is measured externally of the patient with an uncollimated gamma camera at a plurality of measurement positions surrounding the patient for obtaining corresponding energy spectrums thereat. Photon emissivity at the plurality of measurement positions is predicted using an initial prediction of an image of the source. The predicted and measured photon emissivities are compared to obtain differences therebetween. Prediction and comparison is iterated by updating the image prediction until the differences are below a threshold for obtaining a final prediction of the source image. 6 figs.

  9. Direct printing and reduction of graphite oxide for flexible supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hanyung; Ve Cheah, Chang; Jeong, Namjo; Lee, Junghoon

    2014-08-04

    We report direct printing and photo-thermal reduction of graphite oxide (GO) to obtain a highly porous pattern of interdigitated electrodes, leading to a supercapacitor on a flexible substrate. Key parameters optimized include the amount of GO delivered, the suitable photo-thermal energy level for effective flash reduction, and the substrate properties for appropriate adhesion after reduction. Tests with supercapacitors based on the printed-reduced GO showed performance comparable with commercial supercapacitors: the energy densities were 1.06 and 0.87 mWh/cm{sup 3} in ionic and organic electrolytes, respectively. The versatility in the architecture and choice of substrate makes this material promising for smart power applications.

  10. Coaxial connector for use with printed circuit board edge connector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Donald R.; MacGill, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    A coaxial cable connector for interfacing with an edge connector for a printed circuit board whereby a coaxial cable can be interconnected with a printed circuit board through the edge connector. The coaxial connector includes a body having two leg portions extending from one side for receiving the edge connector therebetween, and a tubular portion extending from an opposing side for receiving a coaxial cable. A cavity within the body receives a lug of the edge connector and the center conductor of the coaxial cable. Adjacent lugs of the edge connector can be bend around the edge connector housing to function as spring-loaded contacts for receiving the coaxial connector. The lugs also function to facilitate shielding of the center conductor where fastened to the edge connector lug.

  11. Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    (ORNL) Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system. BAAM is 500 to 1,000 times faster and capable of printing polymer components over 10 times larger than today's industrial additive machines. With research blades measuring 13 meters (42 feet) in length, BAAM provides the necessary scale and foundation for this ground-breaking advancement in blade research and manufacturing. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) plays a strategic role

  12. Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Big Area Additive Manufacturing, or BAAM machine developed in collaboration with Cincinnati Incorporated. BAAM is 500 to 1,000 times faster and capable of printing polymer components over 10 times larger than today's industrial additive machines. With research blades measuring 13 meters (42 feet) in length, BAAM provides the necessary scale and foundation for this ground-breaking advancement in blade research and manufacturing. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency

  13. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-19136 Unlimited Release Printed October

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    4-19136 Unlimited Release Printed October 2014 An Aeroelastic Reference Model for the SWIFT Turbines Brian R. Resor, Bruce LeBlanc Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract

  14. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-19199 Unlimited Release Printed October,

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    99 Unlimited Release Printed October, 2014 A Handbook on Artificial Soils for Indoor Photovoltaic Soiling Tests Patrick D. Burton, Bruce H. King Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract

  15. Federal Sustainable Print Management - DOE Directives, Delegations, and

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements G 436.1-1, Federal Sustainable Print Management by Jake Wooley The Guide provides acceptable approaches for implementing the IT sustainability requirements and criteria required by DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability, dated 5-2-11, and related to the sustainability requirements contained in Executive Order 13693, "Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade." Does not cancel/supersede other directives. g4361-1.pdf -- PDF Document, 450 KB Writer:

  16. Gas microstrip detectors based on flexible printed circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salomon, M.; Crowe, K.; Faszer, W.; Lindsay, P.; Curran Maier, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    Microstrip Gas Detectors (MSGC`s) were introduced some years ago as position sensitive detectors capable of operating at very high rates. The authors have studied the properties of a new type of Gas Microstrip Counter built using flexible printed circuit technology. They describe the manufacturing procedures, the assembly of the device, as well as its operation under a variety of conditions, gases and types of radiation. They also describe two new passivation materials, tantalum and niobium, which produce effective surfaces.

  17. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  18. Calibration of electrical impedance tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daily, W; Ramirez, A

    2000-05-01

    Over the past 10 years we have developed methods for imaging the electrical resistivity of soil and rock formations. These technologies have been called electrical resistance tomography of ERT (e.g. Daily and Owen, 1991). Recently we have been striving to extend this capability to include images of electric impedance--with a new nomenclature of electrical impedance tomography or EIT (Ramirez et al., 1999). Electrical impedance is simply a generalization of resistance. Whereas resistance is the zero frequency ratio of voltage and current, impedance includes both the magnitude and phase relationship between voltage and current at frequency. This phase and its frequency behavior is closely related to what in geophysics is called induced polarization or (Sumner, 1976). Why is this phase or IP important? IP is known to be related to many physical phenomena of importance so that image of IP will be maps of such things as mineralization and cation exchange IP (Marshall and Madden, 1959). Also, it is likely that IP, used in conjunction with resistivity, will yield information about the subsurface that can not be obtained by either piece of information separately. In order to define the accuracy of our technologies to image impedance we have constructed a physical model of known impedance that can be used as a calibration standard. It consists of 616 resistors, along with some capacitors to provide the reactive response, arranged in a three dimensional structure as in figure 1. Figure 2 shows the construction of the network and defines the coordinate system used to describe it. This network of components is a bounded and discrete version of the unbounded and continuous medium with which we normally work (the subsurface). The network has several desirable qualities: (1) The impedance values are known (to the accuracy of the component values). (2) The component values and their 3D distribution is easily controlled. (3) Error associated with electrode noise is eliminated. (4

  19. Non-Contact Printed Aluminum Metallization of Si Photovoltaic Devices: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, H. A. S.; van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Li, Y.; Novak, J. P.

    2012-06-01

    Alternative solution-based techniques such as aerosol jet printing offer the dual benefits of contactless pattern deposition and high material utilization. We have used aerosol jet printing to investigate non-contact printed Al metal ink as a replacement for screen printed Al back contacts on wafer Si solar cells. This particle-based ink can be prepared at high loadings of 60 weight % metal, which enables rapid deposition of 1 - 10 um thick lines. Al lines printed on Si wafers and heated between 550 and 800 degrees C form low resistance contacts suitable for current extraction. The effectiveness of these printed Al back contacts has further been demonstrated by incorporating them into a series of 21 cm2 crystalline Si solar cells that produced a champion power conversion efficiency of 13%.

  20. Researchers find 3-D printed parts to provide low-cost, custom alternatives

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    for laboratory equipment | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Researchers find 3-D printed parts to provide low-cost, custom alternatives for laboratory equipment By Raphael Rosen February 26, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook 3-D printed parts provide the stands for the aluminum globes in PPPL's Planeterrella, a device that simulates Northern Lights. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) 3-D printed parts provide the stands for the aluminum globes in PPPL's

  1. Researchers find 3-D printed parts to provide low-cost, custom alternatives

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    for laboratory equipment | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Researchers find 3-D printed parts to provide low-cost, custom alternatives for laboratory equipment By Raphael Rosen February 26, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook 3-D printed parts provide the stands for the aluminum globes in PPPL's Planeterrella, a device that simulates Northern Lights. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) 3-D printed parts provide the stands for the aluminum globes in PPPL's

  2. Energy Department Unveils 3D-Printed Building; New Initiatives During

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Industry Day | Department of Energy Unveils 3D-Printed Building; New Initiatives During Industry Day Energy Department Unveils 3D-Printed Building; New Initiatives During Industry Day October 1, 2015 - 12:25pm Addthis The Energy Department announced several new and exciting innovations and programs during Industry Day held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee Sept. 23-24. This included unveiling a 3-D printed building with integrated energy storage via bidirectional wireless

  3. SU-E-T-455: Characterization of 3D Printed Materials for Proton Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, W; Siderits, R; McKenna, M; Khan, A; Yue, N [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); McDonough, J; Yin, L; Teo, B [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Fisher, T [Memorial Medical Center, Modesto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The widespread availability of low cost 3D printing technologies provides an alternative fabrication method for customized proton range modifying accessories such as compensators and boluses. However the material properties of the printed object are dependent on the printing technology used. In order to facilitate the application of 3D printing in proton therapy, this study investigated the stopping power of several printed materials using both proton pencil beam measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Five 34 cm cubes fabricated using three 3D printing technologies (selective laser sintering, fused-deposition modeling and stereolithography) from five printers were investigated. The cubes were scanned on a CT scanner and the depth dose curves for a mono-energetic pencil beam passing through the material were measured using a large parallel plate ion chamber in a water tank. Each cube was measured from two directions (perpendicular and parallel to printing plane) to evaluate the effects of the anisotropic material layout. The results were compared with GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation using the manufacturer specified material density and chemical composition data. Results: Compared with water, the differences from the range pull back by the printed blocks varied and corresponded well with the material CT Hounsfield unit. The measurement results were in agreement with Monte Carlo simulation. However, depending on the technology, inhomogeneity existed in the printed cubes evidenced from CT images. The effect of such inhomogeneity on the proton beam is to be investigated. Conclusion: Printed blocks by three different 3D printing technologies were characterized for proton beam with measurements and Monte Carlo simulation. The effects of the printing technologies in proton range and stopping power were studied. The derived results can be applied when specific devices are used in proton radiotherapy.

  4. 3D-Printed Foam Outperforms Standard Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3D-Printed Foam Outperforms Standard Materials 3D-Printed Foam Outperforms Standard Materials April 27, 2016 - 5:58pm Addthis News release from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, April 27, 2016. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) material scientists have found that 3D-printed foam works better than standard cellular materials in terms of durability and long-term mechanical performance. Foams, also known as cellular solids, are an important class of materials with applications ranging from

  5. Next Generation Lunch: Revealing the World’s First 3D Printed Car (text version)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version for the Next Generation Lunch: Revealing the World’s First 3D Printed Car Video.

  6. The 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra: Defining Rapid Innovation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy The 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra: Defining Rapid Innovation The 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra: Defining Rapid Innovation April 24, 2015 - 9:00am Addthis The 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra: Defining Rapid Innovation img-1294_crop.jpg It's been hard to miss in the media and on its almost non-stop road tour, but AMO wanted you to know that our 3D-printed EV version of the 50th anniversary Shelby Cobra just left the Forrestal building lobby after visiting for two weeks. Secretary Moniz dropped in for a

  7. ORNL Unveils 3D-Printed Home and Vehicle with the Unique Ability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    efforts of the the lab's Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy (AMIE) demonstration. ... by natural gas, were both printed using additive manufacturing via a large-scale 3D ...

  8. OSTIblog Articles in the e-prints Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information e-prints Topic Get scientific e-prints by Dennis Traylor 31 Aug, 2012 in Products and Content 4267 EPN_slide2.jpg Get scientific e-prints Read more about 4267 The E-print Network provides a vast, integrated network of electronic scientific and technical information created by scientists and research engineers active in their respective fields, all full-text searchable. Documents such as these are the means by which today's scientists and researchers

  9. Secretary Moniz Tours the 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra | Department...

    Energy Savers

    in Knoxville, Tennessee, developed a finishing process that bonds the clear coat and paint layers to the printed car parts' resulting in the highest quality finish possible in...

  10. EERE Success Story-3D Printing Enables New Generation of Heat Exchangers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    | Department of Energy 3D Printing Enables New Generation of Heat Exchangers EERE Success Story-3D Printing Enables New Generation of Heat Exchangers March 17, 2016 - 10:32am Addthis The University of Maryland used direct metal printing—a 3D printing technology—to manufacture a unique miniaturized air-to-refrigerant heat exchanger as a single, continuous piece. Image: University of Maryland, Center for Environmental Energy Engineering. The University of Maryland used direct metal

  11. In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 25 February 2015 00:00 Plastic solar cells that can be printed on flexible sheets with an ink-like solution show a lot of potential as a source of lightweight, inexpensive renewable energy. However, much of the power-conversion efficiency of such cells gets lost in the translation from small-scale lab studies to large-scale manufacturing processes. To help gain

  12. V-148: Novell iPrint Client Unspecified Buffer Overflow Vulnerability

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vulnerability has been reported in Novell iPrint Client, which can be exploited by malicious people to compromise a user's system

  13. Eddy current gauge for monitoring displacement using printed circuit coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visioli, Jr., Armando J.

    1977-01-01

    A proximity detection system for non-contact displacement and proximity measurement of static or dynamic metallic or conductive surfaces is provided wherein the measurement is obtained by monitoring the change in impedance of a flat, generally spiral-wound, printed circuit coil which is excited by a constant current, constant frequency source. The change in impedance, which is detected as a corresponding change in voltage across the coil, is related to the eddy current losses in the distant conductive material target. The arrangement provides for considerable linear displacement range with increased accuracies, stability, and sensitivity over the entire range.

  14. System and method for 3D printing of aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Duoss, Eric; Kuntz, Joshua; Spadaccini, Christopher; Zhu, Cheng

    2016-03-08

    A method of forming an aerogel. The method may involve providing a graphene oxide powder and mixing the graphene oxide powder with a solution to form an ink. A 3D printing technique may be used to write the ink into a catalytic solution that is contained in a fluid containment member to form a wet part. The wet part may then be cured in a sealed container for a predetermined period of time at a predetermined temperature. The cured wet part may then be dried to form a finished aerogel part.

  15. 3D Printed Tool for Building Aircraft Achieves Guinness World Records Title

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    OAK RIDGE, Tenn., Aug. 29, 2016 – A 3D printed trim-and-drill tool, developed by researchers at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be evaluated at The Boeing Company, has received the title of largest solid 3D printed item by Guinness World Records.

  16. Development and Optimization of Viable Human Platforms through 3D Printing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Paul R.; Moya, Monica L.; Wheeler, Elizabeth K.

    2015-08-21

    3D printing technology offers a unique method for creating cell cultures in a manner far more conducive to accurate representation of human tissues and systems. Here we print cellular structures capable of forming vascular networks and exhibiting qualities of natural tissues and human systems. This allows for cheaper and readily available sources for further study of biological and pharmaceutical agents.

  17. Positron Computed Tomography: Current State, Clinical Results and Future Trends

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Schelbert, H. R.; Phelps, M. E.; Kuhl, D. E.

    1980-09-01

    An overview is presented of positron computed tomography: its advantages over single photon emission tomography, its use in metabolic studies of the heart and chemical investigation of the brain, and future trends. (ACR)

  18. tomoRecon : High-speed tomography reconstruction on workstations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    tomoRecon : High-speed tomography reconstruction on workstations using multi-threading Citation Details In-Document Search Title: tomoRecon : High-speed tomography reconstruction ...

  19. Multi-Layer Inkjet Printed Contacts for Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, C. J.; van hest, M.; Miedaner, A.; Kaydanova, T.; Smith, L.; Ginley, D. S.

    2006-05-01

    Ag, Cu, and Ni metallizations were inkjet printed with near vacuum deposition quality. The approach developed can be easily extended to other conductors such as Pt, Pd, Au, etc. Thick highly conducting lines of Ag and Cu demonstrating good adhesion to glass, Si, and printed circuit board (PCB) have been printed at 100-200 C in air and N2 respectively. Ag grids were inkjet-printed on Si solar cells and fired through the silicon nitride AR layer at 850 C, resulting in 8% cells. Next generation inks, including an ink that etches silicon nitride, have now been developed. Multi-layer inkjet printing of the etching ink followed by Ag ink produced contacts under milder conditions and gave solar cells with efficiencies as high as 12%.

  20. An RFC 1179 Compatible Remote Print Server for Windows 3.1

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-11-09

    Internet RFC 1179 describes the protocol to be used for printing files on a remote printer in a TCP/IP network. The protocol is client/server, meaning that the client initiates the print request, and the server receives the request and performs the actual printing locally. This protocol has been in long use on Unix systems derived from the Berkeley Software Distribution, such as DEC''s Ultrix and Sun''s SunOS. LPD Services implements the server portion of thismore » protocol. It handles both the network communication and conformance with the protocol, and printing using the Microsoft Windows device independent printing interface.« less

  1. Investigating the accuracy of microstereotactic-body-radiotherapy utilizing anatomically accurate 3D printed rodent-morphic dosimeters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bache, Steven T.; Juang, Titania; Belley, Matthew D.; Koontz, Bridget F.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.; Kirsch, David G.; Oldham, Mark; Adamovics, John

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Sophisticated small animal irradiators, incorporating cone-beam-CT image-guidance, have recently been developed which enable exploration of the efficacy of advanced radiation treatments in the preclinical setting. Microstereotactic-body-radiation-therapy (microSBRT) is one technique of interest, utilizing field sizes in the range of 1–15 mm. Verification of the accuracy of microSBRT treatment delivery is challenging due to the lack of available methods to comprehensively measure dose distributions in representative phantoms with sufficiently high spatial resolution and in 3 dimensions (3D). This work introduces a potential solution in the form of anatomically accurate rodent-morphic 3D dosimeters compatible with ultrahigh resolution (0.3 mm{sup 3}) optical computed tomography (optical-CT) dose read-out. Methods: Rodent-morphic dosimeters were produced by 3D-printing molds of rodent anatomy directly from contours defined on x-ray CT data sets of rats and mice, and using these molds to create tissue-equivalent radiochromic 3D dosimeters from Presage. Anatomically accurate spines were incorporated into some dosimeters, by first 3D printing the spine mold, then forming a high-Z bone equivalent spine insert. This spine insert was then set inside the tissue equivalent body mold. The high-Z spinal insert enabled representative cone-beam CT IGRT targeting. On irradiation, a linear radiochromic change in optical-density occurs in the dosimeter, which is proportional to absorbed dose, and was read out using optical-CT in high-resolution (0.5 mm isotropic voxels). Optical-CT data were converted to absolute dose in two ways: (i) using a calibration curve derived from other Presage dosimeters from the same batch, and (ii) by independent measurement of calibrated dose at a point using a novel detector comprised of a yttrium oxide based nanocrystalline scintillator, with a submillimeter active length. A microSBRT spinal treatment was delivered consisting of a 180

  2. Local Motors Begins Their Six Day Quest to 3D Print the ‘Strati’ Car Live at IMTS

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    An article detailing Local Motors' preparation to 3D print a car at the September 2014 International Manufacturing Technology Show.

  3. 3D%20printed%20perforated%20metal%20box.jpg | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information 3D%20printed%20perforated%20metal%20box

  4. Advanced Instrumentation for Positron Emission Tomography [PET

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.

    1985-04-01

    This paper summarizes the physical processes and medical science goals that underlay modern instrumentation design for Positron Emission Tomography. The paper discusses design factors such as detector material, crystalphototube coupling, shielding geometry, sampling motion, electronics design, time-of-flight, and the interrelationships with quantitative accuracy, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, maximum data rates, and cost.

  5. Impact of pulse thermal processing on the properties of inkjet printed metal and flexible sensors

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Kuruganti, Teja; Killough, Stephen M.

    2015-03-11

    In this paper, we report on the low temperature processing of environmental sensors employing pulse thermal processing (PTP) technique to define a path toward flexible sensor technology on plastic, paper, and fabric substrates. Inkjet printing and pulse thermal processing technique were used to realize mask-less, additive integration of low-cost sensors on polymeric substrates with specific focus on temperature, humidity, and strain sensors. The printed metal line performance was evaluated in terms of the electrical conductivity characteristics as a function of post-deposition thermal processing conditions. The PTP processed Ag metal lines exhibited high conductivity with metal sheet resistance values below 100more » mΩ/{whitesquare} using a pulse width as short as 250 μs. The flexible temperature and relative humidity sensors were defined on flexible polyimide substrates by direct printing of Ag metal structures. The printed resistive temperature sensor and capacitive humidity sensor were characterized for their sensitivity with focus on future smart-building applications. Strain gauges were printed on polyimide substrate to determine the mechanical properties of the silver nanoparticle films. Finally, the observed electrical properties of the printed metal lines and the sensitivity of the flexible sensors show promise for the realization of a high performance print-on-demand technology exploiting low thermal-budget PTP technique.« less

  6. Apparatus And Method Of Using Flexible Printed Circuit Board In Optical Transceiver Device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.; Peterson, Gary D.; Reysen, Bill H.

    2005-03-15

    This invention relates to a flexible printed circuit board that is used in connection with an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module. In one embodiment, the flexible printed circuit board has flexible metal layers in between flexible insulating layers, and the circuit board comprises: (1) a main body region orientated in a first direction having at least one electrical or optoelectronic device; (2) a plurality of electrical contact pads integrated into the main body region, where the electrical contact pads function to connect the flexible printed circuit board to an external environment; (3) a buckle region extending from one end of the main body region; and (4) a head region extending from one end of the buckle region, and where the head region is orientated so that it is at an angle relative to the direction of the main body region. The electrical contact pads may be ball grid arrays, solder balls or land-grid arrays, and they function to connect the circuit board to an external environment. A driver or amplifier chip may be adapted to the head region of the flexible printed circuit board. In another embodiment, a heat spreader passes along a surface of the head region of the flexible printed circuit board, and a window is formed in the head region of the flexible printed circuit board. Optoelectronic devices are adapted to the head spreader in such a manner that they are accessible through the window in the flexible printed circuit board.

  7. The Future of Manufacturing Takes Shape: 3D Printed Car on Display at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Manufacturing Summit | Department of Energy The Future of Manufacturing Takes Shape: 3D Printed Car on Display at Manufacturing Summit The Future of Manufacturing Takes Shape: 3D Printed Car on Display at Manufacturing Summit September 17, 2014 - 9:50am Addthis WORLD&#039;S FIRST 1 of 6 WORLD'S FIRST The world's first 3D-printed car on display at the International Manufacturing Technology Show in Chicago last week. Arizona-based Local Motors, and Cincinnati Incorporated teamed with Oak

  8. Direct laser immobilization of photosynthetic material on screen printed electrodes for amperometric biosensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boutopoulos, Christos; Zergioti, Ioanna; Touloupakis, Eleftherios; Pezzotti, Ittalo; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2011-02-28

    This letter demonstrates the direct laser printing of photosynthetic material onto low cost nonfunctionalized screen printed electrodes for the fabrication of photosynthesis-based amperometric biosensors. The high kinetic energy of the transferred material induces direct immobilization of the thylakoids onto the electrodes without the use of linkers. This type of immobilization is able to establish efficient electrochemical contact between proteins and electrode, stabilizing the photosynthetic biomolecule and transporting electrons to the solid state device with high efficiency. The functionality of the laser printed biosensors was evaluated by the detection of a common herbicide such as Linuron.

  9. Bob Ellis designs a PPPL first: A 3D printed mirror for microwave launchers

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Bob Ellis designs a PPPL first: A 3D printed mirror for microwave launchers By John Greenwald October 28, 2014 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Bob Ellis with a 3D-printed plastic prototype for a non-mirror part of the launcher. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) Bob Ellis with a 3D-printed plastic prototype for a non-mirror part of the launcher. Gallery: Completed stainless steel and copper mirror system. (Photo by Elle

  10. In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells Print Plastic solar cells that can be printed on flexible sheets with an ink-like solution show a lot of potential as a source of lightweight, inexpensive renewable energy. However, much of the power-conversion efficiency of such cells gets lost in the translation from small-scale lab studies to large-scale manufacturing processes. To help gain an understanding of why that happens, researchers have developed at the ALS a miniature

  11. In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells Print Plastic solar cells that can be printed on flexible sheets with an ink-like solution show a lot of potential as a source of lightweight, inexpensive renewable energy. However, much of the power-conversion efficiency of such cells gets lost in the translation from small-scale lab studies to large-scale manufacturing processes. To help gain an understanding of why that happens, researchers have developed at the ALS a miniature

  12. In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells Print Plastic solar cells that can be printed on flexible sheets with an ink-like solution show a lot of potential as a source of lightweight, inexpensive renewable energy. However, much of the power-conversion efficiency of such cells gets lost in the translation from small-scale lab studies to large-scale manufacturing processes. To help gain an understanding of why that happens, researchers have developed at the ALS a miniature

  13. EERE Success Story-ORNL Unveils 3D-Printed Home and Vehicle with the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Unique Ability to Power One Another | Department of Energy ORNL Unveils 3D-Printed Home and Vehicle with the Unique Ability to Power One Another EERE Success Story-ORNL Unveils 3D-Printed Home and Vehicle with the Unique Ability to Power One Another November 17, 2015 - 10:42am Addthis EERE Success Story—ORNL Unveils 3D-Printed Home and Vehicle with the Unique Ability to Power One Another In September, the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) announced successful

  14. Global Wind Day 2016 - AMO's Role in Applying 3D Printing to Wind Blade

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Mold Manufacturing | Department of Energy Global Wind Day 2016 - AMO's Role in Applying 3D Printing to Wind Blade Mold Manufacturing Global Wind Day 2016 - AMO's Role in Applying 3D Printing to Wind Blade Mold Manufacturing June 14, 2016 - 4:52pm Addthis Global Wind Day 2016 – AMO’s Role in Applying 3D Printing to Wind Blade Mold Manufacturing Global Wind Day is a worldwide event that occurs annually on June 15 and is dedicated to discovering the possibilities wind holds to reshape

  15. In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells Print Plastic solar cells that can be printed on flexible sheets with an ink-like solution show a lot of potential as a source of lightweight, inexpensive renewable energy. However, much of the power-conversion efficiency of such cells gets lost in the translation from small-scale lab studies to large-scale manufacturing processes. To help gain an understanding of why that happens, researchers have developed at the ALS a miniature

  16. In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells Print Plastic solar cells that can be printed on flexible sheets with an ink-like solution show a lot of potential as a source of lightweight, inexpensive renewable energy. However, much of the power-conversion efficiency of such cells gets lost in the translation from small-scale lab studies to large-scale manufacturing processes. To help gain an understanding of why that happens, researchers have developed at the ALS a miniature

  17. In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells Print Plastic solar cells that can be printed on flexible sheets with an ink-like solution show a lot of potential as a source of lightweight, inexpensive renewable energy. However, much of the power-conversion efficiency of such cells gets lost in the translation from small-scale lab studies to large-scale manufacturing processes. To help gain an understanding of why that happens, researchers have developed at the ALS a miniature

  18. In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells Print Plastic solar cells that can be printed on flexible sheets with an ink-like solution show a lot of potential as a source of lightweight, inexpensive renewable energy. However, much of the power-conversion efficiency of such cells gets lost in the translation from small-scale lab studies to large-scale manufacturing processes. To help gain an understanding of why that happens, researchers have developed at the ALS a miniature

  19. The 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra: Defining Rapid Innovation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy The 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra: Defining Rapid Innovation The 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra: Defining Rapid Innovation "He said he’d get in if he could drive." "He said he'd get in if he could drive." It's been hard to miss in the media and on its almost non-stop road tour, but AMO wanted you to know that our 3D-printed EV version of the 50th anniversary Shelby Cobra just left the Forrestal building lobby after visiting for two weeks. Secretary Moniz dropped in for a

  20. Technical Note: Characterization of custom 3D printed multimodality imaging phantoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniosek, Matthew F.; Lee, Brian J.; Levin, Craig S.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Imaging phantoms are important tools for researchers and technicians, but they can be costly and difficult to customize. Three dimensional (3D) printing is a widely available rapid prototyping technique that enables the fabrication of objects with 3D computer generated geometries. It is ideal for quickly producing customized, low cost, multimodal, reusable imaging phantoms. This work validates the use of 3D printed phantoms by comparing CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial “Micro Deluxe” phantom. This report also presents results from a customized 3D printed PET/MRI phantom, and a customized high resolution imaging phantom with sub-mm features. Methods: CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial Micro Deluxe (Data Spectrum Corporation, USA) phantom with 1.2, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, 4.0, and 4.8 mm diameter hot rods were acquired. The measured PET and CT rod sizes, activities, and attenuation coefficients were compared. A PET/MRI scan of a custom 3D printed phantom with hot and cold rods was performed, with photon attenuation and normalization measurements performed with a separate 3D printed normalization phantom. X-ray transmission scans of a customized two level high resolution 3D printed phantom with sub-mm features were also performed. Results: Results show very good agreement between commercial and 3D printed micro deluxe phantoms with less than 3% difference in CT measured rod diameter, less than 5% difference in PET measured rod diameter, and a maximum of 6.2% difference in average rod activity from a 10 min, 333 kBq/ml (9 μCi/ml) Siemens Inveon (Siemens Healthcare, Germany) PET scan. In all cases, these differences were within the measurement uncertainties of our setups. PET/MRI scans successfully identified 3D printed hot and cold rods on PET and MRI modalities. X-ray projection images of a 3D printed high resolution phantom identified features as small as 350 μm wide. Conclusions: This work shows that 3D printed

  1. Process tomography for unitary quantum channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutoski, Gus; Johnston, Nathaniel

    2014-03-15

    We study the number of measurements required for quantum process tomography under prior information, such as a promise that the unknown channel is unitary. We introduce the notion of an interactive observable and we show that any unitary channel acting on a d-level quantum system can be uniquely identified among all other channels (unitary or otherwise) with only O(d{sup 2}) interactive observables, as opposed to the O(d{sup 4}) required for tomography of arbitrary channels. This result generalizes to the problem of identifying channels with at most q Kraus operators, and slight improvements can be obtained if we wish to identify such a channel only among unital channels or among other channels with q Kraus operators. These results are proven via explicit construction of large subspaces of Hermitian matrices with various conditions on rank, eigenvalues, and partial trace. Our constructions are built upon various forms of totally nonsingular matrices.

  2. E-print Network Web Log News: Research Communications for Scientists...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Description This Web Log provides the latest information about changes to E-print Network ... questions, concerns and other input by using the Contact Us page. Web Log Archive

  3. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for the E-print Network -- Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... The E-print Network pulls these vast and widely dispersed data together through a Deep Web ... available on the Web through a browse capability across more than ten thousand sites. ...

  4. Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles Can Improve EV Power and Efficiency

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plug-in electric vehicle technologies are on their way to being even lighter, more powerful and more efficient with the advent of power inverters created by 3-D printing and novel semiconductors.

  5. The Future of Manufacturing Takes Shape: 3D Printed Car on Display...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Image: Courtesy of Local Motors Carbon Fiber Pellets 4 of 6 Carbon Fiber Pellets Pellets of plastic mixed with carbon fiber were used in the production process of the 3D-printed ...

  6. The 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra: Defining Rapid Innovation | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    It's been hard to miss in the media and on its almost non-stop road tour, but AMO wanted you to know that our 3D-printed EV version of the 50th anniversary Shelby Cobra just left ...

  7. Researchers find 3-D printed parts to provide low-cost, custom...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers find 3-D printed parts to provide low-cost, custom alternatives for laboratory equipment By Raphael Rosen February 26, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on ...

  8. EERE Success Story-Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles Can Improve EV Power and Efficiency EERE ... The first-of-its-kind liquid-cooled, all-silicon carbide traction drive inverter ...

  9. Notice of Intent to Develop DOE G 436.1-1, Sustainable Print...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    promote energy security, protect the interests of taxpayers, and safeguard the health of the environment. Notice of Intent to Develop DOE G 436.1-1, Sustainable Print Management...

  10. EERE Success Story-Just Plain Cool, the 3D Printed Shelby Cobra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    This innovative 3D printing process took just six weeks, and the final result was a glistening roadster fitted with a 100-kilowatt electric motor that can still go zero to 60 mph ...

  11. Screening tests of conformally-coated printed wiring boards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skibo, M.D.; Even, W.R.

    1982-03-01

    Identical printed wiring boards (PWB) were fabricated using glass-triazene as substrates and were conformally coated with either conothane or parylene. The boards were then placed in sealed canisters along with TATB and other organic materials found in recent weapon systems. While subjected to electrical potentials of 120V and 250V, these PWBs were either aged at 60/sup 0/, 70/sup 0/, or 80/sup 0/ or temperature cycled for as long as 16 months. The resistivities of the boards were precisely measured before and after aging to determine the effect of time, temperature, and environment on the electrical characteristics of board materials. In all cases board resistivity increased with temperature and duration of test. This increase was believed to be related to either a reduction in water content in the board substrate or a completion of cure of the conformal coating with time elevated temperature. Both mechanisms would result in a reduction in conductive species. In spite of high humidity levels, no evidence of current - activated filament formation between adjacent active circuit paths on aged PWBs was seen. Similarly, soldered contacts were free of thermally-induced fatigue damage after as many as 500 cycles between -54 and 70/sup 0/C at 1 cycle/day.

  12. What Makes AMIE, the 3D printed home and vehicle, unique? | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy What Makes AMIE, the 3D printed home and vehicle, unique? What Makes AMIE, the 3D printed home and vehicle, unique? February 22, 2016 - 3:39pm Addthis Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by the Energy Department's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy. Karma Sawyer,

  13. Analytical Study on Thermal and Mechanical Design of Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su-Jong Yoon; Piyush Sabharwall; Eung-Soo Kim

    2013-09-01

    The analytical methodologies for the thermal design, mechanical design and cost estimation of printed circuit heat exchanger are presented in this study. In this study, three flow arrangements of parallel flow, countercurrent flow and crossflow are taken into account. For each flow arrangement, the analytical solution of temperature profile of heat exchanger is introduced. The size and cost of printed circuit heat exchangers for advanced small modular reactors, which employ various coolants such as sodium, molten salts, helium, and water, are also presented.

  14. Print-based Manufacturing of Integrated, Low Cost, High Performance SSL

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Luminaires | Department of Energy Print-based Manufacturing of Integrated, Low Cost, High Performance SSL Luminaires Print-based Manufacturing of Integrated, Low Cost, High Performance SSL Luminaires Lead Performer: Eaton Corporation - Menomonee Falls, WI Partners: - Heraeus Materials Technology, LLC - Conshohocken, PA - Haiku Tech, Inc - Miami, FL - Eaton Cooper Lighting Innovation Center - Peachtree City, GA DOE Total Funding: $2,468,672 Cost Share: $2,468,676 Project Term: 9/15/2013 -

  15. Intense X-rays expose tiny flaws in 3-D printed titanium that can lead to

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    breakage over time | Argonne National Laboratory Intense X-rays expose tiny flaws in 3-D printed titanium that can lead to breakage over time By Katie Elyce Jones * March 4, 2016 Tweet EmailPrint Titanium is strong but light - a desirable property among metals. In the twentieth century, titanium was used in military aircraft and equipment and commercial jets. Today, we find this tough and flexible metal all around us - in sports gear, tools, surgical and dental implants, prosthetics,

  16. Inkjet Printed Metallizations for Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hersh, P. A.; Curtis, C. J.; van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Kreuder, J. J.; Pasquarelli, R.; Miednaer, A.; Ginley, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    This study reports the inkjet printing of Ag front contacts on Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide (AZO)/intrinsic Zinc Oxide (i-ZnO)/CdS/Cu(In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} (CIGS)/Mo thin film photovoltaic cells. The printed Ag contacts are being developed to replace the currently employed evaporated Ni/Al bi-layer contacts. Inkjet deposition conditions were optimized to reduce line resistivity and reduce contact resistance to the Al:ZnO layer. Ag lines printed at a substrate temperature of 200 C showed a line resistivity of 2.06 {mu}{Omega} {center_dot} cm and a contact resistance to Al:ZnO of 8.2 {+-} 0.2 m{Omega} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} compared to 6.93 {+-} 0.3 m{Omega} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} for thermally evaporated contacts. These deposition conditions were used to deposit front contacts onto high quality CIGS thin film photovoltaic cells. The heating required to print the Ag contacts caused the performance to degrade compared to similar devices with evaporated Ni/Al contacts that were not heated. Devices with inkjet printed contacts showed 11.4% conversion efficiency compared to 14.8% with evaporated contacts. Strategies to minimize heating, which is detrimental for efficiency, during inkjet printing are proposed.

  17. Infiltration of Nanoparticles into Porous Binder Jet Printed Parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Amelia; AlSalihi, Sarah; Merriman, Abbey L.; Basti, Mufeed M.

    2016-01-01

    The densification of parts that are produced by binder jetting Additive Manufacturing (AM; a.k.a. “3D Printing”) is an essential step in making them mechanically useful. By increasing the packing factor of the powder bed by incorporating nanoparticles into the binder has potential to alleviate the amount of shrinkage needed for full densification of binder jet parts. We present preliminary data on the use of 316L Stainless Steel Nanoparticles (SSN) to densify 316L stainless steel binder jet parts. Aqueous solutions of Diethylene Glycol (DEG) or Ethylene Glycol (EG) were prepared at different DEG/water and EG/water molar ratios; pH of the solutions was adjusted by the use of 0.10 M sodium hydroxide. Nanoparticles were suspended in a resulted solution at a volume percentage of SSN/solution at 0.5%. The suspension was then sonicated for thirty minutes. One milliliter of the suspension was added stepwise to a sintered, printed disk with the dimensions: (d = 10 mm, h = 3 mm) in the presence of a small magnet. The 3D part was then sintered again. Moreover, the increase in the mass of the 3D part was used as indication of the amount of nanoparticles that diffused in the 3D part. This mass percent increase was studied as a function of pH of the suspension and as function DEG/water molar ratio. Unlike EG, data show that change in pH affects the mass percent when the suspension was made with DEG. Finally, optical analysis of the discs’ cross sections revealed trends metallic densities similar to trends in the data for mass increase with changing pH and water molar ratio.

  18. Infiltration of Nanoparticles into Porous Binder Jet Printed Parts

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Elliott, Amelia; AlSalihi, Sarah; Merriman, Abbey L.; Basti, Mufeed M.

    2016-01-01

    The densification of parts that are produced by binder jetting Additive Manufacturing (AM; a.k.a. “3D Printing”) is an essential step in making them mechanically useful. By increasing the packing factor of the powder bed by incorporating nanoparticles into the binder has potential to alleviate the amount of shrinkage needed for full densification of binder jet parts. We present preliminary data on the use of 316L Stainless Steel Nanoparticles (SSN) to densify 316L stainless steel binder jet parts. Aqueous solutions of Diethylene Glycol (DEG) or Ethylene Glycol (EG) were prepared at different DEG/water and EG/water molar ratios; pH of the solutionsmore » was adjusted by the use of 0.10 M sodium hydroxide. Nanoparticles were suspended in a resulted solution at a volume percentage of SSN/solution at 0.5%. The suspension was then sonicated for thirty minutes. One milliliter of the suspension was added stepwise to a sintered, printed disk with the dimensions: (d = 10 mm, h = 3 mm) in the presence of a small magnet. The 3D part was then sintered again. Moreover, the increase in the mass of the 3D part was used as indication of the amount of nanoparticles that diffused in the 3D part. This mass percent increase was studied as a function of pH of the suspension and as function DEG/water molar ratio. Unlike EG, data show that change in pH affects the mass percent when the suspension was made with DEG. Finally, optical analysis of the discs’ cross sections revealed trends metallic densities similar to trends in the data for mass increase with changing pH and water molar ratio.« less

  19. Time-dependent seismic tomography and its application to the...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    changes in Earth structure are commonly determined using local earthquake tomography computer programs that invert multiple seismic-wave arrival time data sets separately and...

  20. Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment Technology available for licensing: A 3D technique to detect early skin changes due to radiation treatment in breast...

  1. Hyperspectral image reconstruction for X-ray fluorescence tomography...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Groups Imaging Data Science Related People Doga Gursoy Tekin Bicer Next article: Iterative reconstruction of magnetic induction using Lorentz transmission electron tomography...

  2. Time-Dependent Seismic Tomography of the Coso Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: Time-Dependent Seismic Tomography of the Coso Geothermal Area, 1996-2004 Abstract...

  3. Time-dependent seismic tomography of the Coso geothermal area...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: Time-dependent seismic tomography of the Coso geothermal area, 1996-2004 Abstract...

  4. Allan Cormack, Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT), and Magnetic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Allan M. Cormack, Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Resources with Additional Information magnetic resonance imaging system Computed axial...

  5. Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    treatment. A recent advance in thermal imaging allows more rapid, yet still non-invasive, detection. The process, called three-dimensional thermal tomography, or 3DTT, is...

  6. On the general constraints in single qubit quantum process tomography...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: On the general constraints in single qubit quantum process tomography Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become ...

  7. Atom Probe Tomography of Nanoscale Electronic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, David J.; Prosa, Ty J.; Perea, Daniel E.; Inoue, Hidekazu; Mangelinck, D.

    2016-01-01

    Atom probe tomography (APT) is a mass spectrometry based on time-of-flight measurements which also concurrently produces 3D spatial information. The reader is referred to any of the other papers in this volume or to the following references for further information 4–8. The current capabilities of APT, such as detecting a low number of dopant atoms in nanoscale devices or segregation at a nanoparticle interface, make this technique an important component in the nanoscale metrology toolbox. In this manuscript, we review some of the applications of APT to nanoscale electronic materials, including transistors and finFETs, silicide contact microstructures, nanowires, and nanoparticles.

  8. Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Cheng, Fei; Gao, Jie; Luk, Ting S.; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-06-05

    Subwavelength structural color filtering and printing technologies employing plasmonic nanostructures have recently been recognized as an important and beneficial complement to the traditional colorant-based pigmentation. However, the color saturation, brightness and incident angle tolerance of structural color printing need to be improved to meet the application requirement. Here we demonstrate a structural color printing method based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption to improve color performances such as saturation and brightness. Thin-layer perfect absorbers with periodic hole arrays are designed at visible frequencies and the absorption peaks are tuned by simply adjusting the hole size and periodicity. Near perfectmore » light absorption with high quality factors are obtained to realize high-resolution, angle-insensitive plasmonic color printing with high color saturation and brightness. Moreover, the fabricated metasurfaces can be protected with a protective coating for ambient use without degrading performances. The demonstrated structural color printing platform offers great potential for applications ranging from security marking to information storage.« less

  9. Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Fei; Gao, Jie; Luk, Ting S.; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-06-05

    Subwavelength structural color filtering and printing technologies employing plasmonic nanostructures have recently been recognized as an important and beneficial complement to the traditional colorant-based pigmentation. However, the color saturation, brightness and incident angle tolerance of structural color printing need to be improved to meet the application requirement. Here we demonstrate a structural color printing method based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption to improve color performances such as saturation and brightness. Thin-layer perfect absorbers with periodic hole arrays are designed at visible frequencies and the absorption peaks are tuned by simply adjusting the hole size and periodicity. Near perfect light absorption with high quality factors are obtained to realize high-resolution, angle-insensitive plasmonic color printing with high color saturation and brightness. Moreover, the fabricated metasurfaces can be protected with a protective coating for ambient use without degrading performances. The demonstrated structural color printing platform offers great potential for applications ranging from security marking to information storage.

  10. Double-Difference Tomography for Sequestration MVA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westman, Erik

    2008-12-31

    Analysis of synthetic data was performed to determine the most cost-effective tomographic monitoring system for a geologic carbon sequestration injection site. Double-difference tomographic inversion was performed on 125 synthetic data sets: five stages of CO2 plume growth, five seismic event regions, and five geophone arrays. Each resulting velocity model was compared quantitatively to its respective synthetic velocity model to determine an accuracy value. The results were examined to determine a relationship between cost and accuracy in monitoring, verification, and accounting applications using double-difference tomography. The geophone arrays with widely-varying geophone locations, both laterally and vertically, performed best. Additionally, double difference seismic tomography was performed using travel time data from a carbon sequestration site at the Aneth oil field in southeast Utah as part of a Department of Energy initiative on monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of sequestered CO2. A total of 1,211 seismic events were recorded from a borehole array consisting of 22 geophones. Artificial velocity models were created to determine the ease with which different CO2 plume locations and sizes can be detected. Most likely because of the poor geophone arrangement, a low velocity zone in the Desert Creek reservoir can only be detected when regions of test site containing the highest ray path coverage are considered. MVA accuracy and precision may be improved through the use of a receiver array that provides more comprehensive ray path coverage.

  11. Scattered Neutron Tomography Based on A Neutron Transport Inverse Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Charlton

    2007-07-01

    Neutron radiography and computed tomography are commonly used techniques to non-destructively examine materials. Tomography refers to the cross-sectional imaging of an object from either transmission or reflection data collected by illuminating the object from many different directions.

  12. Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment | Argonne

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment Technology available for licensing: A 3D technique to detect early skin changes due to radiation treatment in breast cancer patients. Lowers medical costs due to lessened side effects Noninvasive, enhances healing and detects other conditions PDF icon thermal_tomography

  13. Evaluation of Cross-Hole Seismic Tomography for Imaging Low Resistance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evaluation of Cross-Hole Seismic Tomography for Imaging Low Resistance Intervals and ... Title: Evaluation of Cross-Hole Seismic Tomography for Imaging Low Resistance Intervals ...

  14. Flow-enhanced solution printing of all-polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ying; Zhou, Yan; Kurosawa, Tadanori; Shaw, Leo; Wang, Cheng; Park, Steve; Guo, Yikun; Reinspach, Julia A.; Gu, Kevin; Gu, Xiaodan; Tee, Benjamin C. K.; Pang, Changhyun; Yan, Hongping; Zhao, Dahui; Toney, Michael F.; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-08-12

    Morphology control of solution coated solar cell materials presents a key challenge limiting their device performance and commercial viability. Here we present a new concept for controlling phase separation during solution printing using an all-polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell as a model system. The key aspect of our method lies in the design of fluid flow using a microstructured printing blade, on the basis of the hypothesis of flow-induced polymer crystallization. Our flow design resulted in a similar to 90% increase in the donor thin film crystallinity and reduced microphase separated donor and acceptor domain sizes. The improved morphology enhanced all metrics of solar cell device performance across various printing conditions, specifically leading to higher short-circuit current, fill factor, open circuit voltage and significantly reduced device-to-device variation. However, we expect our design concept to have broad applications beyond all-polymer solar cells because of its simplicity and versatility.

  15. Sintering Kinetics of Inkjet Printed Conductive Silver Lines on Insulating Plastic Substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wenchao; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Duty, Chad E; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2015-01-24

    This paper focuses on sintering kinetics of inkjet printed lines containing silver nanoparticles deposited on a plastic substrate. Upon heat treatment, the change of resistance in the printed lines was measured as a function of time and sintering temperatures from 150 to 200 C. A critical temperature was observed for the sintering process, beyond which there was no further reduction in resistance. Analysis shows the critical temperature correlates to the boiling point of the solvent, which is attributed to a liquid-mediated sintering mechanism. It is demonstrated that the sintering process shuts down after the solvent has completely evaporated.

  16. Printed assemblies of ultrathin, microscale inorganic light emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A; Nuzzo, Ralph; Kim, Hoon-sik; Brueckner, Eric; Park, Sang Il; Kim, Rak Hwan

    2014-10-21

    Described herein are printable structures and methods for making, assembling and arranging electronic devices. A number of the methods described herein are useful for assembling electronic devices where one or more device components are embedded in a polymer which is patterned during the embedding process with trenches for electrical interconnects between device components. Some methods described herein are useful for assembling electronic devices by printing methods, such as by dry transfer contact printing methods. Also described herein are GaN light emitting diodes and methods for making and arranging GaN light emitting diodes, for example for display or lighting systems.

  17. Using 3D Printing to Redesign Santa's Sleigh | GE Global Research

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Using 3D Printing to Redesign Santa's Sleigh Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Using 3D Printing to Redesign Santa's Sleigh Thomas The Elf 2013.12.03 Hello Everyone! I am so excited to be back this year to share another way GE researchers are taking part in the holiday cheer. In the past, we've utilized GE

  18. Compact conscious animal positron emission tomography scanner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schyler, David J.; O'Connor, Paul; Woody, Craig; Junnarkar, Sachin Shrirang; Radeka, Veljko; Vaska, Paul; Pratte, Jean-Francois; Volkow, Nora

    2006-10-24

    A method of serially transferring annihilation information in a compact positron emission tomography (PET) scanner includes generating a time signal for an event, generating an address signal representing a detecting channel, generating a detector channel signal including the time and address signals, and generating a composite signal including the channel signal and similarly generated signals. The composite signal includes events from detectors in a block and is serially output. An apparatus that serially transfers annihilation information from a block includes time signal generators for detectors in a block and an address and channel signal generator. The PET scanner includes a ring tomograph that mounts onto a portion of an animal, which includes opposing block pairs. Each of the blocks in a block pair includes a scintillator layer, detection array, front-end array, and a serial encoder. The serial encoder includes time signal generators and an address signal and channel signal generator.

  19. Field trials results of guided wave tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volker, Arno Zon, Tim van; Leden, Edwin van der

    2015-03-31

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Guided wave travel time tomography is a method capable of providing an absolute wall thickness map. This method is currently making the transition from the laboratory to the field. For this purpose a dedicated data acquisition system and special purpose EMAT sensor rings have been developed. The system can be deployed for permanent monitoring and inspections. Field trials have been conducted on various pipes with different diameters, containing either liquid or gas. The main focus has been on pipe supports. The results demonstrate the successful operation of the technology in the field. Expected corrosion damage was clearly visible on the produced results enabling asset owner to make calculated decisions on the pipelines safety, maintenance and operations.

  20. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulus, Michael J.; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Gleason, Shaun S.; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  1. Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Schultz, Larry Joe; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Sossong, Michael James; Blanpied, Gary

    2010-11-23

    Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.

  2. Positron Emission Tomography of the Heart

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Schelbert, H. R.; Phelps, M. E.; Kuhl, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    Positron emission computed tomography (PCT) represents an important new tool for the noninvasive evaluation and, more importantly, quantification of myocardial performance. Most currently available techniques permit assessment of only one aspect of cardiac function, i.e., myocardial perfusion by gamma scintillation camera imaging with Thallium-201 or left ventricular function by echocardiography or radionuclide angiocardiography. With PCT it may become possible to study all three major segments of myocardial performance, i.e., regional blood flow, mechanical function and, most importantly, myocardial metabolism. Each of these segments can either be evaluated separately or in combination. This report briefly describes the principles and technological advantages of the imaging device, reviews currently available radioactive tracers and how they can be employed for the assessment of flow, function and metabolism; and, lastly, discusses possible applications of PCT for the study of cardiac physiology or its potential role in the diagnosis of cardiac disease.

  3. Magnified Weak Lensing Cross Correlation Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulmer, Melville P., Clowe, Douglas I.

    2010-11-30

    This project carried out a weak lensing tomography (WLT) measurement around rich clusters of galaxies. This project used ground based photometric redshift data combined with HST archived cluster images that provide the WLT and cluster mass modeling. The technique has already produced interesting results (Guennou et al, 2010,Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol 523, page 21, and Clowe et al, 2011 to be submitted). Guennou et al have validated that the necessary accuracy can be achieved with photometric redshifts for our purposes. Clowe et al titled "The DAFT/FADA survey. II. Tomographic weak lensing signal from 10 high redshift clusters," have shown that for the **first time** via this purely geometrical technique, which does not assume a standard rod or candle, that a cosmological constant is **required** for flat cosmologies. The intent of this project is not to produce the best constraint on the value of the dark energy equation of state, w. Rather, this project is to carry out a sustained effort of weak lensing tomography that will naturally feed into the near term Dark Energy Survey (DES) and to provide invaluable mass calibration for that project. These results will greatly advance a key cosmological method which will be applied to the top-rated ground-based project in the Astro2020 decadal survey, LSST. Weak lensing tomography is one of the key science drivers behind LSST. CO-I Clowe is on the weak lensing LSST committee, and senior scientist on this project, at FNAL James Annis, plays a leading role in the DES. This project has built on successful proposals to obtain ground-based imaging for the cluster sample. By 1 Jan, it is anticipated the project will have accumulated complete 5-color photometry on 30 (or about 1/3) of the targeted cluster sample (public webpage for the survey is available at http://cencos.oamp.fr/DAFT/ and has a current summary of the observational status of various clusters). In all, the project has now been awarded the equivalent of over 60

  4. DISCLAIMER : UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED - PLEASE CHECK THE STATUS OF THE DOCUMENT IN IDM

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Aug 2016 DISCLAIMER : UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED - PLEASE CHECK THE STATUS OF THE DOCUMENT IN IDM Technical Specifications (In-Cash Procurement) Diagnostic In-Vessel Electrical system Engineering Diagnostic In-Vessel Electrical system Engineering IDM UID TMWPFQ VERSION CREATED ON / VERSION / STATUS 05 Aug 2016 / 1.0 / Approved EXTERNAL REFERENCE / VERSION Page 1 of 6 Table of Contents 1 PURPOSE

  5. Screen printed silver top electrode for efficient inverted organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Junwoo; Duraisamy, Navaneethan; Lee, Taik-Min; Kim, Inyoung; Choi, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Screen printing of silver pattern. • X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the face centered cubic structure of silver. • Uniform surface morphology of silver pattern with sheet resistance of 0.06 Ω/sq. • The power conversion efficiency of fabricated solar cell is found to be 2.58%. - Abstract: The present work is mainly focused on replacement of the vacuum process for top electrode fabrication in organic solar cells. Silver top electrode deposited through solution based screen printing on pre-deposited polymeric thin film. The solution based printing technology provides uniform top electrode without damaging the underlying organic layers. The surface crystallinity and surface morphology of silver top electrode are examined through X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The purity of silver is examined through X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The top electrode exhibits face centered cubic structure with homogeneous morphology. The sheet resistance of top electrode is found to be 0.06 Ω/sq and an average pattern thickness of ∼15 μm. The power conversion efficiency is 2.58%. Our work demonstrates that the solution based screen printing is a significant role in the replacement of vacuum process for the fabrication of top electrode in organic solar cells.

  6. Assessing the operational life of flexible printed boards intended for continuous flexing applications : a case study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, David Franklin

    2011-01-01

    Through the vehicle of a case study, this paper describes in detail how the guidance found in the suite of IPC (Association Connecting Electronics Industries) publications can be applied to develop a high level of design assurance that flexible printed boards intended for continuous flexing applications will satisfy specified lifetime requirements.

  7. Guidelines for waste reduction and recycling: Metal finishing, electroplating, printed circuit board manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    The guidance manual describes waste reduction techniques for metal finishing, metal fabricating, electroplating, and printed circuitboard manufacturing operations. Techniques which can be applied to a wide range of industrial processes and those which are process-specific are discussed. Evaporation, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, ultrafiltration, and electrolytic recovery are described. The manual also describes waste reduction assessment procedures.

  8. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  9. Applicability of moire deflection tomography for diagnosing arc plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Yunyun; Song Yang; He Anzhi; Li Zhenhua

    2009-01-20

    The argon arc plasma whose central temperature, 1.90x10{sup 4} K, is used as a practical example for an experiment to research the applicability of moire deflection tomography in arc plasma flow-field diagnosis. The experimental result indicates that moire deflection of the measured argon arc plasma is very small, even smaller than that of a common flame with the maximal temperature of nearly 1.80x10{sup 3} K. The refractive-index gradient in moire deflection tomography mainly contributes to the temperature gradient in essence when the probe wavelength and pressure are certain in plasma diagnosis. The applicable temperature ranges of moire deflection tomography in the argon arc plasma diagnosis are given with the probe wavelength 532 nm at 1 atm in certain measuring error requirements. In a word, the applicable temperature range of moire deflection tomography for arc plasma diagnosis is intimately related to the probe wavelength and the practical measuring requirements.

  10. Full-3D Waveform Tomography for Southern California | Argonne...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Full-3D Waveform Tomography for Southern California Authors: Lee, E., Chenm P., Jordan, ... Model Version 4.0 (CVM4) in Southern California as initial model, a staggered-grid ...

  11. University of Wisconsin-Madison - Poroelastic Tomography | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy University of Wisconsin-Madison - Poroelastic Tomography University of Wisconsin-Madison - Poroelastic Tomography Armed with a wealth of data and new data analysis and integration techniques, images of the subsurface are getting clearer. Image Source: University of Wisconsin-Madison Armed with a wealth of data and new data analysis and integration techniques, images of the subsurface are getting clearer. Image Source: University of Wisconsin-Madison The images and behavior of

  12. Atom-probe tomography of tribological boundary films resulting from

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    boron-based oil additives | Argonne National Laboratory Atom-probe tomography of tribological boundary films resulting from boron-based oil additives Title Atom-probe tomography of tribological boundary films resulting from boron-based oil additives Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2016 Authors Kim, Y-J, Baik, S-I, Bertolucci-Coelho, L, Mazzaferro, L, Ramirez, G, Erdemir, A, Seidman, DN Journal Scripta Materialia Volume 111 Start Page 65 Issue 15 Pagination 4 Date

  13. Portable Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-11-01

    This user manual describes the function and use of the portable digital radiography and computed tomography (DRCT) scanner. The manual gives a general overview of x-ray imaging systems along with a description of the DRCT system. An inventory of the all the system components, organized by shipping container, is also included. In addition, detailed, step-by-step procedures are provided for all of the exercises necessary for a novice user to successfully collect digital radiographs and tomographic images of an object, including instructions on system assembly and detector calibration and system alignment. There is also a short section covering the limited system care and maintenance needs. Descriptions of the included software packages, the DRCT Digital Imager used for system operation, and the DRCT Image Processing Interface used for image viewing and tomographic data reconstruction are given in the appendixes. The appendixes also include a cheat sheet for more experienced users, a listing of known system problems and how to mitigate them, and an inventory check-off sheet suitable for copying and including with the machine for shipment purposes.

  14. A Detector for Proton Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blazey, G.; et al.,

    2013-12-06

    Radiation therapy is a widely recognized treatment for cancer. Energetic protons have distinct features that set them apart from photons and make them desirable for cancer therapy as well as medical imaging. The clinical interest in heavy ion therapy is due to the fact that ions deposit almost all of their energy in a sharp peak – the Bragg peak- at the very end of their path. Proton beams can be used to precisely localize a tumor and deliver an exact dose to the tumor with small doses to the surrounding tissue. Proton computed tomography (pCT) provides direct information on the location on the target tumor, and avoids position uncertainty caused by treatment planning based on imaging with X-ray CT. The pCT project goal is to measure and reconstruct the proton relative stopping power distribution directly in situ. To ensure the full advantage of cancer treatment with 200 MeV proton beams, pCT must be realized.

  15. Dedicated breast computed tomography: Basic aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni Russo, Paolo

    2015-06-15

    X-ray mammography of the compressed breast is well recognized as the “gold standard” for early detection of breast cancer, but its performance is not ideal. One limitation of screening mammography is tissue superposition, particularly for dense breasts. Since 2001, several research groups in the USA and in the European Union have developed computed tomography (CT) systems with digital detector technology dedicated to x-ray imaging of the uncompressed breast (breast CT or BCT) for breast cancer screening and diagnosis. This CT technology—tracing back to initial studies in the 1970s—allows some of the limitations of mammography to be overcome, keeping the levels of radiation dose to the radiosensitive breast glandular tissue similar to that of two-view mammography for the same breast size and composition. This paper presents an evaluation of the research efforts carried out in the invention, development, and improvement of BCT with dedicated scanners with state-of-the-art technology, including initial steps toward commercialization, after more than a decade of R and D in the laboratory and/or in the clinic. The intended focus here is on the technological/engineering aspects of BCT and on outlining advantages and limitations as reported in the related literature. Prospects for future research in this field are discussed.

  16. EEG, transmission computed tomography, and positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose /sup 18/F. Their use in adults with gliomas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newmark, M.E.; Theodore, W.H.; Sato, S.; De La Paz, R.; Patronas, N.; Brooks, R.; Jabbari, B.; Di Chiro, G.

    1983-10-01

    We evaluated the relationship between findings from EEG, transmission computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography in 23 adults with gliomas. The cortical metabolic rate was suppressed in patients with and without focal slowing. Focal delta activity was not related to involvement of gray or white matter. Rhythmic delta activity and focal attenuation of background amplitude on EEG, however, were correlated with involvement of the thalamus.

  17. AFIP-7 Tomography – 2013 Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craft, A. E.; Williams, W. J.; Abir, M. I.K.; Wachs, D. M.

    2013-10-01

    This project seeks to assess the geometric stability of the U-Mo monolithic fuel system by evaluating the radiation-induced changes in the AFIP-7 experiment device. Neutron radiography and computed tomography (CT) provide valuable information about the post-irradiation condition of the fuel specimen. Tomographic reconstructions of the AFIP-7 fuel element will be analyzed to assess the geometric condition of the element after irradiation and provide information regarding the condition of the fuel, including gross geometric defects, bowing, twist, plate buckling, cracks, and other defects. The INL, in collaboration with Oregon State University (OSU), Missouri University of Science and Technology (Missouri S&T), and Real Time Tomography, is developing advanced neutron detector systems and tomographic reconstruction techniques to evaluate the AFIP-7 fuel element. Neutron computed tomography using the current neutron radiography technique available at the Neutron Radiography reactor (NRAD) is impractical due to the long time and high cost to produce a set of images for tomographic reconstruction. Advanced neutron radiography systems such as the micro-channel plate (MCP) detector and neutron computed radiography (CR) may reduce the time and cost of acquiring images for neutron CT. The MCP detector system tested at OSU and Missouri S&T provides neutron radiographs and has lower gamma sensitivity compared to other digital acquisition image systems. However, some significant, but not prohibitive, challenges must be overcome to make its use for imaging nuclear fuel more practical. Images taken with the MCP require significant image processing to reduce distortions and correct for the dynamic detector response. Also, the small active area of the detector (~30 mm diameter) requires the collection and combination of several images of a specimen, which may become time-consuming. The MCP is tested in low gamma dose environments, but should also be tested in the gamma field at the

  18. GraphPrints: Towards a Graph Analytic Method for Network Anomaly Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harshaw, Chris R; Bridges, Robert A; Iannacone, Michael D; Reed, Joel W; Goodall, John R

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel graph-analytic approach for detecting anomalies in network flow data called \\textit{GraphPrints}. Building on foundational network-mining techniques, our method represents time slices of traffic as a graph, then counts graphlets\\textemdash small induced subgraphs that describe local topology. By performing outlier detection on the sequence of graphlet counts, anomalous intervals of traffic are identified, and furthermore, individual IPs experiencing abnormal behavior are singled-out. Initial testing of GraphPrints is performed on real network data with an implanted anomaly. Evaluation shows false positive rates bounded by 2.84\\% at the time-interval level, and 0.05\\% at the IP-level with 100\\% true positive rates at both.

  19. Fabrication of contacts for silicon solar cells including printing burn through layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginley, David S; Kaydanova, Tatiana; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2014-06-24

    A method for fabricating a contact (240) for a solar cell (200). The method includes providing a solar cell substrate (210) with a surface that is covered or includes an antireflective coating (220). For example, the substrate (210) may be positioned adjacent or proximate to an outlet of an inkjet printer (712) or other deposition device. The method continues with forming a burn through layer (230) on the coating (220) by depositing a metal oxide precursor (e.g., using an inkjet or other non-contact printing method to print or apply a volume of liquid or solution containing the precursor). The method includes forming a contact layer (240) comprising silver over or on the burn through layer (230), and then annealing is performed to electrically connect the contact layer (240) to the surface of the solar cell substrate (210) through a portion of the burn through layer (230) and the coating (220).

  20. LLNL researchers outline what happens during metal 3D printing, enhancing

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    confidence | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) LLNL researchers outline what happens during metal 3D printing, enhancing confidence Friday, February 19, 2016 - 12:00am NNSA Blog From left, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers Ibo Matthews, a principal investigator leading the lab's effort on the joint open source software project; Wayne King, director of the Accelerated Certification of Additively Manufactured Metals Initiative; and Gabe Guss, engineering

  1. DISCLAIMER : UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED - PLEASE CHECK THE STATUS OF THE DOCUMENT IN IDM

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    5 May 2016 DISCLAIMER : UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED - PLEASE CHECK THE STATUS OF THE DOCUMENT IN IDM Technical Specifications (In-Cash Procurement) Mechanical and system engineering analysis for Diagnostics Magnetics systems This document describes technical needs for mechanical and system engineering analysis for ITER magnetic diagnostics systems. IDM UID T2CKM7 VERSION CREATED ON / VERSION / STATUS 29 Apr 2016 / 1.0 / Approved EXTERNAL REFERENCE / VERSION ITER_D_T2CKM7 Page 1 of 7 Table of

  2. DISCLAIMER : UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED - PLEASE CHECK THE STATUS OF THE DOCUMENT IN IDM

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Jul 2016 DISCLAIMER : UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED - PLEASE CHECK THE STATUS OF THE DOCUMENT IN IDM Technical Specifications (In-Cash Procurement) Technical specifications_Neutron Diagnostics project integration This document describes technical needs of ITER/TED/PPD Diagnostics Division, with particular reference to the requirement for engineering expertise for the Neutron Diagnostics project, integration and follow up activities, as appropriate. IDM UID TLA2Z4 VERSION CREATED ON / VERSION /

  3. DISCLAIMER : UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED - PLEASE CHECK THE STATUS OF THE DOCUMENT IN IDM

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Aug 2016 DISCLAIMER : UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED - PLEASE CHECK THE STATUS OF THE DOCUMENT IN IDM Technical Specifications (In-Cash Procurement) RAMI Analysis for the Diagnostics systems The contract covers the following tasks (see details in Section 7 and 9): Determination of the electronics Quality Class (QC) and RAMI-based mitigation to achieve QC-3 for the electronics;Update of the RAMI analyses of ITER diagnostic systems, ports, port components and integrated assembly;Resolution of the

  4. DISCLAIMER : UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED - PLEASE CHECK THE STATUS OF THE DOCUMENT IN IDM

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Aug 2016 DISCLAIMER : UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED - PLEASE CHECK THE STATUS OF THE DOCUMENT IN IDM Technical Specifications (In-Cash Procurement) Design Justification and Engineering Validation Work_Technical specifications This document describes the technical needs for specialists in engineering of Diagnostics. Specifically the technical needs of the Diagnostics Division with particular reference to Design Justification and Engineering Validation Work. ITER is a major new device that is under

  5. DISCLAIMER : UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED - PLEASE CHECK THE STATUS OF THE DOCUMENT IN IDM

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    11 Jul 2016 DISCLAIMER : UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED - PLEASE CHECK THE STATUS OF THE DOCUMENT IN IDM Technical Specifications (In-Cash Procurement) PLM Project. Framework Contract for Engineering Support This document define theoverall frame andrequirements for engineering service contracts in order to support ITER Organization Central Team (IO-CT) in the implementation the PLM project. IDM UID SSZSGR VERSION CREATED ON / VERSION / STATUS 07 Jul 2016 / 1.3 / Approved EXTERNAL REFERENCE / VERSION

  6. DISCLAIMER : UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED - PLEASE CHECK THE STATUS OF THE DOCUMENT IN IDM

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Jul 2016 DISCLAIMER : UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED - PLEASE CHECK THE STATUS OF THE DOCUMENT IN IDM Technical Specification Summary Technical Specification - Requirement Management Framework Contract The following document provides the basic requirements to initiate the procurement of Requirement Management Services as part of a Call For Tender Process. Approval Process Name Action Affiliation Author Guigon A. 29 Jul 2016:signed IO/DG/COO/CIO/CMD Co-Authors Larrea J. 29 Jul 2016:signed

  7. DISCLAIMER : UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED - PLEASE CHECK THE STATUS OF THE DOCUMENT IN IDM

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Aug 2016 DISCLAIMER : UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED - PLEASE CHECK THE STATUS OF THE DOCUMENT IN IDM Technical Specifications (In-Cash Procurement) Technical Summary for Call for Nomination - TPI Supervision and Inspection Services Contract This Call for Nomination is to seek companies interested in participating in the tender for the Quality Control Inspection services contract. This technical summary provides requirements for Supplier of inspections services and Quality Control supervision tasks

  8. In the OSTI Collections: 3-D Printing and Other Additive Manufacturing

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technologies | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information 3-D Printing and Other Additive Manufacturing Technologies Dr. Watson computer sleuthing scientist. Article Acknowledgement: Dr. William N. Watson, Physicist DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information Understanding Electron Beam Melting Is Additive Manufacturing Suitable? Two Projects Other Materials Additive Manufacturing Technologies References Reports Available Through OSTI's SciTech Connect

  9. SU-C-213-06: Dosimetric Verification of 3D Printed Electron Bolus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, K; Corbett, M; Pelletier, C; Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Jung, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the dosimetric effect of 3D printed bolus in an anthropomorphic phantom. Methods: Conformable bolus material was generated for an anthropomorphic phantom from a DICOM volume. The bolus generated was a uniform expansion of 5mm applied to the nose region of the phantom, as this is a difficult area to uniformly apply bolus clinically. A Printrbot metal 3D Printer using PLA plastic generated the bolus. A 9MeV anterior beam with a 5cm cone was used to deliver dose to the nose of the phantom. TLD measurements were compared to predicted values at the phantom surface. Film planes were analyzed for the printed bolus, a standard 5mm bolus sheet placed on the phantom, and the phantom with no bolus applied to determine depth and dose distributions. Results: TLDs measured within 2.5% of predicted value for the 3D bolus. Film demonstrated a more uniform dose distribution in the nostril region for the 3d printed bolus than the standard bolus. This difference is caused by the air gap created around the nostrils by the standard bolus, creating a secondary build-up region. Both demonstrated a 50% central axis dose shift of 5mm relative to the no bolus film. HU for the bolus calculated the PLA electron density to be ∼1.1g/cc. Physical density was measured to be 1.3g/cc overall. Conclusion: 3D printed PLA bolus demonstrates improved dosimetric performance to standard bolus for electron beams with complex phantom geometry.

  10. State Waste Discharge Permit Application: Electric resistance tomography testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This permit application documentation is for a State Waste Discharge Permit issued in accordance with requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The activity being permitted is a technology test using electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography technology was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has been used at other waste sites to track underground contamination plumes. The electrical resistance tomography technology measures soil electrical resistance between two electrodes. If a fluid contaminated with electrolytes is introduced into the soil, the soil resistance is expected to drop. By using an array of measurement electrodes in several boreholes, the areal extent of contamination can be estimated. At the Hanford Site, the purpose of the testing is to determine if the electrical resistance tomography technology can be used in the vicinity of large underground metal tanks without the metal tank interfering with the test. It is anticipated that the electrical resistance tomography technology will provide a method for accurately detecting leaks from the bottom of underground tanks, such as the Hanford Site single-shell tanks.

  11. Flow-enhanced solution printing of all-polymer solar cells

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Diao, Ying; Zhou, Yan; Kurosawa, Tadanori; Shaw, Leo; Wang, Cheng; Park, Steve; Guo, Yikun; Reinspach, Julia A.; Gu, Kevin; Gu, Xiaodan; et al

    2015-08-12

    Morphology control of solution coated solar cell materials presents a key challenge limiting their device performance and commercial viability. Here we present a new concept for controlling phase separation during solution printing using an all-polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell as a model system. The key aspect of our method lies in the design of fluid flow using a microstructured printing blade, on the basis of the hypothesis of flow-induced polymer crystallization. Our flow design resulted in a similar to 90% increase in the donor thin film crystallinity and reduced microphase separated donor and acceptor domain sizes. The improved morphology enhancedmore » all metrics of solar cell device performance across various printing conditions, specifically leading to higher short-circuit current, fill factor, open circuit voltage and significantly reduced device-to-device variation. However, we expect our design concept to have broad applications beyond all-polymer solar cells because of its simplicity and versatility.« less

  12. Selective light sintering of Aerosol-Jet printed silver nanoparticle inks on polymer substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuetz, K. E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de Hoerber, J. E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de Franke, J. E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de

    2014-05-15

    Printing silver nanoparticle inks to generate conductive structures for electronics on polymer substrates has gained increasing relevance in recent years. In this context, the Aerosol-Jet Technology is well suited to print silver ink on 3D-Molded Interconnect Devices (MID). The deposited ink requires thermal post-treatment to obtain sufficient electrical conductivity and adhesion. However, commonly used oven sintering cannot be applied for many thermoplastic substrates due to low melting temperatures. In this study a new sintering technology, selective light sintering, is presented, based on the focused, continuous light beam of a xenon lamp. Sintering experiments were conducted with Aerosol-Jet printed structures on various polycarbonate (PC) substrates. Especially on neat, light transparent PC, silver tracks were evenly sintered with marginal impact to the substrate. Electrical conductivities significantly exceed the values obtained with conventional oven sintering. Adhesive strength is sufficient for conductive tracks. Experiments with non-transparent PC substrates led to substrate damage due to increased light absorption. Therefore a concept for a variation of light sintering was developed, using optical filters. First experiments showed significant reduction of substrate damage and good sintering qualities. The highly promising results of the conducted experiments provide a base for further investigations to increase adhesion and qualifying the technology for MID applications and a broad spectrum of thermoplastic substrates.

  13. Thermal Effusivity Tomography from Pulsed Thermal Imaging

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-12-01

    The software program generates 3D volume distribution of thermal effusivity within a test material from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging data. Thsi is the first software capable of accurate, fast and automated thermal tomographic imaging of inhomogeneous materials to produce 3D images similar to those obtained from 3D X-ray CT (all previous thermal-imaging software can only produce 2D results). Because thermal effusivity is an intrisic material property that is related to material constituent, density, conductivity, etc.,more » quantitative imaging of effusivity allowed direct visualization of material's internal constituent/structure and damage distributions, thereby potentially leading to quantitative prediction of other material properties such as strength. I can be therefre be used for 3D imaging of material structure in fundamental material studies, nondestructive characterization of defects/flaws in structural engineering components, health monitoring of material damage and degradation during service, and medical imaging and diagnostics. This technology is one-sided, non contact and sensitive to material's thermal property and discontinuity. One major advantage of this tomographic technology over x-ray CT and ultrasounds is its natural efficiency for 3D imaging of the volume under a large surface area. This software is implemented with a method for thermal computed tomography of thermal effusivity from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging (or thermography) data. The method is based on several solutions of the governing heat transfer equation under pulsed thermography test condition. In particular, it consists of three components. 1) It utilized the thermal effusivity as the imaging parameter to construct the 3D image. 2) It established a relationship between the space (depth) and the time, because thermography data are in the time domain. 3) It incorporated a deconvolution algorithm to solve the depth porfile of the material thermal effusivity from the measured

  14. Thermal Effusivity Tomography from Pulsed Thermal Imaging

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-11-05

    The software program generates 3D volume distribution of thermal effusivity within a test material from one—sided pulsed thermal imaging data. Thsi is the first software capable of accurate, fast and automated thermal tomographic imaging of inhomogeneoirs materials to produce 3D images similar to those obtained from 3D X—ray CT (all previous thepnal—imaging software can only produce 20 results) . Because thermal effusivity is an Intrisic material property that is related to material constituent, density, conductivity,more » etc., quantitative imaging of eftusivity allowed direct visualization of material’s internal constituent/structure and damage distributions, thereby potentially leading to quantitative prediction of other material properties such as strength. I can be therefre be used for 3D imaging of material structure in fundamental material studies, nondestructive characterization of defects/flaws in structural engineering components, health monitoring of material damage and degradation during service, and medical imaging and diagnostics. This technology is one—sided, non contact and sensitive to material’s thermal property and discontinuity. One major advantage of this tomographic technology over x-ray CT and ultrasounds is its natural efficiency for 3D imaging of the volume under a large surface area. This software is implemented with a method for thermal computed tomography of thermal effusivity from one—sided pulsed thermal imaging (or thermography) data. The method is based on several solutions of the governing heat transfer equation under pulsed thermography test condition. In particular, it consists of three components. 1) It utilized the thermal effusivity as the imaging parameter to construct the 3D image. 2) It established a relationship between the space (depth) and the time, because thermography data are in the time domain. 3) It incorporated a deconvolution algorithm to solve the depth porfile of the material thermal effusivity from the

  15. Relationship of computed tomography perfusion and positron emission tomography to tumour progression in malignant glioma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeung, Timothy P C; Yartsev, Slav; Lee, Ting-Yim; Wong, Eugene; He, Wenqing; Fisher, Barbara; VanderSpek, Lauren L; Macdonald, David; Bauman, Glenn

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: This study aimed to explore the potential for computed tomography (CT) perfusion and 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in predicting sites of future progressive tumour on a voxel-by-voxel basis after radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Methods: Ten patients underwent pre-radiotherapy magnetic resonance (MR), FDG-PET and CT perfusion near the end of radiotherapy and repeated post-radiotherapy follow-up MR scans. The relationships between these images and tumour progression were assessed using logistic regression. Cross-validation with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the value of these images in predicting sites of tumour progression. Results: Pre-radiotherapy MR-defined gross tumour; near-end-of-radiotherapy CT-defined enhancing lesion; CT perfusion blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and permeability-surface area (PS) product; FDG-PET standard uptake value (SUV); and SUV:BF showed significant associations with tumour progression on follow-up MR imaging (P < 0.0001). The mean sensitivity (standard deviation), specificity and area under the ROC curve (AUC) of PS were 0.64 0.15, 0.74 0.07 and 0.72 0.12 respectively. This mean AUC was higher than that of the pre-radiotherapy MR-defined gross tumour and near-end-of-radiotherapy CT-defined enhancing lesion (both AUCs = 0.6 0.1, P ? 0.03). The multivariate model using BF, BV, PS and SUV had a mean AUC of 0.8 0.1, but this was not significantly higher than the PS only model. Conclusion: PS is the single best predictor of tumour progression when compared to other parameters, but voxel-based prediction based on logistic regression had modest sensitivity and specificity.

  16. Allan Cormack, Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT), and Magnetic Resonance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging (MRI) Allan M. Cormack, Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Resources with Additional Information magnetic resonance imaging system Computed axial tomography, commonly known as CAT scanning, was introduced in 1972. During a CAT scan, a large coil of x-ray tubes rotates around the patient's body, taking x-rays from all angles. A computer integrates all of these x-rays into a single, three-dimensional image on a television screen. The data can be

  17. Computer tomography of large dust clouds in complex plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killer, Carsten; Himpel, Michael; Melzer, Andr

    2014-10-15

    The dust density is a central parameter of a dusty plasma. Here, a tomography setup for the determination of the three-dimensionally resolved density distribution of spatially extended dust clouds is presented. The dust clouds consist of micron-sized particles confined in a radio frequency argon plasma, where they fill almost the entire discharge volume. First, a line-of-sight integrated dust density is obtained from extinction measurements, where the incident light from an LED panel is scattered and absorbed by the dust. Performing these extinction measurements from many different angles allows the reconstruction of the 3D dust density distribution, analogous to a computer tomography in medical applications.

  18. Evaluating iterative reconstruction performance in computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Baiyu Solomon, Justin; Ramirez Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: Iterative reconstruction (IR) offers notable advantages in computed tomography (CT). However, its performance characterization is complicated by its potentially nonlinear behavior, impacting performance in terms of specific tasks. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of IR with both task-specific and task-generic strategies. Methods: The performance of IR in CT was mathematically assessed with an observer model that predicted the detection accuracy in terms of the detectability index (d′). d′ was calculated based on the properties of the image noise and resolution, the observer, and the detection task. The characterizations of image noise and resolution were extended to accommodate the nonlinearity of IR. A library of tasks was mathematically modeled at a range of sizes (radius 1–4 mm), contrast levels (10–100 HU), and edge profiles (sharp and soft). Unique d′ values were calculated for each task with respect to five radiation exposure levels (volume CT dose index, CTDI{sub vol}: 3.4–64.8 mGy) and four reconstruction algorithms (filtered backprojection reconstruction, FBP; iterative reconstruction in imaging space, IRIS; and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction with strengths of 3 and 5, SAFIRE3 and SAFIRE5; all provided by Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany). The d′ values were translated into the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) to represent human observer performance. For each task and reconstruction algorithm, a threshold dose was derived as the minimum dose required to achieve a threshold AUC of 0.9. A task-specific dose reduction potential of IR was calculated as the difference between the threshold doses for IR and FBP. A task-generic comparison was further made between IR and FBP in terms of the percent of all tasks yielding an AUC higher than the threshold. Results: IR required less dose than FBP to achieve the threshold AUC. In general, SAFIRE5 showed the most significant dose reduction

  19. Recent Developments in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Instrumentation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.

    1986-04-01

    This paper presents recent detector developments and perspectives for positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation used for medical research, as well as the physical processes in positron annihilation, photon scattering and detection, tomograph design considerations, and the potentials for new advances in detectors.

  20. Role of Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography in the Management of Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mistrangelo, Massimiliano; Pelosi, Ettore; Bello, Marilena; Ricardi, Umberto; Milanesi, Enrica; Cassoni, Paola; Baccega, Massimo; Filippini, Claudia; Racca, Patrizia; Lesca, Adriana; Munoz, Fernando H.; Fora, Gianluca; Skanjeti, Andrea; Cravero, Francesca; Morino, Mario

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Pre- and post-treatment staging of anal cancer are often inaccurate. The role of positron emission tomograpy-computed tomography (PET-CT) in anal cancer is yet to be defined. The aim of the study was to compare PET-CT with CT scan, sentinel node biopsy results of inguinal lymph nodes, and anal biopsy results in staging and in follow-up of anal cancer. Methods and Materials: Fifty-three consecutive patients diagnosed with anal cancer underwent PET-CT. Results were compared with computed tomography (CT), performed in 40 patients, and with sentinel node biopsy (SNB) (41 patients) at pretreatment workup. Early follow-up consisted of a digital rectal examination, an anoscopy, a PET-CT scan, and anal biopsies performed at 1 and 3 months after the end of treatment. Data sets were then compared. Results: At pretreatment assessment, anal cancer was identified by PET-CT in 47 patients (88.7%) and by CT in 30 patients (75%). The detection rates rose to 97.9% with PET-CT and to 82.9% with CT (P=.042) when the 5 patients who had undergone surgery prior to this assessment and whose margins were positive at histological examination were censored. Perirectal and/or pelvic nodes were considered metastatic by PET-CT in 14 of 53 patients (26.4%) and by CT in 7 of 40 patients (17.5%). SNB was superior to both PET-CT and CT in detecting inguinal lymph nodes. PET-CT upstaged 37.5% of patients and downstaged 25% of patients. Radiation fields were changed in 12.6% of patients. PET-CT at 3 months was more accurate than PET-CT at 1 month in evaluating outcomes after chemoradiation therapy treatment: sensitivity was 100% vs 66.6%, and specificity was 97.4% vs 92.5%, respectively. Median follow-up was 20.3 months. Conclusions: In this series, PET-CT detected the primary tumor more often than CT. Staging of perirectal/pelvic or inguinal lymph nodes was better with PET-CT. SNB was more accurate in staging inguinal lymph nodes.

  1. Notice of Intent to Develop DOE Guide 436.1-1, Sustainable Print Management

    Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-03-19

    The Guide will support Executive Order (E.O.) 13693, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade. signed on March 19, 2015, which requires the Federal Government to lead by example to create a clean energy economy that will increase prosperity, promote energy security, protect the interests of taxpayers, and safeguard the health of the environment. Under E.O. 13693, Federal agencies are required to increase energy efficiency, eliminate waste, and leverage agency acquisitions by reducing costs and resources in their printing activities. This Guide also aligns with the requirements of DOE O 436.1, Departmental Sustainability.

  2. "Printing" Tiny Batteries | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) [DOE]

    W. Bennett Lewis, 1981 The Enrico Fermi Award Fermi Award Home Nomination & Selection Guidelines Award Laureates 2010's 2000's 1990's 1980's 1970's 1960's 1950's Ceremony The Life of Enrico Fermi Contact Information The Enrico Fermi Award U.S. Department of Energy SC-2/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-2411 E: Email Us 1980's W. Bennett Lewis, 1981 Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Citation For his dedicated support of heavy water

  3. DuPont Displays Develops Low-Cost Method of Printing OLED Panels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DuPont Displays Inc. (DDI) has developed a novel way of printing color-tunable OLED lighting panels that keeps manufacturing costs low. The method involves processing the organic layers from solution, with most of the process steps taking place under atmospheric conditions rather than in a high vacuum. Industry-standard slot-coating methods are used in conjunction with nozzle printing—in which the solutions of organic materials are continuously jetted through an array of nozzles moving at high speed—allowing the light-emitting materials to be spatially patterned.

  4. OSTIblog Articles in the E-Print Network (EPN) Topic | OSTI, US Dept of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Print Network (EPN) Topic OSTI by the numbers by Tim Byrne 02 Nov, 2012 in Products and Content 4259 OSTInumbers.jpg OSTI by the numbers Read more about 4259 For those of you who like numbers, I thought I would give you a few numbers about some of OSTI's databases and search products. The DOE Information Bridge now has over 300,000 full-text STI reports. While most of these are post 1991, there are over 84,000 reports published prior to

  5. OSTIblog Articles in the customizing e-prints information Topic | OSTI, US

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information e-prints information Topic Science Accelerator Brings You More Access and More to Access by Mary Schorn 23 Jun, 2010 in Products and Content You can now have multiple access points to Science Accelerator at your fingertips. Just download the new tabbed widget and you will have access to search Science Accelerator, to the RSS feed, and to the Science Accelerator Alerts. Download via the 'Get Widget Options' link or by placing the

  6. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in aging and senile dementia as determined by 18F-deoxyglucose and positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alavi, A.; Reivich, M.; Ferris, S.

    1981-01-01

    The use of positron emission tomography in the evaluation of aging and senile dementia is discussed.

  7. Characterizing performances of solder paste printing process at flexible manufacturing lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siew, Jit Ping; Low, Heng Chin; Teoh, Ping Chow

    2015-02-03

    Solder paste printing (SPP) has been a challenge on printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing, evident by the proliferation of solder paste inspection equipment, or substituted by rigorous non-value added activity of manual inspections. The objective of this study is to characterize the SPP performance of various products manufactured in flexible production lines with different equipment configurations, and determine areas for process improvement. The study began by collecting information on SPP performance relative to component placement (CP) process, and to the proportion of mixed products. Using a clustering algorithm to group similar elements together, SPP performance across all product-production line pairs are statistically modeled to discover the trend and the influential factors. The main findings are: (a) Ratio of overall dpku for CP and SPP processes are 2:1; (b) logistic regression models of SPP performance indicated that only effects of product-production line and solder paste printer configuration are significant; (c) PCB circuitry design with BGA components and single solder paste printer line configurations generated the highest monthly defects, with the highest variation in the latter.

  8. Nanoalloy Printed and Pulse-Laser Sintered Flexible Sensor Devices with Enhanced Stability and Materials Compatibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Wei; Rovore, Thomas; Weerawarne, Darshana; Osterhoudt, Gavin; Kang, Ning; Joseph, Pharrah; Luo, Jin; Shim, Bonggu; Poliks, Mark; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2015-06-02

    While conformal and wearable devices have become one of the most desired formats for printable electronics, it is challenging to establish a scalable process that produces stable conductive patterns but also uses substrates compatible with widely available wearable materials. Here, we describe findings of an investigation of a nanoalloy ink printed and pulsed laser sintered conductive patterns as flexible functional devices with enhanced stability and materials compatibility. While nanoparticle inks are desired for printable electronics, almost all existing nanoparticle inks are based on single-metal component, which, as an electronic element, is limited by its inherent stabilities of the metal such as propensity of metal oxidation and mobility of metal ions, especially in sintering processes. The work here has demonstrated the first example in exploiting plasmonic coupling of nanoalloys and pulsed-laser energy with controllable thermal penetration. The experimental and theoretical results have revealed clear correlation between the pulsed laser parameters and the nanoalloy structural characteristics. The superior performance of the resulting flexible sensor device, upon imparting nanostructured sensing materials, for detecting volatile organic compounds has significant implications to developing stable and wearable sensors for monitoring environmental pollutants and breath biomarkers. This simple “nanoalloy printing 'laser sintering' nanostructure printing” process is entirely general to many different sensor devices and nanostructured sensing materials, enabling the ability to easily construct sophisticated sensor array.

  9. Binder-free highly conductive graphene laminate for low cost printed radio frequency applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xianjun; Leng, Ting; Zhang, Xiao; Hu, Zhirun; Chen, Jia Cing; Chang, Kuo Hsin; Geim, Andre K.; Novoselov, Kostya S.

    2015-05-18

    In this paper, we demonstrate realization of printable radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna by low temperature processing of graphene ink. The required ultra-low resistance is achieved by rolling compression of binder-free graphene laminate. With compression, the conductivity of graphene laminate is increased by more than 50 times compared to that of as-deposited one. Graphene laminate with conductivity of 4.3??10{sup 4?}S/m and sheet resistance of 3.8 ?/sq (with thickness of 6??m) is presented. Moreover, the formation of graphene laminate from graphene ink reported here is simple and can be carried out in low temperature (100?C), significantly reducing the fabrication costs. A dipole antenna based on the highly conductive graphene laminate is further patterned and printed on a normal paper to investigate its RF properties. The performance of the graphene laminate antenna is experimentally measured. The measurement results reveal that graphene laminate antenna can provide practically acceptable return loss, gain, bandwidth, and radiation patterns, making it ideal for low cost printed RF applications, such as RFID tags and wearable wireless sensor networks.

  10. Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Hack

    2008-12-31

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation and University of Michigan proposed to integrate three innovative concepts to meet the DOE's Solid State Lighting (SSL) goals: (1) high-efficiency phosphorescent organic light emitting device (PHOLED{trademark}) technology, (2) a white lighting design that is based on a series of red, green and blue OLED stripes, and (3) the use of a novel cost-effective, high rate, mask-less deposition process called organic vapor jet printing (OVJP). Our PHOLED technology offers up to four-times higher power efficiency than other OLED approaches for general lighting. We believe that one of the most promising approaches to maximizing the efficiency of OLED lighting sources is to produce stripes of the three primary colors at such a pitch (200-500 {mu}m) that they appear as a uniform white light to an observer greater than 1 meter (m) away from the illumination source. Earlier work from a SBIR Phase 1 entitled 'White Illumination Sources Using Striped Phosphorescent OLEDs' suggests that stripe widths of less than 500 {mu}m appear uniform from a distance of 1m without the need for an external diffuser. In this program, we intend to combine continued advances in this PHOLED technology with the striped RGB lighting design to demonstrate a high-efficiency, white lighting source. Using this background technology, the team has focused on developing and demonstrating the novel cost-effective OVJP process to fabricate these high-efficiency white PHOLED light sources. Because this groundbreaking OVJP process is a direct printing approach that enables the OLED stripes to be printed without a shadow mask, OVJP offers very high material utilization and high throughput without the costs and wastage associated with a shadow mask (i.e. the waste of material that deposits on the shadow mask itself). As a direct printing technique, OVJP also has the potential to offer ultra-high deposition rates (> 1,000 Angstroms/second) for any size or shaped

  11. Using electrical impedance tomography to map subsurface hydraulic conductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berryman, James G.; Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.; Roberts, Jeffery J.

    2000-01-01

    The use of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to map subsurface hydraulic conductivity. EIT can be used to map hydraulic conductivity in the subsurface where measurements of both amplitude and phase are made. Hydraulic conductivity depends on at least two parameters: porosity and a length scale parameter. Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) measures and maps electrical conductivity (which can be related to porosity) in three dimensions. By introducing phase measurements along with amplitude, the desired additional measurement of a pertinent length scale can be achieved. Hydraulic conductivity controls the ability to flush unwanted fluid contaminants from the surface. Thus inexpensive maps of hydraulic conductivity would improve planning strategies for subsequent remediation efforts. Fluid permeability is also of importance for oil field exploitation and thus detailed knowledge of fluid permeability distribution in three-dimension (3-D) would be a great boon to petroleum reservoir analysts.

  12. STEM-EDX tomography of bimetallic nanoparticles: A methodological investigation

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Slater, Thomas J. A.; Janssen, Arne; Camargo, Pedro H. C.; Burke, M. Grace; Zaluzec, Nestor J.; Haigh, Sarah J.

    2015-10-22

    This paper presents an investigation of the limitations and optimization of energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) tomography within the scanning transmission electron microscope, focussing on application of the technique to characterising the 3D elemental distribution of bimetallic AgAu nanoparticles. The detector collection efficiency when using a standard tomography holder is characterised using a tomographic data set from a single nanoparticle and compared to a standard low background double tilt holder. Optical depth profiling is used to investigate the angles and origin of detector shadowing as a function of specimen field of view. A novel time-varied acquisition scheme is described to compensatemore » for variations in the intensity of spectrum images at each sample tilt. Lastly, the ability of EDX spectrum images to satisfy the projection requirement for nanoparticle samples is discussed, with consideration of the effect of absorption and shadowing variations« less

  13. Development of neutron tomography and phase contrast imaging technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashyap, Y. S.; Agrawal, Ashish; Sarkar, P. S.; Shukla, Mayank; Sinha, Amar

    2013-02-05

    This paper presents design and development of a state of art neutron imaging technique at CIRUS reactor with special reference for techniques adopted for tomography and phase contrast imaging applications. Different components of the beamline such as collimator, shielding, sample manipulator, digital imaging system were designed keeping in mind the requirements of data acquisition time and resolution. The collimator was designed in such a way that conventional and phase contrast imaging can be done using same collimator housing. We have done characterization of fuel pins, study of hydride blisters in pressure tubes hydrogen based cells, two phase flow visualization, and online study of locomotive parts etc. using neutron tomography and radiography technique. We have also done some studies using neutron phase contrast imaging technique on this beamline.

  14. STEM-EDX tomography of bimetallic nanoparticles: A methodological investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, Thomas J. A.; Janssen, Arne; Camargo, Pedro H. C.; Burke, M. Grace; Zaluzec, Nestor J.; Haigh, Sarah J.

    2015-10-22

    This paper presents an investigation of the limitations and optimization of energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) tomography within the scanning transmission electron microscope, focussing on application of the technique to characterising the 3D elemental distribution of bimetallic AgAu nanoparticles. The detector collection efficiency when using a standard tomography holder is characterised using a tomographic data set from a single nanoparticle and compared to a standard low background double tilt holder. Optical depth profiling is used to investigate the angles and origin of detector shadowing as a function of specimen field of view. A novel time-varied acquisition scheme is described to compensate for variations in the intensity of spectrum images at each sample tilt. Lastly, the ability of EDX spectrum images to satisfy the projection requirement for nanoparticle samples is discussed, with consideration of the effect of absorption and shadowing variations

  15. Discussion - Next Step for Fukushima Daiichi Muon Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyadera, Haruo

    2012-08-13

    Specification of Fukushima Daiichi Muon Tomography (FMT): (1) 18-feet (5.5-m) drift tube, 2-inch (5-cm) diameter; (2) 108 tubes per layer; (3) Unit layer = 2 layer (detection efficiency: 0.96 x 0.96 = 92%); (4) 12 or 16 layer per module; (5) 16 layers allows momentum analysis at 30% level; (6) 2 module per super module (5.5 x 11 m{sup 2}); and (7) FMT = 2 super module. By deploying MMT next to a research reactor, we will be able to measure the impact of low level radiation fields on muon tomography and reconstruction processes. Radiation level during reactor operation is {approx}50 {micro}Sv/h which provides similar radiation environment of inside the FMT radiation shield at Fukushima Daiichi. We will implement coincidence algorithm on the FPGA board.

  16. Quantum tomography meets dynamical systems and bifurcations theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyeneche, D.; Torre, A. C. de la

    2014-06-01

    A powerful tool for studying geometrical problems in Hilbert spaces is developed. We demonstrate the convergence and robustness of our method in every dimension by considering dynamical systems theory. This method provides numerical solutions to hard problems involving many coupled nonlinear equations in low and high dimensions (e.g., quantum tomography problem, existence and classification of Pauli partners, mutually unbiased bases, complex Hadamard matrices, equiangular tight frames, etc.). Additionally, this tool can be used to find analytical solutions and also to implicitly prove the existence of solutions. Here, we develop the theory for the quantum pure state tomography problem in finite dimensions but this approach is straightforwardly extended to the rest of the problems. We prove that solutions are always attractive fixed points of a nonlinear operator explicitly given. As an application, we show that the statistics collected from three random orthonormal bases is enough to reconstruct pure states from experimental (noisy) data in every dimension d ? 32.

  17. Orbital apex fractures: the contribution of computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unger, J.M.

    1984-03-01

    The conventional radiographs, computed tomograms, and clinical course of 17 patients with 23 orbital apex fractures were reviewed. The type of fracture was identified, and the presence of optic nerve damage, the superior orbital fissure syndrome, or the orbital apex syndrome was noted. It was concluded that fractures of the orbital apex may frequently be unsuspected clinically and are not as rare as the literature indicates. Computed tomography provides an excellent means of radiologic diagnosis in the acutely traumatized patient.

  18. On the general constraints in single qubit quantum process tomography

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Bhandari, Ramesh; Peters, Nicholas A.

    2016-05-18

    In this study, we briefly review single-qubit quantum process tomography for trace-preserving and nontrace-preserving processes, and derive explicit forms of the general constraints for fitting experimental data. These forms provide additional insight into the structure of the process matrix. We illustrate this with several examples, including a discussion of qubit leakage error models and the intuition which can be gained from their process matrices.

  19. Recent developments in guided wave travel time tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zon, Tim van; Volker, Arno

    2014-02-18

    The concept of predictive maintenance using permanent sensors that monitor the integrity of an installation is an interesting addition to the current method of periodic inspections. Guided wave tomography had been developed to create a map of the wall thickness using the travel times of guided waves. It can be used for both monitoring and for inspection of pipe-segments that are difficult to access, for instance at the location of pipe-supports. An important outcome of the tomography is the minimum remaining wall thickness, as this is critical in the scheduling of a replacement of the pipe-segment. In order to improve the sizing accuracy we have improved the tomography scheme. A number of major improvements have been realized allowing to extend the application envelope to pipes with a larger wall thickness and to larger distances between the transducer rings. Simulation results indicate that the sizing accuracy has improved and that is now possible to have a spacing of 8 meter between the source-ring and the receiver-ring. Additionally a reduction of the number of sensors required might be possible as well.

  20. The Study and Implementation of Electrically Small Printed Antennas for an Integrated Transceiver Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speer, Pete

    2009-04-15

    This work focuses on the design and evaluation of the inverted-F, meandering-monopole, and loop antenna geometries. These printed antennas are studied with the goal of identifying which is suitable for use in a miniaturized transceiver design and which has the ability to provide superior performance using minimal Printed Circuit Board (PCB) space. As a result, the main objective is to characterize tradeoffs and identify which antenna provides the best compromise among volume, bandwidth and efficiency. For experimentation purposes, three types of meandering-monopole antenna are examined resulting in five total antennas for the study. The performance of each antenna under study is evaluated based upon return loss, operational bandwidth, and radiation pattern characteristics. For our purposes, return loss is measured using the S11-port reflection coefficient which helps to characterize how well the small antenna is able to be efficiently fed. Operational bandwidth is measured as the frequency range over which the antenna maintains 2:1 Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) or equivalently has 10-dB return loss. Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) is used to simulate expected resonant frequency, bandwidth, VSWR, and radiation pattern characteristics. Ansoft HFSS simulation is used to provide a good starting point for antenna design before actual prototype are built using an LPKF automated router. Simulated results are compared with actual measurements to highlight any differences and help demonstrate the effects of antenna miniaturization. Radiation characteristics are measured illustrating how each antenna is affected by the influence of a non-ideal ground plane. The antenna with outstanding performance is further evaluated to determine its maximum range of communication. Each designs range performance is evaluated using a pair of transceivers to demonstrate round-trip communication. This research is intended to provide a knowledge base which will help

  1. Are We Ready for Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography-based Target Volume Definition in Lymphoma Radiation Therapy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeoh, Kheng-Wei; Mikhaeel, N. George

    2013-01-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has become indispensable for the clinical management of lymphomas. With consistent evidence that it is more accurate than anatomic imaging in the staging and response assessment of many lymphoma subtypes, its utility continues to increase. There have therefore been efforts to incorporate PET/CT data into radiation therapy decision making and in the planning process. Further, there have also been studies investigating target volume definition for radiation therapy using PET/CT data. This article will critically review the literature and ongoing studies on the above topics, examining the value and methods of adding PET/CT data to the radiation therapy treatment algorithm. We will also discuss the various challenges and the areas where more evidence is required.

  2. AMO’s Blake Marshall Joins Industry Leaders for Discussion About 3D Printing and the Environment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On Thursday, April 14, hundreds of industry leaders, researchers, and “Maker Community” members converged at the Rayburn House Office building for 3D/DC 2016, one of the nation’s preeminent 3D printing policy events. Hosted by The American Society Of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and Public Knowledge, 3D/DC 2016 featured several panel discussions on topics such as STEAM Education, the Arts, the Environment, Bridging the Workforce Skills Gap, and Social Impact. Blake Marshall, a physical scientist and technology manager for the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), served as a panelist for the 3D Printing and the Environment panel. Blake manages research and development programs that advance the state of the art in additive manufacturing technologies for the AMO. He engaged with a diverse group of participants and highlighted some of AMO’s activities in 3D printing research and development. A major focus of the environment panel was the positive impact that 3D printing could have on the environment and the importance of developing recyclable feedstocks for additive manufacturing to further increase sustainability.

  3. Note: Fast compact laser shutter using a direct current motor and three-dimensional printing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Grace H. Braverman, Boris; Kawasaki, Akio; Vuletić, Vladan

    2015-12-15

    We present a mechanical laser shutter design that utilizes a direct current electric motor to rotate a blade which blocks and unblocks a light beam. The blade and the main body of the shutter are modeled with computer aided design (CAD) and are produced by 3D printing. Rubber flaps are used to limit the blade’s range of motion, reducing vibrations and preventing undesirable blade oscillations. At its nominal operating voltage, the shutter achieves a switching speed of (1.22 ± 0.02) m/s with 1 ms activation delay and 10 μs jitter in its timing performance. The shutter design is simple, easy to replicate, and highly reliable, showing no failure or degradation in performance over more than 10{sup 8} cycles.

  4. Printed circuit board impedance matching step for microwave (millimeter wave) devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pao, Hsueh-Yuan; Aguirre, Jerardo; Sargis, Paul

    2013-10-01

    An impedance matching ground plane step, in conjunction with a quarter wave transformer section, in a printed circuit board provides a broadband microwave matching transition from board connectors or other elements that require thin substrates to thick substrate (>quarter wavelength) broadband microwave (millimeter wave) devices. A method of constructing microwave and other high frequency electrical circuits on a substrate of uniform thickness, where the circuit is formed of a plurality of interconnected elements of different impedances that individually require substrates of different thicknesses, by providing a substrate of uniform thickness that is a composite or multilayered substrate; and forming a pattern of intermediate ground planes or impedance matching steps interconnected by vias located under various parts of the circuit where components of different impedances are located so that each part of the circuit has a ground plane substrate thickness that is optimum while the entire circuit is formed on a substrate of uniform thickness.

  5. Method for formation of high quality back contact with screen-printed local back surface field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Meemongkolkiat, Vichai

    2010-11-30

    A thin silicon solar cell having a back dielectric passivation and rear contact with local back surface field is described. Specifically, the solar cell may be fabricated from a crystalline silicon wafer having a thickness from 50 to 500 micrometers. A barrier layer and a dielectric layer are applied at least to the back surface of the silicon wafer to protect the silicon wafer from deformation when the rear contact is formed. At least one opening is made to the dielectric layer. An aluminum contact that provides a back surface field is formed in the opening and on the dielectric layer. The aluminum contact may be applied by screen printing an aluminum paste having from one to 12 atomic percent silicon and then applying a heat treatment at 750 degrees Celsius.

  6. Moisture absorption and bakeout characteristics of rigid-flexible multilayer printed wiring boards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lula, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Moisture absorption and bakeout characteristics of Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD) rigid-flexible printed wiring boards were determined. It was found that test specimens had absorbed 0.95 weight percent moisture when equilibrated to a 50 percent RH, 25{degree}C environment. Heating those equilibrated specimens in a 120{degree}C static air oven removed 92 percent of this absorbed moisture in 24 h. Heating the samples in a 80{degree}C static air oven removed only 64 percent of the absorbed moisture at the end of 24 h. A 120{degree}C vacuum bake removed moisture at essentially the same rate with parylene slowed the absorption rate by approximately 50 percent but did not appreciably affect the equilibrium moisture content or the drying rate.

  7. Application of Printed Circuit Board Technology to FT-ICR MS Analyzer Cell Construction and Prototyping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leach, Franklin E.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2014-12-01

    Although Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICRMS) remains themass spectrometry platform that provides the highest levels of performance for mass accuracy and resolving power, there is room for improvement in analyzer cell design as the ideal quadrupolar trapping potential has yet to be generated for a broadband MS experiment. To this end, analyzer cell designs have improved since the field’s inception, yet few research groups participate in this area because of the high cost of instrumentation efforts. As a step towards reducing this barrier to participation and allowing for more designs to be physically tested, we introduce a method of FT-ICR analyzer cell prototyping utilizing printed circuit boards at modest vacuum conditions. This method allows for inexpensive devices to be readily fabricated and tested over short intervals and should open the field to laboratories lacking or unable to access high performance machine shop facilities because of the required financial investment.

  8. Non-medical Uses of Computed Tomography (CT) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    (NMR) Non-medical Uses of Computed Tomography (CT) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Resources with Additional Information Computed Tomography (CT) Scanner CT Scanner - Courtesy Stanford University Department of Energy Resources Engineering Computed tomography (CT) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) have been used to resolve industrial problems, for materials characterizations, and to provide non-destructive evaluations for discovering flaws in parts before their use, resulting in

  9. Technical Note: Immunohistochemical evaluation of mouse brain irradiation targeting accuracy with 3D-printed immobilization device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarghami, Niloufar Jensen, Michael D.; Talluri, Srikanth; Dick, Frederick A.; Foster, Paula J.; Chambers, Ann F.; Wong, Eugene

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Small animal immobilization devices facilitate positioning of animals for reproducible imaging and accurate focal radiation therapy. In this study, the authors demonstrate the use of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology to fabricate a custom-designed mouse head restraint. The authors evaluate the accuracy of this device for the purpose of mouse brain irradiation. Methods: A mouse head holder was designed for a microCT couch using CAD software and printed in an acrylic based material. Ten mice received half-brain radiation while positioned in the 3D-printed head holder. Animal placement was achieved using on-board image guidance and computerized asymmetric collimators. To evaluate the precision of beam localization for half-brain irradiation, mice were sacrificed approximately 30 min after treatment and brain sections were stained for γ-H2AX, a marker for DNA breaks. The distance and angle of the γ-H2AX radiation beam border to longitudinal fissure were measured on histological samples. Animals were monitored for any possible trauma from the device. Results: Visualization of the radiation beam on ex vivo brain sections with γ-H2AX immunohistochemical staining showed a sharp radiation field within the tissue. Measurements showed a mean irradiation targeting error of 0.14 ± 0.09 mm (standard deviation). Rotation between the beam axis and mouse head was 1.2° ± 1.0° (standard deviation). The immobilization device was easily adjusted to accommodate different sizes of mice. No signs of trauma to the mice were observed from the use of tooth block and ear bars. Conclusions: The authors designed and built a novel 3D-printed mouse head holder with many desired features for accurate and reproducible radiation targeting. The 3D printing technology was found to be practical and economical for producing a small animal imaging and radiation restraint device and allows for customization for study specific needs.

  10. SU-F-BRE-04: Construction of 3D Printed Patient Specific Phantoms for Dosimetric Verification Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehler, E; Higgins, P; Dusenbery, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To validate a method to create per patient phantoms for dosimetric verification measurements. Methods: Using a RANDO phantom as a substitute for an actual patient, a model of the external features of the head and neck region of the phantom was created. A phantom was used instead of a human for two reasons: to allow for dosimetric measurements that would not be possible in-vivo and to avoid patient privacy issues. Using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene thermoplastic as the building material, a hollow replica was created using the 3D printer filled with a custom tissue equivalent mixture of paraffin wax, magnesium oxide, and calcium carbonate. A traditional parallel-opposed head and neck plan was constructed. Measurements were performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters in both the RANDO phantom and in the 3D printed phantom. Calculated and measured dose was compared at 17 points phantoms including regions in high and low dose regions and at the field edges. On-board cone beam CT was used to localize both phantoms within 1mm and 1 prior to radiation. Results: The maximum difference in calculated dose between phantoms was 1.8% of the planned dose (180 cGy). The mean difference between calculated and measured dose in the anthropomorphic phantom and the 3D printed phantom was 1.9% 2.8% and ?0.1% 4.9%, respectively. The difference between measured and calculated dose was determined in the RANDO and 3D printed phantoms. The differences between measured and calculated dose in each respective phantom was within 2% for 12 of 17 points. The overlap of the RANDO and 3D printed phantom was 0.956 (Jaccard Index). Conclusion: A custom phantom was created using a 3D printer. Dosimetric calculations and measurements showed good agreement between the dose in the RANDO phantom (patient substitute) and the 3D printed phantom.

  11. SU-E-T-04: 3D Printed Patient-Specific Surface Mould Applicators for Brachytherapy Treatment of Superficial Lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cumming, I; Lasso, A; Rankin, A; Fichtinger, G [Laboratory for Percutaneous Surgery, School of Computing, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Joshi, C P; Falkson, C; Schreiner, L John [CCSEO, Kingston General Hospital and Department of Oncology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the feasibility of constructing 3D-printed patient-specific surface mould applicators for HDR brachytherapy treatment of superficial lesions. Methods: We propose using computer-aided design software to create 3D printed surface mould applicators for brachytherapy. A mould generation module was developed in the open-source 3D Slicer ( http://www.slicer.org ) medical image analysis platform. The system extracts the skin surface from CT images, and generates smooth catheter paths over the region of interest based on user-defined start and end points at a specified stand-off distance from the skin surface. The catheter paths are radially extended to create catheter channels that are sufficiently wide to ensure smooth insertion of catheters for a safe source travel. An outer mould surface is generated to encompass the channels. The mould is also equipped with fiducial markers to ensure its reproducible placement. A surface mould applicator with eight parallel catheter channels of 4mm diameters was fabricated for the nose region of a head phantom; flexible plastic catheters of 2mm diameter were threaded through these channels maintaining 10mm catheter separations and a 5mm stand-off distance from the skin surface. The apparatus yielded 3mm thickness of mould material between channels and the skin. The mould design was exported as a stereolithography file to a Dimension SST1200es 3D printer and printed using ABS Plus plastic material. Results: The applicator closely matched its design and was found to be sufficiently rigid without deformation during repeated application on the head phantom. Catheters were easily threaded into channels carved along catheter paths. Further tests are required to evaluate feasibility of channel diameters smaller than 4mm. Conclusion: Construction of 3D-printed mould applicators show promise for use in patient specific brachytherapy of superficial lesions. Further evaluation of 3D printing techniques and materials is required

  12. Non-medical Uses of Computed Tomography (CT) and Nuclear Magnetic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to resolve industrial problems, for materials characterizations, and to provide ... Additional Web Pages: Some Aspects Concerning the 2d and 3d Computerized Tomography ...

  13. Software-defined Radio Based Wireless Tomography: Experimental Demonstration and Verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonior, Jason D; Hu, Zhen; Guo, Terry N.; Qiu, Robert C.; Browning, James P.; Wicks, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    This letter presents an experimental demonstration of software-defined-radio-based wireless tomography using computer-hosted radio devices called Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP). This experimental brief follows our vision and previous theoretical study of wireless tomography that combines wireless communication and RF tomography to provide a novel approach to remote sensing. Automatic data acquisition is performed inside an RF anechoic chamber. Semidefinite relaxation is used for phase retrieval, and the Born iterative method is utilized for imaging the target. Experimental results are presented, validating our vision of wireless tomography.

  14. Speckle contrast diffuse correlation tomography of complex turbid medium flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Chong; Irwin, Daniel; Lin, Yu; Shang, Yu; He, Lian; Kong, Weikai; Yu, Guoqiang; Luo, Jia

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Developed herein is a three-dimensional (3D) flow contrast imaging system leveraging advancements in the extension of laser speckle contrast imaging theories to deep tissues along with our recently developed finite-element diffuse correlation tomography (DCT) reconstruction scheme. This technique, termed speckle contrast diffuse correlation tomography (scDCT), enables incorporation of complex optical property heterogeneities and sample boundaries. When combined with a reflectance-based design, this system facilitates a rapid segue into flow contrast imaging of larger, in vivo applications such as humans. Methods: A highly sensitive CCD camera was integrated into a reflectance-based optical system. Four long-coherence laser source positions were coupled to an optical switch for sequencing of tomographic data acquisition providing multiple projections through the sample. This system was investigated through incorporation of liquid and solid tissue-like phantoms exhibiting optical properties and flow characteristics typical of human tissues. Computer simulations were also performed for comparisons. A uniquely encountered smear correction algorithm was employed to correct point-source illumination contributions during image capture with the frame-transfer CCD and reflectance setup. Results: Measurements with scDCT on a homogeneous liquid phantom showed that speckle contrast-based deep flow indices were within 12% of those from standard DCT. Inclusion of a solid phantom submerged below the liquid phantom surface allowed for heterogeneity detection and validation. The heterogeneity was identified successfully by reconstructed 3D flow contrast tomography with scDCT. The heterogeneity center and dimensions and averaged relative flow (within 3%) and localization were in agreement with actuality and computer simulations, respectively. Conclusions: A custom cost-effective CCD-based reflectance 3D flow imaging system demonstrated rapid acquisition of dense boundary

  15. Fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) for dental applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, M. J., LLNL

    1998-06-02

    We have developed a hand-held fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for scanning of the oral cavity We have produced, using this scanning device, in viva cross-sectional images of hard and soft dental tissues in human volunteers Clinically relevant anatomical structures, including the gingival margin, periodontal sulcus, and dento-enamel junction, were visible in all the images The dento-enamel junction and the alveolar bone were identifiable in approximately two thirds of the images These images represent, to our knowledge, the first in viva OCT images of human dental tissue.

  16. Generation of copper rich metallic phases from waste printed circuit boards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cayumil, R.; Khanna, R.; Ikram-Ul-Haq, M.; Rajarao, R.; Hill, A.; Sahajwalla, V.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Recycling and material recovery from waste printed circuit boards is very complex. • Thermoset polymers, ceramics and metals are present simultaneously in waste PCBs. • Heat treatment of PCBs was carried out at 1150 °C under inert conditions. • Various metallic phases could be segregated out as copper based metallic droplets. • Carbon and ceramics residues can be further recycled in a range of applications. - Abstract: The rapid consumption and obsolescence of electronics have resulted in e-waste being one of the fastest growing waste streams worldwide. Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are among the most complex e-waste, containing significant quantities of hazardous and toxic materials leading to high levels of pollution if landfilled or processed inappropriately. However, PCBs are also an important resource of metals including copper, tin, lead and precious metals; their recycling is appealing especially as the concentration of these metals in PCBs is considerably higher than in their ores. This article is focused on a novel approach to recover copper rich phases from waste PCBs. Crushed PCBs were heat treated at 1150 °C under argon gas flowing at 1 L/min into a horizontal tube furnace. Samples were placed into an alumina crucible and positioned in the cold zone of the furnace for 5 min to avoid thermal shock, and then pushed into the hot zone, with specimens exposed to high temperatures for 10 and 20 min. After treatment, residues were pulled back to the cold zone and kept there for 5 min to avoid thermal cracking and re-oxidation. This process resulted in the generation of a metallic phase in the form of droplets and a carbonaceous residue. The metallic phase was formed of copper-rich red droplets and tin-rich white droplets along with the presence of several precious metals. The carbonaceous residue was found to consist of slag and ∼30% carbon. The process conditions led to the segregation of hazardous lead and tin clusters in the

  17. Towards adaptive, streaming analysis of x-ray tomography data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Mathew; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Marshall, Matthew J.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Lansing, Carina S.; Guillen, Zoe C.; Miller, Erin A.; Lanekoff, Ingela; Laskin, Julia

    2015-03-04

    Temporal and spatial resolution of chemical imaging methodologies such as x-ray tomography are rapidly increasing, leading to more complex experimental procedures and fast growing data volumes. Automated analysis pipelines and big data analytics are becoming essential to effectively evaluate the results of such experiments. Offering those data techniques in an adaptive, streaming environment can further substantially improve the scientific discovery process, by enabling experimental control and steering based on the evaluation of emerging phenomena as they are observed by the experiment. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)’ Chemical Imaging Initiative (CII - http://imaging.pnnl.gov/ ) has worked since 2011 towards developing a framework that allows users to rapidly compose and customize high throughput experimental analysis pipelines for multiple instrument types. The framework, named ‘Rapid Experimental Analysis’ (REXAN) Framework [1], is based on the idea of reusable component libraries and utilizes the PNNL developed collaborative data management and analysis environment ‘Velo’, to provide a user friendly analysis and data management environment for experimental facilities. This article will, discuss the capabilities established for X-Ray tomography, discuss lessons learned, and provide an overview of our more recent work in the Analysis in Motion Initiative (AIM - http://aim.pnnl.gov/ ) at PNNL to provide REXAN capabilities in a streaming environment.

  18. Physically motivated global alignment method for electron tomography

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Sanders, Toby; Prange, Micah; Akatay, Cem; Binev, Peter

    2015-04-08

    Electron tomography is widely used for nanoscale determination of 3-D structures in many areas of science. Determining the 3-D structure of a sample from electron tomography involves three major steps: acquisition of sequence of 2-D projection images of the sample with the electron microscope, alignment of the images to a common coordinate system, and 3-D reconstruction and segmentation of the sample from the aligned image data. The resolution of the 3-D reconstruction is directly influenced by the accuracy of the alignment, and therefore, it is crucial to have a robust and dependable alignment method. In this paper, we develop amore » new alignment method which avoids the use of markers and instead traces the computed paths of many identifiable ‘local’ center-of-mass points as the sample is rotated. Compared with traditional correlation schemes, the alignment method presented here is resistant to cumulative error observed from correlation techniques, has very rigorous mathematical justification, and is very robust since many points and paths are used, all of which inevitably improves the quality of the reconstruction and confidence in the scientific results.« less

  19. Simultaneous CT and SPECT tomography using CZT detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulus, Michael J.; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Simpson, Michael L.; Britton, Jr., Charles L.

    2002-01-01

    A method for simultaneous transmission x-ray computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) comprises the steps of: injecting a subject with a tracer compound tagged with a .gamma.-ray emitting nuclide; directing an x-ray source toward the subject; rotating the x-ray source around the subject; emitting x-rays during the rotating step; rotating a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) two-sided detector on an opposite side of the subject from the source; simultaneously detecting the position and energy of each pulsed x-ray and each emitted .gamma.-ray captured by the CZT detector; recording data for each position and each energy of each the captured x-ray and .gamma.-ray; and, creating CT and SPECT images from the recorded data. The transmitted energy levels of the x-rays lower are biased lower than energy levels of the .gamma.-rays. The x-ray source is operated in a continuous mode. The method can be implemented at ambient temperatures.

  20. Wavelength-encoded tomography based on optical temporal Fourier transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chi; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2014-09-01

    We propose and demonstrate a technique called wavelength-encoded tomography (WET) for non-invasive optical cross-sectional imaging, particularly beneficial in biological system. The WET utilizes time-lens to perform the optical Fourier transform, and the time-to-wavelength conversion generates a wavelength-encoded image of optical scattering from internal microstructures, analogous to the interferometery-based imaging such as optical coherence tomography. Optical Fourier transform, in principle, comes with twice as good axial resolution over the electrical Fourier transform, and will greatly simplify the digital signal processing after the data acquisition. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, a 150?-?m (ideally 36??m) resolution is achieved based on a 7.5-nm bandwidth swept-pump, using a conventional optical spectrum analyzer. This approach can potentially achieve up to 100-MHz or even higher frame rate with some proven ultrafast spectrum analyzer. We believe that this technique is innovative towards the next-generation ultrafast optical tomographic imaging application.

  1. Our Next Two Steps for Fukushima Daiichi Muon Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyadera, Haruo

    2012-04-11

    After the vast disasters caused by the great earthquake and tsunami in eastern Japan, we proposed applying our Muon Tomography (MT) technique to help and improve the emergency situation at Fukushima Daiichi using cosmic-ray muons. A reactor-tomography team was formed at LANL which was supported by the Laboratory as a response to a request by the former Japanese Prime Minister, Naoto Kan. Our goal is to help the Japanese people and support remediation of the reactors. At LANL, we have carried out a proof-of-principle technical demonstration and simulation studies that established the feasibility of MT to image a reactor core. This proposal covers the next two critical steps for Fukushima Daiichi Muon Imaging: (1) undertake case study mock-up experiments of Fukushima Daiichi, and (2) system optimization. We requested funding to the US and Japanese government to assess damage of reactors at Fukushima Daiichi. The two steps will bring our project to the 'ready-to-go' level.

  2. X-ray computed tomography using curvelet sparse regularization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wieczorek, Matthias Vogel, Jakob; Lasser, Tobias; Frikel, Jürgen; Demaret, Laurent; Eggl, Elena; Pfeiffer, Franz; Kopp, Felix; Noël, Peter B.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Reconstruction of x-ray computed tomography (CT) data remains a mathematically challenging problem in medical imaging. Complementing the standard analytical reconstruction methods, sparse regularization is growing in importance, as it allows inclusion of prior knowledge. The paper presents a method for sparse regularization based on the curvelet frame for the application to iterative reconstruction in x-ray computed tomography. Methods: In this work, the authors present an iterative reconstruction approach based on the alternating direction method of multipliers using curvelet sparse regularization. Results: Evaluation of the method is performed on a specifically crafted numerical phantom dataset to highlight the method’s strengths. Additional evaluation is performed on two real datasets from commercial scanners with different noise characteristics, a clinical bone sample acquired in a micro-CT and a human abdomen scanned in a diagnostic CT. The results clearly illustrate that curvelet sparse regularization has characteristic strengths. In particular, it improves the restoration and resolution of highly directional, high contrast features with smooth contrast variations. The authors also compare this approach to the popular technique of total variation and to traditional filtered backprojection. Conclusions: The authors conclude that curvelet sparse regularization is able to improve reconstruction quality by reducing noise while preserving highly directional features.

  3. Physically motivated global alignment method for electron tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, Toby; Prange, Micah; Akatay, Cem; Binev, Peter

    2015-04-08

    Electron tomography is widely used for nanoscale determination of 3-D structures in many areas of science. Determining the 3-D structure of a sample from electron tomography involves three major steps: acquisition of sequence of 2-D projection images of the sample with the electron microscope, alignment of the images to a common coordinate system, and 3-D reconstruction and segmentation of the sample from the aligned image data. The resolution of the 3-D reconstruction is directly influenced by the accuracy of the alignment, and therefore, it is crucial to have a robust and dependable alignment method. In this paper, we develop a new alignment method which avoids the use of markers and instead traces the computed paths of many identifiable ‘local’ center-of-mass points as the sample is rotated. Compared with traditional correlation schemes, the alignment method presented here is resistant to cumulative error observed from correlation techniques, has very rigorous mathematical justification, and is very robust since many points and paths are used, all of which inevitably improves the quality of the reconstruction and confidence in the scientific results.

  4. Using computerized tomography to determine ionospheric structures. Part 1, Notivation and basic approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vittitoe, C.N.

    1993-08-01

    Properties of the ionosphere are reviewed along with its correlations with other geophysical phenomena and with applications of ionospheric studies to communication, navigation, and surveillance systems. Computer tomography is identified as a method to determine the detailed, three-dimensional distribution of electron density within the ionosphere. Several tomography methods are described, with a basic approach illustrated by an example. Limitations are identified.

  5. SciThur AM: YIS - 07: Design and production of 3D printed bolus for electron radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Shiqin; Moran, Kathryn; Robar, James L.

    2014-08-15

    This is a proof-of-concept study demonstrating the capacity for modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) using 3D printed bolus. Previous reports have involved bolus design using an electron pencil beam model and fabrication using a milling machine. In this study, an in-house algorithm is presented that optimizes the dose distribution with regard to dose coverage, conformity and homogeneity within planning target volume (PTV). The algorithm uses calculated result of a commercial electron Monte Carlo dose calculation as input. Distances along ray lines from distal side of 90% isodose to distal surface of PTV are used to estimate the bolus thickness. Inhomogeneities within the calculation volume are accounted for using coefficient of equivalent thickness method. Several regional modulation operators are applied to improve dose coverage and uniformity. The process is iterated (usually twice) until an acceptable MERT plan is realized, and the final bolus is printed using solid polylactic acid. The method is evaluated with regular geometric phantoms, anthropomorphic phantoms and a clinical rhabdomyosarcoma pediatric case. In all cases the dose conformity is improved compared to that with uniform bolus. The printed boluses conform well to the surface of complex anthropomorphic phantoms. For the rhabdomyosarcoma patient, the MERT plan yields a reduction of mean dose by 38.2% in left kidney relative to uniform bolus. MERT using 3D printed bolus appears to be a practical, low cost approach to generating optimized bolus for electron therapy. The method is effective in improving conformity of prescription isodose surface and in sparing immediately adjacent normal tissues.

  6. Numerical Study on Crossflow Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Su-Jong; Sabharwall, Piyush; Kim, Eung-Soo

    2014-03-01

    Various fluids such as water, gases (helium), molten salts (FLiNaK, FLiBe) and liquid metal (sodium) are used as a coolant of advanced small modular reactors (SMRs). The printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) has been adopted as the intermediate and/or secondary heat exchanger of SMR systems because this heat exchanger is compact and effective. The size and cost of PCHE can be changed by the coolant type of each SMR. In this study, the crossflow PCHE analysis code for advanced small modular reactor has been developed for the thermal design and cost estimation of the heat exchanger. The analytical solution of single pass, both unmixed fluids crossflow heat exchanger model was employed to calculate a two dimensional temperature profile of a crossflow PCHE. The analytical solution of crossflow heat exchanger was simply implemented by using built in function of the MATLAB program. The effect of fluid property uncertainty on the calculation results was evaluated. In addition, the effect of heat transfer correlations on the calculated temperature profile was analyzed by taking into account possible combinations of primary and secondary coolants in the SMR systems. Size and cost of heat exchanger were evaluated for the given temperature requirement of each SMR.

  7. The formation mechanism for printed silver-contacts for silicon solar cells

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Fields, Jeremy D.; Ahmad, Md. Imteyaz; Pool, Vanessa L.; Yu, Jiafan; Van Campen, Douglas G.; Parilla, Philip A.; Toney, Michael F.; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.

    2016-04-01

    Screen-printing provides an economically attractive means for making Ag electrical contacts to Si solar cells, but the use of Ag substantiates a significant manufacturing cost, and the glass frit used in the paste to enable contact formation contains Pb. To achieve optimal electrical performance and to develop pastes with alternative, abundant, and non-toxic materials requires understanding the contact formation process during firing. Here, we use in-situ X-ray diffraction during firing to reveal the reaction sequence. The findings suggest that between 500 degrees C and 650 degrees C PbO in the frit etches the SiNx antireflective-coating on the solar cell, exposingmore » the Si surface. Then, above 650 degrees C, Ag+ dissolves into the molten glass frit -- key for enabling deposition of metallic Ag on the emitter surface and precipitation of Ag nanocrystals within the glass. Ultimately, this work clarifies contact formation mechanisms and suggests approaches for development of inexpensive, nontoxic solar cell contacting pastes.« less

  8. Shape optimization of a printed-circuit heat exchanger to enhance thermal-hydraulic performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. M.; Kim, K. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is recently considered as a recuperator for the high temperature gas cooled reactor. In this work, the zigzag-channels of a PCHE have been optimized by using three-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analysis and response surface approximation (RSA) modeling technique to enhance thermal-hydraulic performance. Shear stress transport turbulence model is used as a turbulence closure. The objective function is defined as a linear combination of the functions related to heat transfer and friction loss of the PCHE, respectively. Three geometric design variables viz., the ratio of the radius of the fillet to hydraulic diameter of the channels, the ratio of wavelength to hydraulic diameter of the channels, and the ratio of wave height to hydraulic diameter of the channels, are used for the optimization. Design points are selected through Latin-hypercube sampling. The optimal design is determined through the RSA model which uses RANS derived calculations at the design points. The results show that the optimum shape enhances considerably the thermal-hydraulic performance than a reference shape. (authors)

  9. Hyperspectral image reconstruction for x-ray fluorescence tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grsoy, Do?a; Bier, Tekin; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matthew G.; De Carlo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A penalized maximum-likelihood estimation is proposed to perform hyperspectral (spatio-spectral) image reconstruction for X-ray fluorescence tomography. The approach minimizes a Poisson-based negative log-likelihood of the observed photon counts, and uses a penalty term that has the effect of encouraging local continuity of model parameter estimates in both spatial and spectral dimensions simultaneously. The performance of the reconstruction method is demonstrated with experimental data acquired from a seed of arabidopsis thaliana collected at the 13-ID-E microprobe beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The resulting element distribution estimates with the proposed approach show significantly better reconstruction quality than the conventional analytical inversion approaches, and allows for a high data compression factor which can reduce data acquisition times remarkably. In particular, this technique provides the capability to tomographically reconstruct full energy dispersive spectra without compromising reconstruction artifacts that impact the interpretation of results.

  10. Iterative methods for dose reduction and image enhancement in tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miao, Jianwei; Fahimian, Benjamin Pooya

    2012-09-18

    A system and method for creating a three dimensional cross sectional image of an object by the reconstruction of its projections that have been iteratively refined through modification in object space and Fourier space is disclosed. The invention provides systems and methods for use with any tomographic imaging system that reconstructs an object from its projections. In one embodiment, the invention presents a method to eliminate interpolations present in conventional tomography. The method has been experimentally shown to provide higher resolution and improved image quality parameters over existing approaches. A primary benefit of the method is radiation dose reduction since the invention can produce an image of a desired quality with a fewer number projections than seen with conventional methods.

  11. Reconstruction of petrophysical images using cross-well traveltime tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza-Amuchastegui, J.A.; Ramirez-Cruz, L.C.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the authors present the results obtained from a cross-well seismic tomography experiment carried out in an oil producing field of the West Permian Basin, Texas. Three fundamental stages can be identified from the tomographic method: field data acquisition, data conditioning, and the actual tomographic process including forward modeling and inversion. For this case, they present a synopsis of each. The resulting V{sub P} and V{sub S} tomograms show a clear separation of high and low velocity zones that are in agreement with sonic logs. From the final tomograms, they computed images of V{sub P}/V{sub S} ratio, Poisson ratio, porosity and density using well known empirical formulas. The results attained from the experiment provide an idea of the potential usefulness of the tomographic method as an alternative for in-field exploration and detailed characterization of hydrocarbon producing reservoirs.

  12. Electrical resistance tomography from measurements inside a steel cased borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daily, William D.; Schenkel, Clifford; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) produced from measurements taken inside a steel cased borehole. A tomographic inversion of electrical resistance measurements made within a steel casing was then made for the purpose of imaging the electrical resistivity distribution in the formation remotely from the borehole. The ERT method involves combining electrical resistance measurements made inside a steel casing of a borehole to determine the electrical resistivity in the formation adjacent to the borehole; and the inversion of electrical resistance measurements made from a borehole not cased with an electrically conducting casing to determine the electrical resistivity distribution remotely from a borehole. It has been demonstrated that by using these combined techniques, highly accurate current injection and voltage measurements, made at appropriate points within the casing, can be tomographically inverted to yield useful information outside the borehole casing.

  13. Atomic Scale Characterization of Compound Semiconductors Using Atom Probe Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorman, B. P.; Norman, A. G.; Lawrence, D.; Prosa, T.; Guthrey, H.; Al-Jassim, M.

    2011-01-01

    Internal interfaces are critical in determining the performance of III-V multijunction solar cells. Studying these interfaces with atomic resolution using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atom probe tomography (APT), and density functional calculations enables a more fundamental understanding of carrier dynamics in photovoltaic (PV) device structures. To achieve full atomic scale spatial and chemical resolution, data acquisition parameters in laser pulsed APT must be carefully studied to eliminate surface diffusion. Atom probe data with minimized group V ion clustering and expected stoichiometry can be achieved by adjusting laser pulse power, pulse repetition rate, and specimen preparation parameters such that heat flow away from the evaporating surface is maximized. Applying these improved analysis conditions to III-V based PV gives an atomic scale understanding of compositional and dopant profiles across interfaces and tunnel junctions and the initial stages of alloy clustering and dopant accumulation. Details on APT experimental methods and future in-situ instrumentation developments are illustrated.

  14. Data fusion in neutron and X-ray computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrapp, Michael J.; Goldammer, Matthias; Schulz, Michael; Issani, Siraj; Bhamidipati, Suryanarayana; Böni, Peter

    2014-10-28

    We present a fusion methodology between neutron and X-ray computed tomography (CT). On the one hand, the inspection by X-ray CT of a wide class of multimaterials in non-destructive testing applications suffers from limited information of object features. On the other hand, neutron imaging can provide complementary data in such a way that the combination of both data sets fully characterizes the object. In this contribution, a novel data fusion procedure, called Fusion Regularized Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique, is developed where the X-ray reconstruction is modified to fulfill the available data from the imaging with neutrons. The experiments, which were obtained from an aluminum profile containing a steel screw, and attached carbon fiber plates demonstrate that the image quality in CT can be significantly improved when the proposed fusion method is used.

  15. Hyperspectral image reconstruction for x-ray fluorescence tomography

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Grsoy, Do?a; Bier, Tekin; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matthew G.; De Carlo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A penalized maximum-likelihood estimation is proposed to perform hyperspectral (spatio-spectral) image reconstruction for X-ray fluorescence tomography. The approach minimizes a Poisson-based negative log-likelihood of the observed photon counts, and uses a penalty term that has the effect of encouraging local continuity of model parameter estimates in both spatial and spectral dimensions simultaneously. The performance of the reconstruction method is demonstrated with experimental data acquired from a seed of arabidopsis thaliana collected at the 13-ID-E microprobe beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The resulting element distribution estimates with the proposed approach show significantly better reconstruction quality than the conventional analytical inversionmoreapproaches, and allows for a high data compression factor which can reduce data acquisition times remarkably. In particular, this technique provides the capability to tomographically reconstruct full energy dispersive spectra without compromising reconstruction artifacts that impact the interpretation of results.less

  16. Seismic Surface-Wave Tomography of Waste Sites - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Timothy L.

    2000-09-14

    The objective of this study was to develop analysis programs for surface-wave group-velocity tomography, and apply these to three test areas. We succeeded by obtaining data covering two square areas that were 30 meters on a side, and a third area that was 16 meters on a side, in addition to a collaborative effort wherein we processed data from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory site. At all sites, usable group velocities were obtained for frequencies from 16 to 50 Hz using a sledgehammer source. The resulting tomographic images and velocity anomalies were sufficient to delineate suspected burial trenches (one 4-meters deep) and anomalous velocity structure related to rocks and disturbed soil. The success was not uniform because in portions of one area the inversion for shear-wave structure became unstable. More research is needed to establish a more robust inversion technique.

  17. Electrical impedance tomography of the 1995 OGI perchloroethelyne release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dailey, W.; Ramirez, A.

    1996-10-01

    Goal is to determine if electrical impedance tomography (EIT) might be useful to map free product DNAPL (dense nonaqueous phase liquids) contamination. EIT was used to image the plume resulting from a release of 189 liters (50 gallons) of perchloroethylene (PCE) into a saturated aquifer constructed of sand with two layers of bentonite. Images were made in 4 planes, before, during, and after the release, to generate a detailed picture of the spatial and temporal development of the plume. Information of the EI (both in phase and out of phase voltages) was used at several different frequencies to produce images. Some frequency dispersion was observed in the images before and after the PCE release. Laboratory measurements of organic contamination in soil indicate detectable dispersion. A search for this effect in EIT images reveals weak evidence, the signal appearing just above the measurement uncertainty, of a change in the reactance in the soil because of the PCE.

  18. Electrical impedance tomography of the 1995 OGI gasoline release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.

    1996-10-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) was used to image the plume resulting from a release of 378 liters (100 gallons) of gasoline into a sandy acquifer. Images were made in 5 planes before and 5 times during the release, to generate a detailed picture of the spatial as well as the temporal development of the plume as it spread at the water table. Information of the electrical impedance (both in phase and out of phase voltages) was used or several different frequencies to produce images. We observed little dispersion in the images either before or after the gasoline entered the acquifer. Likewise, despite some laboratory measurements of impedances, there was no evidence of a change in the reactance in the soil because of the gasoline.

  19. Thermal stability of curved ray tomography for corrosion monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willey, C. L.; Simonetti, F.; Nagy, P. B.; Instanes, G.

    2014-02-18

    Guided wave tomography is being developed as an effective tool for continuous monitoring of corrosion and erosion depth in pipelines. A pair of transmit- and receive-ring arrays of ultrasonic transducers encircles the pipe and delimits the section to be monitored. In curved ray tomography (CRT), the depth profile is estimated from the time delay matrix, Δτ, whose ij-th entry is the phase traveltime difference between the current and baseline signals measured between transducers i and j of the transmit and receive-ring arrays, respectively. Under perfectly stable experimental conditions, the non-zero entries of Δτ are only due to the occurrence of damage and provide a reliable input to CRT. However, during field operation, Δτ can develop non-zero entries due to a number of environmental changes ranging from temperature variations to degradation of transducer-pipe coupling and transducer intrinsic performance. Here, we demonstrate that these sources of instability can be eliminated by exploiting the spatial diversity of array measurements in conjunction with EMAT transducer technology which is intrinsically stable owing to its non-contact nature. The study is based on a full-scale experiment performed on a schedule 40, 8’ diameter, 3 m length steel pipe, monitored with two EMAT ring arrays. It is shown that for an irregularly shaped defect the proposed method yields maximum depth estimations that are as accurate as single point ultrasonic thickness gaging measurements and over a wide temperature range up to 175°C. The results indicate that advanced inversion schemes in combination with EMAT transduction offer great potential for continuously monitoring the progression of corrosion or erosion damage in the oil and gas industry.

  20. Evaluation of a recycling process for printed circuit board by physical separation and heat treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, Toyohisa; Ono, Hiroyuki; Dodbiba, Gjergj; Yamaguchi, Kunihiko

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • The parts mounted on printed circuit board (PCB) were liberated by underwater explosion and mechanical crushing. • The crushed PCB without surface-mounted parts was carbonized under inert atmosphere at 873 K to recover copper. • The multi-layered ceramic capacitors including nickel was carbonized at 873 K to recover nickel by the magnetic separation. • The tantalum powders were recovered from the molded resins by heat treatment at 723 and 823 K in air atmosphere and screening. • Energy and treatment cost of new process increased, however, the environmental burden decreased comparing conventional one. - Abstract: Printed circuit boards (PCBs) from discarded personal computer (PC) and hard disk drive were crushed by explosion in water or mechanical comminution in order to disintegrate the attached parts. More parts were stripped from PCB of PC, composed of epoxy resin; than from PCB of household appliance, composed of phenol resin. In an attempt to raise the copper grade of PCB by removing other components, a carbonization treatment was investigated. The crushed PCB without surface-mounted parts was carbonized under a nitrogen atmosphere at 873–1073 K. After screening, the char was classified by size into oversized pieces, undersized pieces and powder. The copper foil and glass fiber pieces were liberated and collected in undersized fraction. The copper foil was liberated easily from glass fiber by stamping treatment. As one of the mounted parts, the multi-layered ceramic capacitors (MLCCs), which contain nickel, were carbonized at 873 K. The magnetic separation is carried out at a lower magnetic field strength of 0.1 T and then at 0.8 T. In the +0.5 mm size fraction the nickel grade in magnetic product was increased from 0.16% to 6.7% and the nickel recovery is 74%. The other useful mounted parts are tantalum capacitors. The tantalum capacitors were collected from mounted parts. The tantalum-sintered bodies were separated from molded resins

  1. Leaching behavior of copper from waste printed circuit boards with Brnsted acidic ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jinxiu; Chen, Mengjun Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Shu; Sun, Quan

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: A Brnsted acidic ILs was used to leach Cu from WPCBs for the first time. The particle size of WPCBs has significant influence on Cu leaching rate. Cu leaching rate was higher than 99% under the optimum leaching conditions. The leaching process can be modeled with shrinking core model, and the E{sub a} was 25.36 kJ/mol. - Abstract: In this work, a Brnsted acidic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([bmim]HSO{sub 4}), was used to leach copper from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs, mounted with electronic components) for the first time, and the leaching behavior of copper was discussed in detail. The results showed that after the pre-treatment, the metal distributions were different with the particle size: Cu, Zn and Al increased with the increasing particle size; while Ni, Sn and Pb were in the contrary. And the particle size has significant influence on copper leaching rate. Copper leaching rate was higher than 99%, almost 100%, when 1 g WPCBs powder was leached under the optimum conditions: particle size of 0.10.25 mm, 25 mL 80% (v/v) ionic liquid, 10 mL 30% hydrogen peroxide, solid/liquid ratio of 1/25, 70 C and 2 h. Copper leaching by [bmim]HSO{sub 4} can be modeled with the shrinking core model, controlled by diffusion through a solid product layer, and the kinetic apparent activation energy has been calculated to be 25.36 kJ/mol.

  2. A metallography and x-ray tomography study of spall damage in ultrapure Al

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, M. L.; Bie, B. X.; Zhao, F. P.; Fan, D.; Luo, S. N.; Hu, C. M.; Ran, X. X.; Xiao, X. H.; Yang, W. G.; Li, P.

    2014-07-15

    We characterize spall damage in shock-recovered ultrapure Al with metallography and x-ray tomography. The measured damage profiles in ultrapure Al induced by planar impact at different shock strengths, can be described with a Gaussian function, and showed dependence on shock strengths. Optical metallography is reasonably accurate for damage profile measurements, and agrees within 10–25% with x-ray tomography. Full tomography analysis showed that void size distributions followed a power law with an exponent of γ = 1.5 ± 2.0, which is likely due to void nucleation and growth, and the exponent is considerably smaller than the predictions from percolation models.

  3. High-resolution PET [Positron Emission Tomography] for Medical Science Studies

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Budinger, T. F.; Derenzo, S. E.; Huesman, R. H.; Jagust, W. J.; Valk, P. E.

    1989-09-01

    One of the unexpected fruits of basic physics research and the computer revolution is the noninvasive imaging power available to today's physician. Technologies that were strictly the province of research scientists only a decade or two ago now serve as the foundations for such standard diagnostic tools as x-ray computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), ultrasound, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET). Furthermore, prompted by the needs of both the practicing physician and the clinical researcher, efforts to improve these technologies continue. This booklet endeavors to describe the advantages of achieving high resolution in PET imaging.

  4. Surface-wave and refraction tomography at the FACT Site, Sandia National

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Surface-wave and refraction tomography at the FACT Site, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface-wave and refraction tomography at the FACT Site, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. We present a technique that allows for the simultaneous acquisition and interpretation of both shear-wave and compressive-wave 3-D velocities. The

  5. Jet Tomography of Hot Matter | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Jet Tomography of Hot Matter Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: Email Us More Information » 07.29.16 Jet Tomography of Hot Matter Using fast particles to probe hot matter in nuclear

  6. High-Performance Organic Field-Effect Transistors with Dielectric and Active Layers Printed Sequentially by Ultrasonic Spraying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Ming [ORNL; Sanjib, Das [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chen, Jihua [ORNL; Keum, Jong Kahk [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Gu, Gong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    High-performance, flexible organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are reported with PVP dielectric and TIPS-PEN active layers sequentially deposited by ultrasonic spray-coating on plastic substrate. OFETs fabricated in ambient air with a bottom-gate/top-contact geometry are shown to achieve on/off ratios of >104 and mobilities as high as 0.35 cm2/Vs. These rival the characteristics of the best solution-processible small molecule FETs fabricated by other fabrication methods such as drop casting and ink-jet printing.

  7. Passive seismic tomography application for cave monitoring in DOZ underground mine PT. Freeport Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen; Setiadi, Herlan; Riyanto, Erwin

    2015-04-16

    It is already known that tomography has a great impact for analyzing and mapping unknown objects based on inversion, travel time as well as waveform inversion. Therefore, tomography has used in wide area, not only in medical but also in petroleum as well as mining. Recently, tomography method is being applied in several mining industries. A case study of tomography imaging has been carried out in DOZ ( Deep Ore Zone ) block caving mine, Tembagapura, Papua. Many researchers are undergoing to investigate the properties of DOZ cave not only outside but also inside which is unknown. Tomography takes a part for determining this objective.The sources are natural from the seismic events that caused by mining induced seismicity and rocks deformation activity, therefore it is called as passive seismic. These microseismic travel time data are processed by Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). The result of the inversion can be used for DOZ cave monitoring. These information must be used for identifying weak zone inside the cave. In addition, these results of tomography can be used to determine DOZ and cave information to support mine activity in PT. Freeport Indonesia.

  8. Feature-space assessment of electrical impedance tomography coregistered with computed tomography in detecting multiple contrast targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, Kalpagam; Liu, Jeff; Kohli, Kirpal

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Fusion of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) with computed tomography (CT) can be useful as a clinical tool for providing additional physiological information about tissues, but requires suitable fusion algorithms and validation procedures. This work explores the feasibility of fusing EIT and CT images using an algorithm for coregistration. The imaging performance is validated through feature space assessment on phantom contrast targets. Methods: EIT data were acquired by scanning a phantom using a circuit, configured for injecting current through 16 electrodes, placed around the phantom. A conductivity image of the phantom was obtained from the data using electrical impedance and diffuse optical tomography reconstruction software (EIDORS). A CT image of the phantom was also acquired. The EIT and CT images were fused using a region of interest (ROI) coregistration fusion algorithm. Phantom imaging experiments were carried out on objects of different contrasts, sizes, and positions. The conductive medium of the phantoms was made of a tissue-mimicking bolus material that is routinely used in clinical radiation therapy settings. To validate the imaging performance in detecting different contrasts, the ROI of the phantom was filled with distilled water and normal saline. Spatially separated cylindrical objects of different sizes were used for validating the imaging performance in multiple target detection. Analyses of the CT, EIT and the EIT/CT phantom images were carried out based on the variations of contrast, correlation, energy, and homogeneity, using a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). A reference image of the phantom was simulated using EIDORS, and the performances of the CT and EIT imaging systems were evaluated and compared against the performance of the EIT/CT system using various feature metrics, detectability, and structural similarity index measures. Results: In detecting distilled and normal saline water in bolus medium, EIT as a stand

  9. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as long electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daily, W; Newmark, R L; Ramirez, A

    1999-07-20

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) using multiple electrodes installed in boreholes has been shown to be useful for both site characterization and process monitoring. In some cases, however, installing multiple downhole electrodes is too costly (e.g., deep targets) or risky (e.g., contaminated sites). For these cases we have examined the possibility of using the steel casings of existing boreholes as electrodes. Several possibilities can be considered. The first case we investigated uses an array of steel casings as electrodes. This results in very few data and thus requires additional constraints to limit the domain of possible inverse solutions. Simulations indicate that the spatial resolution and sensitivity are understandably low but it is possible to coarsely map the lateral extent of subsurface processes such as steam floods. The second case uses an array of traditional point borehole electrodes combined with long-conductor electrodes (steel casings). Although this arrangement provides more data, in many cases it results in poor reconstructions of test targets. Results indicate that this method may hold promise for low resolution imaging where steel casings can be used as electrodes but the merits depend strongly on details of each application. Field tests using these configurations are currently being conducted.

  10. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newmark, R L; Daily, W; Ramirez, A

    1999-03-22

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) using multiple electrodes installed in boreholes has been shown to be useful for both site characterization and process monitoring. In some cases, however, installing multiple downhole electrodes is too costly (e.g., deep targets) or risky (e.g., contaminated sites). For these cases we have examined the possibility of using the steel casings of existing boreholes as electrodes. The first case we investigated used an array of steel casings as electrodes. This results in very few data and thus requires additional constraints to limit the domain of possible inverse solutions. Simulations indicate that the spatial resolution and sensitivity are understandably low but it is possible to coarsely map the lateral extent of subsurface processes such as steam floods. A hybrid case uses traditional point electrode arrays combined with long-conductor electrodes (steel casings). Although this arrangement provides more data, in many cases it results in poor reconstructions of test targets. Results indicate that this method may hold promise for low resolution imaging where steel casings can be used as electrodes.

  11. Seismic Surface-Wave Tomography of Waste Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leland Timothy Long

    2002-12-17

    Surface-wave group-velocity tomography is an efficient way to obtain images of the group velocity over a test area. Because Rayleigh-wave group velocity depends on frequency, there are separate images for each frequency. Thus, at each point in these images the group velocities define a dispersion curve, a curve that relates group velocity to frequency. The objective of this study has been to find an accurate and efficient way to find the shear-wave structure from these dispersion curves. The conventional inversion techniques match theoretical and observed dispersion curves to determine the structure. These conventional methods do not always succeed in correctly differentiating the fundamental and higher modes, and for some velocity structures can become unstable. In this research a perturbation technique was developed. The perturbation method allows the pre-computation of a global inversion matrix which improves efficiency in obtaining solutions for the structure. Perturbation methods are stable and mimic the averaging process in wave propagation; hence. leading to more accurate solutions. Finite difference techniques and synthetic trace generation techniques were developed to define the perturbations. A new differential trace technique was developed for slight variations in dispersion. The improvements in analysis speed and the accuracy of the solution could lead to real-time field analysis systems, making it possible to obtain immediate results or to monitor temporal change in structure, such as might develop in using fluids for soil remediation.

  12. Applications of electrical resistance tomography to subsurface environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Daily, W.D.

    1994-11-15

    We are developing a new imaging technique, Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT), to map subsurface liquids as flow occurs during natural or clean-up processes and to map geologic structure. Natural processes (such as surface water infiltrating the vadose zone) and man-induced processes (such as tank leaks and clean-up processes such as steam injection), can create changes in a soil`s electrical properties that are readily measured. We have conducted laboratory and a variety of field experiments to investigate the capabilities and limitations of ERT for imaging underground structures and processes. In the last four years we have used ERT to successfully monitor several field processes including: a subsurface steam injection process (for VOC removal), an air injection process (below the water table) for VOC removal, water infiltration through the vadose zone, radio-frequency heating, ohmic heating, and tank and pond leaks. The information derived from ERT can be used by remediation projects to: detect and locate leaks, determine the effectiveness of clean-up processes, select appropriate clean-up alternatives, and to verify the installation and performance of subsurface barriers.

  13. A constrained conjugate gradient algorithm for computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azevedo, S.G.; Goodman, D.M.

    1994-11-15

    Image reconstruction from projections of x-ray, gamma-ray, protons and other penetrating radiation is a well-known problem in a variety of fields, and is commonly referred to as computed tomography (CT). Various analytical and series expansion methods of reconstruction and been used in the past to provide three-dimensional (3D) views of some interior quantity. The difficulties of these approaches lie in the cases where (a) the number of views attainable is limited, (b) the Poisson (or other) uncertainties are significant, (c) quantifiable knowledge of the object is available, but not implementable, or (d) other limitations of the data exist. We have adapted a novel nonlinear optimization procedure developed at LLNL to address limited-data image reconstruction problems. The technique, known as nonlinear least squares with general constraints or constrained conjugate gradients (CCG), has been successfully applied to a number of signal and image processing problems, and is now of great interest to the image reconstruction community. Previous applications of this algorithm to deconvolution problems and x-ray diffraction images for crystallography have shown the great promise.

  14. Using electrical resistance tomography to map subsurface temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramirez, A.L.; Chesnut, D.A.; Daily, W.D.

    1994-09-13

    A method is provided for measuring subsurface soil or rock temperatures remotely using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Electrical resistivity measurements are made using electrodes implanted in boreholes driven into the soil and/or at the ground surface. The measurements are repeated as some process changes the temperatures of the soil mass/rock mass. Tomographs of electrical resistivity are calculated based on the measurements using Poisson's equation. Changes in the soil/rock resistivity can be related to changes in soil/rock temperatures when: (1) the electrical conductivity of the fluid trapped in the soil's pore space is low, (2) the soil/rock has a high cation exchange capacity and (3) the temperature changes are sufficiently high. When these three conditions exist the resistivity changes observed in the ERT tomographs can be directly attributed to changes in soil/rock temperatures. This method provides a way of mapping temperature changes in subsurface soils remotely. Distances over which the ERT method can be used to monitor changes in soil temperature range from tens to hundreds of meters from the electrode locations. 1 fig.

  15. Using electrical resistance tomography to map subsurface temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramirez, Abelardo L.; Chesnut, Dwayne A.; Daily, William D.

    1994-01-01

    A method is provided for measuring subsurface soil or rock temperatures remotely using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Electrical resistivity measurements are made using electrodes implanted in boreholes driven into the soil and/or at the ground surface. The measurements are repeated as some process changes the temperatures of the soil mass/rock mass. Tomographs of electrical resistivity are calculated based on the measurements using Poisson's equation. Changes in the soil/rock resistivity can be related to changes in soil/rock temperatures when: (1) the electrical conductivity of the fluid trapped in the soil's pore space is low, (2) the soil/rock has a high cation exchange capacity and (3) the temperature changes are sufficiently high. When these three conditions exist the resistivity changes observed in the ERT tomographs can be directly attributed to changes in soil/rock temperatures. This method provides a way of mapping temperature changes in subsurface soils remotely. Distances over which the ERT method can be used to monitor changes in soil temperature range from tens to hundreds of meters from the electrode locations.

  16. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.

    1999-06-22

    An electrical resistance tomography method is described which uses steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constrain the models. 2 figs.

  17. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    1999-01-01

    An electrical resistance tomography method using steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constain the models.

  18. Artifact reduction in industrial computed tomography via data fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrapp, Michael; Goldammer, Matthias; Stephan, Jürgen

    2014-02-18

    As the most stressed part of a gas turbine the first row of turbine blades is not only a challenge for the materials used. Also the testing of these parts have to meet the highest standards. Computed tomography (CT) as the technique which could reveal the most details also provides the biggest challenges [1]: A full penetration of large sized turbine blades is often only possible at high X-ray voltages causing disproportional high costs. A reduction of the X-ray voltage is able to reduce these arising costs but yields non penetration artifacts in the reconstructed CT image. In most instances, these artifacts manifests itself as blurred and smeared regions at concave edges due to a reduced signal to noise ratio. In order to complement the missing information and to increase the overall image quality of our reconstruction, we use further imaging modalities such as a 3-D Scanner and ultrasonic imaging. A 3-D scanner is easy and cost effective to implement and is able to acquire all relevant data simultaneously with the CT projections. If, however, the interior structure is of supplemental interest, an ultrasonic imaging method is additionally used. We consider this data as a priori knowledge to employ them in an iterative reconstruction. To do so, standard iterative reconstruction methods are modified to incorporate the a priori data in a regularization approach in combination with minimizing the total variation of our image. Applying this procedure on turbine blades, we are able to reduce the apparent artifacts almost completely.

  19. Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography (DRCT) Product Improvement Plan (PIP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Roney; Bob Pink; Karen Wendt; Robert Seifert; Mike Smith

    2010-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing and deploying x-ray inspection systems for chemical weapons containers for the past 12 years under the direction of the Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PMNSCM). In FY-10 funding was provided to advance the capabilities of these systems through the DRCT (Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography) Product Improvement Plan (PIP), funded by the PMNSCM. The DRCT PIP identified three research tasks; end user study, detector evaluation and DRCT/PINS integration. Work commenced in February, 2010. Due to the late start and the schedule for field inspection of munitions at various sites, it was not possible to spend sufficient field time with operators to develop a complete end user study. We were able to interact with several operators, principally Mr. Mike Rowan who provided substantial useful input through several discussions and development of a set of field notes from the Pueblo, CO field mission. We will be pursuing ongoing interactions with field personnel as opportunities arise in FY-11.

  20. Review methods for image segmentation from computed tomography images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamat, Nurwahidah; Rahman, Wan Eny Zarina Wan Abdul; Soh, Shaharuddin Cik; Mahmud, Rozi

    2014-12-04

    Image segmentation is a challenging process in order to get the accuracy of segmentation, automation and robustness especially in medical images. There exist many segmentation methods that can be implemented to medical images but not all methods are suitable. For the medical purposes, the aims of image segmentation are to study the anatomical structure, identify the region of interest, measure tissue volume to measure growth of tumor and help in treatment planning prior to radiation therapy. In this paper, we present a review method for segmentation purposes using Computed Tomography (CT) images. CT images has their own characteristics that affect the ability to visualize anatomic structures and pathologic features such as blurring of the image and visual noise. The details about the methods, the goodness and the problem incurred in the methods will be defined and explained. It is necessary to know the suitable segmentation method in order to get accurate segmentation. This paper can be a guide to researcher to choose the suitable segmentation method especially in segmenting the images from CT scan.

  1. Pretreatment Staging Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Patients With Inflammatory Breast Cancer Influences Radiation Treatment Field Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Gary V.; Niikura, Naoki; Yang Wei; Rohren, Eric; Valero, Vicente; Woodward, Wendy A.; Alvarez, Ricardo H.; Lucci, Anthony; Ueno, Naoto T.; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is increasingly being utilized for staging of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). The purpose of this study was to define how pretreatment PET/CT studies affected postmastectomy radiation treatment (PMRT) planning decisions for IBC. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of 62 patients diagnosed with IBC between 2004 and 2009, who were treated with PMRT in our institution and who had a staging PET/CT within 3 months of diagnosis. Patients received a baseline physical examination, staging mammography, ultrasonographic examination of breast and draining lymphatics, and chest radiography; most patients also had a bone scan (55 patients), liver imaging (52 patients), breast MRI (46 patients), and chest CT (25 patients). We compared how PET/CT findings affected PMRT, assuming that standard PMRT would target the chest wall, level III axilla, supraclavicular fossa, and internal mammary chain (IMC). Any modification of target volumes, field borders, or dose prescriptions was considered a change. Results: PET/CT detected new areas of disease in 27 of the 62 patients (44%). The areas of additional disease included the breast (1 patient), ipsilateral axilla (1 patient), ipsilateral supraclavicular (4 patients), ipsilateral infraclavicular (1 patient), ipsilateral IMC (5 patients), ipsilateral subpectoral (3 patients), mediastinal (8 patients), other distant/contralateral lymph nodes (15 patients), or bone (6 patients). One patient was found to have a non-breast second primary tumor. The findings of the PET/CT led to changes in PMRT in 11 of 62 patients (17.7%). These changes included additional fields in 5 patients, adjustment of fields in 2 patients, and higher doses to the supraclavicular fossa (2 patients) and IMC (5 patients). Conclusions: For patients with newly diagnosed IBC, pretreatment PET/CT provides important information concerning involvement of locoregional lymph nodes

  2. Low thermal budget photonic processing of highly conductive Cu interconnects based on CuO nanoinks. Potential for flexible printed electronics

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Rager, Matthew S.; Aytug, Tolga; Veith, Gabriel M.; Joshi, Pooran C.

    2015-12-31

    The developing field of printed electronics nanoparticle based inks such as CuO show great promise as a low-cost alternative to other metal-based counterparts (e.g., silver). In particular, CuO inks significantly eliminate the issue of particle oxidation, before and during the sintering process, that is prevalent in Cu-based formulations. We report here the scalable and low-thermal budget photonic fabrication of Cu interconnects employing a roll-to-roll compatible pulse-thermal-processing (PTP) technique that enables phase reduction and subsequent sintering of inkjet-printed CuO patterns onto flexible polymer templates. Detailed investigations of curing and sintering conditions were performed to understand the impact of PTP system conditionsmore » on the electrical performance of the Cu patterns. Specifically, the impact of energy and power of photonic pulses on print conductivity was systematically studied by varying the following key processing parameters: pulse intensity, duration and sequence. Through optimization of such parameters, highly conductive prints in < 1 s with resistivity values as low as 100 n m has been achieved. We also observed that the introduction of an initial ink-drying step in ambient atmosphere, after the printing and before sintering, leads to significant improvements in mechanical integrity and electrical performance of the printed Cu patterns. Moreover, the viability of CuO reactive inks, coupled with the PTP technology and pre ink-drying protocols, has also been demonstrated for the additive integration of a low-cost Cu temperature sensor onto a flexible polymer substrate.« less

  3. Low thermal budget photonic processing of highly conductive Cu interconnects based on CuO nanoinks. Potential for flexible printed electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rager, Matthew S.; Aytug, Tolga; Veith, Gabriel M.; Joshi, Pooran C.

    2015-12-31

    The developing field of printed electronics nanoparticle based inks such as CuO show great promise as a low-cost alternative to other metal-based counterparts (e.g., silver). In particular, CuO inks significantly eliminate the issue of particle oxidation, before and during the sintering process, that is prevalent in Cu-based formulations. We report here the scalable and low-thermal budget photonic fabrication of Cu interconnects employing a roll-to-roll compatible pulse-thermal-processing (PTP) technique that enables phase reduction and subsequent sintering of inkjet-printed CuO patterns onto flexible polymer templates. Detailed investigations of curing and sintering conditions were performed to understand the impact of PTP system conditions on the electrical performance of the Cu patterns. Specifically, the impact of energy and power of photonic pulses on print conductivity was systematically studied by varying the following key processing parameters: pulse intensity, duration and sequence. Through optimization of such parameters, highly conductive prints in < 1 s with resistivity values as low as 100 n m has been achieved. We also observed that the introduction of an initial ink-drying step in ambient atmosphere, after the printing and before sintering, leads to significant improvements in mechanical integrity and electrical performance of the printed Cu patterns. Moreover, the viability of CuO reactive inks, coupled with the PTP technology and pre ink-drying protocols, has also been demonstrated for the additive integration of a low-cost Cu temperature sensor onto a flexible polymer substrate.

  4. A 10-kW SiC Inverter with A Novel Printed Metal Power Module With Integrated Cooling Using Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Ayers, Curtis William; Campbell, Steven L; Wiles, Randy H; Ozpineci, Burak

    2014-01-01

    With efforts to reduce the cost, size, and thermal management systems for the power electronics drivetrain in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), wide band gap semiconductors including silicon carbide (SiC) have been identified as possibly being a partial solution. This paper focuses on the development of a 10-kW all SiC inverter using a high power density, integrated printed metal power module with integrated cooling using additive manufacturing techniques. This is the first ever heat sink printed for a power electronics application. About 50% of the inverter was built using additive manufacturing techniques.

  5. WE-F-16A-01: Commissioning and Clinical Use of PC-ISO for Customized, 3D Printed, Gynecological Brachytherapy Applicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunha, J; Sethi, R; Mellis, K; Siauw, T; Sudhyadhom, A; Hsu, I; Pouliot, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: (1) Evaluate the safety and radiation attenuation properties of PCISO, a bio-compatible, sterilizable 3D printing material by Stratasys, (2) establish a method for commissioning customized multi- and single-use 3D printed applicators, (3) report on use of customized vaginal cylinders used to treat a series of serous endometrial cancer patient. Methods: A custom film dosimetry apparatus was designed to hold a Gafchromic radio film segment between two blocks of PC-ISO and 3D-printed using a Fortus 400mc (StrataSys). A dose plan was computed using 13 dwell positions at 2.5 mm spacing and normalized to 1500 cGy at 1 cm. Film exposure was compared to control tests in only air and only water. The average Hounsfield Unit (HU) was computed and used to verify water equivalency. For the clinical use cases, the physician specifies the dimensions and geometry of a custom applicator from which a CAD model is designed and printed. Results: The doses measured from the PC-ISO Gafchromic film test were within 1% of the dose measured in only water between 1cm and 6cm from the channel. Doses increased 74% measured in only air. HU range was 1143. The applicators were sterilized using the Sterrad system multiple times without damage. As of submission 3 unique cylinders have been designed, printed, and used in the clinic. A standardizable workflow for commissioning custom 3D printed applicators was codified and will be reported. Conclusions: Quality assurance (QA) evaluation of the PC-ISO 3D-printing material showed that PC-ISO is a suitable material for a gynecological brachytherapy vaginal cylinder in a clinical setting. With the material commissioning completed, if the physician determines that a better treatment would Result, a customized design is fabricated with limited additional QA necessary. Although this study was specific to PC-ISO, the same setup can be used to evaluate other 3D-printing materials.

  6. Emittance and Phase Space Tomography for the Fermilab Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, F.G.G.; Johnstone, C.; Kobilarcik, T.; Koizumi, G.M.; Moore, C.D.; Newhart, D.L.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    The Fermilab Linac delivers a variable intensity, 400-MeV beam to the MuCool Test Area experimental hall via a beam line specifically designed to facilitate measurements of the Linac beam emittance and properties. A 10 m, dispersion-free and magnet-free straight utilizes an upstream quadrupole focusing triplet in combination with the necessary in-straight beam diagnostics to fully characterize the transverse beam properties. Since the Linac does not produce a strictly elliptical phase space, tomography must be performed on the profile data to retrieve the actual particle distribution in phase space. This is achieved by rotating the phase space distribution using different waist focusing conditions of the upstream triplet and performing a deconvolution of the profile data. Preliminary measurements using this diagnostic section are reported here. These data represent a first-pass measurement of the Linac emittance based on various techniques. It is clear that the most accurate representation of the emittance is given by the 3-profile approach. Future work will entail minimizing the beam spot size on MW5 to test and possibly improve the accuracy of the 2-profile approach. The 95% emittance is {approx} 18{pi} in the vertical and {approx} 13{pi} in the horizontal, which is especially larger than anticipated - 8-10{pi} was expected. One possible explanation is that the entire Linac pulse is extracted into the MTA beamline and during the first few microseconds, the feed forward and RF regulation are not stable. This may result in a larger net emittance observed versus beam injected into Booster, where the leading part of the Linac beam pulse is chopped. Future studies will clearly entail a measurement of the emittance vs. pulse length. One additional concern is that the Linac phase space is most likely aperture-defined and non-elliptical in nature. A non-elliptical phase-space determination would require a more elaborate analysis and provide another explanation of the

  7. In vivo breast sound-speed imaging with ultrasound tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Lianjie; Li, Cuiping; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a bent-ray ultrasound tomography algorithm with total-variation (TV) regularization. We have applied this algorithm to 61 in vivo breast datasets collected with our in-house clinical prototype for imaging sound-speed distributions in the breast. Our analysis showed that TV regularization could preserve sharper lesion edges than the classic Tikhonov regularization. Furthermore, the image quality of our TV bent-ray sound-speed tomograms was superior to that of the straight-ray counterparts for all types of breasts within BI-RADS density categories 1-4. For all four breast types from fatty to dense, the improvements for average sharpness (in the unit of (m{center_dot} s) {sup -1}) of lesion edges in our TV bent-ray tomograms are between 2.1 to 3.4 fold compared to the straight ray tomograms. Reconstructed sound-speed tomograms illustrated that our algorithm could successfully image fatty and glandular tissues within the breast. We calculated the mean sound-speed values for fatty tissue and breast parenchyma as 1422 {+-} 9 mls (mean{+-} SD) and1487 {+-} 21 mls, respectively. Based on 32 lesions in a cohort of 61 patients, we also found that the mean sound-speed for malignant breast lesions (1548{+-}17 mls) was higher, on average, than that of benign ones (1513{+-}27 mls) (one-sided p

  8. Cyst-based measurements for assessing lymphangioleiomyomatosis in computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, P. Brown, M. S.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.; Goldin, J. G.; Argula, R.; Strange, C.

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of a new family of measurements made on individual pulmonary cysts extracted from computed tomography (CT) for assessing the severity of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Methods: CT images were analyzed using thresholding to identify a cystic region of interest from chest CT of LAM patients. Individual cysts were then extracted from the cystic region by the watershed algorithm, which separates individual cysts based on subtle edges within the cystic regions. A family of measurements were then computed, which quantify the amount, distribution, and boundary appearance of the cysts. Sequential floating feature selection was used to select a small subset of features for quantification of the severity of LAM. Adjusted R{sup 2} from multiple linear regression and R{sup 2} from linear regression against measurements from spirometry were used to compare the performance of our proposed measurements with currently used density based CT measurements in the literature, namely, the relative area measure and the D measure. Results: Volumetric CT data, performed at total lung capacity and residual volume, from a total of 49 subjects enrolled in the MILES trial were used in our study. Our proposed measures had adjusted R{sup 2} ranging from 0.42 to 0.59 when regressing against the spirometry measures, with p < 0.05. For previously used density based CT measurements in the literature, the best R{sup 2} was 0.46 (for only one instance), with the majority being lower than 0.3 or p > 0.05. Conclusions: The proposed family of CT-based cyst measurements have better correlation with spirometric measures than previously used density based CT measurements. They show potential as a sensitive tool for quantitatively assessing the severity of LAM.

  9. SU-E-I-12: Flexible Geometry Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The concept separates the mechanical connection between the radiation source and detector. This design allows the trajectory and orientation of the radiation source/detector to be customized to the object that is being imaged. This is in contrast to the formulaic rotation-translation image acquisition of conventional computed tomography(CT).Background/significance:CT devices that image a full range of: anatomy, patient populations, and imaging procedures are large. The root cause of the expanding size of comprehensive CT is due to the commitment to helical geometry that is hardwired into the image reconstruction. FGCT extends the application of alternative reconstruction techniques, i.e. tomosynthesis, by separating the two main components— radiation source and detector— and allow for 6 degrees of freedom motion for radiation source, detector, or both. The image acquisition geometry is then tailored to how the patient/object is positioned. This provides greater flexibility on the position and location that the patient/object is being imaged. Additionally, removing the need of a rotating gantry reduces the footprint so that CT is more mobile and more available to move to where the patient/object is at, instead of the other way around. Methods: As proof-of-principle, a reconstruction algorithm is designed to produce FGCT images. Using simulated detector data, voxels intersecting a line drawn between the radiation source and an individual detector are traced and modified using the detector signal. The detector signal is modified to compensate for changes in the source to detector distance. Adjacent voxels are modified in proportion to the detector signal, providing a simple image filter. Results: Image-quality from the proposed FGCT reconstruction technique is proving to be a challenge, producing hardily recognizable images from limited projections angles. Conclusion: Preliminary assessment of the reconstruction technique demonstrates the inevitable

  10. X-ray Computed Tomography of coal: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maylotte, D.H.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.; Lamby, E.J.

    1986-12-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a method of mapping with x-rays the internal structures of coal. The technique normally produces 2-D images of the internal structures of an object. These images can be recast to create pseudo 3-D representations. CT of coal has been explored for a variety of different applications to coal and coal processing technology. In a comparison of CT data with conventional coal analyses and petrography, CT was found to offer a good indication of the total ash content of the coal. The spatial distribution of the coal mineral matter as seen with CT has been suggested as an indicator of coal washability. Studies of gas flow through coal using xenon gas as a tracer have shown the extremely complicated nature of the modes of penetration of gas through coal, with significant differences in the rates at which the gas can pass along and across the bedding planes of coal. In a special furnace designed to allow CT images to be taken while the coal was being heated, the pyrolysis and gasification of coal have been studied. Gasification rates with steam and CO/sub 2/ for a range of coal ranks have been obtained, and the location of the gasification reactions within the piece of coal can be seen. Coal drying and the progress of the pyrolysis wave into coal have been examined when the coal was subjected to the kind of sudden temperature jump that it might experience in fixed bed gasifier applications. CT has also been used to examine stable flow structures within model fluidized beds and the accessibility of lump coal to microbial desulfurization. 53 refs., 242 figs., 26 tabs.

  11. News Item

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Tomography

  12. Compensator models for fluence field modulated computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartolac, Steven; Jaffray, David; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Fluence field modulated computed tomography (FFMCT) presents a novel approach for acquiring CT images, whereby a patient model guides dynamically changing fluence patterns in an attempt to achieve task-based, user-prescribed, regional variations in image quality, while also controlling dose to the patient. This work aims to compare the relative effectiveness of FFMCT applied to different thoracic imaging tasks (routine diagnostic CT, lung cancer screening, and cardiac CT) when the modulator is subject to limiting constraints, such as might be present in realistic implementations.Methods: An image quality plan was defined for a simulated anthropomorphic chest slice, including regions of high and low image quality, for each of the thoracic imaging tasks. Modulated fluence patterns were generated using a simulated annealing optimization script, which attempts to achieve the image quality plan under a global dosimetric constraint. Optimization was repeated under different types of modulation constraints (e.g., fixed or gantry angle dependent patterns, continuous or comprised of discrete apertures) with the most limiting case being a fixed conventional bowtie filter. For each thoracic imaging task, an image quality map (IQM{sub sd}) representing the regionally varying standard deviation is predicted for each modulation method and compared to the prescribed image quality plan as well as against results from uniform fluence fields. Relative integral dose measures were also compared.Results: Each IQM{sub sd} resulting from FFMCT showed improved agreement with planned objectives compared to those from uniform fluence fields for all cases. Dynamically changing modulation patterns yielded better uniformity, improved image quality, and lower dose compared to fixed filter patterns with optimized tube current. For the latter fixed filter cases, the optimal choice of tube current modulation was found to depend heavily on the task. Average integral dose reduction compared

  13. Sparse-view proton computed tomography using modulated proton beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jiseoc; Kim, Changhwan; Cho, Seungryong; Min, Byungjun; Kwak, Jungwon; Park, Seyjoon; Lee, Se Byeong; Park, Sungyong

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Proton imaging that uses a modulated proton beam and an intensity detector allows a relatively fast image acquisition compared to the imaging approach based on a trajectory tracking detector. In addition, it requires a relatively simple implementation in a conventional proton therapy equipment. The model of geometric straight ray assumed in conventional computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction is however challenged by multiple-Coulomb scattering and energy straggling in the proton imaging. Radiation dose to the patient is another important issue that has to be taken care of for practical applications. In this work, the authors have investigated iterative image reconstructions after a deconvolution of the sparsely view-sampled data to address these issues in proton CT. Methods: Proton projection images were acquired using the modulated proton beams and the EBT2 film as an intensity detector. Four electron-density cylinders representing normal soft tissues and bone were used as imaged object and scanned at 40 views that are equally separated over 360°. Digitized film images were converted to water-equivalent thickness by use of an empirically derived conversion curve. For improving the image quality, a deconvolution-based image deblurring with an empirically acquired point spread function was employed. They have implemented iterative image reconstruction algorithms such as adaptive steepest descent-projection onto convex sets (ASD-POCS), superiorization method–projection onto convex sets (SM-POCS), superiorization method–expectation maximization (SM-EM), and expectation maximization-total variation minimization (EM-TV). Performance of the four image reconstruction algorithms was analyzed and compared quantitatively via contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and root-mean-square-error (RMSE). Results: Objects of higher electron density have been reconstructed more accurately than those of lower density objects. The bone, for example, has been reconstructed

  14. Improved proton computed tomography by dual modality image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, David C. Bassler, Niels; Petersen, Jørgen Breede Baltzer; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Proton computed tomography (CT) is a promising image modality for improving the stopping power estimates and dose calculations for particle therapy. However, the finite range of about 33 cm of water of most commercial proton therapy systems limits the sites that can be scanned from a full 360° rotation. In this paper the authors propose a method to overcome the problem using a dual modality reconstruction (DMR) combining the proton data with a cone-beam x-ray prior. Methods: A Catphan 600 phantom was scanned using a cone beam x-ray CT scanner. A digital replica of the phantom was created in the Monte Carlo code Geant4 and a 360° proton CT scan was simulated, storing the entrance and exit position and momentum vector of every proton. Proton CT images were reconstructed using a varying number of angles from the scan. The proton CT images were reconstructed using a constrained nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm, minimizing total variation and the x-ray CT prior while remaining consistent with the proton projection data. The proton histories were reconstructed along curved cubic-spline paths. Results: The spatial resolution of the cone beam CT prior was retained for the fully sampled case and the 90° interval case, with the MTF = 0.5 (modulation transfer function) ranging from 5.22 to 5.65 linepairs/cm. In the 45° interval case, the MTF = 0.5 dropped to 3.91 linepairs/cm For the fully sampled DMR, the maximal root mean square (RMS) error was 0.006 in units of relative stopping power. For the limited angle cases the maximal RMS error was 0.18, an almost five-fold improvement over the cone beam CT estimate. Conclusions: Dual modality reconstruction yields the high spatial resolution of cone beam x-ray CT while maintaining the improved stopping power estimation of proton CT. In the case of limited angles, the use of prior image proton CT greatly improves the resolution and stopping power estimate, but does not fully achieve the quality of a 360

  15. Tailored benzoxazines as novel resin systems for printed circuit boards in high temperature e-mobility applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troeger, K. Darka, R. Khanpour Neumeyer, T. Altstaedt, V.

    2014-05-15

    This study focuses on the development of Bisphenol-F-benzoxazine resins blended with different ratios of a trifunctional epoxy resin suitable as matrix for substrates for high temperature printed circuit board (HT-PCB) applications. With the benzoxazine blends glass transition temperatures of more than 190 °C could be achieved in combination with a coefficient of thermal expansion in thickness direction (z-CTE) of less than 60 ppm/K without adding any fillers. This shows the high potential of the benzoxazine-epoxy blend systems as substrate materials for HT-PCBs. To understand the thermal behavior of the different formulations, the apparent crosslink density was calculated based on data from Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. Laminates in laboratory scale were prepared and characterized to demonstrate the transformation of the neat resin properties into real electronic substrate properties. The produced laminates exhibit a z-CTE below 40 ppm/K.

  16. Optimization of X-ray tomography through a cooperative computing system in grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasan, Moin Goraya, Major Singh

    2015-08-28

    Cooperative Computing implemented as Cooperative Computing System (CCS) in grid has been proved a considerably reliable technique to execute the tasks with real time constraints in a grid environment. This technique can be applied in many high performance distributed computing applications. HPC has a large number of applications in various fields of physics. One such application in radiation physics is X-ray tomography. X-Ray tomography contains numerous applications in various fields of science, technology and research. As the technology is changing from analog to digital in almost all the scenarios, this paper presents an idea towards the attachment of X-ray tomography assembly to HPC environment so as to obtain the highly reliable optimization.

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - Ground-based Cloud Tomography Experiment at SGP

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsGround-based Cloud Tomography Experiment at SGP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Ground-based Cloud Tomography Experiment at SGP 2009.05.26 - 2009.07.17 Lead Scientist : Dong Huang For data sets, see below. Abstract Knowledge of 3D cloud properties is pressingly needed in many research fields. One of the problems encountered when trying to represent 3D cloud fields in numerical

  18. Beamline 8.3.2

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Print Tomography Scientific disciplines: Applied science, biology, earth sciences, energy, environmental sciences, geology, cosmological chemistry GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION...

  19. Advanced fuel assembly characterization capabilities based on gamma tomography at the Halden boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcombe, S.; Eitrheim, K.; Svaerd, S. J.; Hallstadius, L.; Willman, C.

    2012-07-01

    Characterization of individual fuel rods using gamma spectroscopy is a standard part of the Post Irradiation Examinations performed on experimental fuel at the Halden Boiling Water Reactor. However, due to handling and radiological safety concerns, these measurements are presently carried out only at the end of life of the fuel, and not earlier than several days or weeks after its removal from the reactor core. In order to enhance the fuel characterization capabilities at the Halden facilities, a gamma tomography measurement system is now being constructed, capable of characterizing fuel assemblies on a rod-by-rod basis in a more timely and efficient manner. Gamma tomography for measuring nuclear fuel is based on gamma spectroscopy measurements and tomographic reconstruction techniques. The technique, previously demonstrated on irradiated commercial fuel assemblies, is capable of determining rod-by-rod information without the need to dismantle the fuel. The new gamma tomography system will be stationed close to the Halden reactor in order to limit the need for fuel transport, and it will significantly reduce the time required to perform fuel characterization measurements. Furthermore, it will allow rod-by-rod fuel characterization to occur between irradiation cycles, thus allowing for measurement of experimental fuel repeatedly during its irradiation lifetime. The development of the gamma tomography measurement system is a joint project between the Inst. for Energy Technology - OECD Halden Reactor Project, Westinghouse (Sweden), and Uppsala Univ.. (authors)

  20. How state preparation can affect a quantum experiment: Quantum process tomography for open systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuah, Aik-meng; Modi, Kavan; Rodriguez-Rosario, Cesar A.; Sudarshan, E. C. G. [Center for Complex Quantum Systems, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    We study the effects of the preparation of input states in a quantum tomography experiment. We show that maps arising from a quantum process tomography experiment (called process maps) differ from the well-known dynamical maps. The difference between the two is due to the preparation procedure that is necessary for any quantum experiment. We study two preparation procedures: stochastic preparation and preparation by measurements. The stochastic preparation procedure yields process maps that are linear, while the preparations using von Neumann measurements lead to nonlinear processes and can only be consistently described by a bilinear process map. A process tomography recipe is derived for preparation by measurement for qubits. The difference between the two methods is analyzed in terms of a quantum process tomography experiment. A verification protocol is proposed to differentiate between linear processes and bilinear processes. We also emphasize that the preparation procedure will have a nontrivial effect for any quantum experiment in which the system of interest interacts with its environment.

  1. SU-C-213-05: Evaluation of a Composite Copper-Plastic Material for a 3D Printed Radiation Therapy Bolus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitzthum, L; Ehler, E; Sterling, D; Reynolds, T; Higgins, P; Dusenbery, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a novel 3D printed bolus fabricated from a copper-plastic composite as a thin flexible, custom fitting device that can replicate doses achieved with conventional bolus techniques. Methods: Two models of bolus were created on a 3D printer using a composite copper-PLA/PHA. Firstly, boluses were constructed at thicknesses of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mm. Relative dose measurements were performed under the bolus with an Attix Chamber as well as with radiochromic film. Results were compared to superficial Attix Chamber measurements in a water equivalent material to determine the dosimetric water equivalence of the copper-PLA/PHA plastic. Secondly, CT images of a RANDO phantom were used to create a custom fitting bolus across the anterolateral scalp. Surface dose with the bolus placed on the RANDO phantom was measured with radiochromic film at tangential angles with 6, 10, 10 flattening filter free (FFF) and 18 MV photon beams. Results: Mean surface doses for 6, 10, 10FFF and 18 MV were measured as a percent of Dmax for the flat bolus devices of each thickness. The 0.4 mm thickness bolus was determined to be near equivalent to 2.5 mm depth in water for all four energies. Surface doses ranged from 59–63% without bolus and 85–90% with the custom 0.4 mm copper-plastic bolus relative to the prescribed dose for an oblique tangential beam arrangement on the RANDO phantom. Conclusion: Sub-millimeter thickness, 3D printed composite copper-PLA/PHA bolus can provide a build-up effect equivalent to conventional bolus. At this thickness, the 3D printed bolus allows a level of flexure that may provide more patient comfort than current 3D printing materials used in bolus fabrication while still retaining the CT based custom patient shape. Funding provided by an intra-department grant of the University of Minnesota Department of Radiation Oncology.

  2. Modeling a Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger with RELAP5-3D for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    The main purpose of this report is to design a printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant and carry out Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) simulation using RELAP5-3D. Helium was chosen as the coolant in the primary and secondary sides of the heat exchanger. The design of PCHE is critical for the LOCA simulations. For purposes of simplicity, a straight channel configuration was assumed. A parallel intermediate heat exchanger configuration was assumed for the RELAP5 model design. The RELAP5 modeling also required the semicircular channels in the heat exchanger to be mapped to rectangular channels. The initial RELAP5 run outputs steady state conditions which were then compared to the heat exchanger performance theory to ensure accurate design is being simulated. An exponential loss of pressure transient was simulated. This LOCA describes a loss of coolant pressure in the primary side over a 20 second time period. The results for the simulation indicate that heat is initially transferred from the primary loop to the secondary loop, but after the loss of pressure occurs, heat transfers from the secondary loop to the primary loop.

  3. Qualitative comparison of bremsstrahlung X-rays and 800 MeV protons for tomography of urania fuel pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, C. L.; Bourke, M.; Byler, D. D.; Chen, C. F.; Hogan, G.; Hunter, J. F.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Mariam, F. G.; McClellan, K. J.; Merrill, F.; Morley, D. J.; Saunders, A.

    2013-02-15

    We present an assessment of x-rays and proton tomography as tools for studying the time dependence of the development of damage in fuel rods. We also show data taken with existing facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory that support this assessment. Data on surrogate fuel rods have been taken using the 800 MeV proton radiography (pRad) facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), and with a 450 keV bremsstrahlung X-ray tomography facility. The proton radiography pRad facility at LANSCE can provide good position resolution (<70 {mu}m has been demonstrate, 20 {mu}m seems feasible with minor changes) for tomography on activated fuel rods. Bremsstrahlung x-rays may be able to provide better than 100 {mu}m resolution but further development of sources, collimation, and detectors is necessary for x-rays to deal with the background radiation for tomography of activated fuel rods.

  4. Qualitative comparison of bremsstrahlung X-rays and 800 MeV protons for tomography of urania fuel pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Christopher L.; Bourke, Mark A.; Byler, Darrin D.; Chen, Ching-Fong; Hogan, Gary E.; Hunter, James F.; Kwiatkowski, Kris K.; Mariam, Fesseha G.; McClellan, Kenneth J.; Merrill, Frank E.; Morley, Deborah J.; Saunders, Alexander

    2013-02-11

    We present an assessment of x-rays and proton tomography as tools for studying the time dependence of the development of damage in fuel rods. Also, we show data taken with existing facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory that support this assessment. Data on surrogate fuel rods has been taken using the 800 MeV proton radiography (pRad) facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), and with a 450 keV bremsstrahlung X-ray tomography facility. The proton radiography pRad facility at LANSCE can provide good position resolution (<70 μm has been demonstrate, 20 μm seems feasible with minor changes) for tomography on activated fuel rods. Bremsstrahlung x-rays may be able to provide better than 100 μm resolution but further development of sources, collimation and detectors is necessary for x-rays to deal with the background radiation for tomography of activated fuel rods.

  5. Prediction of subsurface fracture in mining zone of Papua using passive seismic tomography based on Fresnel zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setiadi, Herlan; Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen; Riyanto, Erwin

    2015-04-16

    Fracture prediction in a block cave of underground mine is very important to monitor the structure of the fracture that can be harmful to the mining activities. Many methods can be used to obtain such information, such as TDR (Time Domain Relectometry) and open hole. Both of them have limitations in range measurement. Passive seismic tomography is one of the subsurface imaging method. It has advantage in terms of measurements, cost, and rich of rock physical information. This passive seismic tomography studies using Fresnel zone to model the wavepath by using frequency parameter. Fresnel zone was developed by Nurhandoko in 2000. The result of this study is tomography of P and S wave velocity which can predict position of fracture. The study also attempted to use sum of the wavefronts to obtain position and time of seismic event occurence. Fresnel zone tomography and the summation wavefront can predict location of geological structure of mine area as well.

  6. Application of reconstructive tomography to the measurement of density distribution in two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fincke, J.R.; Berggren, M.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The technique of reconstructive tomography has been applied to the measurement of average density and density distribution in multiphase flows. The technique of reconstructive tomography provides a model independent method of obtaining flow field density information. The unique features of interest in application of a practical tomographic densitometer system are the limited number of data values and the correspondingly coarse reconstruction grid (0.5 by 0.5 cm). These features were studied both experimentally, through the use of prototype hardware on a 3-in. pipe, and analytically, through computer generation of simulated data. Prototypical data were taken on phantoms constructed of Plexiglas and laminated Plexiglas, wood, and polyurethane foam. Reconstructions obtained from prototype data were compared with reconstructions from the simulated data.

  7. High Resolution Neutron Radiography and Tomography of Hydrided Zircaloy-4 Cladding Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Tyler S; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Ray, Holly B; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Yan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Neutron radiography for hydrogen analysis was performed with several Zircaloy-4 cladding samples with controlled hydrogen concentrations up to 1100 ppm. Hydrogen charging was performed in a process tube that was heated to facilitate hydrogen absorption by the metal. A correlation between the hydrogen concentration in the hydrided tubes and the neutron intensity was established, by which hydrogen content can be determined precisely in a small area (55 m x 55 m). Radiography analysis was also performed to evaluate the heating rate and its correlation with the hydrogen distribution through hydrided materials. In addition to radiography analysis, tomography experiments were performed on Zircaloy-4 tube samples to study the local hydrogen distribution. Through tomography analysis a 3D reconstruction of the tube was evaluated in which an uneven hydrogen distribution in the circumferential direction can be observed.

  8. Postmortem analysis of sand grain crushing from pile interface using X-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, I. Matias; Combe, Gaeel; Foray, Pierre; Flin, Frederic; Lesaffre, Bernard [Universite de Grenoble, 3SR Lab, UMR 5521 Grenoble-INP, UJF-Grenoble 1, CNRS, Grenoble, France CEN, CNRM-GAME UMR 3589, Meteo France - CNRS, Grenoble (France)

    2013-06-18

    Pile foundations of offshore platforms, wind and water turbines are typically subjected to a variety of cyclic loading paths due to their complex environment. While many studies focus on global pile behaviour, the soil-pile interface is explored here by a micromechanical study of the soil layer in contact with the pile surface. This work is devoted to the analysis of frozen post-mortem silica sand samples recovered at the pile interface following installation and cyclic loading tests in a calibration chamber using x-ray tomography. An experimental procedure developed for three dimensional (3D) snow imaging was adapted for the recovery of the in-situ sand samples to preserve their structure during tomography scans. 3D images at a pixel size of 7 {mu}m were then obtained using a cryogenic cell. Results confirm the presence of a shear band at the pile surface as well as void ratios changes in the direction of the pile's radius.

  9. Full-direct method for imaging pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Guanglei; Pu, Huangsheng; Liu, Fei; Bai, Jing; He, Wei; Luo, Jianwen

    2015-02-23

    Images of pharmacokinetic parameters (also known as parametric images) in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) can provide three-dimensional metabolic information for biological studies and drug development. However, the ill-posed nature of FMT and the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration together make it difficult to obtain accurate parametric images in small animals in vivo. In this letter, we present a method to directly reconstruct the parametric images from the boundary measurements based on hybrid FMT/X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system. This method can not only utilize structural priors obtained from the XCT system to mitigate the ill-posedness of FMT but also make full use of the temporal correlations of boundary measurements to model the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration. The results of numerical simulation and mouse experiment demonstrate that the proposed method leads to significant improvements in the reconstruction quality of parametric images.

  10. Microscale electromagnetic heating in heterogeneous energetic materials based on x-ray computed tomography

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Cordes, N. L.; Ionita, A.; Glover, B. B.; Duque, A. L. Higginbotham; Perry, W. L.; Patterson, B. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Moore, D. S.

    2016-04-15

    Electromagnetic stimulation of energetic materials provides a noninvasive and nondestructive tool for detecting and identifying explosives. We combine structural information based on x-ray computed tomography, experimental dielectric data, and electromagnetic full-wave simulations to study microscale electromagnetic heating of realistic three-dimensional heterogeneous explosives. In conclusion, we analyze the formation of electromagnetic hot spots and thermal gradients in the explosive-binder mesostructures and compare the heating rate for various binder systems.

  11. Significantly Improving Regional Seismic Amplitude Tomography at Higher Frequencies by Determining S -Wave Bandwidth

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Fisk, Mark D.; Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2016-05-03

    Characterizing regional seismic signals continues to be a difficult problem due to their variability. Calibration of these signals is very important to many aspects of monitoring underground nuclear explosions, including detecting seismic signals, discriminating explosions from earthquakes, and reliably estimating magnitude and yield. Amplitude tomography, which simultaneously inverts for source, propagation, and site effects, is a leading method of calibrating these signals. A major issue in amplitude tomography is the data quality of the input amplitude measurements. Pre-event and prephase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) tests are typically used but can frequently include bad signals and exclude good signals. The deficiencies ofmore » SNR criteria, which are demonstrated here, lead to large calibration errors. To ameliorate these issues, we introduce a semi-automated approach to assess the bandwidth of a spectrum where it behaves physically. We determine the maximum frequency (denoted as Fmax) where it deviates from this behavior due to inflections at which noise or spurious signals start to bias the spectra away from the expected decay. We compare two amplitude tomography runs using the SNR and new Fmax criteria and show significant improvements to the stability and accuracy of the tomography output for frequency bands higher than 2 Hz by using our assessments of valid S-wave bandwidth. We compare Q estimates, P/S residuals, and some detailed results to explain the improvements. Lastly, for frequency bands higher than 4 Hz, needed for effective P/S discrimination of explosions from earthquakes, the new bandwidth criteria sufficiently fix the instabilities and errors so that the residuals and calibration terms are useful for application.« less

  12. 3D and 4D magnetic susceptibility tomography based on complex MR images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-11-11

    Magnetic susceptibility is the physical property for T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2*MRI). The invention relates to methods for reconstructing an internal distribution (3D map) of magnetic susceptibility values, .chi. (x,y,z), of an object, from 3D T2*MRI phase images, by using Computed Inverse Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CIMRI) tomography. The CIMRI technique solves the inverse problem of the 3D convolution by executing a 3D Total Variation (TV) regularized iterative convolution scheme, using a split Bregman iteration algorithm. The reconstruction of .chi. (x,y,z) can be designed for low-pass, band-pass, and high-pass features by using a convolution kernel that is modified from the standard dipole kernel. Multiple reconstructions can be implemented in parallel, and averaging the reconstructions can suppress noise. 4D dynamic magnetic susceptibility tomography can be implemented by reconstructing a 3D susceptibility volume from a 3D phase volume by performing 3D CIMRI magnetic susceptibility tomography at each snapshot time.

  13. Nanometer resolution optical coherence tomography using broad bandwidth XUV and soft x-ray radiation

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Fuchs, Silvio; Rödel, Christian; Blinne, Alexander; Zastrau, Ulf; Wünsche, Martin; Hilbert, Vinzenz; Glaser, Leif; Viefhaus, Jens; Frumker, Eugene; Corkum, Paul; et al

    2016-02-10

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique for cross-sectional imaging. It is particularly advantageous for applications where conventional microscopy is not able to image deeper layers of samples in a reasonable time, e.g. in fast moving, deeper lying structures. However, at infrared and optical wavelengths, which are commonly used, the axial resolution of OCT is limited to about 1 μm, even if the bandwidth of the light covers a wide spectral range. Here, we present extreme ultraviolet coherence tomography (XCT) and thus introduce a new technique for non-invasive cross-sectional imaging of nanometer structures. XCT exploits the nanometerscale coherence lengthsmore » corresponding to the spectral transmission windows of, e.g., silicon samples. The axial resolution of coherence tomography is thus improved from micrometers to a few nanometers. Tomographic imaging with an axial resolution better than 18 nm is demonstrated for layer-type nanostructures buried in a silicon substrate. Using wavelengths in the water transmission window, nanometer-scale layers of platinum are retrieved with a resolution better than 8 nm. As a result, XCT as a nondestructive method for sub-surface tomographic imaging holds promise for several applications in semiconductor metrology and imaging in the water window.« less

  14. Optimization and evaluation of metal injection molding by using X-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Shidi; Zhang, Ruijie; Qu, Xuanhui

    2015-06-15

    6061 aluminum alloy and 316L stainless steel green bodies were obtained by using different injection parameters (injection pressure, speed and temperature). After injection process, the green bodies were scanned by X-ray tomography. The projection and reconstruction images show the different kinds of defects obtained by the improper injection parameters. Then, 3D rendering of the Al alloy green bodies was used to demonstrate the spatial morphology characteristics of the serious defects. Based on the scanned and calculated results, it is convenient to obtain the proper injection parameters for the Al alloy. Then, reasons of the defect formation were discussed. During mold filling, the serious defects mainly formed in the case of low injection temperature and high injection speed. According to the gray value distribution of projection image, a threshold gray value was obtained to evaluate whether the quality of green body can meet the desired standard. The proper injection parameters of 316L stainless steel can be obtained efficiently by using the method of analyzing the Al alloy injection. - Highlights: • Different types of defects in green bodies were scanned by using X-ray tomography. • Reasons of the defect formation were discussed. • Optimization of the injection parameters can be simplified greatly by the way of X-ray tomography. • Evaluation standard of the injection process can be obtained by using the gray value distribution of projection image.

  15. Copper extraction from coarsely ground printed circuit boards using moderate thermophilic bacteria in a rotating-drum reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodrigues, Michael L.M.; Leão, Versiane A.; Gomes, Otavio; Lambert, Fanny; Bastin, David; Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Copper bioleaching from PCB (20 mm) by moderate thermophiles was demonstrated. • Larger PCB sheets enable a cost reduction due to the elimination of fine grinding. • Crushing generated cracks in PCB increasing the copper extraction. • A pre-treatment step was necessary to remove the lacquer coating. • High copper extractions (85%) were possible with pulp density of up to 25.0 g/L. - Abstract: The current work reports on a new approach for copper bioleaching from Printed Circuit Board (PCB) by moderate thermophiles in a rotating-drum reactor. Initially leaching of PCB was carried out in shake flasks to assess the effects of particle size (−208 μm + 147 μm), ferrous iron concentration (1.25–10.0 g/L) and pH (1.5–2.5) on copper leaching using mesophile and moderate thermophile microorganisms. Only at a relatively low solid content (10.0 g/L) complete copper extraction was achieved from the particle size investigated. Conversely, high copper extractions were possible from coarse-ground PCB (20 mm-long) working with increased solids concentration (up to 25.0 g/L). Because there was as the faster leaching kinetics at 50 °C Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans was selected for experiments in a rotating-drum reactor with the coarser-sized PCB sheets. Under optimal conditions, copper extraction reached 85%, in 8 days and microscopic observations by SEM–EDS of the on non-leached and leached material suggested that metal dissolution from the internal layers was restricted by the fact that metal surface was not entirely available and accessible for the solution in the case of the 20 mm-size sheets.

  16. The Impact of Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Edge Delineation of Gross Tumor Volume for Head and Neck Cancers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashamalla, Hani . E-mail: hashamalla@aol.com; Guirgius, Adel; Bieniek, Ewa; Rafla, Sameer; Evola, Alex; Goswami, Ganesh; Oldroyd, Randall; Mokhtar, Bahaa; Parikh, Kapila

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To study anatomic biologic contouring (ABC), using a previously described distinct halo, to unify volume contouring methods in treatment planning for head and neck cancers. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients with head and neck cancer at various sites were planned for radiation therapy using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). The ABC halo was used in all PET/CT scans to contour the gross tumor volume (GTV) edge. The CT-based GTV (GTV-CT) and PET/CT-based GTV (GTV-ABC) were contoured by two independent radiation oncologists. Results: The ABC halo was observed in all patients studied. The halo had a standard unit value of 2.19 {+-} 0.28. The mean halo thickness was 2.02 {+-} 0.21 mm. Significant volume modification ({>=}25%) was seen in 17 of 25 patients (68%) after implementation of GTV-ABC. Concordance among observers was increased with the use of the halo as a guide for GTV determination: 6 patients (24%) had a {<=}10% volume discrepancy with CT alone, compared with 22 (88%) with PET/CT (p < 0.001). Interobserver variability decreased from a mean GTV difference of 20.3 cm{sup 3} in CT-based planning to 7.2 cm{sup 3} in PET/CT-based planning (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Using the 'anatomic biologic halo' to contour GTV in PET/CT improves consistency among observers. The distinctive appearance of the described halo and its presence in all of the studied tumors make it attractive for GTV contouring in head and neck tumors. Additional studies are needed to confirm the correlation of the halo with presence of malignant cells.

  17. Impact of Pretreatment Combined {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Staging on Radiation Therapy Treatment Decisions in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, Sweet Ping; David, Steven; Alamgeer, Muhammad; Ganju, Vinod

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic performance of pretreatment {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) and its impact on radiation therapy treatment decisions in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Methods and Materials: Patients with LABC with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status <2 and no contraindication to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant radiation therapy were enrolled on a prospective trial. All patients had pretreatment conventional imaging (CI) performed, including bilateral breast mammography and ultrasound, bone scan, and CT chest, abdomen, and pelvis scans performed. Informed consent was obtained before enrolment. Pretreatment whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed on all patients, and results were compared with CI findings. Results: A total of 154 patients with LABC with no clinical or radiologic evidence of distant metastases on CI were enrolled. Median age was 49 years (range, 26-70 years). Imaging with PET/CT detected distant metastatic disease and/or locoregional disease not visualized on CI in 32 patients (20.8%). Distant metastatic disease was detected in 17 patients (11.0%): 6 had bony metastases, 5 had intrathoracic metastases (pulmonary/mediastinal), 2 had distant nodal metastases, 2 had liver metastases, 1 had pulmonary and bony metastases, and 1 had mediastinal and distant nodal metastases. Of the remaining 139 patients, nodal disease outside conventional radiation therapy fields was detected on PET/CT in 15 patients (10.8%), with involvement of ipsilateral internal mammary nodes in 13 and ipsilateral level 5 cervical nodes in 2. Conclusions: Imaging with PET/CT provides superior diagnostic and staging information in patients with LABC compared with CI, which has significant therapeutic implications with respect to radiation therapy management. Imaging with PET/CT should be considered in all patients undergoing primary

  18. SU-E-J-49: Design and Fabrication of Custom 3D Printed Phantoms for Radiation Therapy Research and Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, C; Xing, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose The rapid proliferation of affordable 3D printing techniques has enabled the custom fabrication of items ranging from paper weights to medical implants. This study investigates the feasibility of utilizing the technology for developing novel phantoms for use in radiation therapy quality assurance (QA) procedures. Methods A phantom for measuring the geometric parameters of linear accelerator (LINAC) on-board imaging (OBI) systems was designed using SolidWorks. The design was transferred to a 3D printer and fabricated using a fused deposition modeling (FDM) technique. Fiducials were embedded in the phantom by placing 1.6 mm diameter steel balls in predefined holes and securing them with silicone. Several MV and kV images of the phantom were collected and the visibility and geometric accuracy were evaluated. A second phantom, for use in the experimental evaluation of a high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy dosimeter, was designed to secure several applicator needles in water. The applicator was fabricated in the same 3D printer and used for experiments. Results The general accuracy of printed parts was determined to be 0.1 mm. The cost of materials for the imaging and QA phantoms were $22 and $5 respectively. Both the plastic structure and fiducial markers of the imaging phantom were visible in MV and kV images. Fiducial marker locations were determined to be within 1mm of desired locations, with the discrepancy being attributed to the fiducial attachment process. The HDR phantom secured the applicators within 0.5 mm of the desired locations. Conclusion 3D printing offers an inexpensive method for fabricating custom phantoms for use in radiation therapy quality assurance. While the geometric accuracy of such parts is limited compared to more expensive methods, the phantoms are still highly functional and provide a unique opportunity for rapid fabrication of custom phantoms for use in radiation therapy QA and research.

  19. Thermal hydraulic performance testing of printed circuit heat exchangers in a high-temperature helium test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sai K. Mylavarapu; Xiaodong Sun; Richard E. Glosup; Richard N. Christensen; Michael W. Patterson

    2014-04-01

    In high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, such as a very high temperature reactor (VHTR), an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is required to efficiently transfer the core thermal output to a secondary fluid for electricity generation with an indirect power cycle and/or process heat applications. Currently, there is no proven high-temperature (750800 C or higher) compact heat exchanger technology for high-temperature reactor design concepts. In this study, printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE), a potential IHX concept for high-temperature applications, has been investigated for their heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics under high operating temperatures and pressures. Two PCHEs, each having 10 hot and 10 cold plates with 12 channels (semicircular cross-section) in each plate are fabricated using Alloy 617 plates and tested for their performance in a high-temperature helium test facility (HTHF). The PCHE inlet temperature and pressure were varied from 85 to 390 C/1.02.7 MPa for the cold side and 208790 C/1.02.7 MPa for the hot side, respectively, while the mass flow rate of helium was varied from 15 to 49 kg/h. This range of mass flow rates corresponds to PCHE channel Reynolds numbers of 950 to 4100 for the cold side and 900 to 3900 for the hot side (corresponding to the laminar and laminar-to-turbulent transition flow regimes). The obtained experimental data have been analyzed for the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of the heat transfer surface of the PCHEs and compared with the available models and correlations in the literature. In addition, a numerical treatment of hydrodynamically developing and hydrodynamically fully-developed laminar flow through a semicircular duct is presented. Relations developed for determining the hydrodynamic entrance length in a semicircular duct and the friction factor (or pressure drop) in the hydrodynamic entry length region for laminar flow through a semicircular duct are given. Various hydrodynamic

  20. Full page fax print

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

  1. Full page fax print

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

  2. Federal Sustainable Print Management

    Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-07-07

    This Guide provides acceptable approaches for implementing the IT sustainability requirements and criteria required by DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability, dated 5-2-11 and related to the sustainability requirements contained in Executive Order 13693, "Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade.

  3. Full page photo print

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

  4. FELbrochure_outsidePRINT

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    carpenters use lasers to construct level buildings, while homeowners use them to hang pictures. The origin of lasers can be traced to Albert Einstein, who rst theorized that it was...

  5. FELbrochure_outsidePRINT

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    FREE-ELECTRON THOMAS JEFFERSON NATIONAL ACCELER ATOR FACILIT Y L A S E R WANT TO KNOW MORE? Thomas Je erson National Accelerator Facility is managed by Je erson Science Associates, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's O ce of Science Learn more about Je erson Lab by visiting www.jlab.org, by sending an e-mail to jlabinfo@jlab.org or by calling (757) 269-7100. HOW LASERS WORK Lasers are all around us. There are lasers in your CD player and the CD-ROM in your computer. More powerful lasers can

  6. Full page fax print

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 11 ) Maintain adequate emergency tank space per the Tank ... to handle unanticipated problems that could require additional tank space. 6,0 plannIng Bases 6.1 Reference Date ...

  7. Full page fax print

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 11 ) Maintain adequate emergency tank space per the Tank ... to handle unanticipated problems that could require additional tank space. 6,0 planning Bases 6,1 Reference Date ...

  8. SRFbrochure_outsidePRINT

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    R E Q U E N C Y T E C H N O L O G Y SUPERCONDUCTINGRADIO THOMAS JEFFERSON NATIONAL ACCELERATOR FACILITY WANT TO KNOW MORE? Thomas Je erson National Accelerator Facility is managed by Je erson Science Associates, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's O ce of Science For more information, visit Je erson Lab's SRF Institute webpage at http://srf.jlab.org/ ABOUT JEFFERSON LAB Thomas Je erson National Accelerator Facility is a world- leading nuclear physics research laboratory. Funded by the U.S.

  9. Federal Sustainable Print Management

    Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-11-17

    The Guide provides acceptable approaches for implementing the IT sustainability requirements and criteria required by DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability, dated 5-2-11, and related to the sustainability requirements contained in Executive Order 13693, "Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade." Does not cancel/supersede other directives.

  10. JLabbrochure_outsidePRINT

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    N A T U R E O F M A T T E R E X P L O R I N G THOMAS JEFFERSON NATIONAL ACCELERATOR FACILITY WANT TO KNOW MORE? Thomas Je erson National Accelerator Facility is managed by Je erson Science Associates, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's O ce of Science Learn more about Je erson Lab by visiting www.jlab.org, by sending an e-mail to jlabinfo@jlab.org or by calling (757) 269-7100. ABOUT JEFFERSON LAB Je erson Lab's primary mission is to study the atomic nucleus, but it also carries out applied

  11. Printed on Recycled Paper

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    (800) 493-9768 http:www.wipp.ws U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office Waste Isolation Pilot Plant P.O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 DOENews For Immediate...

  12. Printed on Recycled Paper

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Dennis Hurtt U.S. DOE Carlsbad Field Office (505) 234-7327 Susan Scott Washington TRU Solutions (505) 234-7204 (800) 493-9768 http://www.wipp.carlsbad.nm.us U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office Waste Isolation Pilot Plant P.O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 DOENews For Immediate Release 50,000 Containers Safely Disposed at WIPP CARLSBAD, N.M., December 18, 2003 - The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) safely disposed its 50,000 th container of

  13. Printed on Recycled Paper

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Dennis Hurtt U.S. DOE Carlsbad Field Office (505) 234-7327 http://www.wipp.energy.gov U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office Waste Isolation Pilot Plant P.O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 DOENews For Immediate Release First Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Shipment Arrives at WIPP CARLSBAD, N.M., January 24, 2007 - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced today the safe arrival of its first shipment of remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste at the Waste

  14. Full page fax print

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  15. Full page fax print

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    )lIJfjlHfllmj)mmllillruJt ((I(m(ti.JmlmmmlllWI ll .. . I*mw lffi )( HI I) SOVELEV RECELEV 40 40 Immlll1 illllmJil11)Immm lfm lli m l.lmillm(mj...

  16. Ultralow dose computed tomography attenuation correction for pediatric PET CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Samuel L.; Shulkin, Barry L.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To develop ultralow dose computed tomography (CT) attenuation correction (CTAC) acquisition protocols for pediatric positron emission tomography CT (PET CT). Methods: A GE Discovery 690 PET CT hybrid scanner was used to investigate the change to quantitative PET and CT measurements when operated at ultralow doses (10–35 mA s). CT quantitation: noise, low-contrast resolution, and CT numbers for 11 tissue substitutes were analyzed in-phantom. CT quantitation was analyzed to a reduction of 90% volume computed tomography dose index (0.39/3.64; mGy) from baseline. To minimize noise infiltration, 100% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) was used for CT reconstruction. PET images were reconstructed with the lower-dose CTAC iterations and analyzed for: maximum body weight standardized uptake value (SUV{sub bw}) of various diameter targets (range 8–37 mm), background uniformity, and spatial resolution. Radiation dose and CTAC noise magnitude were compared for 140 patient examinations (76 post-ASiR implementation) to determine relative dose reduction and noise control. Results: CT numbers were constant to within 10% from the nondose reduced CTAC image for 90% dose reduction. No change in SUV{sub bw}, background percent uniformity, or spatial resolution for PET images reconstructed with CTAC protocols was found down to 90% dose reduction. Patient population effective dose analysis demonstrated relative CTAC dose reductions between 62% and 86% (3.2/8.3–0.9/6.2). Noise magnitude in dose-reduced patient images increased but was not statistically different from predose-reduced patient images. Conclusions: Using ASiR allowed for aggressive reduction in CT dose with no change in PET reconstructed images while maintaining sufficient image quality for colocalization of hybrid CT anatomy and PET radioisotope uptake.

  17. Imaging of hard- and soft-tissue structure in the oral cavity by optical coherence tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colston, Bill W.; Everett, Mathew J.; Da Silva, Luiz B. Otis, Linda L. Stroeve, Pieter Nathel, Howard

    1998-06-01

    We have developed a prototype optical coherent tomography (OCT) system for the imaging of hard and soft tissue in the oral cavity. High-resolution images of {ital in vitro} porcine periodontal tissues have been obtained with this system. The images clearly show the enamel{endash}cementum and the gingiva{endash}tooth interfaces, indicating OCT is a potentially useful technique for diagnosis of periodontal diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first application of OCT for imaging biologic hard tissue. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

  18. High-performance computational and geostatistical experiments for testing the capabilities of 3-d electrical tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carle, S. F.; Daily, W. D.; Newmark, R. L.; Ramirez, A.; Tompson, A.

    1999-01-19

    This project explores the feasibility of combining geologic insight, geostatistics, and high-performance computing to analyze the capabilities of 3-D electrical resistance tomography (ERT). Geostatistical methods are used to characterize the spatial variability of geologic facies that control sub-surface variability of permeability and electrical resistivity Synthetic ERT data sets are generated from geostatistical realizations of alluvial facies architecture. The synthetic data sets enable comparison of the "truth" to inversion results, quantification of the ability to detect particular facies at particular locations, and sensitivity studies on inversion parameters

  19. Synchrotron-based X-ray computed tomography during compression loading of cellular materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Henderson, Kevin; Stannard, Tyler; Williams, Jason J.; Xiao, Xianghui; Robinson, Mathew W. C.; Schaedler, Tobias A.; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Patterson, Brian M.

    2015-04-29

    Three-dimensional X-ray computed tomography (CT) of in situ dynamic processes provides internal snapshot images as a function of time. Tomograms are mathematically reconstructed from a series of radiographs taken in rapid succession as the specimen is rotated in small angular increments. In addition to spatial resolution, temporal resolution is important. Thus temporal resolution indicates how close together in time two distinct tomograms can be acquired. Tomograms taken in rapid succession allow detailed analyses of internal processes that cannot be obtained by other means. This article describes the state-of-the-art for such measurements acquired using synchrotron radiation as the X-ray source.

  20. Detection of foreign body using fast thermoacoustic tomography with a multielement linear transducer array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie Liming; Xing Da; Yang Diwu; Zeng Lvming; Zhou Quan

    2007-04-23

    Current imaging modalities face challenges in clinical applications due to limitations in resolution or contrast. Microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging may provide a complementary modality for medical imaging, particularly for detecting foreign objects due to their different absorption of electromagnetic radiation at specific frequencies. A thermoacoustic tomography system with a multielement linear transducer array was developed and used to detect foreign objects in tissue. Radiography and thermoacoustic images of objects with different electromagnetic properties, including glass, sand, and iron, were compared. The authors' results demonstrate that thermoacoustic imaging has the potential to become a fast method for surgical localization of occult foreign objects.

  1. Distributed Microprocessor Automation Network for Synthesizing Radiotracers Used in Positron Emission Tomography [PET

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Russell, J. A. G.; Alexoff, D. L.; Wolf, A. P.

    1984-09-01

    This presentation describes an evolving distributed microprocessor network for automating the routine production synthesis of radiotracers used in Positron Emission Tomography. We first present a brief overview of the PET method for measuring biological function, and then outline the general procedure for producing a radiotracer. The paper identifies several reasons for our automating the syntheses of these compounds. There is a description of the distributed microprocessor network architecture chosen and the rationale for that choice. Finally, we speculate about how this network may be exploited to extend the power of the PET method from the large university or National Laboratory to the biomedical research and clinical community at large. (DT)

  2. Synchrotron-based X-ray computed tomography during compression loading of cellular materials

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Henderson, Kevin; Stannard, Tyler; Williams, Jason J.; Xiao, Xianghui; Robinson, Mathew W. C.; Schaedler, Tobias A.; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Patterson, Brian M.

    2015-04-29

    Three-dimensional X-ray computed tomography (CT) of in situ dynamic processes provides internal snapshot images as a function of time. Tomograms are mathematically reconstructed from a series of radiographs taken in rapid succession as the specimen is rotated in small angular increments. In addition to spatial resolution, temporal resolution is important. Thus temporal resolution indicates how close together in time two distinct tomograms can be acquired. Tomograms taken in rapid succession allow detailed analyses of internal processes that cannot be obtained by other means. This article describes the state-of-the-art for such measurements acquired using synchrotron radiation as the X-ray source.

  3. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Laut, Sophie P.; Jones, Steven M.

    2010-09-07

    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  4. Experimental study of the maximum resolution and packing density achievable in sintered and non-sintered binder-jet 3D printed steel microchannels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Amy M; Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub; Benedict, Michael; Kiggans Jr, James O

    2015-01-01

    Developing high resolution 3D printed metallic microchannels is a challenge especially when there is an essential need for high packing density of the primary material. While high packing density could be achieved by heating the structure to the sintering temperature, some heat sensitive applications require other strategies to improve the packing density of primary materials. In this study the goal is to develop high green or pack densities microchannels on the scale of 2-300 microns which have a robust mechanical structure. Binder-jet 3D printing is an additive manufacturing process in which droplets of binder are deposited via inkjet into a bed of powder. By repeatedly spreading thin layers of powder and depositing binder into the appropriate 2D profiles, complex 3D objects can be created one layer at time. Microchannels with features on the order of 500 microns were fabricated via binder jetting of steel powder and then sintered and/or infiltrated with a secondary material. The average particle size of the steel powder was varied along with the droplet volume of the inkjet-deposited binder. The resolution of the process, packing density of the primary material, the subsequent features sizes of the microchannels, and the overall microchannel quality were characterized as a function of particle size distribution, droplet sizes and heat treatment temperatures.

  5. Photoacoustic tomography based on the Green's function retrieval with ultrasound interferometry for sample partially behind an acoustically scattering layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Jie; Tao, Chao Cai, Peng; Liu, Xiaojun

    2015-06-08

    Acoustically inhomogeneous mediums with multiple scattering are often the nightmare of photoacoustic tomography. In order to break this limitation, a photoacoustic tomography scheme combining ultrasound interferometry and time reversal is proposed to achieve images in acoustically scattering medium. An ultrasound interferometry is developed to determine the unknown Green's function of strong scattering tissue. Using the determined Greens' function, a time-reversal process is carried out to restore images behind an acoustically inhomogeneous layer from the scattering photoacoustic signals. This method effectively decreases the false contrast, noise, and position deviation of images induced by the multiple scattering. Phantom experiment is carried out to validate the method. Therefore, the proposed method could have potential value in extending the biomedical applications of photoacoustic tomography in acoustically inhomogeneous tissue.

  6. Double-Difference Tomography for Sequestration MVA [monitoring, verification, and accounting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westman, Erik

    2012-12-31

    Analysis of synthetic data was performed to determine the most cost-effective tomographic monitoring system for a geologic carbon sequestration injection site. Double-difference tomographic inversion was performed on 125 synthetic data sets: five stages of CO2 plume growth, five seismic event regions, and five geophone arrays. Each resulting velocity model was compared quantitatively to its respective synthetic velocity model to determine an accuracy value. The results were examined to determine a relationship between cost and accuracy in monitoring, verification, and accounting applications using double-difference tomography. The geophone arrays with widely-varying geophone locations, both laterally and vertically, performed best. Additionally, double difference seismic tomography was performed using travel time data from a carbon sequestration site at the Aneth oil field in southeast Utah as part of a Department of Energy initiative on monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of sequestered CO2. A total of 1,211 seismic events were recorded from a borehole array consisting of 22 geophones. Artificial velocity models were created to determine the ease with which different CO2 plume locations and sizes can be detected. Most likely because of the poor geophone arrangement, a low velocity zone in the Desert Creek reservoir can only be detected when regions of test site containing the highest ray path coverage are considered. MVA accuracy and precision may be improved through the use of a receiver array that provides more comprehensive ray path coverage.

  7. Compact cold stage for micro-computerized tomography imaging of chilled or frozen samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hullar, Ted; Anastasio, Cort; Paige, David F.; Rowland, Douglas J.

    2014-04-15

    High resolution X-ray microCT (computerized tomography) can be used to image a variety of objects, including temperature-sensitive materials. In cases where the sample must be chilled or frozen to maintain sample integrity, either the microCT machine itself must be placed in a refrigerated chamber, or a relatively expensive commercial cold stage must be purchased. We describe here the design and construction of a low-cost custom cold stage suitable for use in a microCT imaging system. Our device uses a boron nitride sample holder, two-stage Peltier cooler, fan-cooled heat sink, and electronic controller to maintain sample temperatures as low as ?25?C 0.2?C for the duration of a tomography acquisition. The design does not require modification to the microCT machine, and is easily installed and removed. Our custom cold stage represents a cost-effective solution for refrigerating CT samples for imaging, and is especially useful for shared equipment or machines unsuitable for cold room use.

  8. Infrared tomography for diagnostic imaging of port wine stain blood vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, D.

    1994-11-15

    The objective of this work is the development of Infrared Tomography (IRT) for detecting and characterizing subsurface chromophores in human skin. Characterization of cutaneous chromophores is crucial for advances in the laser treatment of pigmented lesions (e.g., port wine stain birthmarks and tatoos). Infrared tomography (IRT) uses a fast infrared focal plane array (IR-FPA) to detect temperature rises in a substrate induced by pulsed radiation. A pulsed laser is used to produce transient heating of an object. The temperature rise, due to the optical absorption of the pulsed laser light, creates an increase in infrared emission which is measured by the IR-FPA. Although the application of IRT to image subsurface cracks due to metal fatigue is a topic of great interest in the aircraft industry, the application to image subsurface chromophores in biological materials is novel. We present an image recovery method based on a constrained conjugate gradient algorithm that has obtained the first ever high quality images of port wine blood vessels.

  9. Intracellular trafficking of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with TAT peptide: 3-dimensional electron tomography analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, Baiju G.; Fukuda, Takahiro; Mizuki, Toru; Hanajiri, Tatsuro; Maekawa, Toru

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the intracellular localisation of TAT-SPIONs using 3-D electron tomography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-D images of TAT-SPIONs in a cell are clearly shown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Release of TAT-SPIONs from endocytic vesicles into the cytoplasm is clearly shown. -- Abstract: Internalisation of nanoparticles conjugated with cell penetrating peptides is a promising approach to various drug delivery applications. Cell penetrating peptides such as transactivating transcriptional activator (TAT) peptides derived from HIV-1 proteins are effective intracellular delivery vectors for a wide range of nanoparticles and pharmaceutical agents thanks to their amicable ability to enter cells and minimum cytotoxicity. Although different mechanisms of intracellular uptake and localisation have been proposed for TAT conjugated nanoparticles, it is necessary to visualise the particles on a 3-D plane in order to investigate the actual intracellular uptake and localisation. Here, we study the intracellular localisation and trafficking of TAT peptide conjugated superparamagnetic ion oxide nanoparticles (TAT-SPIONs) using 3-D electron tomography. 3-D tomograms clearly show the location of TAT-SPIONs in a cell and their slow release from the endocytic vesicles into the cytoplasm. The present methodology may well be utilised for further investigations of the behaviours of nanoparticles in cells and eventually for the development of nano drug delivery systems.

  10. Survey of computed tomography scanners in Taiwan: Dose descriptors, dose guidance levels, and effective doses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, H. Y.; Tung, C. J.; Yu, C. C.; Tyan, Y. S.

    2007-04-15

    The IAEA and the ICRP recommended dose guidance levels for the most frequent computed tomography (CT) examinations to promote strategies for the optimization of radiation dose to CT patients. A national survey, including on-site measurements and questionnaires, was conducted in Taiwan in order to establish dose guidance levels and evaluate effective doses for CT. The beam quality and output and the phantom doses were measured for nine representative CT scanners. Questionnaire forms were completed by respondents from facilities of 146 CT scanners out of 285 total scanners. Information on patient, procedure, scanner, and technique for the head and body examinations was provided. The weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub w}), the dose length product (DLP), organ doses and effective dose were calculated using measured data, questionnaire information and Monte Carlo simulation results. A cost-effective analysis was applied to derive the dose guidance levels on CTDI{sub w} and DLP for several CT examinations. The mean effective dose{+-}standard deviation distributes from 1.6{+-}0.9 mSv for the routine head examination to 13{+-}11 mSv for the examination of liver, spleen, and pancreas. The surveyed results and the dose guidance levels were provided to the national authorities to develop quality control standards and protocols for CT examinations.

  11. SUPER-RESOLUTION ULTRASOUND TOMOGRAPHY: A PRELIMINARY STUDY WITH A RING ARRAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HUANG, LIANJIE; SIMONETTI, FRANCESCO; DURIC, NEBOJSA; RAMA, OLSI

    2007-01-18

    Ultrasound tomography attempts to retrieve the structure of an objective by exploiting the interaction of acoustic waves with the object. A fundamental limit of ultrasound tomography is that features cannot be resolved if they are spaced less than {lambda}/2 apart, where {lambda} is wavelength of the probing wave, regardless of the degree of accuracy of the measurements. Therefore, since the attenuation of the probing wave with propagation distance increases as {lambda} decreases, resolution has to be traded against imaging depth. Recently, it has been shown that the {lambda}/2 limit is a consequence of the Born approximation (implicit in the imaging algorithms currently employed) which neglects the distortion of the probing wavefield as it travels through the medium to be imaged. On the other hand, such a distortion, which is due to the multiple scattering phenomenon, can encode unlimited resolution in the radiating component of the scattered field. Previously, a resolution better than {lambda}/3 has been reported in these proceedings [F. Simonetti, pp. 126 (2006)] in the case of elastic wave probing. In this paper, they demonstrate experimentally a resolution better than {lambda}/4 for objects immersed in a water bth probed by means of a ring array which excites and detects pressure waves in a full view configuration.

  12. 3D structural fluctuation of IgG1 antibody revealed by individual particle electron tomography

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Huimin; Peng, Bo; Rames, Matthew J.; Zhang, Shengli; Ren, Gang

    2015-05-05

    Commonly used methods for determining protein structure, including X-ray crystallography and single-particle reconstruction, often provide a single and unique three-dimensional (3D) structure. However, in these methods, the protein dynamics and flexibility/fluctuation remain mostly unknown. Here, we utilized advances in electron tomography (ET) to study the antibody flexibility and fluctuation through structural determination of individual antibody particles rather than averaging multiple antibody particles together. Through individual-particle electron tomography (IPET) 3D reconstruction from negatively-stained ET images, we obtained 120 ab-initio 3D density maps at an intermediate resolution (~1–3 nm) from 120 individual IgG1 antibody particles. Using these maps as a constraint, wemore » derived 120 conformations of the antibody via structural flexible docking of the crystal structure to these maps by targeted molecular dynamics simulations. Statistical analysis of the various conformations disclosed the antibody 3D conformational flexibility through the distribution of its domain distances and orientations. This blueprint approach, if extended to other flexible proteins, may serve as a useful methodology towards understanding protein dynamics and functions.« less

  13. [18F]-Fluoromisonidazole Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Visualization of Tumor Hypoxia in Patients With Chordoma of the Mobile and Sacrococcygeal Spine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheney, Matthew D.; Chen, Yen-Lin; Lim, Ruth; Winrich, Barbara K.; Grosu, Anca L.; Trofimov, Alexei V.; Depauw, Nicolas; Shih, Helen A.; Schwab, Joseph H.; Hornicek, Francis J.; DeLaney, Thomas F.

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate [18F]-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FMISO-PET/CT) detection of targetable hypoxic subvolumes (HSVs) in chordoma of the mobile or sacrococcygeal spine. Methods and Materials: A prospective, pilot study of 20 patients with primary or locally recurrent chordoma of the mobile or sacrococcygeal spine treated with proton or combined proton/photon radiation therapy (RT) with or without surgery was completed. The FMISO-PET/CT was performed before RT and after 19.8-34.2 GyRBE (relative biologic effectiveness). Gross tumor volumes were delineated and HSVs defined including voxels with standardized uptake values ≥1.4 times the muscle mean. Clinical characteristics and treatments received were compared between patients with and without HSVs. Results: The FMISO-PET/CT detected HSVs in 12 of 20 patients (60%). Baseline and interval HSV spatial concordance varied (0%-94%). Eight HSVs were sufficiently large (≥5 cm{sup 3}) to potentially allow an intensity modulated proton therapy boost. Patients with HSVs had significantly larger gross tumor volumes (median 410.0 cm{sup 3} vs 63.4 cm{sup 3}; P=.02) and were significantly more likely to have stage T2 tumors (5 of 12 vs 0 of 8; P=.04). After a median follow-up of 1.8 years (range, 0.2-4.4 years), a local recurrence has yet to be observed. Three patients developed metastatic disease, 2 with HSVs. Conclusions: Detection of targetable HSVs by FMISO-PET/CT within patients undergoing RT with or without surgery for treatment of chordoma of the mobile and sacrococcygeal spine is feasible. The study's inability to attribute interval HSV changes to treatment, rapidly changing hypoxic physiology, or imaging inconsistencies is a limitation. Further study of double-baseline FMISO-PET/CT and hypoxia-directed RT dose escalation, particularly in patients at high risk for local recurrence, is warranted.

  14. Emission Computed Tomography: A New Technique for the Quantitative Physiologic Study of Brain and Heart in Vivo

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Phelps, M. E.; Hoffman, E. J.; Huang, S. C.; Schelbert, H. R.; Kuhl, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    Emission computed tomography can provide a quantitative in vivo measurement of regional tissue radionuclide tracer concentrations. This facility when combined with physiologic models and radioactively labeled physiologic tracers that behave in a predictable manner allow measurement of a wide variety of physiologic variables. This integrated technique has been referred to as Physiologic Tomography (PT). PT requires labeled compounds which trace physiologic processes in a known and predictable manner, and physiologic models which are appropriately formulated and validated to derive physiologic variables from ECT data. In order to effectively achieve this goal, PT requires an ECT system that is capable of performing truly quantitative or analytical measurements of tissue tracer concentrations and which has been well characterized in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity and signal to noise ratios in the tomographic image. This paper illustrates the capabilities of emission computed tomography and provides examples of physiologic tomography for the regional measurement of cerebral and myocardial metabolic rate for glucose, regional measurement of cerebral blood volume, gated cardiac blood pools and capillary perfusion in brain and heart. Studies on patients with stroke and myocardial ischemia are also presented.

  15. Experimental comparison of grating- and propagation-based hard X-ray phase tomography of soft tissue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lang, S.; Schulz, G.; Müller, B.; Zanette, I.; Dominietto, M.; Langer, M.; Rack, A.; Le Duc, G.; David, C.; Mohr, J.; Pfeiffer, F.; Weitkamp, T.

    2014-10-21

    When imaging soft tissues with hard X-rays, phase contrast is often preferred over conventional attenuation contrast due its superior sensitivity. However, it is unclear which of the numerous phase tomography methods yields the optimized results at given experimental conditions. Therefore, we quantitatively compared the three phase tomography methods implemented at the beamline ID19 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility: X-ray grating interferometry (XGI), and propagation-based phase tomography, i.e., single-distance phase retrieval (SDPR) and holotomography (HT), using cancerous tissue from a mouse model and an entire heart of a rat. We show that for both specimens, the spatial resolution derived from the characteristic morphological features is about a factor of two better for HT and SDPR compared to XGI, whereas the XGI data generally exhibit much better contrast-to-noise ratios for the anatomical features. Moreover, XGI excels in fidelity of the density measurements, and is also more robust against low-frequency artifacts than HT, but it might suffer from phase-wrapping artifacts. Thus, we can regard the three phase tomography methods discussed as complementary. The application will decide which spatial and density resolutions are desired, for the imaging task and dose requirements, and, in addition, the applicant must choose between the complexity of the experimental setup and the one of data processing.

  16. Derivation of site-specific relationships between hydraulic parameters and p-wave velocities based on hydraulic and seismic tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.

    2012-01-10

    In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Gttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.

  17. SU-E-P-10: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Exam in Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, M; Wang, Y; Weng, H

    2015-06-15

    Introduction National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) can be used as a reference dose of radiological examination can provide radiation dose as the basis of patient dose optimization. Local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) by periodically view and check doses, more efficiency to improve the way of examination. Therefore, the important first step is establishing a diagnostic reference level. Computed Tomography in Taiwan had been built up the radiation dose limit value,in addition, many studies report shows that CT scan contributed most of the radiation dose in different medical. Therefore, this study was mainly to let everyone understand DRL’s international status. For computed tomography in our hospital to establish diagnostic reference levels. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). Each exam each different body part, we collect 10 patients at least. Carried out the routine examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 60–70 Kg of body weight. There are 25 examinations in this study. Table 1 shows the LDRL of each CT routine examination. Conclusions: Therefore, this study would like to let everyone know DRL’s international status, but also establishment of computed tomography of the local reference levels for our hospital, and providing radiation reference, as a basis for optimizing patient dose.

  18. Using electrokinetic phenomena and electrical resistance tomography to characterize the movement of subsurface fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramirez, A.L.; Cooper, J.F.; Daily, W.D.

    1996-02-27

    This invention relates generally to the remote detections of subsurface liquid contaminants using in combination a geophysical technique known as ERT and an EKS. Electrokinetic transport is used to enhance the ability of electrical resistance tomography (ERT) to detect position and movement of subsurface contaminant liquids, particles or ions. ERT images alone are difficult to interpret because of natural inhomogeneities in soil composition and electrical properties. By subtracting two or more ERT images obtained before and after field induced movement, a high contrast image of a plume of distinct electrokinetic properties can be seen. The invention is applicable to important subsurface characterization problems including, as examples, (1) detection of liquid-saturated plumes of contaminants such as those associated with leaks from underground storage tanks containing hazardous concentrated electrolytes, (2) detection and characterization of soils contaminated with organic pollutants such as droplets of gasoline; and (3) monitoring the progress of electrokinetic containment or clean up of underground contamination. 1 fig.

  19. Using electrokinetic phenomena and electrical resistance tomography to characterize the movement of subsurface fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramirez, Abelardo L.; Cooper, John F.; Daily, William D.

    1996-01-01

    This invention relates generally to the remote detections of subsurface liquid contaminants using in combination a geophysical technique known as ERT and an EKS. Electrokinetic transport is used to enhance the ability of electrical resistance tomography (ERT) to detect position and movement of subsurface contaminant liquids, particles or ions. ERT images alone are difficult to interpret because of natural inhomogeneities in soil composition and electrical properties. By subtracting two or more ERT images obtained before and after field induced movement, a high contrast image of a plume of distinct electrokinetic properties can be seen. The invention is applicable to important subsurface characterization problems including, as examples, (1) detection of liquid-saturated plumes of contaminants such as those associated with leaks from underground storage tanks containing hazardous concentrated electrolytes, (2) detection and characterization of soils contaminated with organic pollutants such as droplets of gasoline; and (3) monitoring the progress of electrokinetic containment or clean up of underground contamination.

  20. Atom Probe Tomography Analysis of the Distribution of Rhenium in Nickel Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mottura, A.; Warnken, N; Miller, Michael K; Reed, R. C.; Finnis, M.

    2010-01-01

    Atom probe tomography (APT) is used to characterise the distributions of rhenium in a binary Ni-Re alloy and the nickel-based single-crystal CMSX-4 superalloy. A purpose-built algorithm is developed to quantify the size distribution of solute clusters, and applied to the APT datasets to critique the hypothesis that rhenium is prone to the formation of clusters in these systems. No evidence is found to indicate that rhenium forms solute clusters above the level expected from random fluctuations. In CMSX-4, enrichment of Re is detected in the matrix phase close to the matrix/precipitate ({gamma}/{gamma}{prime}) phase boundaries. Phase field modelling indicates that this is due to the migration of the {gamma}/{gamma}{prime} interface during cooling from the temperature of operation. Thus, neither clustering of rhenium nor interface enrichments can be the cause of the enhancement in high temperature mechanical properties conferred by rhenium alloying.

  1. MONSTIR II: A 32-channel, multispectral, time-resolved optical tomography system for neonatal brain imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Robert J. Magee, Elliott; Everdell, Nick; Magazov, Salavat; Varela, Marta; Airantzis, Dimitrios; Gibson, Adam P.; Hebden, Jeremy C.

    2014-05-15

    We detail the design, construction and performance of the second generation UCL time-resolved optical tomography system, known as MONSTIR II. Intended primarily for the study of the newborn brain, the system employs 32 source fibres that sequentially transmit picosecond pulses of light at any four wavelengths between 650 and 900 nm. The 32 detector channels each contain an independent photo-multiplier tube and temporally correlated photon-counting electronics that allow the photon transit time between each source and each detector position to be measured with high temporal resolution. The system's response time, temporal stability, cross-talk, and spectral characteristics are reported. The efficacy of MONSTIR II is demonstrated by performing multi-spectral imaging of a simple phantom.

  2. Plastic shrinkage of mortars with shrinkage reducing admixture and lightweight aggregates studied by neutron tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyrzykowski, Mateusz; Trtik, Pavel; Münch, Beat; Weiss, Jason; Vontobel, Peter; Lura, Pietro

    2015-07-15

    Water transport in fresh, highly permeable concrete and rapid water evaporation from the concrete surface during the first few hours after placement are the key parameters influencing plastic shrinkage cracking. In this work, neutron tomography was used to determine both the water loss from the concrete surface due to evaporation and the redistribution of fluid that occurs in fresh mortars exposed to external drying. In addition to the reference mortar with a water to cement ratio (w/c) of 0.30, a mortar with the addition of pre-wetted lightweight aggregates (LWA) and a mortar with a shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA) were tested. The addition of SRA reduced the evaporation rate from the mortar at the initial stages of drying and reduced the total water loss. The pre-wetted LWA released a large part of the absorbed water as a consequence of capillary pressure developing in the fresh mortar due to evaporation.

  3. Determination of Diffusion Profiles in Altered Wellbore Cement Using X-ray Computed Tomography Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Harris E.; Walsh, Stuart D. C.; DuFrane, Wyatt L.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2014-06-17

    The development of accurate, predictive models for use in determining wellbore integrity requires detailed information about the chemical and mechanical changes occurring in hardened Portland cements. X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) provides a method that can nondestructively probe these changes in three dimensions. Here, we describe a method for extracting subvoxel mineralogical and chemical information from synchrotron XRCT images by combining advanced image segmentation with geochemical models of cement alteration. The method relies on determining effective linear activity coefficients (ELAC) for the white light source to generate calibration curves that relate the image grayscales to material composition. The resulting data set supports the modeling of cement alteration by CO2-rich brine with discrete increases in calcium concentration at reaction boundaries. The results of these XRCT analyses can be used to further improve coupled geochemical and mechanical models of cement alteration in the wellbore environment.

  4. Three-dimensional ground penetrating radar imaging using multi-frequency diffraction tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M.

    1994-11-15

    In this talk we present results from a three-dimensional image reconstruction algorithm for impulse radar operating in monostatic pule-echo mode. The application of interest to us is the nondestructive evaluation of civil structures such as bridge decks. We use a multi-frequency diffraction tomography imaging technique in which coherent backward propagations of the received reflected wavefield form a spatial image of the scattering interfaces within the region of interest. This imaging technique provides high-resolution range and azimuthal visualization of the subsurface region. We incorporate the ability to image in planarly layered conductive media and apply the algorithm to experimental data from an offset radar system in which the radar antenna is not directly coupled to the surface of the region. We present a rendering in three-dimensions of the resulting image data which provides high-detail visualization.

  5. Ultrasonic tomography for in-process measurements of temperature in a multi-phase medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beller, L.S.

    1993-01-26

    A method and apparatus are described for the in-process measurement of internal particulate temperature utilizing ultrasonic tomography techniques to determine the speed of sound through a specimen material. Ultrasonic pulses are transmitted through a material, which can be a multi-phase material, over known flight paths and the ultrasonic pulse transit times through all sectors of the specimen are measured to determine the speed of sound. The speed of sound being a function of temperature, it is possible to establish the correlation between speed of sound and temperature, throughout a cross-section of the material, which correlation is programmed into a computer to provide for a continuous in-process measurement of temperature throughout the specimen.

  6. Ultrasonic tomography for in-process measurements of temperature in a multi-phase medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beller, Laurence S.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the in-process measurement of internal particulate temperature utilizing ultrasonic tomography techniques to determine the speed of sound through a specimen material. Ultrasonic pulses are transmitted through a material, which can be a multi-phase material, over known flight paths and the ultrasonic pulse transit times through all sectors of the specimen are measured to determine the speed of sound. The speed of sound being a function of temperature, it is possible to establish the correlation between speed of sound and temperature, throughout a cross-section of the material, which correlation is programmed into a computer to provide for a continuous in-process measurement of temperature throughout the specimen.

  7. Silicon photomultiplier choice for the scintillating fibre tracker in second generation proton computed tomography scanner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gearhart, A.; Johnson, E.; Medvedev, V.; Ronzhin, A.; Rykalin, V.; Rubinov, P.; Sleptcov, V.; /Unlisted, RU

    2012-03-01

    Scintillating fibers are capable of charged particle tracking with high position resolution, as demonstrated by the central fiber tracker of the D0 experiment. The charged particles will deposit less energy in the polystyrene scintillating fibers as opposed to a typical silicon tracker of the same thickness, while SiPM's are highly efficient at detecting photons created by the passage of the charged particle through the fibers. The current prototype of the Proton Computed Tomography (pCT) tracker uses groups of three 0.5 mm green polystyrene based scintillating fibers connected to a single SiPM, while first generation prototype tracker used Silicon strip detectors. The results of R&D for the Scintillating Fiber Tracker (SFT) as part of the pCT detector are outlined, and the premise for the selection of SiPM is discussed.

  8. Measuring the efficacy of a root biobarrier with x-ray computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tollner, E.W.; Murphy, C.E. Jr. . Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1990-08-16

    X-ray computed tomography is a useful tool for investigating soil physical properties nondestructively. There is a need to develop proper calibration relationships between soil properties and the x-ray absorption coefficient. The objective of the work was to evaluate soil factors affecting the x-ray absorption coefficient. Based on a theoretical analysis, experimental data from five soils and on results of several other investigators, it was concluded that for many applications, one calibration relationship is applicable to a wide range of soils. The montmorillinitic clay used in the study required special handling due to the extreme shrinkage of this soil upon drying. Knowledge of chemical composition enables approximations but not exact predictions of the x-ray absorption coefficient. The results suggested some reasonable alternative to exhaustive calibration for each anticipated soil condition. Quantification of root activity in terms of root growth and indirectly through water uptake is necessary for understanding plant growth dynamics. X-ray computed tomography (CT) enables qualitative as well as two quantitative outputs, one of which can lead to conclusions regarding root activity. A greenhouse study involving soil columns (Lakeland sand, bulk density 1.4 Mg/m{sup 3}) planted to soybean, Bahiagras, and control (no vegetation) was conducted in 1989. A treflan based on chemical barrier was placed in half of the soil column of each species. The mean x-ray absorption correlated to water content. Results suggested that root presence can also be indirectly inferred based on water content drawn down during planned stress events. It was concluded that x-ray CT may have a niche in soil-water-plant relation studies, particularly when plant species have large roots. 35 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Measurement of breast tissue composition with dual energy cone-beam computed tomography: A postmortem study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding Huanjun; Ducote, Justin L.; Molloi, Sabee

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of a three-material compositional measurement of water, lipid, and protein content of breast tissue with dual kVp cone-beam computed tomography (CT) for diagnostic purposes. Methods: Simulations were performed on a flat panel-based computed tomography system with a dual kVp technique in order to guide the selection of experimental acquisition parameters. The expected errors induced by using the proposed calibration materials were also estimated by simulation. Twenty pairs of postmortem breast samples were imaged with a flat-panel based dual kVp cone-beam CT system, followed by image-based material decomposition using calibration data obtained from a three-material phantom consisting of water, vegetable oil, and polyoxymethylene plastic. The tissue samples were then chemically decomposed into their respective water, lipid, and protein contents after imaging to allow direct comparison with data from dual energy decomposition. Results: Guided by results from simulation, the beam energies for the dual kVp cone-beam CT system were selected to be 50 and 120 kVp with the mean glandular dose divided equally between each exposure. The simulation also suggested that the use of polyoxymethylene as the calibration material for the measurement of pure protein may introduce an error of -11.0%. However, the tissue decomposition experiments, which employed a calibration phantom made out of water, oil, and polyoxymethylene, exhibited strong correlation with data from the chemical analysis. The average root-mean-square percentage error for water, lipid, and protein contents was 3.58% as compared with chemical analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the water, lipid, and protein contents can be accurately measured using dual kVp cone-beam CT. The tissue compositional information may improve the sensitivity and specificity for breast cancer diagnosis.

  10. Attenuated Vector Tomography -- An Approach to Image Flow Vector Fields with Doppler Ultrasonic Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Qiu; Peng, Qiyu; Huang, Bin; Cheryauka, Arvi; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2008-05-15

    The measurement of flow obtained using continuous wave Doppler ultrasound is formulated as a directional projection of a flow vector field. When a continuous ultrasound wave bounces against a flowing particle, a signal is backscattered. This signal obtains a Doppler frequency shift proportional to the speed of the particle along the ultrasound beam. This occurs for each particle along the beam, giving rise to a Doppler velocity spectrum. The first moment of the spectrum provides the directional projection of the flow along theultrasound beam. Signals reflected from points further away from the detector will have lower amplitude than signals reflected from points closer to the detector. The effect is very much akin to that modeled by the attenuated Radon transform in emission computed tomography.A least-squares method was adopted to reconstruct a 2D vector field from directional projection measurements. Attenuated projections of only the longitudinal projections of the vector field were simulated. The components of the vector field were reconstructed using the gradient algorithm to minimize a least-squares criterion. This result was compared with the reconstruction of longitudinal projections of the vector field without attenuation. Ifattenuation is known, the algorithm was able to accurately reconstruct both components of the full vector field from only one set of directional projection measurements. A better reconstruction was obtained with attenuation than without attenuation implying that attenuation provides important information for the reconstruction of flow vector fields.This confirms previous work where we showed that knowledge of the attenuation distribution helps in the reconstruction of MRI diffusion tensor fields from fewer than the required measurements. In the application of ultrasound the attenuation distribution is obtained with pulse wave transmission computed tomography and flow information is obtained with continuous wave Doppler.

  11. Predicting Outcome in Patients with Rhabdomyosarcoma: Role of [{sup 18}F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, Dana L.; Wexler, Leonard H.; Fox, Josef J.; Dharmarajan, Kavita V.; Schoder, Heiko; Price, Alison N.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) response of the primary tumor after induction chemotherapy predicts outcomes in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Methods and Materials: After excluding those with initial tumor resection, 107 patients who underwent FDG-PET after induction chemotherapy at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from 2002 to 2013 were reviewed. Local control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated according to FDG-PET response and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) at baseline (PET1/SUV1), after induction chemotherapy (PET2/SUV2), and after local therapy (PET3/SUV3). Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal cutoff for dichotomization of SUV1 and SUV2 values. Results: The SUV1 (<9.5 vs ≥9.5) was predictive of PFS (P=.02) and OS (P=.02), but not LC. After 12 weeks (median) of induction chemotherapy, 45 patients had negative PET2 scans and 62 had positive scans: 3-year PFS was 72% versus 44%, respectively (P=.01). The SUV2 (<1.5 vs ≥1.5) was similarly predictive of PFS (P=.005) and was associated with LC (P=.02) and OS (P=.03). A positive PET3 scan was predictive of worse PFS (P=.0009), LC (P=.05), and OS (P=.03). Conclusions: [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is an early indicator of outcomes in patients with RMS. Future prospective trials may incorporate FDG-PET response data for risk-adapted therapy and early assessment of new treatment regimens.

  12. Computing traveltime and amplitude sensitivity kernels in finite-frequency tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian Yue Montelli, Raffaella; Nolet, Guust; Dahlen, F.A.

    2007-10-01

    The efficient computation of finite-frequency traveltime and amplitude sensitivity kernels for velocity and attenuation perturbations in global seismic tomography poses problems both of numerical precision and of validity of the paraxial approximation used. We investigate these aspects, using a local model parameterization in the form of a tetrahedral grid with linear interpolation in between grid nodes. The matrix coefficients of the linear inverse problem involve a volume integral of the product of the finite-frequency kernel with the basis functions that represent the linear interpolation. We use local and global tests as well as analytical expressions to test the numerical precision of the frequency and spatial quadrature. There is a trade-off between narrowing the bandpass filter and quadrature accuracy and efficiency. Using a minimum step size of 10 km for S waves and 30 km for SS waves, relative errors in the quadrature are of the order of 1% for direct waves such as S, and a few percent for SS waves, which are below data uncertainties in delay time or amplitude anomaly observations in global seismology. Larger errors may occur wherever the sensitivity extends over a large volume and the paraxial approximation breaks down at large distance from the ray. This is especially noticeable for minimax phases such as SS waves with periods >20 s, when kernels become hyperbolic near the reflection point and appreciable sensitivity extends over thousands of km. Errors becomes intolerable at epicentral distance near the antipode when sensitivity extends over all azimuths in the mantle. Effects of such errors may become noticeable at epicentral distances > 140{sup o}. We conclude that the paraxial approximation offers an efficient method for computing the matrix system for finite-frequency inversions in global tomography, though care should be taken near reflection points, and alternative methods are needed to compute sensitivity near the antipode.

  13. Image Registration of Cone-Beam Computer Tomography and Preprocedural Computer Tomography Aids in Localization of Adrenal Veins and Decreasing Radiation Dose in Adrenal Vein Sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busser, Wendy M. H. Arntz, Mark J.; Jenniskens, Sjoerd F. M.; Deinum, Jaap; Hoogeveen, Yvonne L.; Lange, Frank de; Schultze Kool, Leo J.

    2015-08-15

    PurposeWe assessed whether image registration of cone-beam computed tomography (CT) (CBCT) and contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT) images indicating the locations of the adrenal veins can aid in increasing the success rate of first-attempts adrenal vein sampling (AVS) and therefore decreasing patient radiation dose.Materials and Methods CBCT scans were acquired in the interventional suite (Philips Allura Xper FD20) and rigidly registered to the vertebra in previously acquired CE-CT. Adrenal vein locations were marked on the CT image and superimposed with live fluoroscopy and digital-subtraction angiography (DSA) to guide the AVS. Seventeen first attempts at AVS were performed with image registration and retrospectively compared with 15 first attempts without image registration performed earlier by the same 2 interventional radiologists. First-attempt AVS was considered successful when both adrenal vein samples showed representative cortisol levels. Sampling time, dose-area product (DAP), number of DSA runs, fluoroscopy time, and skin dose were recorded.ResultsWithout image registration, the first attempt at sampling was successful in 8 of 15 procedures indicating a success rate of 53.3 %. This increased to 76.5 % (13 of 17) by adding CBCT and CE-CT image registration to AVS procedures (p = 0.266). DAP values (p = 0.001) and DSA runs (p = 0.026) decreased significantly by adding image registration guidance. Sampling and fluoroscopy times and skin dose showed no significant changes.ConclusionGuidance based on registration of CBCT and previously acquired diagnostic CE-CT can aid in enhancing localization of the adrenal veins thereby increasing the success rate of first-attempt AVS with a significant decrease in the number of used DSA runs and, consequently, radiation dose required.

  14. Radiation doses in cone-beam breast computed tomography: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi Ying; Lai, Chao-Jen; Han Tao; Zhong Yuncheng; Shen Youtao; Liu Xinming; Ge Shuaiping; You Zhicheng; Wang Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: In this article, we describe a method to estimate the spatial dose variation, average dose and mean glandular dose (MGD) for a real breast using Monte Carlo simulation based on cone beam breast computed tomography (CBBCT) images. We present and discuss the dose estimation results for 19 mastectomy breast specimens, 4 homogeneous breast models, 6 ellipsoidal phantoms, and 6 cylindrical phantoms. Methods: To validate the Monte Carlo method for dose estimation in CBBCT, we compared the Monte Carlo dose estimates with the thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements at various radial positions in two polycarbonate cylinders (11- and 15-cm in diameter). Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 19 mastectomy breast specimens, obtained with a bench-top experimental scanner, were segmented and used to construct 19 structured breast models. Monte Carlo simulation of CBBCT with these models was performed and used to estimate the point doses, average doses, and mean glandular doses for unit open air exposure at the iso-center. Mass based glandularity values were computed and used to investigate their effects on the average doses as well as the mean glandular doses. Average doses for 4 homogeneous breast models were estimated and compared to those of the corresponding structured breast models to investigate the effect of tissue structures. Average doses for ellipsoidal and cylindrical digital phantoms of identical diameter and height were also estimated for various glandularity values and compared with those for the structured breast models. Results: The absorbed dose maps for structured breast models show that doses in the glandular tissue were higher than those in the nearby adipose tissue. Estimated average doses for the homogeneous breast models were almost identical to those for the structured breast models (p=1). Normalized average doses estimated for the ellipsoidal phantoms were similar to those for the structured breast models (root mean square (rms

  15. Report of improved performance in Talbot–Lau phase-contrast computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Thomas Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Ritter, André; Anton, Gisela

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Many expectations have been raised since the use of conventional x-ray tubes on grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Despite a reported increase in contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in many publications, there is doubt on whether phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) is advantageous in clinical CT scanners in vivo. The aim of this paper is to contribute to this discussion by analyzing the performance of a phase-contrast CT laboratory setup. Methods: A phase-contrast CT performance analysis was done. Projection images of a phantom were recorded, and image slices were reconstructed using standard filtered back projection methods. The resulting image slices were analyzed by determining the CNRs in the attenuation and phase image. These results were compared to analytically calculated expectations according to the already published phase-contrast CT performance analysis by Raupach and Flohr [Med. Phys. 39, 4761–4774 (2012)]. There, a severe mistake was found leading to wrong predictions of the performance of phase-contrast CT. The error was corrected and with the new formulae, the experimentally obtained results matched the analytical calculations. Results: The squared ratios of the phase-contrast CNR and the attenuation CNR obtained in the authors’ experiment are five- to ten-fold higher than predicted by Raupach and Flohr [Med. Phys. 39, 4761–4774 (2012)]. The effective lateral spatial coherence length deduced outnumbers the already optimistic assumption of Raupach and Flohr [Med. Phys. 39, 4761–4774 (2012)] by a factor of 3. Conclusions: The authors’ results indicate that the assumptions made in former performance analyses are pessimistic. The break-even point, when phase-contrast CT outperforms attenuation CT, is within reach even with realistic, nonperfect gratings. Further improvements to state-of-the-art clinical CT scanners, like increasing the spatial resolution, could change the balance in favor of phase-contrast computed tomography

  16. High-speed digitization readout of silicon photomultipliers for time of flight positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronzhin, A.; Los, S.; Martens, M.; Ramberg, E.; Kim, H.; Chen, C.; Kao, C.; Niessen, K.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Mazzillo, M.; Carbone, B.; /SGS Thomson, Catania

    2011-02-01

    We report on work to develop a system with about 100 picoseconds (ps) time resolution for time of flight positron emission tomography [TOF-PET]. The chosen photo detectors for the study were Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM's). This study was based on extensive experience in studying timing properties of SiPM's. The readout of these devices used the commercial high speed digitizer DRS4. We applied different algorithms to get the best time resolution of 155 ps Guassian (sigma) for a LYSO crystal coupled to a SiPM. We consider the work as a first step in building a prototype TOF-PET module. The field of positron-emission-tomography (PET) has been rapidly developing. But there are significant limitations in how well current PET scanners can reconstruct images, related to how fast data can be acquired, how much volume they can image, and the spatial and temporal resolution of the generated photons. Typical modern scanners now include multiple rings of detectors, which can image a large volume of the patient. In this type of scanner, one can treat each ring as a separate detector and require coincidences only within the ring, or treat the entire region viewed by the scanner as a single 3 dimensional volume. This 3d technique has significantly better sensitivity since more photon pair trajectories are accepted. However, the scattering of photons within the volume of the patient, and the effect of random coincidences limits the technique. The advent of sub-nanosecond timing resolution detectors means that there is potentially much better rejection of scattered photon events and random coincidence events in the 3D technique. In addition, if the timing is good enough, then the origin of photons pairs can be determined better, resulting in improved spatial resolution - so called 'Time-of-Flight' PET, or TOF-PET. Currently a lot of activity has occurred in applications of SiPMs for TOF-PET. This is due to the devices very good time resolution, low profile, lack of high voltage

  17. Study of the internal structure of lithium fluoride single crystal by laboratory X-ray topo-tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zolotov, D. A. Buzmakov, A. V.; Asadchikov, V. E.; Voloshin, A. E.; Shkurko, V. N.; Smirnov, I. S.

    2011-05-15

    Defects in a synthetic LiF crystal have been studied by X-ray topo-tomography on laboratory X-ray sources with a spatial resolution of {approx}10 {mu}m. An algebraic reconstruction method was applied to reconstruct the defect 3D structure of the crystal based on the diffraction data. The results presented in this study are in good agreement with the topographic data obtained by the Lang method.

  18. Images of gravitational and magnetic phenomena derived from two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography of interacting binary stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, Mercedes T.; Cocking, Alexander S.; Fisher, John G.; Conover, Marshall J. E-mail: asc5097@psu.edu

    2014-11-10

    We have used two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography as a tool to examine the influence of gravitational and magnetic phenomena in interacting binaries that undergo mass transfer from a magnetically active star onto a non-magnetic main-sequence star. This multitiered study of over 1300 time-resolved spectra of 13 Algol binaries involved calculations of the predicted dynamical behavior of the gravitational flow and the dynamics at the impact site, analysis of the velocity images constructed from tomography, and the influence on the tomograms of orbital inclination, systemic velocity, orbital coverage, and shadowing. The H? tomograms revealed eight sources: chromospheric emission, a gas stream along the gravitational trajectory, a star-stream impact region, a bulge of absorption or emission around the mass-gaining star, a Keplerian accretion disk, an absorption zone associated with hotter gas, a disk-stream impact region, and a hot spot where the stream strikes the edge of a disk. We described several methods used to extract the physical properties of the emission sources directly from the velocity images, including S-wave analysis, the creation of simulated velocity tomograms from hydrodynamic simulations, and the use of synthetic spectra with tomography to sequentially extract the separate sources of emission from the velocity image. In summary, the tomography images have revealed results that cannot be explained solely by gravitational effects: chromospheric emission moving with the mass-losing star, a gas stream deflected from the gravitational trajectory, and alternating behavior between stream state and disk state. Our results demonstrate that magnetic effects cannot be ignored in these interacting binaries.

  19. Qualitative comparison of bremsstrahlung X-rays and 800 MeV protons for tomography of urania fuel pellets

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L.; Bourke, Mark A.; Byler, Darrin D.; Chen, Ching-Fong; Hogan, Gary E.; Hunter, James F.; Kwiatkowski, Kris K.; Mariam, Fesseha G.; McClellan, Kenneth J.; Merrill, Frank E.; et al

    2013-01-01

    We present an assessment of x-rays and proton tomography as tools for studying the time dependence of the development of damage in fuel rods. Also, we show data taken with existing facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory that support this assessment. Data on surrogate fuel rods has been taken using the 800 MeV proton radiography (pRad) facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), and with a 450 keV bremsstrahlung X-ray tomography facility. The proton radiography pRad facility at LANSCE can provide good position resolution (<70 μm has been demonstrate, 20 μm seems feasible with minor changes) for tomographymore » on activated fuel rods. Bremsstrahlung x-rays may be able to provide better than 100 μm resolution but further development of sources, collimation and detectors is necessary for x-rays to deal with the background radiation for tomography of activated fuel rods.« less

  20. Volume-Based Parameters of {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Improve Disease Recurrence Prediction in Postmastectomy Breast Cancer Patients With 1 to 3 Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakajima, Naomi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Ochi, Takashi; Kiyoto, Sachiko; Ohsumi, Shozo; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether volume-based parameters on pretreatment {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without adjuvant radiation therapy are predictive of recurrence. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 93 patients with 1 to 3 positive axillary nodes after surgery, who were studied with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography for initial staging. We evaluated the relationship between positron emission tomography parameters, including the maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and clinical outcomes. Results: The median follow-up duration was 45 months. Recurrence was observed in 11 patients. Metabolic tumor volume and TLG were significantly related to tumor size, number of involved nodes, nodal ratio, nuclear grade, estrogen receptor (ER) status, and triple negativity (TN) (all P values were <.05). In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, MTV and TLG showed better predictive performance than tumor size, ER status, or TN (area under the curve: 0.85, 0.86, 0.79, 0.74, and 0.74, respectively). On multivariate analysis, MTV was an independent prognostic factor of locoregional recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio 34.42, 95% confidence interval 3.94-882.71, P=.0008) and disease-free survival (DFS) (hazard ratio 13.92, 95% confidence interval 2.65-103.78, P=.0018). The 3-year DFS rate was 93.8% for the lower MTV group (<53.1; n=85) and 25.0% for the higher MTV group (?53.1; n=8; P<.0001, logrank test). The 3-year DFS rate for patients with both ER-positive status and MTV <53.1 was 98.2%; and for those with ER-negative status and MTV ?53.1 it was 25.0% (P<.0001). Conclusions: Volume-based parameters improve recurrence prediction in postmastectomy breast cancer patients with 1 to 3 positive nodes. The addition of MTV to ER status or TN has potential

  1. Determining the location and nearest neighbours of aluminium in zeolites with atom probe tomography

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Perea, Daniel E.; Arslan, Ilke; Liu, Jia; Ristanović, Zoran; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Bare, Simon R.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-07-02

    Zeolite catalysis is determined by a combination of pore architecture and Brønsted acidity. As Brønsted acid sites are formed by the substitution of AlO4 for SiO4 tetrahedra, it is of utmost importance to have information on the number as well as the location and neighbouring sites of framework aluminium. Unfortunately, such detailed information has not yet been obtained, mainly due to the lack of suitable characterization methods. Here we report, using the powerful atomic-scale analysis technique known as atom probe tomography, the quantitative spatial distribution of individual aluminium atoms, including their three-dimensional extent of segregation. Ultimately, using a nearest-neighbour statisticalmore » analysis, we precisely determine the short-range distribution of aluminium over the different T-sites and determine the most probable Al–Al neighbouring distance within parent and steamed ZSM-5 crystals, as well as assess the long-range redistribution of aluminium upon zeolite steaming.« less

  2. Fractionated changes in prostate cancer radiotherapy using cone-beam computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Tzung-Chi; Chou, Kuei-Ting; Yang, Shih-Neng; Chang, Chih-Kai; Liang, Ji-An; Zhang, Geoffrey

    2015-10-01

    The high mobility of the bladder and the rectum causes uncertainty in radiation doses prescribed to patients with prostate cancer who undergo radiotherapy (RT) multifraction treatments. The purpose of this study was to estimate the dose received by the bladder, rectum, and prostate from multifraction treatments using daily cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Overall, 28 patients with prostate cancer who planned to receive radiation treatments were enrolled in the study. The acquired CBCT before the treatment delivery was registered with the planning CT to map the dose distribution used in the treatment plan for estimating the received dose during clinical treatment. For all 28 patients with 112 data sets, the mean percentage differences (± standard deviation) in the volume and radiation dose were 44% (± 41) and 18% (± 17) for the bladder, 20% (± 21) and 2% (± 2) for the prostate, and 36% (± 29) and 22% (± 15) for the rectum, respectively. Substantial differences between the volumes and radiation dose and those specified in treatment plans were observed. Besides the use of image-guided RT to improve patient setup accuracy, further consideration of large changes in bladder and rectum volumes is strongly suggested when using external beam radiation for prostate cancer.

  3. Performance of a Drift Chamber Candidate for a Cosmic Muon Tomography System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anghel, V.; Jewett, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Thompson, M.; Armitage, J.; Botte, J.; Boudjemline, K.; Erlandson, A.; Oakham, G.; Bueno, J.; Bryman, D.; Liu, Z.; Charles, E.; Gallant, G.; Cousins, T.; Noel, S.; Drouin, P.-L.; Waller, D.; Stocki, T. J.

    2011-12-13

    In the last decade, many groups around the world have been exploring different ways to probe transport containers which may contain illicit Special Nuclear Materials such as uranium. The muon tomography technique has been proposed as a cost effective system with an acceptable accuracy. A group of Canadian institutions (see above), funded by Defence Research and Development Canada, is testing different technologies to track the cosmic muons. One candidate is the single wire Drift Chamber. With the capability of a 2D impact position measurement, two detectors will be placed above and two below the object to be probed. In order to achieve a good 3D image quality of the cargo content, a good angular resolution is required. The simulation showed that 1mrad was required implying the spatial resolution of the trackers must be in the range of 1 to 2 mm for 1 m separation. A tracking system using three prototypes has been built and tested. The spatial resolution obtained is 1.7 mm perpendicular to the wire and 3 mm along the wire.

  4. Preliminary result of P-wave speed tomography beneath North Sumatera region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jatnika, Jajat; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Wandono

    2015-04-24

    The structure of P-wave speed beneath the North Sumatra region was determined using P-wave arrival times compiled by MCGA from time periods of January 2009 to December 2012 combining with PASSCAL data for February to May 1995. In total, there are 2,246 local earthquake events with 10,666 P-wave phases from 63 stations seismic around the study area. Ray tracing to estimate travel time from source to receiver in this study by applying pseudo-bending method while the damped LSQR method was used for the tomographic inversion. Based on assessment of ray coverage, earthquakes and stations distribution, horizontal grid nodes was set up of 3030 km2 for inside the study area and 8080 km2 for outside the study area. The tomographic inversion results show low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex region and around the Sumatra Fault Zones (SFZ). These features are consistent with previous study. The low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex are observed around Mt. Pusuk Bukit at depths of 5?km down to 100?km. The interpretation is these anomalies may be associated with ascending hot materials from subduction processes at depths of 80?km down to 100?km. The obtained Vp structure from local tomography will give valuable information to enhance understanding of tectonic and volcanic in this study area.

  5. A misaligned prograde orbit for Kepler-13 Ab via doppler tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Marshall C.; Cochran, William D.; Gullikson, Kevin; Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.

    2014-07-20

    Transiting planets around rapidly rotating stars are not amenable to precise radial velocity observations, such as are used for planet candidate validation, as they have wide, rotationally broadened stellar lines. Such planets can, however, be observed using Doppler tomography, wherein stellar absorption line profile distortions during transit are spectroscopically resolved. This allows the validation of transiting planet candidates and the measurement of the stellar spin-planetary orbit (mis)alignment, which is an important statistical probe of planetary migration processes. We present Doppler tomographic observations that provide direct confirmation of the hot Jupiter Kepler-13 Ab and also show that the planet has a prograde, misaligned orbit with λ = 58.°6 ± 2.°0. Our measured value of the spin-orbit misalignment is in significant disagreement with the value of λ = 23° ± 4° previously measured by Barnes et al. (2011) from the gravity-darkened Kepler light curve. We also place an upper limit of 0.75 M{sub ☉} (95% confidence) on the mass of Kepler-13 C, the spectroscopic companion to Kepler-13 B, which is the proper-motion companion of the planet host star Kepler-13 A.

  6. Monitoring Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Using Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT): A Minimally Invasive Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newmark, R L; Ramirez, A L; Daily, W D

    2002-08-05

    Successful geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), will require monitoring the CO{sub 2} injection to confirm the performance of the caprock/reservoir system, assess leaks and flow paths, and understand the geophysical and geochemical interactions between the CO{sub 2} and the geologic minerals and fluids. Electrical methods are especially well suited for monitoring processes involving fluids, as electrical properties are sensitive to the presence and nature of the formation fluids. High resolution tomographs of electrical properties are now used for site characterization and to monitor subsurface migration of fluids (i.e., leaking underground tanks, infiltration events, steam floods, contaminant movement, and to assess the integrity of engineered barriers). When electrical resistance tomography (ERT) imaging can be performed using existing well casings as long electrodes, the method is nearly transparent to reservoir operators, and reduces the need for additional drilling. Using numerical simulations and laboratory experiments, we have conducted sensitivity studies to determine the potential of ERT methods to detect and monitor the migration of CO{sub 2} in the subsurface. These studies have in turn been applied to the design and implementation of the first field casing surveys conducted in an oil field undergoing a CO{sub 2} flood.

  7. Reconstruction of apparent orthotropic conductivity tensor image using magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Kim, Ji Eun; Jeong, Woo Chul; Kim, Hyung Joong; Woo, Eung Je; Kwon, Oh In

    2015-03-14

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography visualizes current density and/or conductivity distributions inside an electrically conductive object. Injecting currents into the imaging object along at least two different directions, induced magnetic flux density data can be measured using a magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Without rotating the object inside the scanner, we can measure only one component of the magnetic flux density denoted as B{sub z}. Since the biological tissues such as skeletal muscle and brain white matter show strong anisotropic properties, the reconstruction of anisotropic conductivity tensor is indispensable for the accurate observations in the biological systems. In this paper, we propose a direct method to reconstruct an axial apparent orthotropic conductivity tensor by using multiple B{sub z} data subject to multiple injection currents. To investigate the anisotropic conductivity properties, we first recover the internal current density from the measured B{sub z} data. From the recovered internal current density and the curl-free condition of the electric field, we derive an over-determined matrix system for determining the internal absolute orthotropic conductivity tensor. The over-determined matrix system is designed to use a combination of two loops around each pixel. Numerical simulations and phantom experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm stably determines the orthotropic conductivity tensor.

  8. Three-dimensional flow contrast imaging of deep tissue using noncontact diffuse correlation tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yu; Huang, Chong; Irwin, Daniel; He, Lian; Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang

    2014-03-24

    This study extended our recently developed noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flowmetry system into noncontact diffuse correlation tomography (ncDCT) for three-dimensional (3-D) flow imaging of deep tissue. A linear array of 15 photodetectors and two laser sources connected to a mobile lens-focusing system enabled automatic and noncontact scanning of flow in a region of interest. These boundary measurements were combined with a finite element framework for DCT image reconstruction implemented into an existing software package. This technique was tested in computer simulations and using a tissue-like phantom with anomaly flow contrast design. The cylindrical tube-shaped anomaly was clearly reconstructed in both simulation and phantom. Recovered and assigned flow contrast changes in anomaly were found to be highly correlated: regression slope = 1.00, R{sup 2} = 1.00, and p < 10{sup −5} in simulation and regression slope ≥ 0.97, R{sup 2} ≥ 0.96, and p < 10{sup −3} in phantom. These results exhibit promise of our ncDCT technique for 3-D imaging of deep tissue blood flow heterogeneities.

  9. MAPPING EARTH ANALOGS FROM PHOTOMETRIC VARIABILITY: SPIN-ORBIT TOMOGRAPHY FOR PLANETS IN INCLINED ORBITS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, Yuka [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kawahara, Hajime, E-mail: yuka.fujii@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2012-08-20

    Aiming at obtaining detailed information on the surface environment of Earth analogs, Kawahara and Fujii proposed an inversion technique of annual scattered light curves named spin-orbit tomography (SOT), which enables us to sketch a two-dimensional albedo map from annual variation of the disk-integrated scattered light, and demonstrated the method with a planet in a face-on orbit. We extend it to be applicable to general geometric configurations, including low-obliquity planets like the Earth in inclined orbits. We simulate light curves of the Earth in an inclined orbit in three photometric bands (0.4-0.5 {mu}m, 0.6-0.7 {mu}m, and 0.8-0.9 {mu}m) and show that the distribution of clouds, snow, and continents is retrieved with the aid of the SOT. We also demonstrate the SOT by applying it to an upright Earth, a tidally locked Earth, and Earth analogs with ancient continental configurations. The inversion is model independent in the sense that we do not assume specific albedo models when mapping the surface, and hence applicable in principle to any kind of inhomogeneity. This method can potentially serve as a unique tool to investigate the exohabitats/exoclimes of Earth analogs.

  10. The preliminary results: Seismic ambient noise Rayleigh wave tomography around Merapi volcano, central Java, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trichandi, Rahmantara; Yudistira, Tedi; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Zulhan, Zulfakriza; Saygin, Erdinc

    2015-04-24

    Ambient noise tomography is relatively a new method for imaging the shallow structure of the Earth subsurface. We presents the application of this method to produce a Rayleigh wave group velocity maps around the Merapi Volcano, Central Java. Rayleigh waves group velocity maps were reconstructed from the cross-correlation of ambient noise recorded by the DOMERAPI array which consists 43 broadband seismometers. In the processing stage, we first filtered the observation data to separatethe noise from the signal that dominated by the strong volcanic activities. Next, we cross-correlate the filtered data and stack to obtain the Green’s function for all possible station pairs. Then we carefully picked the peak of each Green’s function to estimate the dispersion trend and appliedMultiple Filter Technique to obtain the dispersion curve. Inter-station group velocity curvesare inverted to produceRayleigh wave group velocity maps for periods 1 to 10 s. The resulted Rayleigh group velocity maps show the interesting features around the Merapi Volcano which generally agree with the previous studies. Merapi-Lawu Anomaly (MLA) is emerged as a relatively low anomaly in our group velocity maps.

  11. X-Ray Energy Responses of Silicon Tomography Detectors Irradiated with Fusion Produced Neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohagura, J. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Cho, T. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Hirata, M. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Numakura, T. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yokoyama, N. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Fukai, T. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Tomii, Y. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Tokioka, S. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Miyake, Y. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kiminami, S. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Shimizu, K. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Miyoshi, S. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Hirano, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (Japan); Yoshida, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Yamauchi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Kondoh, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Nishitani, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

    2005-01-15

    In order to clarify the effects of fusion-produced neutron irradiation on silicon semiconductor x-ray detectors, the x-ray energy responses of both n- and p-type silicon tomography detectors used in the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak (n-type) and the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror (p-type) are studied using synchrotron radiation at the Photon Factory of the National Laboratory for High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The fusion neutronics source (FNS) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is employed as well-calibrated D-T neutron source with fluences from 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 15} neutrons/cm{sup 2} onto these semiconductor detectors. Different fluence dependence is found between these two types of detectors; that is, (i) for the n-type detector, the recovery of the degraded response is found after the neutron exposure beyond around 10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2} onto the detector. A further finding is followed as a 're-degradation' by a neutron irradiation level over about 10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. On the other hand, (ii) the energy response of the p-type detector shows only a gradual decrease with increasing neutron fluences. These properties are interpreted by our proposed theory on semiconductor x-ray responses in terms of the effects of neutrons on the effective doping concentration and the diffusion length of a semiconductor detector.

  12. Atom Probe Tomography Examination of Carbon Redistribution in Quenched and Tempered 4340 Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Amy J.; Miller, Michael K.; Alexander, David J.; Field, Robert D.; Clarke, Kester D.

    2012-08-07

    Quenching and tempering produces a wide range of mechanical properties in medium carbon, low alloyed steels - Study fragmentation behavior as a function of heat-treatment. Subtle microstructural changes accompany the mechanical property changes that result from quenching and tempering - Characterize the location and distribution of carbon and alloying elements in the microstructure using atom probe tomography (APT). Perform complementary transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tempering influences the mechanical properties and fragmentation of quenched 4340 (hemi-shaped samples). APT revealed carbon-enriched features that contain a maximum of {approx}12-14 at.% carbon after quenching to RT (the level of carbon is perhaps associated with the extent of autotempering). TEM confirmed the presence of twinned martensite and indicates {var_epsilon} ({eta}) transition carbides after oil quenching to RT. Tempering at 325 C resulted in carbon-enriched plates (> 25 at.% C) with no significant element partitioning (transition carbides?). Tempering at 450 C and 575 C resulted in cementite ({approx} 25 at.% C) during late stage tempering; Cr, Mn, Mo partitioned to cementite and Si partitioned to ferrite. Tempering at 575 C resulted in P segregation at cementite interfaces and the formation of Cottrell atmospheres.

  13. X-ray computed tomography of wood-adhesive bondlines: Attenuation and phase-contrast effects

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Paris, Jesse L.; Kamke, Frederick A.; Xiao, Xianghui

    2015-07-29

    Microscale X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is discussed as a technique for identifying 3D adhesive distribution in wood-adhesive bondlines. Visualization and material segmentation of the adhesives from the surrounding cellular structures require sufficient gray-scale contrast in the reconstructed XCT data. Commercial wood-adhesive polymers have similar chemical characteristics and density to wood cell wall polymers and therefore do not provide good XCT attenuation contrast in their native form. Here, three different adhesive types, namely phenol formaldehyde, polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate, and a hybrid polyvinyl acetate, are tagged with iodine such that they yield sufficient X-ray attenuation contrast. However, phase-contrast effects at material edgesmore » complicate image quality and segmentation in XCT data reconstructed with conventional filtered backprojection absorption contrast algorithms. A quantitative phase retrieval algorithm, which isolates and removes the phase-contrast effect, was demonstrated. The paper discusses and illustrates the balance between material X-ray attenuation and phase-contrast effects in all quantitative XCT analyses of wood-adhesive bondlines.« less

  14. Iterative reconstruction using a Monte Carlo based system transfer matrix for dedicated breast positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saha, Krishnendu; Straus, Kenneth J.; Glick, Stephen J.; Chen, Yu.

    2014-08-28

    To maximize sensitivity, it is desirable that ring Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems dedicated for imaging the breast have a small bore. Unfortunately, due to parallax error this causes substantial degradation in spatial resolution for objects near the periphery of the breast. In this work, a framework for computing and incorporating an accurate system matrix into iterative reconstruction is presented in an effort to reduce spatial resolution degradation towards the periphery of the breast. The GATE Monte Carlo Simulation software was utilized to accurately model the system matrix for a breast PET system. A strategy for increasing the count statistics in the system matrix computation and for reducing the system element storage space was used by calculating only a subset of matrix elements and then estimating the rest of the elements by using the geometric symmetry of the cylindrical scanner. To implement this strategy, polar voxel basis functions were used to represent the object, resulting in a block-circulant system matrix. Simulation studies using a breast PET scanner model with ring geometry demonstrated improved contrast at 45% reduced noise level and 1.5 to 3 times resolution performance improvement when compared to MLEM reconstruction using a simple line-integral model. The GATE based system matrix reconstruction technique promises to improve resolution and noise performance and reduce image distortion at FOV periphery compared to line-integral based system matrix reconstruction.

  15. The use of wavelet filters for reducing noise in posterior fossa Computed Tomography images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pita-Machado, Reinado; Perez-Diaz, Marlen Lorenzo-Ginori, Juan V. Bravo-Pino, Rolando

    2014-11-07

    Wavelet transform based de-noising like wavelet shrinkage, gives the good results in CT. This procedure affects very little the spatial resolution. Some applications are reconstruction methods, while others are a posteriori de-noising methods. De-noising after reconstruction is very difficult because the noise is non-stationary and has unknown distribution. Therefore, methods which work on the sinogram-space don’t have this problem, because they always work over a known noise distribution at this point. On the other hand, the posterior fossa in a head CT is a very complex region for physicians, because it is commonly affected by artifacts and noise which are not eliminated during the reconstruction procedure. This can leads to some false positive evaluations. The purpose of our present work is to compare different wavelet shrinkage de-noising filters to reduce noise, particularly in images of the posterior fossa within CT scans in the sinogram-space. This work describes an experimental search for the best wavelets, to reduce Poisson noise in Computed Tomography (CT) scans. Results showed that de-noising with wavelet filters improved the quality of posterior fossa region in terms of an increased CNR, without noticeable structural distortions.

  16. Image segmentation of nanoscale Zernike phase contrast X-ray computed tomography images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Arjun S.; Mandal, Pratiti; Zhang, Yongjie; Litster, Shawn

    2015-05-14

    Zernike phase contrast is a useful technique for nanoscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging of materials with a low X-ray absorption coefficient. It enhances the image contrast by phase shifting X-ray waves to create changes in amplitude. However, it creates artifacts that hinder the use of traditional image segmentation techniques. We propose an image restoration method that models the X-ray phase contrast optics and the three-dimensional image reconstruction method. We generate artifact-free images through an optimization problem that inverts this model. Though similar approaches have been used for Zernike phase contrast in visible light microscopy, this optimization employs an effective edge detection method tailored to handle Zernike phase contrast artifacts. We characterize this optics-based restoration method by removing the artifacts in and thresholding multiple Zernike phase contrast X-ray CT images to produce segmented results that are consistent with the physical specimens. We quantitatively evaluate and compare our method to other segmentation techniques to demonstrate its high accuracy.

  17. Sci—Thur PM: Imaging — 06: Canada's National Computed Tomography (CT) Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wardlaw, GM; Martel, N; Blackler, W; Asselin, J-F

    2014-08-15

    The value of computed tomography (CT) in medical imaging is reflected in its' increased use and availability since the early 1990's; however, given CT's relatively larger exposures (vs. planar x-ray) greater care must be taken to ensure that CT procedures are optimised in terms of providing the smallest dose possible while maintaining sufficient diagnostic image quality. The development of CT Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) supports this process. DRLs have been suggested/supported by international/national bodies since the early 1990's and widely adopted elsewhere, but not on a national basis in Canada. Essentially, CT DRLs provide guidance on what is considered good practice for common CT exams, but require a representative sample of CT examination data to make any recommendations. Canada's National CT Survey project, in collaboration with provincial/territorial authorities, has collected a large national sample of CT practice data for 7 common examinations (with associated clinical indications) of both adult and pediatric patients. Following completion of data entry into a common database, a survey summary report and recommendations will be made on CT DRLs from this data. It is hoped that these can then be used by local regions to promote CT practice optimisation and support any dose reduction initiatives.

  18. Data fusion in X-ray computed tomography using a superiorization approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrapp, Michael J.; Herman, Gabor T.

    2014-05-15

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is an important and widespread inspection technique in industrial non-destructive testing. However, large-sized and heavily absorbing objects cause artifacts due to either the lack of penetration of the specimen in specific directions or by having data from only a limited angular range of views. In such cases, valuable information about the specimen is not revealed by the CT measurements alone. Further imaging modalities, such as optical scanning and ultrasonic testing, are able to provide data (such as an edge map) that are complementary to the CT acquisition. In this paper, a superiorization approach (a newly developed method for constrained optimization) is used to incorporate the complementary data into the CT reconstruction; this allows precise localization of edges that are not resolvable from the CT data by itself. Superiorization, as presented in this paper, exploits the fact that the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART), often used for CT reconstruction, is resilient to perturbations; i.e., it can be modified to produce an output that is as consistent with the CT measurements as the output of unmodified SART, but is more consistent with the complementary data. The application of this superiorized SART method to measured data of a turbine blade demonstrates a clear improvement in the quality of the reconstructed image.

  19. System-independent characterization of materials using dual-energy computed tomography

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Azevedo, Stephen G.; Martz, Jr., Harry E.; Aufderheide, III, Maurice B.; Brown, William D.; Champley, Kyle M.; Kallman, Jeffrey S.; Roberson, G. Patrick; Schneberk, Daniel; Seetho, Isaac M.; Smith, Jerel A.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we present a new decomposition approach for dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) called SIRZ that provides precise and accurate material description, independent of the scanner, over diagnostic energy ranges (30 to 200 keV). System independence is achieved by explicitly including a scanner-specific spectral description in the decomposition method, and a new X-ray-relevant feature space. The feature space consists of electron density, ρe, and a new effective atomic number, Ze, which is based on published X-ray cross sections. Reference materials are used in conjunction with the system spectral response so that additional beam-hardening correction is not necessary. The techniquemore » is tested against other methods on DECT data of known specimens scanned by diverse spectra and systems. Uncertainties in accuracy and precision are less than 3% and 2% respectively for the (ρe, Ze) results compared to prior methods that are inaccurate and imprecise (over 9%).« less

  20. Determining the location and nearest neighbours of aluminium in zeolites with atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perea, Daniel E.; Arslan, Ilke; Liu, Jia; Ristanović, Zoran; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Bare, Simon R.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-07-02

    Zeolite catalysis is determined by a combination of pore architecture and Brønsted acidity. As Brønsted acid sites are formed by the substitution of AlO4 for SiO4 tetrahedra, it is of utmost importance to have information on the number as well as the location and neighbouring sites of framework aluminium. Unfortunately, such detailed information has not yet been obtained, mainly due to the lack of suitable characterization methods. Here we report, using the powerful atomic-scale analysis technique known as atom probe tomography, the quantitative spatial distribution of individual aluminium atoms, including their three-dimensional extent of segregation. Ultimately, using a nearest-neighbour statistical analysis, we precisely determine the short-range distribution of aluminium over the different T-sites and determine the most probable Al–Al neighbouring distance within parent and steamed ZSM-5 crystals, as well as assess the long-range redistribution of aluminium upon zeolite steaming.